كتاب Foundry Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Foundry Technology

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Foundry Technology    كتاب Foundry Technology  Emptyالأربعاء 08 سبتمبر 2021, 12:19 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Foundry Technology
Second Edition
Peter Beeley BMet, PhD, DMet, CEng, FIM, FIBF
Life Fellow and formerly Senior Lecturer in Metallurgy, University of Leeds

كتاب Foundry Technology  F_t_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the second edition vii
Preface to the first edition ix
About the author xi
Introduction 1
1 Liquid metals and the gating of castings 15
2 Solidification 1 Crystallization and the development of cast structure 51
3 Solidification 2 The feeding of castings 100
4 The moulding material: properties, preparation and testing 178
5 Defects in castings 239
6 Quality assessment and control 319
7 Casting design 362
8 Production Techniques 1 The manufacture of sand castings 443
Part 1. Mould Production 443
Part 2. Melting and Casting 487
Part 3. Finishing Operations 525
9 Production Techniques 2 Shell, investment and die casting processes 547
10 Production Techniques 3 Further casting techniques 622
11 Environmental protection, health and safety 675
Appendix 687
Index 69
Index
Abrasive belts, 532
Abrasive cleaning, 526
Abrasive wheels
characteristics of, 531
operating speeds of, 529, 531
Accuracy, see Dimensional accuracy
Acid demand, 196
Additives to moulding sands, 106, 214,
250
Acurad Process, 605
Aeration of moulding sand, 220, 226
Ageing
heat treatment, 539
influence of, in CO2 process, 211
Airlock defect, 254
All-core moulding, 452, 475
Alloys
casting, 5
corrosion resistance of, 414
design criteria and data for, 397–420
feeding characteristics of, 102–107
for die casting, 592, 594, 595
fluidity of, 18
foundry properties of, 405
melting losses in, 501–504
melting practice for, 495–501
properties of, sources of design data,
407–420
response to heat treatment, 407
summary of characteristics and
applications, 418
weldability of, 406, 417
see also Mechanical properties and
under individual properties
Aluminium alloys
in die casting, 592, 594–597, 602
melting losses in, 501, 502
melting of, 499
welding of, 311
see also Alloys, properties of
Aluminosilicates
in investments, 570
in mould coatings, 218
Ammonium bifluoride, as reaction
inhibitor, 214, 262
Analysis, chemical, 264, 255, 509
Angularity, coefficient of, 202
Anisotropy in castings, 78, 80, 380
Annealing, 539
Antioch process, 587
Anti-piping compounds, 147
AOD Process, 508
Arc cutting, 530
Arc feeding, 145
Arc furnaces, 489, 493
Arc welding, 307
Aspiration, in gating, 28
Atmospheric head, 142
Atmospheric puncture, 142, 274
Austempering, 539
Austempered ductile iron, 411
Automatic fettling, 533
Automatic pouring, 519–522, 609
Automation in investment casting, 569,
577
Backing sand, 231
Baffle core, 38
Bale out furnaces, 493
Ball plug, 38
Banding, in centrifugal castings, 639
Bars
feeding distance in, 135
solidification of, 125
Basin, in gating, 28, 43, 45
Bearing properties and alloys, 403, 414
Bench life, of moulding material, 180,
191
Bend test, 332700 Index
Bentonite, 203
Bernoulli’s theorem, 27
Betatron, in radiography, 343
‘Big bang’ nucleation, 76
Bimetal casting techniques, 394
in centrifugal casting, 642
Binders, 198, 202–213
cement, 210
cereals, 205
chemical, 206–213
clays, 202–205
cold setting, 208
content of, 202
ethyl silicate, 568
gas and vapour hardening, 210
heat curing, 207
in investment casting, 568
linseed oil, 206
shell moulding. 550
synthetic resin, 206
thermal breakdown of, 182, 206–213
Blades, gas turbine, 80–82, 583
Blast cleaning, 526
Blind heads, 141
Block mould techniques, 452
Block moulds, in investment casting,
568, 587
Blowholes, 254, 258
Blowing
in sand mould compaction, 461
of cores, 477
of shell moulds, 556
Blow-squeeze mould compaction, 461
Boil, 500
role of in degassing, 257–266
Bonding materials, see Binders
Boric acid, as mould reaction inhibitor,
214, 262
Bottom gating, 31
Boxes, moulding, 293, 448
Brackets, 432
Brazing, 312
Breakdown characteristics of sands and
binders, 182, 206–213
Breaker cores, 275
Brinell hardness test, 331
British Standards
for castings, 409, 687
for inspection and testing, 692
for sieves, 197
Bubble nucleation, 259
Bulk density, of moulding material,
187, 200, 455
Burning-on, as rectification technique,
312
Burst feeding, 104
Bush, runner, 28, 43, 45
C process, see Shell moulding
CADCAM, 363
Carbon boil, 257, 266, 500
Carbon dioxide process, 210–212, 485
Carriers, core, 476, 485
Cast alloys, see Alloys
Cast irons,
compression strength of, 412, 438
damping capacity of, 84
feeding of, 162
gating systems for, 47
graphite in, 84, 88, 89
inoculation of, 88, 91
melting losses in, 502, 504
section sensitivity of properties, 328,
381
solidification of, 88–91, 105–107
weldability of, 310
see also Alloys, properties of, etc.
Cast steels,
gating of, 47
melting of, 500
weldability of, 308, 310
see also Alloys, properties of, etc.
Cast structure, see Structure
Cast-welded construction, 367,
386–392
Castable sand process, 210
Castability of liquid metals, 15
Casting defects, see Defects
Casting design, see Design
Casting processes, 385, 444–670
Casting shape, influence of in feeding,
121, 129–133
see also Shape features in casting
Casting temperature, see Pouring
temperature
Casting yield, 112, 368Index 701
Casting, characteristics of
economic, 368
dimensional, 371
metallurgical, 379
Castings
comparison with wrought products,
380–383
design of, 362–440
heat treatment of, 537–540
structure and properties of, 70–96
379–385
Caulking, 313
Cavities
gas, 258
influence on stress distribution,
301–304
shrinkage, 271–277
Cellular structure, 62
in eutectics, 68
Cement bonded sands, 210
Cement moulding process, 210, 453
Centreline shrinkage, 135, 272
Centrifugal casting, 622–645, 667
De Lavaud process of, 629
fundamentals of, 623–625
inclusions, separation of, 627
Moore process of, 630
of investment moulds, 576
of rolls, 642
of short pots, 628, 632
of tubes, 629–632
process variables in, 636
production techniques in, 628–639
rotational speed in, 623, 636
semicentrifugal and pressure casting,
635
solidification and feeding in, 626
Centrifugal castings, 622–645
applications of, 642–645
banding in, 639
bimetal, 642
comparison with other products, 641
defects in, 637
structure and properties of, 639–642
Ceramic cores, 572
Ceramic mould process, 587
Ceramic shell technique, 567, 569, 570
Cereal binders, 205
as aid to breakdown, 205
Chamotte, 199, 215
Channel furnaces, 493
Channel segregation, 300
Chaplets, 48, 423, 476, 487
Charge
in melting, 263
shaped, 503
Chemical bonding, 206
Chemical cleaning, 528
Chemical etching, 335
Chill tests, for melt quality, 510
Chill zone, 80
Chilling, influence on structure, 593
Chilling power of mould materials,
159, 216
Chills
effect in feeding, 90, 118, 135, 139,
156–160
influence on mode of freezing, 104
influence on structure, 90
non-metallic, 159
porosity due to, 160
Chipping, 531
Chlorine, as scavenging gas, 265
Chromite, 216
Chworinov Rule, 109
CLA index of surface roughness, 326
CL Processes, 655
Clays, 202–205
tests on, 198
Cleaning
blast, 526
chemical, 528
‘Clinks’, 288
Closed system pouring, 522
Closing, 486
of shell moulds, 554
Coal dust in moulding sands, 107, 214
Coatings
core, 219, 486
die, 602
mould, see Mould coatings
Cobalt 60, in radiography, 342
COD test, 399
Cold box process, 483
Cold chamber die casting machines,
597
Cold cracking, 288, of welds, 309
Cold crucible melting, 665702 Index
Cold hearth refining, 666
Cold laps and shuts, 30, 241
Cold set process, 483
binders for, 208
Cold shell moulding, 558
Collapsibility, of moulding material,
179, 182, 195, 206
Colony structure, 52, 67
Columnar structure, 55, 71, 78–80
Compactability of sand, 186
Compaction
of cores, 477
of moulds, 454–466
Compo, 215
Composition, metal
influence in hot tearing, 280
influence on structure, 70
inspection aspects of, 327
Compression strength
of grey cast iron, 412, 438
of moulding materials, test for, 185
Computer modelling, 164
Connor runner, 37
Constitutional undercooling, 59
Consumable electrode vacuum melting,
665
Continuity, equation of, 27
Contirun® system, 45
Contour squeeze moulding, 457
Contraction
allowances, 447
anomalous, 293, 371
defects, 275–289
liquid, 48
solid, 277
solidification, 100
Contrast, radiographic, 340
Control charts, quality and process,
351–359
Convection, effects in solidification,
76, 300
Cooling fins, 122
Cooling modulus, 109, 123
Cooling rate, see Solidification rate
Copper alloys
gating systems for, 47
melting losses in, 501, 502
melting of, 499
welding of, 307, 311
see also Alloys, properties of, etc.
Core assembly moulding, 452, 475
Core coatings, 486
Coreblowing, 477
Coreboxes, 476
Cored holes, minimum diameters of,
424
Coremaking processes, 474–486
carbon dioxide, 484, binder, 210
cold box, 483
cold set, 483, binders, 208
fluid or castable sand, 210
hot box 482, binders, 207
machines, 477
warm box, 483
summary of process characteristics,
424
Coreprints, 48, 475
Cores, 474–486
baking of, 484
carriers, 476, 485
ceramic, 572
collapsibility, need for, 182
compaction of, 477
design aspects of, 423
extrusion of, 477
forces acting on, 47
functions of, 450, 474
hardening of, 480, 484, 485
in gravity die casting, 592
in investment casting, 572
influence on freezing rate, 109, 123
jointing of, 486
soluble, 593, 663
special types of, 662
shell, 482, 554, 556
support of, 48
surface coatings for, 219, 486
venting of, 479
Coresand
mixtures, 214
requirements of, 181
Coreshooting, 477
Corestoves, 484–485
Coring and cored structures, 62, 295
Corrosion products, contamination
from, 260Index 703
Corrosion resistance
of alloys, 404, 414,
of welds, 311, 417
Corrugation, in design, 287, 437
COSHH regulations, 682
Costs
influence of yield on, 111
in precision casting processes,
615–619
of alloys, 409
of casting, 368, 439
of inspection, 323
of patterns and tooling, 7, 368–369
of production, 368–369, 615–619
related to accuracy, 548
Cosworth process, 654
Cothias process, 648
Counter gravity casting, 653–657
Counter pressure casting technique,
606, 654
Cover core, 475
Cracking, 287
in welds, 309
Creep, 402
Cristobalite, 247, 571
Critical defect size, 303, 399
Croning process, see Shell Moulding
Cross jointing, 293
Crucible furnaces, 489, 491
Crush, mould, 246
Crystal multiplication, fragmentation,
75, 95
Crystallisation, 52–76
growth, 54
nucleation, 52
Cumulative grading plots, 200
Cupola, 491
Curing, of resin binders, 208, 481–484,
552
Cutting, 529–531
D process, 556
DS casting, 80, 583
Davis wheel, 644
Defects in castings, 239–314
classification of, 240
contraction, 275–290
dimensional, 292–293
gas, 254–271
inclusions and sand, 241–254
internal, tests for, 338–350
of shape, 240
origins of, 239
rectification of, 305–314
segregation, 294–300
shrinkage, 271–277
significance of, 301–305
surface, tests for, 334–338
Defects in centrifugal castings, 637
Defects in die castings, 611
Defects in investment castings, 580
Defects in shell moulded castings, 560
De Lavaud process, 629
Definition, radiographic, 341
Deformation of moulding material,
179, 188
in relation to hot tearing, 285–287
Degassing of molten metal, 265–271
scavenging gas technique of, 269
spontaneous, 265
vacuum, 267–270
Dendrite fragmentation, 76
Dendritic growth and structure, 60–62,
71–74, 86
Dendritic segregation, 295
Denseners, see Chills
Density
as indication of soundness, 104, 274,
511
bulk, of sand, 455
radiographic, 338, 340
Deoxidation of liquid metals, 266, 499,
504
Design, 362–440
aims in, 362
characteristics of castings, 2–8,
368–385
dimensional, 371
economic, 368
metallurgical, 7, 379
cost aspects of, 411
data, sources of, 407
engineering aspects of casting shape,
437
for casting production, 362, 420
casting stage, 424
moulding stage, 421704 Index
Design (continued)
freedom of, 2, 370
influence in hot tearing, 284
initial considerations in, 366–385
machining factors in, 434
modifications for feeding, 154
process and alloy selection in,
385–420
property criteria in, 397–407
shape features in, 420–440
surface treatments, 395
tooling costs in, 7, 368
see also Alloys, properties of etc.
see also Mechanical properties
Destructive tests on castings, 333
Dewaxing techniques, 574
Dextrin, 205
Die casting,
see Gravity die casting
see Low pressure die casting
see Pressure die casting
Die castings
applications of, 611–615
characteristics of, 609
design of, 610
limitations of, 611
dimensional accuracy and tolerances
of, 610
Dies
for gravity die casting, 592
for investment casting, 564
for pressure die casting, 600
Dilation, mould, 105
Dimensional accuracy and tolerances,
371–378, 548
economic aspects of, 548
of investment castings, 579
of pressure die castings, 610
of shell moulded castings, 559
Dimensional errors, 292, 371
Dip and stucco investment, 567
Dip forming, 645
Directional solidification, 101, 104
controlled, 80
design for, 428
Directionality,
in castings, 78–82, 380
in wrought materials, 380, 383
Disamatic moulding system, 461, 463
Discharge coefficient, 43
Distortion, casting, 287, 289
Distribution coefficient, 294
Downrunner, 26
dimensions of, 28
Downsand frame, 458
‘Draw’, 275
Dressing of castings, 531–535
Dressings, see Mould coatings
Driers, core, 476, 485
Dross traps, 37
Dry strength, of sand, 179, 184
Drying
of cores, 484
of investment casting moulds, 574
of moulds, 181, 472–474
Drysand practice, characteristics of,
181
Ductility, 402
Durability, of moulding material, 180
Dust, 535
Dye penetrant testing, 334
Dypur® direct pour unit, 43
Electric arc feeding, 145
Electric melting furnaces, 489–495
Electromagnetic pumping, 522
Electromagnetic stirring, 95
Electromagnetic testing, 350
Electron beam melting, 667
Electroslag casting, 647
Electroslag feeding, 145
Electrostatic coatings, 220
Elongation, 402
Embrittlement
by gases, 254, 271
by segregated impurities, 304
in welding, 309
Endogenous inclusions, 242
Endurance ratio, 399
Entropy of fusion, role in
crystallisation, 67
Environment Agency, 677
Environmental impact, 678
Environmental protection, 675–685
Equiaxed structure, 64, 65, 73–76,
79–80
Erosion scabs, 246Index 705
Etching, 335
Ethyl silicate binder, 568, 588
Eutectics
anomalous, 66
cellular structure in, 67
lamellar, 65
modification of, 77, 92
morphology of, 65, 84, 88, 91
refinement of, 84–90
solidification of, 52, 64–69, 91–95
Evaporative pattern casting, 659
Exogenous inclusions, 243
Exothermic feeding, 127, 147–151
Exothermic padding, 161
Expansion defects, 246–251
additives to counter, 250
influence of process variables on,
250–251
Expansion stage in freezing, 105
Expansion, thermal, of moulding
material, 216, 247
Explosion: role in metal penetration,
252
Exposure, radiographic, 339
Extended launder furnace, 523
Extraction systems, dust and fume, 535
Extrusion casting, 649
Fabrication, 1, 367, 370
Facing-backing sand practice, 230
Falling crystallites, 76
Fatigue limit, 399, 412
Feeder heads, 118–152
aids to efficiency of, 145
atmospheric, 142
blind, 141
design and location of, 118–144
exothermic, 127, 147
insulation of, 146
knock-off, 154, 528
junction of, with castings, 152
positioning of, 133–140
purpose of, 100
removal of, 529–531
shape of, 119
shared, 140
size of, 120–133
summary of design principles for,
140
whirlgate, 144
Feeding
of castings, 100–173
burst, 104
casting shape, effect on, 107, 129
casting temperature, influence on,
117
characteristics of alloys, 102–107
compounds, 146
cooling modulus and, 123
design for, 154, 426–430
distance, in parallel sections,
135–139
effect of chills on, 118, 156–160
electric arc, 145
exothermic, 127, 147–151
electroslag, 145
gating techniques for, 113–117
intergranular and interdendritic, 100,
105
mass, 79, 100
methods for, 110–164
orientation for, 113
padding for, 154
pouring rate and temperature,
influence of, 117
pressure for, 139, 151
range, 119, 135
restricted neck, 109, 152
temperature gradients in, 101,
113–118
Feeding of centrifugal castings, 626
Fettling, 525
characteristics of, 537
chipping, 531
grinding, 531
hot, 533
Filamentary shrinkage, 274
Fillet radii, 431, 437
Filling compounds, 314
Films, surface, on liquid metals, 20,
22, 260
Filtration
in gating systems, 39
of molten metal, 245
Fineness, of moulding material, 180706 Index
Finger gates, 33
Finishing operations, 525–542
cutting, 529–531
dust in, 535
dressing, 531–533
for pressure die castings, 609
initial cleaning, 525–528
see also Fettling
Flame cutting, 530
Flash gate, 35
Flasks, see Moulding boxes
Flaw detection, see Non-destructive
testing
Flaws, see Defects
Floor moulding, 450
Flow of liquid metals, 23–47
design for, 426
from ladles, 513–517
in moulds, 23–48
in pressure die casting, 603
influence of mould conditions on, 23
laminar, 27
summary of factors affecting, 25
turbulent, 27
Flowability of sand, 178, 186, 200
Fluid life, 16
Fluid sand process, 210
Fluidity, 15–23
effect of surface tension and films
on, 20
measurement of, 16
variables influencing, 17
Fluoroscopy, see X-ray fluoroscopy
Flushing treatments, gas, 265
Flux injection process, 507
Fluxes
brazing and soldering, 313
inspissated, 499
melting, 264, 497–500, 664
welding, 307
Forgings, compared with castings, 1,
382–385
Forming of metals, 1, 366
Foundry industry, 8–10
Foundry properties of alloys, 405
Fracture tests for melt quality, 510
Fracture toughness, 398
Freckling; freckle segregation, 300
Freezing range of alloys
influence in feeding, 102–105
influence on fluidity, 19
Freezing time criterion, in feeding, 116
Freezing, see Solidification
Friability of mould surface, 244
Friction cutting, 529
Full mould casting process, 139, 660
Fumeless refining, 500
Furan resin binders, 209
Furnace charge and additions, 496
gas contamination from, 263
Furnaces, melting, see Melting
furnaces
Gamma radiography, 341
Gas
absorption of, in melting, 259
estimation of, in liquid metals, 509
evolution from moulding materials,
192
solution, origins of, 255
scavenging, 265
Gas defects, 254–271
types of, 254, 258
formed by entrapment, 254–255
formed by precipitation, 254–258
preventive measures, 263–271
Gas-metal equilibria, 255
Gas welding, 307
Gassing time, influence of in CO2
process, 211
Gating of castings, 25–47
for feeding, 113–117
metal factors in, 46
moulding factors in, 45
objectives in, 25
relevance to hot tearing, 284
Gating ratio, 29
Gating systems
bottom, 31
essentials of, 26
filtration in, 39
finger, 33
horn, 31
in pressure die casting, 603
knife, 35Index 707
pencil, 30
removal of, 528
side, 31
step, 35, 116
top, 30
traps in, 37
Gelling index, of clay, 198
Gooseneck die casting machine, 596
Gouging for welding, 307
Grading, mechanical, of sand, 197, 200
Grain shape of moulding material, 200
Grain size of moulding material, 199
Grain structure in cast alloys, 52, 59,
77
Grain refinement, 77, 84–96, 505
Grain shape and orientation, 78, 380
Grain size, 77, 82, 380
Graphite in cast iron, 65, 88, 91–93
Graphite moulds, 653, 667
Gravity die casting, 592
Gravity segregation, 299
of nuclei, 90
Gravity transport of crystals, 76
Green strength of moulding material,
178
Greensand practice, characteristics of,
180
Griffin Process, 653
Grinding, 531–533
Growth, crystal, 54–69
cellular, 62, 67
columnar, 55
dendritic, 60
in alloys, 56
in pure metals, 54
planar, 55
Hand ramming, 455
Hardenability, 407
Hardness
in design, 403, 414
tests, for castings, 331
tests, for moulds, 188, 191
Heads, see Feeder heads
Health and Safety, 682–685
Hearth furnaces, 489, 491
Heat affected zone, in welding, 309
Heat diffusivity, of moulding material,
24
Heat resisting alloys, 413, 415
Heat treatment, 537–540
furnace loading aspects of, 540
homogenisation, 300, 358
processes for castings, 537–540
response of alloys, 407
section thickness effects, 540
time, 540
Heterogeneous nucleation, 53, 90–93
Heuvers circle, 152, 154
Hexachloroethane
as degassing compound, 265
as mould coating constituent, 24
High pressure moulding, 106, 457
High speed melting, 503
High temperature properties
of alloys, 278, 280–283, 402, 413
of moulding materials, 193
Historical development of founding, 8
Holding furnaces, 489, 492, 493
Holes, cored, dimensions of, 423–426
Homogeneous nucleation, 53
Homogenisation, 300, 358
Horn gates, 31
Hot box process, 482
binders for, 207
Hot chamber die casting machines, 596
Hot deformation, of moulding
materials, 195
Hot distortion test, 193
Hot fettling, 533
Hot isostatic pressing, 314, 540–542
Hot spots, 108, 275
Hot strength, of moulding material,
179, 194
Hot tearing, 278, 279–287
design and production factors in,
283–287
design for prevention of, 284,
430–433
in centrifugal castings, 638
influence of alloy composition on,
280
influence of mould on, 285
influence of segregation on, 282
Hydraulic cleaning, 528
Hydraulic soundness, 79, 84, 301, 304708 Index
Hydrogen in liquid metals, 256–271
in welding, 310
melt quality tests for, 509
see also Gas
see also Gas defects
see also Gas-metal equilibria
Illite, 203
Immersion pyrometry, 512
Impact moulding, 464
Impact penetration test, 192
Impact tests, 332
Impregnation, of porous castings, 105,
313
In-situ composites, 652
Inclusions, see Non-metallic inclusions
Independent nucleation, 63
Indigenous inclusions, 242
Indirect padding, 154
Indirect squeeze casting, 650
Induction degassing, 268
Induction melting furnaces, 493
vacuum, 665
Induction skull melting, 665
Ingates, 26
Inhibitors, of metal-mould reaction,
262
Injection pressure, in die casting, 596,
597, 603, 605
In-line moulding systems, 467
Inoculation
by additives to mould coatings, 93,
in cast iron, 85, 91, 505, 507
Inserts
in castings, 393, 663
in die castings, 611
Inspection of castings, 322
composition and mechanical
properties, 326
costs of, 323
destructive tests, 333
dimensional, 325
functions and aims of, 322
material and product testing,
324–351
non-destructive testing, 333–350
organisation of, 319–322
Inspissated fluxes, 499
Insulation
differential, of mould cavity, 161
of feeder heads, 146
Integrated casting systems, 670
Integrated pollution control, 677
Intensive sand mixers, 221
Interdendritic feeding, 100, 105
Intergranular corrosion, 311, 404, 596
Intergranular feeding, 100
Intergranular segregation, 295
Internal chills, 156
Internal hot tears, 279
Intersections
design of, 429–431
solidification of, 108
use of chills at, 157
Inverse modelling, 169
Inverse segregation, 299
Investment casting, 563–591
automation in, 569, 577
block moulds for, 570
cores in, 572
dies for, 564
drying and firing of moulds in, 574
investment, 567–571
master patterns for, 565
melting and casting in, 575
pattern production, 565
pattern elimination, 574
permanent pattern processes,
585–591
shaping of cavities in, 571
Shaw process, 587
shell moulds for, 567, 569
Unicast process, 590
Investment castings, 567
applications of, 580–584
characteristics of, 578–580
comparative costs of, 583, 617–619
defects in, 580
dimensional accuracy of, 579
quality of, 577
Isotropy of castings, 8, 78, 380–381
Jet degassing, 266
Joining, see Fabrication
Joint line, see Parting line
Jointing of cores, 486Index 709
Jolt-squeeze moulding machines, 456
Jolting, in machine moulding, 457
Jominy test, 407
Kaolinite, 203
Keel blocks, 327
Kinematic viscosity, 16
influence on flow of metal in
moulds, 27
Knife gate, 35
Knock-off heads, 528
Knockout interval, 228, 522
Knockout temperature, 522
L sections, design of, 429, 431
Ladle degassing, 268–270, 504
Ladle furnaces, 508, 509
Ladles, 513–519
flow rate from, 514
insulation of, 517
porous plug, 508
preheating of, 517
segment, 516
Lamellar eutectics, 65
Laminar flow, 27
Laps, 30, 240
in centrifugal castings, 638
Laser treatment, 395
Latent heat of fusion, 52, 56
Launder, extended, 523
Layer manufacturing, 363
Layer porosity, 273
Levitation melting, 668
Lift off coil furnace, 494
Lift out crucible furnace, 493
Lifters, 470
Light alloys
see Aluminium alloys
see Magnesium alloys
Linear accelerator, in radiography, 343
Linseed oil, 206
Liquid forgings, stampings, 649
Liquid limit, of clays, 198
Liquid metals, 15–48
castability of, 15
contraction of, 48
degassing of, 265–271
flow of, in moulds, 23–48
fluidity of, 15
oxidation of, 266, 497
pyrometry, 512
solubility of gases in, 255
viscosity of, 15
Loam moulding
mixtures, 217
principle, 454
Local air pollution control, 677
Locating systems
for moulds, 448, 453
for shells, 554
Locking force of die casting machines,
598
Loose pieces in moulding, 450, 451
expendable, 450
Loss coefficients, in metal flow, 28
Losses
melting, 111, 264, 501–504
fettling, 111
Lost crucible melting, 503
Lost foam process, 659
Lost wax process, see Investment
casting
Low pressure casting, 117
of investment moulds, 575
Low pressure die casting, 594
Low pressure sand casting, 654
Lustrous carbon defect, 245
McCannacore process, 662
Machinability of alloys, 406, 416
Machine compaction of moulds,
456–466
Machine cutting, 529
Machine moulding, 456–467
compaction in, 456–466
high pressure, 457
plant, 466
Machining
allowances, 376, 434–437
in pressure die casting, 610
as method of shaping, 1, 371
factors in casting design, 434
for head removal, 529
Macrosegregation, 297
Macrostructure of castings, 70–96710 Index
Magnesium alloys
casting technology of, 664
melting losses in, 502
in die casting, 597, 611
melting of, 499
welding of, 311
see also Alloys, properties of, etc.
Magnesium in cast iron, 91, 261,
505–507
Magnetic flaw detection, 335
Magnetic separators, 227
Magnets, columnar structure in, 80
Mains frequency induction furnace, 494
Malleablising, 539
Mansfield sand, 199
Maraging steel, 411
Mass effect in heat treatment, 381,
407, 538
Mass feeding, 79, 100
Master patterns, for investment casting,
565
Matchplates, 452
Mechanical grading, of moulding
materials, 195, 197, 199
Mechanical properties, 397–404,
411–414
criteria in design, 397–404
directionality of, 78–82, 380
ductility, 402
endurance ratio, 399
fatigue limit, 399, 412
fracture toughness, 398
hardness, 403, 414
high temperature, 402, 403
influence of defects on, 301–304
influence of section thickness on,
328–330, 381
influence of structure on, 76–96, 380
notched bar impact, 398
scatter of, 381
stages in cooling, 278, 280–283,
328, 330, 381
strength-weight ratio, 413
tensile strength, 397, 401
testing for, 326–333
yield or proof stress, 397, 401
Young’s modulus, 397, 407
Mechanical testing, 326–333
Mechanical working, 1
Medium frequency coreless induction
furnace, 494
Melt quality tests, 264, 509–511
Melt sequence, 511
Melt spinning, 647
Melt treatments, 504
Melting, 487–525
charges, 496
developments in, 503
high speed, 503
losses, 111, 264, 501–504
practice, for alloys, 495–501
precautions in, 263
Melting furnaces, 488–495, 503
classification of, 490
design of, 489
efficiencies of, 491–495
extended launder, 522
instrumentation of, 495
self tapping, 503
shaft or tower, 492
Merrick furnace, 575
Metal are welding, 307
Metal cost, 368
Metal flow, see Flow of liquid metals
Metal matrix composites, 651
Metal melting, see Melting
Metal-mould reaction, 252, 260, 271
inhibitors, 262
Metal penetration, 252
Metals, shaping of, 1, 366–371
Methods, casting, see Feeding of
castings
Microporosity, effect on properties, 83,
304
Microsegregation, 295
influence in hot tearing, 282
Microshrinkage, 273
Microstructure of castings, 70–96
Mismatch, 293
Misrun castings, 240
Mixers, sand 220–226
intensive, 221
trough, 224
Modelling,
see Computer modelling
see Process modelling
see Simulation
see Solidification modellingIndex 711
Modification, of eutectics, 85, 93
Modulus, cooling, 109, 123
Moisture
in moulding sands, 202–205
testing, 195
Molochite, 218, 570
Moore process of centrifugal casting,
630
Montmorillonite, 203
Mould
closing, 486
coatings, 218–220
as media for nucleants, 93
drying of, 219, 472
influence on metal flow, 23
compaction, 454
crush, 246
dilation, 105
distortion, 293
drying, 181, 472–474
erosion, 246
factors in metal flow, 23
forces acting on, 47
gases, 254
hardening, 181, 472–474
hardness, 188, 191
influence on hot tearing, 285
metal reaction, 252, 260, 271
location, 448, 453, 554
parting, 421
production, 441–487
reinforcement, 467, 470
restraint, 285
reversal casting, 116
temperature, in centrifugal casting,
636
venting, 255, 470
weighting of, 48, 487
Mouldable exothermics, 148, 161
Moulding, 443–472
boxes, 293, 448, 456
closing, 486
core assembly and block moulding,
452
cores, 423, 474–486
design limitations in, 423
direct mould cavity generation, 453
equipment, 444
factors in design, 421
floor, 450
hand, 455
high pressure, 457
loam, 217
machines, 456–467
shell, 555–558
patterns in, 444, 449
practice, 449
processes, summary of, 487
sandslinger, 465
strickle, 454
Moulding material, 178–236
additives to, 106, 214, 250
aeration of, 220–222
bonding materials in, 202–213
cement sand, 210
circulation, in systems, 226
functional requirements of, 178–180
loam, 217
mixing of, 220
mixtures, 214
non-siliceous refractory, 216
preparation of, 220
reclamation of, 231
reconditioning of, 226–231
sands, 198–202
natural, 198
synthetic, 198
systems, 226
testing of, see Sand testing
Nails, 251, 470
Naturally bonded sands, 198
Neck, restricted, 109, 152
Nickel alloys
melting of, 499
welding of, 311
see also Alloys, properties of, etc.
Nitrogen
as grain refiner, 91
as impurity, 255–271
as scavenging gas, 265
atmosphere, for pouring, 522
in liquid metals, 255
see also Gas
see also Gas defects
see also Gas-metal equilibria
Nodes, cast, 386–389
Nodularizing treatments, 505712 Index
Noise at work, 684
Non-destructive testing, 333–350
chemical etching, 335
electromagnetic methods, 350
magnetic flaw detection, 335
penetrant methods, 334
proof loading and pressure testing,
350
radiography, 338–347
ultrasonic testing, 347–350
Non-metallic inclusions, 241–245
centrifugal separation of, 627
filtration for, 39, 245
gravity separation of, 242
indigenous, 242
exogenous, 243
Normal segregation, 297
Normalising, 539
Notch effects, 302, 398, 401, 427
Notch sensitivity, 383, 398
Notched bar impact properties, 398
tests for, 332
Nozzles, ladle, 514
Nucleation, 52
‘big bang’, 76
dynamic, 95
heterogeneous, 53, 90–93
homogeneous, 53
influence of refining techniques on,
84–96
independent, 63
mould coatings to promote, 93
shower, 95
Nucleus, critical size of, 53
Oddside, in moulding, 451
Oil and chalk testing, 335
Olivine, 216
Optical pyrometers, 513
Organic binders, 202, 206–213
Orientation
of mould cavity for casting, 113, 420
preferred, 54, 60, 78, 80
Osprey process, 648
Ostwald ripening, 61
Overgassing, in CO2 process, 211
Oxidation of liquid metals, 266, 497
Oxide film defect, 244
Oxyacetylene cutting, 530
Oxyacetylene welding, 307
Oxygen
injection, 266
reactions with, in melting, 497
Oxypropane welding, 307
Padding, 154
exothermic, 161
indirect, 154
Paints, see Mould coatings
Partial mould reversal casting, 116
Parting line, 449–452
design aspects, 42
Partition coefficient, 294
Pasty mode of solidification, 102
Patches, 313
Pattern draw, 449, 450, 471
machines, 455
Pattern elimination, in investment
casting, 574
Pattern production, expendable, for
investment casting, 565
Patterns, 444–448, 449–454
aspects of in casting inspection, 325
colour coding of, 447
contraction allowances for, 447
cost of, 5, 368
design aspects of, 421
expendable, in investment casting,
565
expendable, in full mould casting,
659
loose, 449
mounted, 451
split, 451
Pencil gates, 30
Penetrameters, radiographic, 346
Penetration, metal, 252
Peritectic reactions, 67
Peritectic hypothesis of grain
refinement, 91
Permanent mould casting, 592
Permeability, 180, 188
pH value
of investments, 568
of sands, 196Index 713
Phenol formaldehyde binders, 206
Physical properties of alloys, 409
Pickling, 335
Pinholing, 254, 258, 261, 262, 267
Pins, moulding box, 448
Pipe, 104, 106, 273
Pipes, casting of, 629–632
Pitch, as sand additive, 107
Plane front solidification, 54
Plasma cutting, 530
Plasma melting, 492, 667
Plaster investments, 586
Plaster moulding, 586
Plasticity, of clays, 156
Plates, feeding distance in, 135
Plates, solidification of, 125
Plugs, 313
Pneumatic scrubbing of moulding
material, 233
Pneumatic testing of castings, 350
Pneumonoconiosis, 525
Pollution control, 676–680
Pore-free die casting, 606
Pore nucleation, 104, 259
Porosity
from chills, 160
gas, 254–263
influence on properties, 304
reaction, 257–263
shrinkage, 104, 273
steam, 258
Porous plug ladle, 270, 509
Portland cement, as binder, 210
Postheating of welds, 307–310
Pots, centrifugally cast, 632
Pouring, 511–522
automatic, 519–522
basin, 28, 43, 45
bush, 28, 43, 45
closed system, 522
equipment and techniques, 513–522
in centrifugal castings, 637
ladles, 513
rate
for feeding, 117
from ladles, 514
influence in hot tearing, 285
in centrifugal casting, 637
temperature, 512–513
control of, 512
for feeding, 117
in centrifugal casting, 627
influence in hot tearing, 284
influence on structure, 76
measurement of, 512–513
Powder cutting, 530
Powder dispensers, 500, 507, 530
Powder metallurgy, 2
Powder washing, 533
Power load management, 495
Precipitation hardening stainless steel,
411, 582
Precision casting processes
characteristics of, see under
individual processes
economic comparison of, 615–619
Precision in casting, 547, 615
Preferred orientation, 54, 60, 78, 80
Preheating
for welding, 307–310
of furnace charges, 263
Premium quality castings, 79, 90, 156,
330, 382
Pressure casting of investment moulds,
575
Pressure die casting, 595–615
alloys, 595
cold chamber machines, 597
dies for, 600
finishing of, 609
flow of metal in, 603
gating systems in, 603
hot chamber machines, 596
injection conditions in, 603–607
machines, 596–600
vacuum, 605
Pressure die castings, see Die castings
Pressure testing, 104, 350
Pressure tightness, 37, 79, 84, 304
Process capability, 352
Process control, 12, 351–359
Process modelling, 164–173
Processes, 385
casting, 443–679
moulding, summary of, 487
see also individual processes714 Index
Production techniques, see Processes
Proof loading, 350
Proof stress, 397
Properties of casting alloys, see Alloys,
properties of,
and under individual properties
Property criteria in design, 397–404
Prototyping, 363
‘Pulls’, see Hot tears
Pumping, of liquid metal, 522
Punctures, surface, 274
Pure metals, solidification of, 54
Pyrometry
immersion, 512–513
optical and radiation, 513
Quality
definition and assessment of, 322
standards for, 321, 323
systems and management, 319
see also Inspection of castings
see also Non-destructive testing and
under individual tests
Quality and process control
applications in founding, 358
charts, 352
organization of, 319
Quartz, 199
expansion characteristics of, 217,
247, 571
Quenching, 539
stresses in, 291
Quickly replaceable loop (QLR) system
for channel furnace, 494
for ladle heating, 518
Radiation pyrometers, 513
Radii, fillet, at intersections, 431, 437
Radiographs, characteristics of, 340,
341
Radiography, 338–347
equipment for, 343
exposure in, 339
gamma, 341
sensitivity of, 345
Radioisotopes, 342
Ramming
of cores, 477
of moulds, 454–467
of test specimens, 183
Ramming density, 454
influence on scabbing, 250
Randupson process, 210, 453
Rapid mixers, 221
Rapid prototyping, 363
Rapid solidification processing, 646
Rat tail defect, 247
Reaction porosity, 257–262
Reactive casting techniques, 652
Reactive metals, casting of, 664–668
Reclamation, of moulding sand, 231
Rectification, of defects, 305–314
Reduced pressure test, for liquid
metals, 509
Refinement, of structure, 77, 83–96,
505
mould coatings as medium for, 93
Refractories
as sources of gas contamination,
260, 264
in investment casting, 568
in mould coatings, 218
mould, 198, 215–217
Refractoriness, 179, 199
Refractory inclusions, 243
Replicast® process, 661
Residual stresses, 287–290
due to welding, 311
Resin binders, 206–213
curing of, 203–213, 481–485,
510–554
Resistance furnaces, 495
Restricted neck feeding, 109, 152
Retained strength, of moulding
material, 195, 212
Reverbatory furnaces, 492
Reversal casting, 116
Reynolds number, 27
Rheocasting, 668
Ribs, 432
Ring heads, 120
Ripening, 61
Risers, see Feeder heads
Risk assessment, 684
Robotic coating, 569, 577Index 715
Robots, in die casting, 609
in fettling, 533
in pouring, 522
Rockwell hardness test, 332
Rod feeding, 141, 145
Roll casting, 642
Rotary degassing, 266
Rotary furnaces, 292
Rotary moulding systems, 466, 658
Runners, see Gating systems
Safety at work, 682–685
Safety factors in design, 398, 401
Salt cores
in gravity die casting, 593
in pressure die casting, 611
Sampling
for inspection, 324
of melts, 509–511
for quality control, 353–358
Sand adherence, 252–254
Sand casting process, 444–542
limitations of, 548
Sand, compaction of, 454–466
Sand cooling, 222, 227
Sand inclusions, 241
Sand mills and mixers, 220–226
Sand preparation, 220–231
Sand systems, 226–231
circulation in, 228
Sand reclamation, 231
Sand testing, 182–198
acid demand and pH, 196
active clay, 196
bench life, 191
collapsibility test, 195
compactability, 186
composition and grading tests, 195
expansion test, 195
flowability tests, 186
gas evolution, 192
hot distortion test, 193
hot strength tests, 194
impact penetration test, 192
mechanical grading, 197
moisture tests, 195
permeability tests, 188
reproducibility in, 182
scratch hardness test, 191
shatter test, 191
specimens for, 183
strength tests, 184–186
surface hardness tests, 188
for high temperature properties, 193
for chemically bonded sands,
190–193
Sand-to-metal ratio, 234
Sands, base, 198
see also Moulding material
Sandslingers, 465
Sawing, 529
Scabs
erosion, 246
expansion, 246–251
Scaling resistance, 404, 415
Scavenging gas treatments, 265
Scleroscope, 332
Screens
in gating, 39
in radiography, 340, 341
in sand systems, 227
Secondary steelmaking, 508
Section sensitivity of properties,
328–330, 381
Section thickness in design, 424–428
Sedimentation, 197
Segment ladles, 516
Segregation, 294–300
channel, 300
dendritic, 295
freckle, 300
grain boundary, 295
gravity, 299
homogenisation, 300, 538
in centrifugal castings, 638
influence in hot tearing, 282
influence on properties, 304
inherent tendency to, 294
inverse, 299
macro-, 297
micro-, 295
patterns of, 297
Selective Laser Sintering, 364
Self tapping furnace, 503, 522, 576,
584
Semicentrifugal casting, 622, 685
Semi-solid casting, 668–670716 Index
Shaft furnaces, 492
Shanks, 511
Shape defects on pouring, 240
Shape factor in feeding, 109, 121, 129
Shape features of castings
engineering aspects of, 437
in design, 420–440
influence in solidification, 107–109,
122
Shape, suitability for casting, 2, 370
Shaped charges in melting, 503
Shaping of metals, 1, 366–371
Shared feeder heads, 140
Shatter test, 191
Shaw process, 587
Shear test, for moulding materials, 185
Shell moulded castings
applications of, 56
characteristics of, 558
dimensional accuracy of, 559
defects in, 560
Shell moulding, 550–563
binders, 550
closing, 554
cold process, 558
D process, 556
location, 554
machines, 555
production, 550
comparative costs of, 562, 617–619
Shell moulds, ceramic, 567, 569, 570
Shockless jolt principle, 457
Short run castings, 240
Shotblasting, 526
Shower nucleation, 95
Shrinkage cavities
in castings, 271–277
in feeder heads, 127
Shrinkage, liquid, 48
Shrinkage, solidification, 118
Side gating, 31
Sievert’s Law, 255
Sieves, 197
Silica, 199, 247, 569
Silicon carbide
as abrasive, 531
as chill, 159
Sillimanite, 218, 570
Simpson mixer, 220
Simulation, process, 168
Single crystal casting, 81, 583
Sinks, 274
Skeleton patterns, 454
Skimmer core, 38
Skin drying of moulds, 476
Skin forming alloys, 102
Skull melting, 665–667
Slag inclusions, 243
Slags, 496, 497, 500
Slitting, 529
Slug melting, 503–668
Slurry casting, 668–670
Slush casting, 648
Snapflasks, 448, 453
Sodium silicate, as binder, 210, 485
Soldering, 312
Solidification
characteristics of alloys, 100–107
contraction, 100, 118
directional, for feeding, 101, 104
eutectic, 64
expansion stage, in cast irons, 105
geometric influences on, 107–110
modes of, 100–107
modelling, 164
of alloys forming solid solutions, 56
of centrifugal castings, 626
of pure metals, 54
rate, influence on structure, 70–73,
79, 85–90
significance of, in castings, 51
time, 108–110, 116
criterion in feeding, 118–123
influence of chilling on, 156–161
unidirectional, 80, 583
see also Crystallisation
see also Feeding of castings
see also Structure
Soluble cores, 593, 663
see also Salt cores
Soundness of castings, 51, 100–173
hydraulic, 79, 84, 301, 304
testing for, 333
Specific surface, 201
Specifications, role of, 323
see also Standards
Specimen size effect, 331Index 717
Spheroidal graphite in cast iron, 84, 88,
89
see also Cast irons
Spinner, see Whirlgate
Spiral fluidity test, 16
Spirit based mould coatings, 218
Splat cooling, 87, 646
Spray casting, 646
Spray forming, 646
Sprigs, 449, 470
Sprue, 26
dimensions of, 28
Squeeze action, machine moulding, 457
Squeeze casting, 649
Stack moulding, 444
Stamping of castings, 325
Standards
for castings, 323, 331, 687
for environmental protection, 680
for inspection and testing, 359, 692
for quality management, 321, 359
see also Appendix
Staples, 480
Starch, as binder, 205
Straube-Pfeiffer test, 509
Steam porosity, 258
Steelmoulders’ composition, 215
Steels, see Cast steels
Step gates, 35, 116
Stepped joints, 449
Stereolithography, 363
Stokes’s law, 197, 242, 627
Stove drying
of cores, 484
of moulds, 181, 472–474
Straightening, 292
Strainer core, 39
Stream droplet degassing, 268
Streamlining
of casting design, 420, 437
of gating systems, 27, 35
Strength, of alloys, 411–414
Strength-weight ratio, 413
Stress concentration, at defects, 302
factor, 302, 388, 431, 437
Stress corrosion, 404, 415
Stress relief, 289–291, 539
of welds, 311
Stresses
contraction, 277–279
design to minimise, 430
in welding, 311
relief of, 290
residual, 287–290
Strickle moulding, 454
Strip time, of moulding material, 191
Structure
cast, characteristics of, 7, 379–385
cellular, 62
chill zone, 80
columnar, 55, 71, 78–80
control of, 76–96
cored, 62, 295
dendritic, 60–62, 71–74, 86
development of, in solidification,
51–96
directionality of, influence on
properties, 78
eutectic, 64–69
equiaxed, 64, 65, 73–76, 79, 80
grain, 52, 59, 77
of castings, 7, 70–96
of centrifugal castings, 639–642
refinement of, 77, 83–96, 505
significance of, 76
Structure-sensitive properties, 379–385,
397–420
Studs, 48, 423, 476, 487
Substructure, 60–69, 77, 82, 84, 380
Sulphur as reaction inhibitor, 214, 262
Supercooling, see Undercooling
Superheating, influence on grain
structure, 79, 93
Surface characteristics of castings, 371
Surface coatings, see Coatings
Surface defects, 301
test for, 334
Surface drying of moulds, 181, 473
Surface films, on liquid metals, 20,
241, 244
Surface finish of castings, 377
measurement of, 325
Surface porosity, 274
Surface punctures, 274
Surface, rough, on castings, 252
Surface tension, of liquid metals, 20718 Index
Surface treatment of castings, 395
Swarf
contamination from, 263
melting of, 494, 496
Sweep moulding, see Strickle moulding
Swelling capacity, of clays, 198, 204
Synthetic sands, 198, 215, 229
T sections, design of, 429, 432
Taper
draft, moulding, 422
of downrunner, 28
of dies, 600
padding, 154
Tapping temperature, 512
Teapot ladle, 513
Tears, see Hot tears
Temperature gradients
effect in feeding, 101, 113–117
influence on structure, 59, 64,
70–74, 79
influence in hot tearing, 284, 285
Temperature, measurement of, 512
Temperature, tapping and pouring, 512
Tempering, 539
Tensile test, 331
for moulding materials, 185
Test bars, 327–330
relationship to castings, 328, 330
Testing
material and product, 324–351
mechanical, 326–333
of moulding materials, see Sand
testing non-destructive, see
Non-destructive testing
Thermal diffusivity of alloys, 104
Thermal lance cutting, 530
Thermal reclamation of sand, 233
Thermit reaction, 147
Thickness
effects in heat treatment, 381, 538
of metal, in design, 426–428
minimum, of mould members,
423
see also Section sensitivity
Thixocasting, 669
Tiles, refractory, 30, 45, 244
Titanium
as nucleant, 665
casting of, 667, 669
Toe cracking, 309
Tooling costs, 7, 368
Tolerances, see Dimensional accuracy
and tolerances
Top gating, 31
Topping up, 145
Toughness, of moulding material, 191
Tower furnace, 492
Transparent systems, solidification in,
67, 76
Transverse test, for moulding materials,
185
Traps, in gating systems, 37
Trough mixers, 224
Turbulent flow, 27
Turnings, see Swarf
Ultrasonic testing, 347–350
Underbead cracking, 309
Undercooling, 85
constitutional, 59
Unidirectional solidification, 80, 583
Unit sand practice, 230
Unbonded sand, 213
Unicast process, 590
Upward fill casting, 653–657
Uranium, melting and casting of, 667
Urea formaldehyde binders, 206
Urea furan binders, 209
V process, 657
Vacural process, 605
Vacuum–compression treatment of cast
metal, 270
Vacuum cooling, of sand, 222
Vacuum die casting, 605
Vacuum fluidity test, 18
Vacuum melting, 264, 500, 665
in investment casting, 576, 584, 670
in reactive metal casting, 665–667
Vacuum squeeze moulding machine,
465
Van’t Hoff equation, 256Index 719
Ventilation, 535–537
Venting
of blind feeder heads, 144
of cores, 479, 480
of moulds, 255, 470
for coreblowing, 477, 479
Vibration
for stress relief, 291
influence on structure, 95
in moulding, 460
Vibratory shakeout, 524
Vibratory squeeze moulding, machine,
460
Vickers hardness test, 332
Viscosity
of liquid metals, 15
of shell moulding binders, 551
Void nucleation, 104, 259
Volatile mould dressings, 218–220, 486
Volume feed capacity criterion in
feeding, 118
Volume to surface area ratio of
castings, 109
Wall thickness of castings, see
Thickness
Warm box process, 483
Washburn core, 109
dimensions of, 152
Washes, see Coatings
Waste management, 676
Wax patterns for investment casting,
565
elimination of, 574
Wear resistance of alloys, 403, 414
Web gate, 35
Webs, 287
Wedge test for cast iron, 510
Weight range capability of castings, 2,
370
Weight variation of castings, 377
Weighting of moulds, 48, 487
Weld decay tests, 333
Weld fabrication, 370
castings in, 370, 386–392
Weldability of alloys, 309, 311, 406,
417
Welding, 1, 306–309
arc, 307
gas, 307
development of stresses in, 311
fluxes, 307
influence on mechanical properties,
309
influence on corrosion resistance,
311
of steel castings, 308
preparation for, 307
Wet strength of moulding material, 248
Whirlgate, 38
Whirlgate head, 144
Whistlers, 255, 471
Williams head, see Atmospheric head
Wrought products, compared with
castings, 382–385
X sections, in design, 429
X-ray computed tomography, 344
X-ray fluoroscopy
for study of flow in moulds, 29
possibilities for research into cavity
formation, 275
X-ray sources for radiography, 343
X-rays, 339
Yield
casting, 112, 368
overall, 114
Yield stress, 397
Young’s modulus, 397, 407
Zinc alloy die castings, 595–597, 602
Zircon sand, 199, 216
Zirconium, casting of, 665, 667


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