كتاب Boatowners Mechanical And Electrical Manual - Repair And Improve Your Boats Essential Systems
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


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  كتاب Boatowners Mechanical And Electrical Manual - Repair And Improve Your Boats Essential Systems

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Boatowners Mechanical And Electrical Manual
Repair And Improve Your Boats Essential Systems
IMIGEL CALDER
THE Guide to Fixing Everything on Your Boot

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Contents
List of Troubleshooting Charts
List of Tables
Preface and Acknowledgments to the Fourth
Edition
Preface and Acknowledgments to the Third
Edition
Preface and Acknowledgments to the Second
Edition
Introduction
CHAPTER 1. Establishing a Balanced Battery-Powered
Electrical System
Introduction
Batteries
Getting Down to Specifics
Putting the Pieces Together
Summary: A Balanced System
CHAPTER 2. Efficient and Cost-Effective Electrical
Systems for Energy-Intensive Boats
8Energy Efficiency and the Cost of Energy
DC-to-AC Inverter Systems
Electric and Hybrid Propulsion
Multiple DC Voltages
CHAPTER 3. Maintaining and Troubleshooting a BatteryPowered Electrical System
Batteries
Alternators
Voltage Regulators
Diodes
CHAPTER 4. Understanding and Troubleshooting
Electrical Circuits
Basic Concepts and Measurements
DC Circuits
AC Circuits
Proper Electrical Installations
Distributed (Multiplex) Power Systems
CHAPTER 5. Corrosion, Bonding, Lightning Protection,
and Grounding
Corrosion
Bonding and Cathodic Protection
Lightning Protection
9Grounding
CHAPTER 6. Battery Chargers, Inverters, Wind and Water
Generators, and Solar Panels
Battery Chargers
Inverters
Wind (and Water) Generators
Solar Panels
CHAPTER 7. AC Generators, DC Generators, Electric
Motors (AC and DC), and Electric Lights
AC Generators
DC Generators
Electric Motors
Electric Lights
CHAPTER 8. Marine Electronics: Antennas and Radio
Grounds, Electromagnetic and Radio
Frequency Interference, and Saving Soaked
Equipment
Network Cabling
Antennas and Radio Grounds
Electromagnetic and Radio Frequency
Interference
Saving Soaked Equipment
10CHAPTER 9. Diesel Engines: Operation and Maintenance,
Troubleshooting, and Winter Layup
Operation and Maintenance
Troubleshooting Part 1: Failure to Start
Troubleshooting Part 2: Operating Problems
Winter Layup and Recommissioning
CHAPTER 10. From Transmission to Propeller
Transmissions and Shaft Brakes
Connecting a Transmission to a Propeller Shaft
Shaft Seals
Struts, Bearings, and Propellers
CHAPTER 11. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
CFCs, the Ozone Hole, and Climate Change
Balancing Refrigeration Needs with Boat Use
Air-Conditioning
11Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning:
Maintenance, Troubleshooting, and Repair
Charging and Topping-Off Procedures
CHAPTER 12. Tanks, Plumbing, Toilets, Through-Hull
Fittings, and Sealants
Tanks and Fittings
Plumbing
Marine Toilets (Heads)
Through-Hulls and Seacocks
Sealants
CHAPTER 13. Pumps and Watermakers
Pumps
Pump Switches
Watermakers
CHAPTER 14. Steering Systems, Autopilots, and Wind
12Vanes
Steering Systems
Autopilots
Wind Vane Self-Steering
CHAPTER 15. Stoves, Cabin Heaters, Gas-Powered Water
Heaters, and Lanterns
Gas
Alcohol, Kerosene, and Diesel Appliances
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
CHAPTER 16. Blocks, Winches, Windlasses, and Bow
Thrusters
Blocks
Winches
Windlasses
Bow Thrusters
CHAPTER 17. Spars, Standing Rigging, and Roller Reefing
Spars
Standing Rigging
Roller Reefing and Furling; Fully Battened
Mainsails
13Glossary
Appendix A: Checklist of Winterizing Procedures
Appendix B: Freeing Frozen Parts and Fasteners
Appendix C: Tools and Spare Parts
Appendix D: Useful Tables
Index
Index
Please note that index links point to page beginnings from the
print edition. Locations are approximate in e-readers, and you
may need to page down one or more times after clicking a link to
get to the indexed material.
Numbers in bold refer to pages with illustrations
AAC
circuits and system, 180–206
capacitive coupling, 162–63
color codes, 194–95, 203–04
grounding circuits, 82, 180–88, 181, 182, 183, 190–94, 299–303,
300, 301
leaks, 184–85, 186
open circuits, 204–05
polarity testing, 200–01, 203, 204
receptacles, 201
safety issues, 163
ship-to-shore transfer switch, 201–02
short circuits, 181, 204–5
single-phase circuits, 194–202
testing, 202–05, 203, 204, 287, 302–3
voltages and frequencies, 82, 126, 202
accumulator tanks, 713–14
AC generators, 364–78
alternator-type, 365–67, 366, 374–77, 396
2922armature-type, 365, 367, 370–74, 371, 372, 373, 396
automatic generator start (AGS) devices, 82
battery chargers and, 310
bearing replacement, 377
efficiency, 89
features, 368
loads and use patterns, 78
maintenance, 368–69
operational principles, 364–67
troubleshooting, 369–77, 371, 372, 373, 374, 376
variable-speed technology (VST), 377–78
AGM (absorbed glass mat) batteries: characteristics and
performance, 8, 14–16
charge acceptance rate (CAR), 73
choosing the right battery, 16–17
conditioning, 15–16
conditioning of sulfated, 122–26, 124, 125
failure modes, 9, 15–16
plates, 10, 14–15
recommendations, 12
safety issues, 108
air-conditioning, 596–99
cooling pumps, 689, 691
installation, 598–99
loads and power requirements, 19–20, 23, 596
options and types of units, 596–97
sizing a unit, 597–98. See also refrigeration systems
air flow and air filters, 451, 468, 479–80
2923air switches, 718
alcohol and alcohol appliances, 795, 796–801
alternator charging problems, 133–40
diode testing, 137, 140–42
no output, 137–40, 149–50
overcharging, 136–37, 152
undercharging, 133–36, 150–51
alternators, 126–46
battery type to use with, 14
bearings, 133
belts, 31, 32–35, 130–32
cable sizing, 33
charging battery banks, 49–57
European performance enhancement, 45–46
generating capacity, 91
heat issues, 28
horsepower, 36
ignition-protected, 33
installation, 30–33, 48, 60
installation and maintenance, 129–33
marine, 128–29
noise suppression, 445–46
operational principles, 4, 126–29
output, 26–30, 27, 29, 36, 38, 39, 40, 44, 45–46
pulleys, 30, 32–35, 36, 131–33
repairing, 142–46
reverse polarity, 129–30
second to supplement existing, 30–31, 48, 60, 91
2924speed of rotation, 28–30, 29
temperature and output, 27, 28, 29
aluminum, 240–41, 264, 272–73, 281–82, 862
aluminum spars and spreaders, 861–68, 870
aluminum tanks, 627–30, 628, 629
American Boat and Yacht Council (ABYC) standards: battery
chargers, 311
battery installation, 113
bilge pumps, 697, 699–700
bonding, 628–29
cables, 207–10, 211, 212–13, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 228, 230–
32, 412
capacitors, 186
cathodic protection, 283, 284–85, 286
check valves, 697
circuit breakers, 238, 247, 250–51
connections and terminals, 223, 225
distribution panels, 232, 233, 234
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), 416
electronic equipment, 419
equipment leakage circuit interrupter, 188–89
fuel filters, 460–61
galvanic isolators, 186–87, 188
gas appliances, 781
gas systems, 784–85, 786, 788
hoses and hose clamps, 641–43, 646, 647, 648
isolation transformers, 83, 189, 193
lightning protection, 288, 292
2925overcurrent protection, 243–45, 247, 250–51
reserved battery requirement, 46
reverse polarity–indicating device, 200
serial hybrids, 96
shore-power circuits, 195–96
storage lockers, 235
stray-current corrosion, 274
synchronizing inverters and AC circuits, 85
tanks, 628–29
terminals, 221–22
through-hulls and seacocks, 669, 670–71, 674, 680, 681
American Petroleum Institute (API), 454–55
American Wire Gauge (AWG), 214–15, 219
ammeters: clamp-on, 19, 137, 179
DC circuit monitoring, 57–58
DC circuit troubleshooting, 177–78, 179, 180
measuring loads, 19
amperage (amps), 4, 13
amps-to-watts conversion, 19
loads and power requirements, 19–20
measuring, 161, 163, 164, 165
power and energy conversion formulas, 65
water system analogy, 159–161
ampere interrupting capacity (AIC), 234–35, 245, 246
amp-hour meters, 118–19
amp-hours (Ah), 4, 13, 19–20
anodes and cathodic protection, 183, 262, 272–73, 281–83, 284–
85, 470–71, 563
2926antennas, 428–39
emergency antenna, 439
gain, 429–30
installation, 432–39
lightning protection, 295, 297
quality of, 429
SSB antennas, 430–32, 431, 433
standing radio ratio, 430
arcing faults, 198–99, 241
automatic generator start (AGS) devices, 78, 80–81, 82, 378
autopilots, 23, 764–71
Bba
cteria and biocides, 452, 454, 457, 462
batteries: boat usage compared to car, 4–5
capacity, 6, 11, 12, 13, 18, 20–26
choosing, 16–17
connecting and disconnecting, 108
construction of, 5–6
cycling and life cycles, 10–12, 15, 16–17, 46–47, 70–72
discharge depth, 20–21
discharge rate, 6, 11
efficiency, 71
electrolyte in, 5, 6–8, 9, 11, 110–11
failure modes, 7, 8–10, 12, 14, 15–16, 21, 22, 110
freezing points, 110–11
high–CAR, 72–77, 73
installation, 111–13
2927maintenance, 108–11, 113
operational principles, 5–6
plates, 5–6, 10, 12, 14–15, 17, 46
problems with, 119–26, 120, 121
reserved battery requirement, 46
safety issues, 108
self-discharge, 7, 9, 14, 16, 110
state of charge and recharging, 21–22
temperature and, 13, 25–26, 42–44, 71, 110–11, 113
testing, 113–19
voltage, 6, 11, 47
weight, 23. See also AGM (absorbed glass mat) batteries; gelcell batteries; wet-cell (flooded-electrolyte) batteries
batteries, types of: cranking (automotive), 4–5, 10, 12, 13, 18, 39,
46
deep-cycle (traction), 5, 10–11, 12, 15, 39, 46
golf-cart, 14
marine, 11, 12, 13
battery banks: charging, 49–57
dual bus installation, 75–77, 76
electronics bank, 54
house bank, 48
installation, 24–26
installation and management, 48, 60, 75–77, 76
monitoring and control, 57–58, 60
parallel connection, 23, 24–25
paralleling switch, 48
recharging times, 47–48
2928reserve bank, 46
series connection, 23–25
single large bank compared to two banks, 46–48, 60
sizing, 22–23, 60, 85–86
temperature, ventilation, and, 25–26, 108
battery boxes, 14, 108, 111–13
battery cables and clamps, 109–10, 158
battery chargers, 306–18
ABYC standards, 311
AC generators and, 310
AC voltages and frequencies, 82
equalization of sulfated batteries with, 121–22
features, 309–13
installation, 311
as isolation transformers, 82, 83
noise suppression, 446
operational principles, 306
output, 312
performance and regulation, 307–09
sizing, 313
troubleshooting, 314–18, 316, 317
types of, 306–07
battery charging: absorption phase, 38–39, 41–42, 44, 123, 124
at anchor, 66, 67–68, 91
battery banks, 49–57
bulk phase, 38–39, 40–41, 42, 44, 123
charge acceptance rate (CAR), 6, 8, 15, 16, 21–22, 26–27, 37–38,
40, 42–43, 57, 72–77, 73, 86–87
2929cycling and life cycles, 21–22, 46–47
equalization (conditioning), 7, 14, 15–16, 42, 88, 121–25, 358
European performance enhancement, 45–46
float phase, 42, 44, 123, 124, 125, 126, 358
gassing, 6–7, 9, 14, 15, 42
generators, 18, 20, 85–87, 86
overcharging, 9, 14, 15, 25, 42, 76
rate of charge, 38, 39, 40
recharge rate, 6
recharging times, 47–48
temperature and, 42–44
underway, 68–69
water tank analogy, 36–39, 37
battery paralleling relays, 51–53, 52
battery selector/isolation switch, 48, 49–50, 56, 242–43
battery switches, 211, 241
bearings: AC generators, 368–69, 377
alternators, 133
pump shaft bearings, 701, 702–03
rubber sleeve (cutless) bearings, 552–55
rudder bearings, 739, 749, 750
bearing tubes, 739, 749–51
belts, 31, 32–35, 130–32, 602–03
bevelhead and gearbox steering system, 742–43
bilge pumps: ABYC standards, 697, 699–700
alarms, 698
centrifugal pumps, 689, 691–94, 696–700, 720–21
check valves, 696–97
2930choosing, 689, 691
efficiency and flow rate, 699
electrical circuits, 697–700
failures, 722
flooding rates, 695
life expectancy, 699
loads and power requirements, 19
overcurrent protection, 698–700
switches, 274–75, 697, 698, 715–722, 716, 717, 718, 719, 720
biodiesel, 453
blocks, 814–19
bonding and bonding circuits, 278, 279–81, 287, 445, 599, 628–
29, 672
bow thrusters, 54, 853
brass, 240, 265–67, 272
bridge rectifiers, 128, 371–72
bronze, 240, 265–67, 272–73, 671, 672, 681
bus bar, 178–79, 195, 233–34, 239–41
butane, 780. See also gas and gas systems
Cca
bles, electrical: ABYC standards, 207–10, 211, 212–13, 214, 215,
216, 217, 218, 219, 228, 230–32, 412
ampacity, 211–15, 216, 217–18
color codes, 194–95, 203–04, 210
construction and types of, 207–08, 210
corrosion and, 207, 276–78
installation, 222, 228–32, 229, 230, 231
2931insulation, 208, 209, 213, 214, 215, 216, 220
interference, 228–29, 416–17, 441–46
ISO standards, 207–10, 211, 212–13, 216, 218, 228, 230–32
labeling, 208–10
micro cabling, 412
network installation, 418–20
ship-to-shore cables, 195–97, 199
sizing, 210–15, 216, 217–18, 219, 220
temperature and, 211–14, 215, 216
voltage and size of, 96, 98
voltage drop and, 147, 171, 215–19, 220
cable steering, 743–44, 755–57
capacitors, 186, 372, 373, 444
capacity testing batteries, 117–18
carbon dioxide, 780
carbon-enhanced lead-acid batteries, 17
carbon fiber spars, 294, 868–69, 870
carbon monoxide alarms, 808–11, 810
carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide poisoning, 780, 804–08,
809
catamaran lightning protection, 299
cathodic protection, 281–86, 287
centrifugal pumps, 688
applications and factors in choosing correct pump, 688–91
bilge pumps, 689, 691–94, 696–700, 720–21
installation, 598, 691–700, 694
maintenance, troubleshooting, and repair, 707
operational principles, 687
2932chainplates, 880–82, 884, 885, 886, 887
chain rode, 831–33, 834–36, 835
check valves, 696–97
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 568–72
circuit breakers, 389–90
ABYC standards, 238, 247, 250–51
digital, 720
distributed power systems, 250–51, 256
installation, 233–35, 234, 243
ISO standards, 238, 247, 251
performance, 246–47
sizing, 219, 237–38
temperature and, 211
two-pole breakers, 200
Clean Boating Act, U.S. (CBA), 696
clevis pins, 858, 859, 881–83, 885–86
clutches, 609–12, 704–05, 708
coaxial cable and connections, 207, 418, 432–39, 433, 437, 438
cold cranking amps (CCA), 13, 46
compasses, 419
compressed natural gas (CNG), 780. See also gas and gas systems
conductance, 162
conductance meters, 117, 167
constant-velocity joints, 543–44
conversion and equivalencies tables, 691, 927–35
cooling system: cooling pumps, 469–70, 689, 691, 698
hoses, 643
maintenance, 468–72
2933overheating problems, 493–500
siphon break, 474–77
water in crankcase, 505–06
copper: conductivity of, 240
corrosion, 272
copper pipe or tubing, 636–39
corrosion: of cables, 207
cleaning up, 272
electrical circuits and, 207
gas system valves and regulators, 781, 782
stray-current corrosion, 168, 273–79, 274, 275, 276, 278, 287,
697
tanks, 628. See also galvanic corrosion
Dda
ily power requirements, 19–20
DC circuits and system, 167–80
ammeter troubleshooting, 177–78, 179, 180
average boats and generalities about, 18–19
battery storage capacity, 18, 20–26
charging capabilities, 18, 26–36
designing and sizing, 59, 60, 64
ground-return circuits, 167–68
insulated-return circuits, 168
inverter use and design of, 85–88, 86
loads and power requirements, 18–20, 23, 64, 87–88
marine environment, 4–5
monitoring and control, 57–58, 60
2934multiple DC voltages, 64, 98–105, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104
ohmmeter troubleshooting, 173–77
short circuits, 158, 172, 174–76, 236–37
testing, 287, 302–3
voltage regulation, 18, 36–44
voltmeter troubleshooting, 168–73, 169, 170, 171, 172, 180
DC generators, 79–81, 80–81, 82, 378, 378–79
DC power supply, 99
DC-to-AC inverters, 77–91, 318–34
AC pass-through mode, 82, 84–85
batteries and, 118, 324–26
conventional, 78–82, 90
DC system design, 85–88, 86
energy costs, 90
features, 321–23
installation, 79, 327, 330–32
islanding and anti-islanding measures, 85
loads and power requirements, 87–88, 89–90, 326–27, 328–29
operational principles, 47, 78–79, 318–23
shore-power circuits and, 81–82, 83–85
single versus divided battery banks and, 47
synchronizing, 83–85, 86, 90
troubleshooting, 332–34, 333
types of, 318–21, 319, 320
usage of, 4–5
DC-to-DC converter circuits, 102–04
DC-to-DC converters, 64, 99, 100–05, 444
diaphragm pumps: applications and factors in choosing correct
2935pump, 688–91
maintenance, troubleshooting, and repair, 708–14, 709, 710,
711, 712, 713
manual, 687
operational principles, 687
running dry, 688–89
diesel, 65, 89, 453, 795–96
diesel appliances, 795, 796–804, 801, 802, 803
diesel engines: do-it-yourself survey, 516–21
emissions regulations, 450
maintenance, 457–72
operational principles, 450–57
recommissioning, 516
winter layup, 514–16, 515
diesel engine troubleshooting, 504
acceleration/pickup problems, 504
air flow problems, 479–80
cold weather, 493
compression, 482, 483
cranking speed, 482–83
engine instrumentation, 509–14
engine runaway, 504–5
engine won’t fire, 479–93
exhaust back pressure, 473, 501–02, 503
failure to crank, 472–73, 478
failure to shutdown, 504–05
fuel problems, 473, 483–85
fuel system, bleeding, 485–93
2936governors, 509
hunting, 473, 504
idle problems, 473
knocks, 473, 502
loss of performance, 501–04
loss of power, 473
low compression, 473
misfiring, 473, 502, 504
oil consumption, 473, 507
oil level, rising, 473, 507
oil pressure, 473, 506–07
overheating, 473, 493–500
overview chart, 473
seizure, 473, 504
smoke, 473, 500–01
turbocharger performance, 507–08
vibration, 504
water in crankcase, 505–06
water in the engine, 478–79
diodes, 152–55
alternators, 127–28, 129–30, 134, 137
battery isolation, 48, 50–51, 150, 151, 153–54, 155
heat sinks on, 153–54
identification, 152–53
rating, 153
snubbers, 129–30
soldering, 154
split-charging, 134, 137, 150–51, 154
2937testing, 137, 140–42, 155, 163, 166
distributed (multiplex) power systems, 248–57, 720
distribution panels, 232–36
downwind poles, 869–71
Eel
ectrical circuits: connections and terminals, 220, 221–28,
240–41, 293
corrosion and, 207
meters and measurements, 161–66
testing, 287
water system analogy, 159–61. See also AC circuits and system;
cables, electrical; DC circuits and system
electrical equipment: ignition-protected, 235
marine-use rated, 277
saving soaked, 447
electric appliances, 205–06
electric motors, 380–400
disassembly, inspection, and repair, 396–400
noise suppression, 446
operational principles, 380–82
speed regulation, 382–83
starter motors, 4, 214, 389–400
testing and troubleshooting, 384–89, 392–95
electric propulsion, 64, 91–93, 94
hybrid propulsion, 64, 88, 91, 93–97, 99
range, 92–93
regeneration, 88, 93, 96
2938Electric Shock Drownings (ESD), 184–85, 188
electrolyte: in batteries, 5, 6–8, 9, 11, 110–11
freezing points, 110–11
specific gravity, 109, 113–15, 116
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), 416
electromagnetic interference (EMI), 313, 323, 416–17, 420, 421,
441–46
electronic equipment: ABYC standards, 419
battery banks for, 54
battery source for, 46
brownouts and voltage spikes, 419–20
ISO standards, 419
lightning protection, 295–97
loads and power requirements, 19–20, 23
location and installation, 416–17, 418–28
saving soaked, 447
shielding and shielded cables, 417, 420–21, 422, 423, 424, 443.
See also networks
electronic switches, 718–19
emergency antenna, 439
emergency shroud kit, 881
emergency steering, 740, 763–64
energy and power conversion formulas, 65
energy costs, 67–72, 68
battery calculations, 70–72
battery choices and, 16, 68
electric propulsion, 92
energy efficiency and, 64–67, 77
2939high-CAR batteries, 72–77
inverter-based boat, 90
real cost of energy production, 64
Engel fridge/freezers, 593
engines: alignment, 540–43, 541, 542
alternator sizing, 30, 36
cathodic protection, 283
efficiency, 64–67, 86
lightning protection, 294–95
loads and battery charging, 66, 68–69, 70, 91
naturally aspirated, 86
turbocharged, 86, 507–08. See also diesel engines
equalizer circuits, 102–04
equalizers, 99–100, 102–05, 103, 104
equipment leakage circuit interrupter (ELCI), 83, 185, 188–89,
193, 200, 286
equivalencies and conversion tables, 691, 927–35
ethanol, 453, 633
Ethernet, 416, 421
European alternator performance enhancement, 45–46
European household energy consumption, 89
exhaust back pressure, 473, 501–2, 503
Ffa
steners, 857–58, 863–64, 922–23
ferro-resonant chargers, 120, 306, 307, 308, 311, 312, 315–16, 317,
318, 446
fiberglass tanks, 453, 633
2940fiber rigging, 871, 878–80
filters (interference prevention), 443–45, 444
Firefly battery, 17
fires, 236, 237, 241
float switches, 715–18, 716, 717, 722
flooding rates, 695
fluorescent lights, 401–02, 404–07
frequency, 82, 126, 202, 306, 364–65
frequency converters, 82
frequency meters, 202
fuel: biodiesel, 453
clean fuel, 457–62, 458, 459, 460, 461
contaminated, 452, 454, 457–58, 462
diesel, 65, 89, 453, 795–96
diesel fuel, 453
engine fuel maps, 65–66, 67
ethanol, 453, 633
gasoline, 235, 453
hybrid fuel consumption, 94–95
modified fuel supplies, 453
in oil, 467–68
specific fuel consumption (SFC), 64–67
spills, 462
fuel cells, 88–89
fuel system, 452, 454
bleeding, 485–93
fiberglass tanks and ethanol, 453
fuel filters, 452, 457–58, 460–66, 461, 463, 465, 484–85
2941maintenance, 457–62, 458, 459, 460
solenoid fuel shutdown valve, 484
tank-level gauges, 513–14
fuses, 158, 220, 237, 238–39, 242–45
Gga
lvanic corrosion, 260–273
AC circuits and, 82, 181, 183–84, 262
anodes, 183, 262, 272–73, 281–83, 284–85, 470–71, 563
galvanic series, 260–61
preventing, 264, 271–73, 287
propellers, 563
tanks, 628–29
through-hulls and seacocks, 671–72
galvanic isolators, 82, 186–88, 191, 262
gas and gas systems: ABYC standards, 784–85, 786, 788
corrosion of valves and regulators, 781, 782
cylinder types and refills, 781–83
hoses, 648
installation and storage lockers, 235, 784–89
ISO standards, 785–86, 788
safety precautions, 780, 781, 789
testing, 789
types and properties, 780
gas appliances, 781, 789–94, 795
gasoline, 235, 453
geared steering, 739–43, 740, 741, 742
gear pumps, 687
2942gel-cell batteries: characteristics and performance, 7–8, 14–16
choosing the right battery, 16–17
failure modes, 7, 9, 15
plates, 10, 14–15
recommendations, 12
safety issues, 108
generators: battery charging, 18, 20, 85–87, 86
battery type to use with, 14
efficiency, 89
energy costs, 69–70, 90
fuel consumption and emissions, 90
loads and rated capacities, 66–67
power from, 20
glossary, 911–19
golf-cart batteries, 14
governors, 509
GPS units, 297
grounded circuits, 180, 299
ground fault circuit breaker (GFCB), 83, 188
ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs), 83, 185, 188–89, 200,
321
ground faults (earth leaks), 164, 176–79, 203
grounding circuits, 180–88, 181, 182, 183, 190–94, 299–303, 300,
301
Hha
logen lights, 23, 98, 100–01, 179, 401, 402–03
halyards, 866–67, 899–901
2943heads. See toilets
headsails: roller furling, 904–05
roller reefing, 893–904
heat sinks, 153–54
Hertz (Hz), 82, 126, 202, 306, 364–65
horsepower, 36
hoses, 640–49
ABYC standards, 641–43, 646, 647, 648
below-the-waterline hoses, 643–44
connecting hoses, 646–48, 647
drinking water hoses, 646
exhaust hose, 641–43
fuel hoses, 453, 645–46
gas hoses, 648
hydraulic hoses, 648–49
ISO standards, 641–42, 645–46, 647, 648
sanitation hose, 644–45
hybrid propulsion, 64, 88, 91, 93–97, 99
hydraulic hoses, 648–49
hydraulic steering, 744–45, 759–62, 760, 761
hydraulic windlasses, 851–52
Hydrocaps, 6–7, 43
hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), 568–72
hydrofluoroolefin (HFO), 569
hydrometer, 113–15, 114
Iic
eboxes and insulation, 572–80, 581–83
2944ignition temperatures, 480–83
ignition warning light, 509
impedance, 162
impeller puller, 469, 470
impeller pumps: applications and factors in choosing correct
pump, 688–91
chemical compatibility, 689, 690
head pressure, 688
maintenance, troubleshooting, and repair, 469–70, 700–04
operational principles, 686–87
running dry, 688–89
impress currents, 285
incandescent lights, 19, 23, 47, 98, 100–01, 118, 179, 217, 401, 402
induction motors, 381–82, 383, 389
instruments, engine, 509–14
interference, 228–29, 416–17, 441–46
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, 193,
251, 416, 417, 418
International Organization for Standardization (ISO): battery
installation, 113
bonding, 280, 628–29
cables, 207–10, 211, 212–13, 216, 218, 228, 230–32
circuit breakers, 238, 247, 251
connections and terminals, 223
distribution panels, 232
electronic equipment, 419
galvanic isolators, 187
gas systems, 785–86, 788
2945hoses and hose clamps, 641–42, 645–46, 647, 648
lightning protection, 288, 292
networking standards, 416, 418
overcurrent protection, 243–45, 247
reserved battery requirement, 46
residual current device, 189
reverse polarity–indicating device, 200
serial hybrids, 96
shore-power circuits, 195–96
storage lockers, 235
stray-current corrosion, 274
synchronizing inverters and AC circuits, 85
tanks, 626, 628–29
terminals, 221
through-hulls and seacocks, 669, 670–71, 674, 680, 681
islanding and anti-islanding measures, 85
isolation transformers, 82, 83, 189, 191–94, 262, 314
Kke
el coolers, 594–95
kerosene and kerosene appliances, 780, 795–801, 796, 797, 799,
802–04, 803
kerosene lanterns, 805
kilowatt-hours (kWh), 65
kilowatts (kW), 65
Lla
zy jacks, 908–09
2946lead-carbon battery, 12
LED lights, 179, 401, 402, 407–13
lightning arrestors, 295
lightning dissipators, 288, 298–99
lightning prevention, 298–99
lightning protection, 183–84, 288–99, 869
lights, 400–13
fluorescent, 401–02, 404–07
halogen, 23, 98, 100–01, 401, 402–03
incandescent, 19, 23, 47, 98, 100–01, 118, 179, 217, 401, 402
LEDs, 179, 401, 402, 407–13
loads and power requirements, 19–20, 23, 87–88
xenon, 401, 402, 403–04
lip-type seals, 545, 550–52, 689, 701, 703, 751–52
liquified petroleum gas (LPG), 780. See also gas and gas systems
lithium-ion batteries, 12, 17–18, 71, 73–77, 74, 76
load-sensing circuits and switches, 719–20
load testing batteries, 116–17
Lopolight, 413
lubricants, 465
API donut, 454–55
environmentally acceptable lubricants (EAL), 453
synthetic oil, 455
lubrication system, 454–57
oil filters, 455–57, 456, 462–66, 463, 464, 465
oil pressure, 506–07
water in crankcase, 505–06
2947Mma
gnetic interference and influences, 419
mainsails: behind-the-mast reefing, 905, 906, 907
fully battened, 908–10, 909
in-mast reefing, 905–08
roller reefing booms, 908
masthead hardware, 858, 860–61, 865–66
masthead lights and circuits, 179
mechanical seals, 545, 548–50, 751
metals, conductivity of, 240–41
Mid-Capacity Rule, 21–22
motors. See electric motors
multimeter, 161, 162–66, 180
multistep (smart) voltage regulators, 39–44, 41, 42, 149, 152
NNa
tional Electrical Code, U.S. (NEC), 211
National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA): battery source
for electronics, 46
cable installation requirements, 231
micro cabling, 412
NMEA 0183 network, 416, 417–18
NMEA 2000 backbone, 421–25
NMEA 2000 cable and connections, 420–21
NMEA 2000 network, 98, 256, 416, 417–18
OneNet, 416, 417–18
navigation lights, 411–13
networks: network cables, 420–22
2948NMEA 0183 network, 416, 417–18
NMEA 2000 backbone, 421–25
NMEA 2000 cable and connections, 420–21
NMEA 2000 network, 98, 256, 416, 417–18
OneNet, 416, 417–18
power cables, 418–20
power insertion points, 422–24
power supplies, 419–20
testing, 425–26
troublefree installation, 418–28
troubleshooting, 426–28
voltage drop, 419, 424–25
nickle-cadmium (nicad) batteries, 18
nickle metal hydride (NiMH) batteries, 18
Ooh
mmeter, 162, 164–66, 173–77, 179
ohms, 159, 161–62, 163, 164–66
Ohm’s law, 162, 174
oil analysis, 466–67
oil filters, 455–57, 456, 462–66, 463, 464, 465
oil spot test, 467–68
OneNet, 416, 417–18
open-circuit voltage, 115–16
Optima battery, 12, 15
overcurrent protection, 158, 220, 236–48, 250–51, 256. See also
circuit breakers; fuses
2949Ppa
cking glands (stuffing boxes), 545–48, 553, 751
permanent magnet (PM) motors, 36, 381, 383, 389
permanent magnet DC (PMDC) generators, 79–81, 93–94, 97
piston pumps, 687, 688, 707–08
plastic pipe, 640
plumbing, 636–49
copper pipe or tubing, 636–39
hoses, 453, 640–49
plastic pipe, 640
steel pipe, 639–40
polarization transformers, 192–93
polyethylene tanks, 633–35, 634
polypropylene tanks, 635
positive-displacement pumps, 687, 688, 689
power and energy conversion formulas, 65
power distribution modules (PDMs), 251–52, 256
pressure and temperature gauges, 512–13
pressure switches, 689, 715
propane, 89, 235, 780. See also gas and gas systems
propellers, 555–65
alignment and vibration, 563
controllable-pitch propellers, 555, 560–61
efficiency, 66
feathering propellers, 558–61
folding propellers, 557–58, 560
fouling, 561–63
freewheeling, 88, 93, 336
2950galvanic corrosion, 563
installation, 556–57
outboard motor propellers, 564–65
pitch, 555–56
prop walk, 561
standard propellers, 556–57
propeller shaft: connecting to transmission, 539–44
seals, 545–552, 698
propulsion efficiency, 66, 72–73
proton exchange membrane (PEM) technology, 88–89
pulleys, 30, 32–35, 36, 131–33, 602–03
pump motors, 689
pumps, 686–714
applications and factors in choosing correct pump, 688–91
chemical compatibility, 689, 690
head pressure, 688, 689, 691–94, 693, 696–97
installation, 691–700, 694, 696, 697
loads and power requirements, 19–20
maintenance, troubleshooting, and repair, 700–14
operational principles, 686–87
running dry, 688–89, 700
types of, 686–87
winterizing procedures, 700, 714
pump switches: choosing a switch, 697
inspection of, 697
installation, 697
pressure switches, 689
stray-current corrosion and, 274–75, 697
2951types of, 715–722, 716, 717, 718, 719, 720
RR-
12 refrigerant, 568–72
R-134a refrigerant, 568–72, 600–02
rack-and-pinion steering, 740–42, 745, 753–54
radar, 19, 23
radio frequency interference (RFI), 309, 313, 323, 337, 349, 416–
17, 420, 421, 441–46
radio grounds, 439–41
radios, 19–20, 443
recombinant battery, 7–8
refrigerant: charging and topping-off systems, 617–23, 618, 619,
620, 621
handling procedures, 617–18
types of and legal regulations for use of, 568–72
refrigeration systems: AC refrigeration, 580, 583–84, 595, 607
air cooling vs. water cooling, 594–95
charging and topping-off procedures, 617–23, 618, 619, 620,
621
compressor seals, 603
compressor speed control devices, 590–91, 592
compressor troubleshooting, 613–14
cooling pumps, 689, 691
DC refrigeration, 580, 586–89, 591–96, 592, 607–09
engine-driven refrigeration, 584–86, 609–12
iceboxes and insulation, 572–80, 581–83
installation, 572
2952loads and power requirements, 19–20, 23, 87–88, 572, 580,
586–88, 595–96
maintenance, 602–04, 603
operational principles, 599–602
superheat, 615–17
troubleshooting and repairs, 604–17
residual current device (RCD), 83, 185, 188–89, 190, 193, 200, 286
reverse polarity–indicating device, 200–01, 203
ripple voltage, 140–41, 142
rod rigging, 871, 876–78, 877
roller reefing and furling, 893–908
behind-the-mast reefing, 905, 906, 907
halyard wrap, 899–901
in-mast reefing, 905–08
maintenance, 904
roller furling headsails, 904–05
roller reefing booms, 908
roller reefing headsails, 893–904
rope rode, 831–32
rotary pumps, 686–87, 689, 705–07, 706
rubber sleeve (cutless) bearings, 552–55
rudderhead fittings, 750, 752–53
rudders: installation, 738–39
maintenance and troubleshooting, 745–53
twin installation, 745
rudderstops, 754, 758, 762–63, 771
S
2953sail tracks and slides, 867
seacocks. See through-hulls and seacocks
sealants, 681–83
sealed valve regulated (SVR) battery, 7–8
shaft brakes, 537–39
shaft seals: propeller shaft, 545–52, 698
pump shaft, 701–02, 703–04
rudder shaft, 545, 698, 751–52
shedding (battery failure), 8–9
shielding and shielded cables, 417, 420–21, 422, 423, 424, 443
shore-power circuits: ABYC standard, 195–96
dockside voltage, 195
grounding, corrosion, and, 82, 181, 183–84, 262
inspection of cords, 192
inverter-based boat use of, 81–82, 83–85
islanding and anti-islanding measures, 85
ISO standard, 195–96
loose (open) neutrals, 198
ship-to-shore cables, 195–97, 199
ship-to-shore transfer switch, 201–02
testing, 202–03
30 amp vs. 50 amp, 199
voltages and frequencies, 82
short circuits, 158, 172, 174–76, 236–37
single-sideband (SSB) radios: interference prevention, 444–45
noise suppression, 446
radio grounds, 439–41
SSB antennas, 430–32, 431, 433
2954siphon break, 474–77, 697
snubbing line, 833–34
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 214–15, 219
solar panels, 352–61
battery charging, 18, 20, 121, 124–25, 152
battery type to use with, 14
installation, 358–61
power from, 20
shading, 354, 356
system design, 353–58
troubleshooting, 361
types of, 352–53
solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), 88–89
spars and spreaders, 856–71
aluminum, 861–68, 870
carbon fiber, 868–69, 870
fasteners, 857–58, 863–64
wooden, 856–61
spinnaker poles, 869–71, 870
stainless steel: conductivity of, 240
corrosion, 264, 270, 272–73
grades, 268–69
stainless steel chain, 836
stainless steel tanks, 630–32
standing rigging, 871–92
emergency shroud kit, 881
fiber rigging, 871, 878–80
fitting to a boat, 880–83
2955inspection and maintenance, 883–87
noise suppression, 446
rod rigging, 871, 876–78, 877
tuning a rig, 888–92
wire rope, 871–76, 877, 883–86, 884, 885
standpipe muffler, 477
starter motors, 4, 389–400
cables and circuits, 178, 214, 389–90
disassembly, inspection, and repair, 396–400
troubleshooting, 392–95
starting fluid, 482
steel, 263–64, 272–73
steel pipe, 639–40
steel tanks, 632–33
steering and steering systems, 738–64
autopilots, 23, 764–71
emergency steering, 740, 763–64
maintenance and troubleshooting, 745–63
types of, 738–45
stoves, 206, 780, 781, 789–96, 798–802
stray current and stray-current corrosion, 168, 273–79, 274, 275,
276, 278, 287, 697
struts, 552, 553
stuffing boxes (packing glands), 545–48, 553, 751
sulfation, 9, 12, 14, 15–16, 21, 22, 38, 110, 121–25
sulfuric acid, 5–6, 9
supercapacitors, 18
supplies and tools, 924–26
2956surge capacitors, 297
surge protection devices (SPDs), 296–97
Tta
chometers, 30, 44, 132
tank-level gauges, 513–14
tanks, 626–36
ABYC standards, 628–29
aluminum tanks, 627–30, 628, 629
built-in tanks, 626–27
design of, 635–36
emergency repairs, 632
fiberglass tanks, 453, 633
flexible tanks, 635
ISO standards, 626, 628–29
polyethylene tanks, 633–35, 634
polypropylene tanks, 635
stainless steel tanks, 630–32
steel tanks, 632–33
temperature and pressure gauges, 512–13
temperature measurements, 166–67
terminals and connections, 220, 221–28, 240–41, 293
test lights, 169, 170
thermal runaway, 25, 43, 76, 121
through-hulls and seacocks, 669–81
ABYC standards, 669, 670–71, 674, 680, 681
common seacock types, 674–77
definitions and characteristics, 670–71
2957failure of, 680
flooding through, 698
galvanic corrosion, 671–72
installation, 677–81, 678, 679, 680
ISO standards, 669, 670–71, 674, 680, 681
metal vs. plastic, 670, 671–74, 681
testing, 674, 680
tiller steering, 739, 740, 763–64
toilets, 650–69
common problems, 655–56
discharge regulations, 650–51, 667
installation, 650, 651–54
loads and power requirements, 23
maintenance, 654–55
pumps, 691
troubleshooting and repairs, 657–67
Type III MSDs, 650–51
Type II MSDs, 650–51, 667
Type I MSDs, 650–51, 667–69, 668
tone generating circuit tracer, 167
tools and supplies, 924–26
TPPL (thin plate pure lead) batteries, 12, 15, 16, 73, 122–26, 124,
125
transmissions: connecting to propeller shaft, 539–44
maintenance, 529
operational principles, 524–29
troubleshooting, 529–37
turbochargers, 86, 507–08
295812/24 volt DC system, 98–105, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104
The 12-Volt Doctor’s Alternator Book (Beyn), 142
12-volt equipment, 98
24-volt equipment, 98
24-volt systems, 64
Uult
racapacitors, 18
unattended boats, 698, 722
unbonded boats, 286
Underwriters Laboratory (UL): battery switches, 211
cable standards, 208, 209, 219
circuit breakers, 246, 250–51
current leak studies, 188
fuel filters, 460
hoses, 641–42
isolation transformer standards, 193
overcurrent protection, 250–51
surge protection devices, 296
through-hulls and seacocks, 671, 674, 681
Vva
lve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery, 7–8
vane pumps, 686–87, 705–07
variable-speed technology (VST), 377–78, 379
VHF radio antennas, 429–30, 433, 439
voltage (volts), 201–02
AC voltages and frequencies, 82, 126, 202
2959brownouts and voltage spikes, 419–20
loads and power requirements, 19–20
measuring, 161, 163–64, 202
serial hybrids, 96
surface, 37
terminal voltage, 47
testing AC circuits, 202–03
testing for in water, 185
water system analogy, 159–61
voltage drop: cables and, 147, 171, 215–19, 220
diode-induced, 142, 150–51, 155, 166
networks, 419, 424–25
testing for and troubleshooting, 134–36, 169–73
water system analogy, 159–161
voltage regulators, 18, 36–44, 147–52
automotive-type, 39, 44
bypass regulator, 44, 45–46, 53
charging problems, 135–36, 139–40
emergency regulation, 152
multistep (smart), 39–44, 41, 42, 149, 152
noise suppression, 445–46
operational principles, 147–48
series regulation, 53, 150
settings, 39
temperature compensation, 42–44
troubleshooting, 139–40, 149–52, 150, 151
types, 148
water tank analogy, 36–39, 37
2960wiring, 148–49
voltmeters: DC circuit monitoring, 57–58
DC circuit troubleshooting, 168–73, 169, 170, 171, 172, 180
measuring with, 161, 202
testing water for voltage, 185
Wwar
ning lights and alarms, 509–12, 510, 511
water generators, 88, 334
water heaters, 205–06, 780, 790, 802
water-lift muffler, 475–77
watermakers, 722–735
benefits of, 722–23
maintenance, 730–34
operational principles, 723–27
selecting and installing, 727–29
towed, 727
troubleshooting, 734–35
water pumps, 689, 691, 711–14
watts-to-amps conversion, 19
WD-40, 482
wet-cell (flooded-electrolyte) batteries: characteristics and
performance, 5, 6–7, 12, 14, 15, 43
choosing the right battery, 16–17
equalization, 7, 14, 15
failure modes, 9, 12, 14
maintenance, 108–09
plates, 5, 10, 12, 14
2961recommendations, 12
safety issues, 108
whisker poles, 869–71, 870
winches, 819–31
installation, 822
operational principles, 819–22
powered, 830–31
riding turns, 822, 823
servicing and overhaul, 822, 824–30
wind generators, 334–35, 337–52
battery charging, 18, 20, 121, 152
battery type to use with, 14
installation and maintenance, 344–49
operational principles, 335, 337–44
power from, 20
troubleshooting, 349–52, 350, 351
windlasses, 831–52
anchor locker design, 831–33
battery for, 54, 845
chain issues, 834–36
corrosion, 833
electric, 842–51, 843, 844, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849
horizontal, 831, 837–41
hydraulic, 851–52
installation, 832
maintenance, 836, 851
manual, 837–41
sizing, 833
2962snubbing loads, 833–34
troubleshooting, 847–851, 848, 849
vertical, 831, 841
wind vane self steering, 771–77
winterizing procedures, 514–16, 515, 700, 714, 920–22
wire rope, 871–76, 877, 883–86, 884, 885
wooden hulls, 282, 286
wooden spars, 856–61
worm-drive steering, 739–40, 754–55
Xxe
non lights


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