كتاب CAST Methods in Modelling
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 كتاب CAST Methods in Modelling

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
CAST Methods in Modelling
Computer Aided Systems Theory for the Design of Intelligent Machines
With 181 Figures
Franz Pichler· Heinz Schwfu1:zel (Eds.)

كتاب CAST Methods in Modelling  C_m_i_13
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Problem-Solving by Models 1
1.2 Systems Theory Instrumented Modelling 2
1.3 CAST - Computer Aided Systems Theory 5
1.4 CAST Methods in Modelling: An Overview 7
References - Chapter 1 8
2 CAST METHOD BANK SYSTEMS 11
2.1 CAST Method Bank System Design 11
2.1.1 Systems Theory Method Banks 11
2.1.2 The STIPS Machine STIPS.M 15
2.1.3 Special STIPS Machines 18
2.1.4 Navigation in Systems Problem Solving 25
2.1.5 Requirements for Applications in VLSI-Design 34
2.2 CAST.FSM - Finite State Machine Method Bank System 41
2.2.1 Introduction 41
2.2.2 LOOPS Software Implementation of CAST.FSM 42
2.2.3 STIPS.FSM Implementation 45
2.2.4 CAST.FSM Application Examples 52
2.2.5 CAST.FSM Extension and Perspectives 64
2.3 CAST.FOURIER - Method Bank for Generalized Spectral
Techniques 66
2.3.1 Introduction 66
2.3.2 Motivation 67
2.3.3 Generalized Spectral Techniques in Digital Image Processing 68
2.3.4 Goals and State of Development 72
2.3.5 Implementation 73
2.3.6 Concluding Remarks 77
2.4 CAST.LISAS - Simulation Tool for Regular Networks of Finite State
Machines 77
2.4.1 Introduction 77x CAST Methods in Modelling
2.4.2 Main Features of CAST.USAS 79
2.4.3 Cell Model and Activation Scheduling 81
2.4.4 Using CAST.USAS 81
2.4.5 Further Simulation Examples 87
2.4.6 Experiences and Conclusion 88
2.5 CAST.PN - An Editor and Simulation Tool for Petri Nets 90
2.5.1 Petri Nets in CAST 90
2.5.2 Condition/Event Systems 91
2.5.3 Place/Transition Nets 92
2.5.4 Implementing the Net Theory 92
2.5.5 Implementing the User Interface 94
2.6 CAST Applications 96
2.6.1 Algebraic Decomposition of MCNC Benchmark FSMs for
Logic Synthesis 96
2.6.2 CAST.FSM Applications in Cryptology 105
References - Chapter 2 115
3 MODELLING AND SIMULATION 123
3.1 Introduction 123
3.1.1 The Enterprise of Modelling and Simulation 123
3.1.2 The Systems Approach to Modelling and Simulation 130
3.1.3 Multi-Formalism System Modelling 140
3.2 System Specification Formalisms 141
3.2.1 A Brief Review of System Specification Formalisms 141
3.2.2 Atomic Formalisms for Combined Discrete-Continuous
Modelling 149
3.2.3 Coupled Multi-Formalism System Formalism 170
3.3 Abstract Simulator Concepts 175
3.3.1 Abstract Simulator of Discrete Event Systems 177
3.3.2 Abstract Simulator for Discrete Time Systems 181
3.3.3 Abstract Simulator for Differential Equation Specified
Systems 190
3.3.4 Simulators for Atomic Multi-Formalism Models 191
3.3.5 Coordinators for Coupled Multi-Formalism Models 197
3.3.6 Root-Coordinator 202
3.4 Implementations of Modelling and Simulation Environments 203
3.4.1 Implementation in PC-Scheme 203
3.4.2 The STIMS Modelling and Simulation Environment 208Contents xi
3.5 Multifacetted Modelling 218
3.5.1 Introduction to Multifacetted Modelling 218
3.5.2 System Entity Structure Definition 220
3.5.3 Pruning the System Entity Structure 222
3.5.4 An Integrated Systems Theory Instrumented Modelling and
Simulation Environment 224
3.6 Towards Variable Structure Modelling and Simulation 226
3.6.1 Introduction and Motivation 226
3.6.2 Ranking Typography of Variable Structure Models 228
3.6.3 A Multi-Level System Approach to Variable Structure
Modelling 230
3.6.4 DEVS-Scheme Implementation of Multi-Level,
Variable Structure Models 232
3.6.5 Models of Intelligent Agents 233
References - Chapter 3 236
4 MACHINE VISION 243
4.1 Introduction 243
4.2 CAST and Machine Vision 244
4.2.1 Building Machines That "See" 244
4.2.2 Dedicated Vision Systems 246
4.2.3 CAST Tools for Vision? 249
4.3 Modelling Objects for Visual Recognition 251
4.3.1 Modelling the Appearance of Real-Word Objects 251
4.3.2 Applying the VMT 255
4.3.3 Building the Model 261
4.3.4 Model Compilation 263
4.3.5 Conclusion 267
4.4 Spontaneous Recognition of Structured Objects 268
4.4.1 Structural Object Recognition 268
4.4.2 Structural Object Representation 271
4.4.3 Matching Structural Descriptions 273
4.4.4 Structural Techniques in Speech Recognition 275
4.4.5 Scan Paths in Human Vision 280
4.4.6 A Framework for Structural Recognition 281
4.4.7 Salient Strings of Tokens 282
4.4.8 Global Context 284
4.4.9 Summary 286xii CAST Methods in Modelling
4.5 An Integrated Development Tool for Machine Vision
4.5.1 Introduction
4.5.2 Developing Knowledge-Based Vision
4.5.3 Implementation
4.5.4 Summary
References - Chapter 4
5 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES 307
5.1 Software Development for CAST 307
5.2 Building Class Hierarchies 312
5.2.1 Data Structures 314
5.2.2 Algorithm to Compute an Optimal Inheritance Hierarchy 314
5.3 Browsers for CAST Tools 321
5.3.1 Standard LOOPS Browsers 321
5.3.2 LOOPS Browser Specializations 323
5.3.3 Implementing Browsers in Common LISP, CLOS, CLX and
CLUE 324
5.4 Implementing Data Persistency in LISP
5.4.1 Data Persistency
5.4.2 Internal LISP Objects
5.4.3 External Representation
5.4.4 Implementation
5.4.5 Open Problems
5.4.6 Summary
5.5 Direct Embedding of Procedural Code in LISP
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Conventional Use of Procedural Code
5.5.3 A Foreign Language Toolkit (FLT)
5.5.4 FLT Reference
5.5.5 Examples
5.5.6 Summary
References - Chapter 5 .
APPENDIX: CAST.FSM USER'S GUIDE
A.l CAST.FSM Background
A.2 System Requirements
358Contents
A.2.1 Hardware
A.2.2 Software
A.3 CAST.FSM Installation
A.4 Starting a CAST Session and Browsing
A.4.1 The CAST Class Browser
A.4.2 The CAST Instance Browser
A.4.3 Defining a System
A.4.4 Petri Nets Make the Difference
A.5 Table Editing
A.6 Analysis Operations
A.6.1 I/O-Experiment
A.6.2 Lattice
A.6.3 Others
A.7 Synthesis, System Transformations and the Realization Tree 365
A.8 Living with a Prototype: Errors and Breaks 366
A.8.1 Beginners and casual CAST.FSM Users 366
A.8.2 Power Users 367
A.9 Saving Realizations on Files 368
References - Appendix 368
INDEX
A
acoustic features 276
algebraic decomposition 96
algorithm 4, 23, 90
analysis problem 26
analytical methods 124
application domain 250
application framework 308
ART 293
Artificial Intelligence 8, 15, 26, 32, 243,
249,310
ASIC 35,115
aspect node 28
association graph 274
atomic model 134
atomic system 28
automatic synthesis 39
autonomous machine 317
autonomous navigation 244, 248
B
backtrack search 274
Bayes 277
best match 274
bias 285
binary sequence 46, 50
biological vision systems 249
bipartite graph 16,30,91
INDEX
black box 3, 22, 46, 50, 90, 114,246,247,
313
blackboard system 293
BLM22
blob 271
block diagram 55, 323
bottom-up 265, 269
bouncing ball 164
branching factor 34
browser 30, 94, 321, 325, 326
c
C programming language 338
CADS, 12, 35
CAD-based vision 251
CALLAS 36
CAM 6, 35
CAST 6, 66, 243, 249, 307, 312
CAST system 12, 71, 74
CAST.FOURIER 7, 66, 71
CAST.FSM 7, 19,41,67, 106,209
CAST.LISAS 7, 77, 106
CAST.PN 7, 90, 91, 94
CASTOR 103
cell machine 108
cellular automata 78, 87, 137
cellular finite state machine 105
character recognition 245
class 313
class browser 52, 53, 91, 216, 359, 362370
class hierarchy 295
classification 246, 270
CLIM 308, 311
CLOS 43, 308, 311
closed partition 51
CLUE 325
CLX325
Common LISP 42, 43, 65, 73, 292, 299,
308,311
complexity 123, 247, 275
composed system 28
composition tree 134
computer simulation model 125
computer vision 67
concept acquisition 253
concession 91
condition/event system 91
congruence relation 54, 55, 365
constraint 25, 65, 319
context 283, 284
contiguous language 308
continuous-change model 127
continuous-time model 127
control 289, 291, 292
coordinator 202
coupled model 134
coupled system 132
coupling 16, 28, 170
coupling structure 50
critical path 96,104
cybernetics 249
cyclic structures 329
D
D-transform 23
data flow 85,289,291
data persistency 327
data reduction 69
data-driven control 293
database 65, 308
CAST Methods in Modelling
database system 12
DBMS 328, 337
deadlock analysis 40
debugging 308, 367
decision support system 40
decomposition 28, 38, 51, 99
deductive method bank 14
design for testability 38, 39, 355
design process 35, 289, 295
Design Propeller 35
DESS 141
DEV 151
DEVS 141, 143
DFf68
difference equation 3,137
differential equation 3,135,249
digital circuit 38, 40, 355
digital filter 24, 68
discrete event model 127
discrete Fourier transform 68
discrete-change model 127
discrete-time models 127
distributed data persistency 312
divide-and-conquer 109
double subgraph isomorphism 273
DTSS 141, 142, 148
dump-form (function) 328
dynamic class 317
dynamical behavior 125
dynamical system 130
dynamics 3, 22, 90
E
early assignment 275
education 19,67
elastic springs 274
engineering education 20
entity structure 26
equivalence (structural) 274
error rate 248Index
ESPRESSO 103
event 91
evidence accumulation 281, 285
evolutionary prototyping 307
exhaustive search 274
experimental frame 138
experimental problem-solving 74
explorative programming 65
explorative software engineering 307
extendibility 308
eye movements 280
F
factor machine 98
factored form 104
Fano algorithm 278
feature 314
feature ring 280
feedback shift register 47
FFT68
filtering 249
finite state machine 3, 43, 51, 52, 81,
278,355
firing (in Petri nets) 91
firing rule 91
fixation 270, 280
Flavors 311
floor-planning 96
flow function 47
flow-graph 37, 40, 47
FNSS 146
foreign code 299, 338
formal language 32
FORTRAN 299, 338
Fourier transform 23
Function System 313
functional level 42
fuzzy logic 249
G
gate level 355, 356
GDFT69
general realization problem 27
general system specification 26
General Systems Problem Solver 25
General Systems Theory 18, 24
general-purpose workstation 300
generalized Fourier transform 69
generator 3, 22, 46, 50, 90, 313
generator graph 16, 17
generic function 311
generic processing structures 248
GFFT73
goal representation 248
graph matching 269, 274
graph search 32
graph theory 268
GRAPHER 321, 323
graphical simulation model 125
graphical user interface 94
grouping 247, 270, 283
GSPS25
GUI94
H
Hamming distance 110
hardware 291
hardware architecture 11
371
hardware description language 36, 96
hardware technology 2
heuristic search 293
heuristics 249, 270
hex-connected 87
hierarchical model 134
hierarchical model 134
homomorphic image 16
horizontal system transformation 20
Hough transform 300372
human instructor 253
human interaction 247
human visual system 245, 269
hypothesize-and-test 248, 282
I
I/O-behavior 21
I/O-experiment 109,364
iconic memory 262
iconic representation 247
identification 281
image compression 69
image enhancement 249
image processing 67, 245, 247, 293, 297
image understanding 246, 289
imaginary clock 81
implementation 2
impulse response 23
incarnation browser 53
indexing 265, 269, 280, 281, 285
indexing tree 267
inductive transformation 16
inexact matching 275
inference engine 65
inheritance 310, 313
inheritance lattice 64
input port 84
inspector 367
instance browser 323,357
intelligent agent 234, 272
intelligent assistant 77
intelligent threshold sensor 158
interactive method bank 14, 67
InterLISP 41, 42, 80, 91, 203, 311, 321,
359
intermediate representation 247
inverse machine 51
inverse optics 245
isomorphic graphs 268
J
JED! 103
K
KEE 293
key 109
KLT71
CAST Methods in Modelling
knowledge base 26, 66
knowledge representation 323
knowledge-based vision 244
L
Laplace transform 23
lattice 51
learning 248
linear automata 22
linear complexity 108
linear difference equation 137
linear difference system 22, 24
linear feedback shift register 47
linear function 319
linear machine 47, 51,109,355
linear realization transformation 51
linear sequential switching circuit 47
linear system 21, 249
Linear Systems Theory 18, 20, 21, 23
linear transform 70
LISP 42, 73, 84, 94, 203, 292, 308
LISP image 327
LISP interpreter 367
load-form (function) 328
local state transition 22
logic minimization 38
logic optimization 39, 96,100
logic synthesis 36, 96
logical architecture 11
long-term persistency 311
LOOPS 42, 77, 91, 94, 208, 311, 318,321,
359Index
low-level vision 249
LU-decomposition 88
M
machine learning 253
machine vision 243
main system types 90
maintainability 308
man-machine interaction 255
Markov models 277
Massey-Berlekamp algorithm 50
massive parallelism 77
matching 274
matrix-vector multiplication 81, 87
maximum likelihood 278
MCNC benchmark 41, 102
Mealy machine 143, 148,317,364
means-end analysis 26
memoryless model 146
metaclass 43
method bank 7, 11, 12, 13, 249, 312
method efficiency 5
metric distance 110, 111
MGST24
MIS 103
model analysis 1
model application 1, 2, 12
model building 1, 2, 12, 123
model compilation 266
model-transformation 4
modelling 2
Moore machine 53, 142, 148, 317, 364
motor speed control 173
multi-component system 132
multi-echelon system 230
multi-formalism models 138
multi-level method bank 15
multi-level representation 3
multi-level system 14, 230
multi-level vision 288, 292
multi-processing 293
multi-processor 222
multi-strata system 230
multiple decomposition 28
N
network 3, 23, 50, 81, 90, 184, 313
neural network 249, 302
Newton-Raphson method 196
non-accidential 271
non-linear finite machine 47
NP-hard269
numerical integration 190
o
object hypothesis 265
373
object recognition 243, 246, 251, 253
object-oriented programming 46, 64,
310,313
occlusion 274
one-way function 107
OODBMS 311,337
operations research 13
optimal inheritance 316
orientation 275
orthogonal transform 69, 70
output coding 366
output function 132
output port 84
output-consistent 98, 365
p
package 335
parallel decomposition 23, 31, 57, 98,
100,104,365
parallel reduction 58
parsing 284
partial ordering 98
partition 98
partition pair algebra 98374
Pascal 299
pattern recognition 69
pattern-directed inference 293
PCM coding 24
perceptual grouping 270
persistent environment 310
Petri net 4, 40, 90, 185,355,362
PGST24
physical simulation model 125
pipeline structures 292
pixel processing 288
PLA 38, 40, 50
place-function 84
plausibility 265
pop-up menu 321, 366
portability 291, 294
position 275
postcondition 91
precondition 91
primal sketch 247
primitive image features 247
probabilistic methods 276
probabilistic model 282
problem adequacy 5
problem definition 12
problem solving 12, IS, 123
procedural language 338
production system 16
program errors 366
program package 13
programmable logic array 50
programmatic interface 94
programming environment 14,289
property class 319
prototype 262, 366
pruning 222
Q
queue 293
Quine-McCluskey algorithm 50
CAST Methods in Modelling
quotient machine 54, 56, 58
R
R-module theory 21
rapid prototyping 65,291,366
real system 123, 130
realization tree 28, 53, 65, 76, 357, 365
recognition engine 262
reconstructive techniques 245
recursive entity structure 28
reduction algorithm 51
reduction congruence 365
reduction equivalence 54
redundancy 40
register flow machine 47, 49
register transfer synthesis 36
register-transfer level 42
relaxation labeling 269, 274
remote sensing 243
representation 246
RES 28
RES graph 28
reusability 248, 308
reduction partition 98
RFM47
robotics 243
robustness 3
root coordinator 175
s
saccades 280
saliency 265
scale 275
scan path 38,280
scene 285
scene labeling 246
scheduler 81
Scheme 203
SCOOPS 203
scrolling 363Index
search 26, 32, 97
selective persistency 311
self-documentation 248
self-test 38
semi-systolic design 88
sensory data 275
sequence 46
sequential machine 314, 317
sequential matching 278
sequential switching circuit 47, 58
serial decomposition 23, 31, 98, 100,
104
SES225,323
shape-from-X 245
shift register 23, 51, 110
shift register decomposition 51
side effect 297
silicon compiler 36
similarity (structural) 274
simulation 81, 124, 125
simulation model 125
simulator 78, 202
Smalltalk 321
software architecture 11
software engineering 248, 307
spatial layout 245
spatial relationships 268
spatial variations 274
specialization 28, 137
spectral analysis 249
spectral technique 7, 69
spectral transformation 23
speech recognition 244, 269, 275
stack algorithm 278
stack frame 367
state assignment 38, 39, 58, 96
state graph 111
state graph representation 40
state reduction 39
state space 15, 23
state table 40
state trajectory 89
state transition graph 46
state variables 132
static structure 134
statistical pattern recognition 252
statistics 14
STEXP65
STIMS 203, 208
STIPS7,67
375
STIPS machine 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 24, 66
STIPS.ALS 23
STIPS.FSM 19,20,41
STIPS.GS24
STIPS.LM 23, 24
STIPS.M 16, 18,65
straight lines 265
structural event 284
structural netlist 40
structural object recognition 244, 268
structural representation 271
structure editor 32
structure graph 111
structure matching 269
stuck-at faults 38
subgraph isomorphism 273
substitution property 98
subsystem 28
synthesis 38, 358, 365
synthesis problem 26
system 130
system algorithm 11, 18, 25, 32, 43
system bank 16
system behavior 132
system components 132
system couplings 132
system dynamic 132
system elements 132
system entity structure 28, 204, 220,
323
system environment 131
system formalism 135376
system problem 25
system specification 65
system state 132
system structure 132
system transformation 22, 26, 312
system type hierarchy 90
system types 11,22,312
systems approach 11
Systems Theory 2,42, 312,314
Systems Theory Expert 65
Systems Theory Method Bank 12
systolic array 78, 115
T
table representation 46, 363
tank system 167, 168
template matching 268
test pattern generator 38
testability 3, 38, 40, 112
testing 308
third-generation system 35
time-variable system 21
token 91, 271
token game 48
token string 283
top-down 269, 307
torus 84
transfer function 23
transformation bank 16
transition 92
type mapping 344
U
undo 364
user interface 44, 216, 250, 308
CAST Methods in Modelling
V
variable structure simulation 235
VENUS 36, 110
verification 265
verification tree 267
vertical system transformation 20
viewpoint 275
viewports 298
Vision Kernel System 73,289
visual concept 271
Visual Modelling Tool 252
visual routines 253
visual system 243
visualization 291
Viterbi algorithm 278
VKS 73, 289, 292
VLSI 34, 78, 112
vocabulary 284
W
Walsh-Hadamard transform 68, 70
window 367
world model 272
x
X-Windows 324
y
Y-chart35
z
z-transform 23


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