كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers    كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers  Emptyالجمعة 17 سبتمبر 2021, 1:03 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers
A practical guide to CNC machining
DAVIS
NexGenCAM

كتاب CNC Machining for Engineers & Makers  C_n_c_39
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Chapter 1:
Introduction & CNC Process
Overview
Course Description 1-3
Prerequisites 1-3
Audience . 1-3
Course Design 1-3
SRP vs. RP . 1-4
Prototype vs. Production Machining 1-4
Required Tools and Equipment 1-4
Lessons and Appendices 1-5
Instructional Resources . 1-5
Recommended Use . 1-6
Overview of CAD/CAM Process 1-6
Chapter 2:
Shop Safety
Overview 2-3
Safety Awareness 2-3
Personal Conduct & Shop Etiquette . 2-4
Shop Clothing 2-4
Proper Shop Attire Illustration . 2-5
General Safety Practices 2-6
CNC Safety Practices . 2-6
Safety Contract . 2-7
Safety Contract Form . 2-8
Chapter 3:
CNC Tools
Overview 3-3
End Mills . 3-3
Face Mill . 3-4
Corner Radius Mill . 3-5
Slot Mill/Slotting Saw 3-5
Center-Spot Drill . 3-5
Twist Drill 3-6
Tap . 3-6
Reamer . 3-7
Counterbore . 3-8
Cutting Tool Fundamentals 3-8
Rotational Direction . 3-8
Table of ContentsCNC Machining for Engineers and Makers Contents
ii
Chip Formation .3-8
Chip Load .3-9
Climb vs. Conventional Milling 3-9
Cutting Speeds and Feeds Formulas .3-10
Speed Formula .3-11
Feed Formula .3-12
Tap Feed Formula .3-12
Speed/Feed Examples 3-13
Milling Speed/Feed Example .3-13
Drill Speed/Feed Example .3-14
Tap Speed/Feed Example .3-15
Maximum Spindle Speed Example 3-16
Cutting Data 3-17
Best Practices Machining Parameters .3-18
Troubleshooting Speed/Feed Problems 3-19
Chapter 4:
Coordinate Systems
Overview .4-3
Cartesian Coordinate System .4-3
Number Line 4-3
3D Cartesian Coordinate System .4-3
Quadrants 4-4
Units 4-5
Vertical Machining Center (VMC) Motion .4-5
CNC Motion Control .4-6
CNC Machine Coordinates 4-6
About Machine Home Position .4-7
Work Coordinate System (WCS) .4-8
WCS Example-1 4-9
WCS Example-2 4-10
WCS Example-3 4-11
Machine and Tool Offsets 4-12
Machine Offset XY 4-12
Machine Offset Z 4-13
Tool Lenght Offset (TLO) .4-13
Chapter 5:
CNC Programming Language
Overview .5-3
CNC Language and Structure 5-3
Program Format .5-4
CNC Editor .5-4
Alphabetic & Special Character Address Codes .5-5
Alphabetic Address Code Definitions 5-5
G&M Codes .5-8
G-Codes .5-8
M-Codes .5-8
Select G-Code Definitions (Expanded) .5-9
Canned Cycles .5-10
Chapter 6:
CNC Operation
Overview of CNC Setup and Operation .6-3Contents CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers
iii
Machine and Tool Offsets 6-5
Fixture Offset XY 6-5
Fixture Offset Z 6-6
Tool Length Offset (TLO) 6-7
Haas Control Face . 6-8
Haas Keyboard . 6-9
Start/Home Machine . 6-10
Load Tools . 6-11
Set Tool Length Offset (TLO) 6-13
Set Fixture Offset XY 6-17
Set Fixture Offset Z 6-21
Load CNC Program 6-24
Run CNC Program 6-26
Adjusting Diameter (CDC) Offsets 6-27
Shut Down CNC . 6-29
Chapter 7:
2D Milling Toolpaths
Overview 7-3
2D/3D/4X/5X Defined . 7-3
2D (Prismatic) Parts . 7-3
3D Parts . 7-4
4-Axis Parts 7-4
Standard CAD Views vs. CAM Views 7-6
CAD Features vs. Machining Features 7-6
Toolpaths by Type and Use 7-7
2D Machining Features Example 7-8
2D Toolpath Terminology 7-9
Facing . 7-10
2D Contouring . 7-11
Cutter Diameter Compensation 7-12
Pocketing 7-13
Slot Milling 7-14
Chamfer Milling 7-15
Radius (Corner-Round) Milling . 7-16
Center Drill 7-17
Drilling 7-18
Tapping . 7-19
Chapter 8:
CNC Turning
Overview 8-3
Lathe Components . 8-4
Spindle 8-5
Turret 8-6
Lathe Coordinate System 8-8
Driven (Live) Tools . 8-9
Imaginary Tool Tip . 8-10
Part Datum . 8-11
Tools and Tool Holders 8-12
Chip Breaker 8-12
Relief Angle . 8-13
Tool Cutting Angles 8-13
Rake Angle . 8-14
Insert Designations . 8-15
Lathe Tool Types . 8-17CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers Contents
iv
Face/Turn Tools 8-17
Groove Tool .8-18
Bore Tool .8-19
Thread Tool 8-20
Cutoff Tool .8-21
Cutting Speeds and Feeds 8-22
Speed/Feed Example 8-23
Cutting Feed Example .8-24
Lathe Setup and Programming Example .8-25
Setup .8-26
Face .8-27
Rough 8-28
Finish .8-29
Groove .8-30
Thread .8-31
Drill 8-32
Bore .8-33
Cutoff .8-34
Chapter 9:
3D Toolpaths
Overview .9-3
3D Cutter Compensation 9-3
Tolerances .9-4
3D Toolpath Setups .9-6
3D Roughing 9-6
Parallel Finish 9-7
Scallop Height 9-8
3D Scallop 9-9
REST Milling .9-10
Pencil Toolpaths 9-11
Conceptualizing 3D Toolpaths 9-12
Chapter 10:
Milling Setups
Overview .10-3
Fixture Components 10-3
Subplates and Angle Plates 10-3
Clamps 10-4
Shoulder Bolts and Dowel Pins .10-5
Vise Accessories .10-5
Hard Jaws .10-6
Soft Jaws 10-6
Appendix A:
CNC Milling Work-Holding Examples
Project 1 : Install Vise A-2
Project 2 : Install Vise Jaws A-4
Project 3 : Square Block A-5
Project 4 : Contour Square Step A-13
Project 5 : Base . A-16
Project 6 : Housing A-21
Project 7 : Fan Blades A-23
Project 8 : Clamp A-29Contents CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers
v
Project 9 : Fixture Plate . A-31
Project 10 : French Curve A-33
Project 11 : Honeycomb A-38
Project 12 : Bracket . A-40
Project 13 : Microwave Housing A-49
Project 14 : Geneva Gear . A-57
Appendix B:
Alternate Tool Setting Methods
List of Common Methods B-1
Using Paper . B-2
1-2-3 Block on Finished Part Face B-3
1-2-3 Block and Dial Indicator B-4
Tool Probe B-4
Appendix C:
CNC Process Planning Form
CNC Process Planning Form C-1, C-2
Appendix D:
G-M Code Reference
Milling G- Codes D-1
Milling M-Codes D-2
Lathe G-Codes D-3, D-4
Lathe M-Codes D-4
Appendix E:
Glossary
Glossary E-1, E-2
Appendix F:
Drill Chart
Drill Chart .F-1, F-2
Inch Pipe Threads F-4
Metric Taps . F-5
Milling G-Codes
G00 Rapid Positioning Motion (X,Y,Z,A ,B)
G01 Linear Interpolation Motion (X,Y,Z,A ,B,F)
G02 Circular Interpolation Motion CW (X,Y,Z,A ,I,J,K,R,F)
G03 Circular Interpolation Motion CCW (X,Y,Z,A,I,J ,K,R,F)
G04 Dwell (P) (P=Seconds)
G09 Exact Stop, Non-Modal
G17 Circular Motion XY Plane Selection (G02 or G03)
G18 Circular Motion ZX Plane Selection (G02 or G03)
G19 Circular Motion YZ Plane Selection (G02 or G03)
G20 Inch Coordinate Positioning
G21 Metric Coordinate Positioning
G28 Machine Zero Return Thru Ref. Point (X,Y,Z,A,B)
G29 Move to Location Through G28 Ref. Point (X,Y,Z,A,B)
G40 Cutter Comp Cancel
G41 2D Cutter Compensation, Left (X,Y,D)
G42 2D Cutter Compensation, Right (X,Y,D)
G43 Tool Length Compensation + (H,Z)
G49 Tool Length Compensation Cancel G43/G44/G43
G52 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate
G53 Machine Positioning Coordinate, Non-Modal (X,Y,Z,A ,B)
G54 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #1
G55 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #2
G56 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #3
G57 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #4
G58 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #5
G59 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #6
G73 HS Peck Drilling Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,I,J ,K,Q,P,R,L,F)
G74 Reverse Tapping Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,J,R,L,F)
G76 Fine Boring Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,I,J ,P,Q,R,L,F)
G77 Black Bore Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,I,J ,Q,R,L,F)
G80 Cancel Canned Cycle
G81 Drill Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,R,L,F)
G82 Spot Drill / Counterbore Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,P ,R,L,F)
G83 Peck Drill Deep Hole Canned Cycle (X,Y,A ,B,Z ,I,J,K,Q,P,R,L,F)
G84 Tapping Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z ,J,R,L,F)
G85 Bore In ~ Bore Out Canned Cycle (X,Y,A ,B,Z ,R,L,F)
G86 Bore In ~ Stop ~ Rapid Out Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,R,L,F)
G87 Bore In ~ Manual Retract Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,R,L,F)
G88 Bore In ~ Dwell ~ Manual Retract Canned Cycle (X,Y,A ,B,Z ,P,R,L,F)
G89 Bore In ~ Dwell ~ Bore Out Canned Cycle (X,Y,A,B,Z,P,R,L,F)
G90 Absolute Positioning Command
G91 Incremental Positioning Command
G92 Global Work Coordinate System
G93 Inverse Time Feed Mode ON
G94 Inverse Time Feed OFF / Feed Per Minute ON
G98 Canned Cycle Initial Point Return
G99 Canned Cycle R Plane Return
Table 1: Mill G-CodesCNC Machining for Engineers and Makers Appendix D
G & M Codes Reference
D-2 Copyright 2014 NexGenCAM, Inc.
Milling M-Codes
M00 Program Stop
M01 Optional Program Stop
M02 Program End
M03 Spindle ON Clockwise (S)
M04 Spindle ON Counterclockwise (S)
M05 Spindle Stop
M06 Tool Change (T)
M08 Coolant ON
M09 Coolant OFF
M30 Program End and Reset
M31 Chip Auger Forward
M33 Chip Auger Stop
M34 Coolant Spigot Position Down, Increment
M35 Coolant Spigot Position Up, Decrement
M36 Pallet Part Ready
M41 Spindle Low Gear Override
M42 Spindle High Gear Override
M50 Execute Pallet Change
M83 Auto Air Jet ON
M84 Auto Air Jet OFF
M88 Coolant Through Spindle ON
M97 Local Sub-Program Call (P,L)
M98 Sub-Program Call (P,L)
M99 Sub-Program / Routine Return of Loop (P)
Table 2: Mill M-Codes
Note: Only one M-Code may appear in each block of code.Appendix D CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers
G-M Code Reference
Copyright 2014 NexGenCAM, Inc. D-3
Lathe G-Codes
G00 Rapid Positioning Motion
G01 Linear Interpolation Motion
G02 Circular Interpolation Motion CW
G03 Circular Interpolation Motion CCW
G04 Dwell (P) (P=Seconds)
G09 Exact Stop, Non-Modal
G18 Circular Motion ZX Plane Selection (G02 or G03)
G20 Inch Coordinate Positioning
G21 Metric Coordinate Positioning
G28 Machine Zero Return Thru Ref. Point
G29 Move to Location Through G28 Ref. Point
G32 Threading
G40 Tool Nose Compensation Cancel
G41 Tool Nose Compensation, Left
G42 Tool Nose Compensation, Right
G43 Tool Length Compensation
G49 Tool Length Compensation Cancel G43/G44/G43
G50 Spindle Speed Clamp/Set Global Coor. Offset
G51 Cancel Offset (Yasnac)
G52 Set Local Coordinate System (Fanuc)
G53 Machine Coordinate Selection
G54 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #1
G55 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #2
G56 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #3
G57 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #4
G58 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #5
G59 Work Offset Positioning Coordinate #6
G61 Exact Stop Modal
G64 G61 Cancel
G70 Finishing Cycle
G71 OD/ID Stock Removal Cycle
G72 Face Stock Removal Cycle
G73 Irregular Path Stock Removal Cycle
G74 Face Grooving Cycle, Peck Drilling
G75 OD/ID Grooving Cycle, Peck Drilling
G76 Threading Cycle, Multiple Pass
G80 Cancel Canned Cycle
G81 Drill Canned Cycle
G82 Spot Drill / Counterbore Canned Cycle
G83 Peck Drill Deep Hole Canned Cycle
G84 Tapping Canned Cycle
G85 Bore In ~ Bore Out Canned Cycle
G86 Bore In ~ Stop ~ Rapid Out Canned Cycle
G87 Bore In ~ Manual Retract Canned Cycle
G88 Bore In ~ Dwell ~ Manual Retract Canned Cycle
G89 Bore In ~ Dwell ~ Bore Out Canned Cycle
G90 OD/ID Turning Cycle, Modal
Table 3: Lathe G-CodesCNC Machining for Engineers and Makers Appendix D
G & M Codes Reference
D-4 Copyright 2014 NexGenCAM, Inc.
G92 Threading Cycle, Modal
G94 End Facing Cycle, Modal
G95 Subspindle Rigid Tap
G96 Constant Surface Speed (CSS) On
G97 Constant Surface Speed Cancel
G98 Feed Per Minute
G99 Feed Per Revolution
Table 3 (Cont): Lathe G-Codes
Lathe M-Codes
M00 Program Stop
M01 Optional Program Stop
M02 Program End
M03 Spindle ON Clockwise (Forward)
M04 Spindle ON Counterclockwise (Reverse)
M05 Spindle Stop
M08 Coolant ON
M09 Coolant OFF
M10 Clamp Chuck
M11 Unclamp Chuck
M12 Auto Air Jet On
M13 Auto Air Jet Off
M14 Clamp Main Spindle
M15 Unclamp Main Spindle
M19 Orient Spindle with P value
M21 Tailstock Forward
M22 Tailstock Reverse
M23 Thread Chamfer On
M24 Thread Chamfer Off
M30 Program End and Reset
M31 Chip Auger Forward
M33 Chip Auger Stop
M36 Parts Catcher Up
M37 Parts Catcher Down
M41 Low Gear
M42 High Gear
M88 High Pressure Coolant On
M89 High Pressure Coolant Off
M133 Live Tool Drive Forward
M134 Live Tool Drive Reverse
M135 Live Tool Drive Stop
Table 4: Lathe M-Codes
Note: Only one M-Code may appear in each block of code.Appendix E CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers
Glossary
Copyright 2014 NexGenCAM, Inc. E-1
Glossary
1-2-3 Block — A precision ground block that is 1x2x3
inches. Useful for helping set up the machine.
2D — A prismatic part of constant thickness.
2-1/2 D — A prismatic part with multiple thicknesses.
All planes are parallel to each other.
3D — A part that is not completely prismatic, including
molds and organically shaped parts.
Burr — A sharp edge or flashing.
Block — A line of code in a CNC program.
CAD — Computer Aided Design
CAM — Computer Aided Manufacturing.
CDC — Cutter Diameter Compensation.
CNC — Computer Numerical Control.
Chip Load — The amount of material removed with
each pass of a tool cutting edge.
Datum — Point on the part from which all coordinates
are referenced.
Drill Chart — A table that shows drill sizes, their
decimal equivalent, and what size drill to use for a
specified tap.
Feed — The linear speed at which a tool advances
through material.
First Article — The first part machined with a new
program and setup.
G-M Code — The CNC machine tool language.
Gouge — An error that causes an overcut on the part.
High Speed Machining (HSM) — Toolpath strategies
that minimize machining time and tool breaking.
Includes several technologies such as Adaptive
Roughing that maintain a constant amount of tool
engagement.
Home — Location of machine after it is turned on and
moved to its start position.
ID — Inside diameter or contour, like a pocket.
Insert — Carbide composite cutting tool used
extensively for turning operations.
Job — A sequential list of one or more machining
operations that share the same setup and fixture offset.
Machine Coordinate System — Coordinates in
reference to the machine Home position.
Mill — A machine tool that removes material by
spinning a tool and moving it in relation to the part.
OD — Outside diameter or contour.
Overcut — Describes a machined feature is too big
because not enough material was removed during
machining.
Post Processor — The part of a CAD/CAM system that
actually creates and formats the CNC program for a
specific machine and control.
Rapid — The fastest linear feed rate at which a
machine tool can move.
Reference Point — Some point on the part that can
be found reliably by mechanical means.
Rigid Tapping — The capability of a CNC machine to
control a tap without the use of a special tapping
attachment.
Scallop — Ridges left on the part, usually from a ball or
bull nose end mill on a 3D sculpted surface.
Setup— A complete set of work holding to machine
one side of a part.
Speed — How fast a tool turns in RPM.
Spindle — Part of CNC machine that grips and spins
the cutting tool.
Stepdown — Distance the tool moves down in Z
between machining passes.CNC Machining for Engineers and Makers Appendix E
Glossary
E-2 Copyright 2014 NexGenCAM, Inc.
Stepover — Distance the tool moves over in the XY
plane between machining passes.
Stock Allowance — Amount of material left after a
machining operation or pass to be removed by a finish
pass.
Spring Pass — Two or more machining passes that
follows the exact same path. Used to straighten walls
and improve surface finish.
TLO — Tool Length Offset. Used to tell CNC machine
the length of a tool.
Tool Changer — A device on a CNC machine that
automatically takes tools from a carousel and places
them in the machine spindle.
T-Slot — A slot in the machine table into which a
special T-nut can be inserted. Used to fasten
clamps or parts to the machine table.
Turret — Lathe assembly that attaches the lathe tool
holder to the machine.
Undercut — Describes a machined feature is too small
because too much material was removed during
machining


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