كتاب Technical Drawing - Fundamentals, CAD, Design
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 كتاب Technical Drawing - Fundamentals, CAD, Design

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Technical Drawing - Fundamentals, CAD, Design
Second Edition
David L. Goetsch
John A. Nelson
William S. Chalk

كتاب Technical Drawing - Fundamentals, CAD, Design  T_d_f_10
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Brief Contents
PREFACE x
SECTION ONE • BASICS
Introduction 2 I Drafting Instruments and Their Use 22 2 Lettering, Sketching, and Line Techniques 67 3 Geometric Construction 93
SECTION TWO • TECHNICAL DRAWING FUNDAMENTALS 145
4 Multiview Drawings 146 5 Sectional Views 193 6 Auxiliary Views 225
7 Descriptive Geometry 24 5 8 Patterns and Developments 289 9 Dimensioning and Notation 323
SECTION THREE • COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING 391
10 Computer-Aided Drafting Technology 392 11 Computer-Aided Drafting
Operations 407
SECTION FOUR • DESIGN DRAFTING APPLICATIONS 429
12 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing 430 13 Fasteners 457
14 Springs 505 15 Cams 521 16 Gears 535 17 Assembly and Detail Drawings 552 18 Pictorial Drawings 579
SECTION FIVE • RELATED TECHNOLOGY 619
19 Welding 620 20 Shop Processes 644 21 Pipe Drafting 684 22 Electronic Drafting 705 23 Charts and Graphs 720 24 The Design Process 791
APPENDIX A MECHANICAL DRAFTING MATHEMATICS 842
APPENDIX B TABLES 874
GLOSSARY 928
INDEX 935
Contents
SECTION ONE • BASICS 1
Introduction 2
drawings described • types of drawings • types of technical drawings • purpose of technical drawings • applications of technical drawings • regulation of technical drawings •
what students of technical drawing and drafting should learn • review
Chapter 1 • Drafting instruments and their use 22
conventional and CAD/CAM drafting equipment • conventional drafting requisites • drawing sets • scales • measuring • ink tools • technical pens • mechanical lettering sets •
butterfly-type scriber • airbrush • paper sizes • whiteprinter • files • open-end typewriter • care of drafting equipment • review • problems
Chapter 2 • Lettering, sketching, and line techniques 67
freehand lettering • freehand lettering techniques • line work • sketching • types of
sketches • sketching materials • sketching techniques • review • problems
Chapter 3 • Geometric construction 93
geometric nomenclature • elemental construction principles polygon construction
circular construction • supplementary construction • review • problems
SECTION TWO • TECHNICAL DRAWING FUNDAMENTALS 145
Chapter 4 • Multiview drawings 146
orthographic projection • planning the drawing • sketching procedure • centering the
drawing • rounds and fillets • runouts • treatment of intersecting surfaces • curve plotting • cylindrical intersections • incomplete views • aligned features • how to represent
holes • conventional breaks • visualization • first-angle projection • review • problems
Chapter 5 • Sectional views 193
sectional views • cutting-plane line • direction of sight • section lining • multisection
views • kinds of sections • sections through ribs or webs • holes, ribs and webs, spokes
and keyways • aligned sections • fasteners and shafts in section intersections in section • review • problems
Chapter 6 • Auxiliary views 225
auxiliary views defined • secondary auxiliary views partial views • auxiliary section •
half auxiliary views • review • problems
Chapter 7 • Descriptive geometry 245
descriptive geometry projection • steps used • notations • fold lines • how to project a
line into other views • how to locate a point in space (right view) • how to find the true
length of a line • how to construct a point view of a line • how to find the true distance
between a line and a point in space • how to find the true distance between two parallel
VIlines • how to find the true distance between two non-parallel lines • how to project a
plane into another view • how to construct an edge view of a plane surface • how to find
the true distance between a plane surface and a point in space • how to find the true
angle between two planes • how to determine the visibility of lines • how to determine
the piercing point by inspection • how to determine the piercing point by construction •
how to determine the piercing point by line projection • how to find the intersection of
two planes by line projection • how to find the intersection of a cylinder and a plane
surface by line projection • how to find the intersection of a sphere and a plane surface •
how to find the intersection of two prisms • bearings, slope, and grade • how to construct a line with a specified bearing, slope angle, and length • how to construct a line
with a specified bearing, percent of grade, and length • review • problems
Chapter 8 • Patterns and developments 289
developments • parallel line development • radial line development • triangulation
development • true-length diagram • notches • bends • review • problems
Chapter 9 • Dimensioning and notation 323
dimensioning systems • dimension components • laying out dimensions • steps in
dimensioning • specific dimensioning techniques • summary of dimensioning rules •
notation • rules for applying notes on drawings • review • problems
SECTION THREE • COMPUTER-AIDED DRAFTING 391
Chapter 10 • Computer-aided drafting technology 392
overview of CAD • computer-aided drafting systems • CAD hardware • CAD software •
CAD users • modern CAD system configurations • advantages of CAD • microCADD •
microCADD in the beginning • advantages of microCADD • limitations of microCADD •
review
Chapter 1 1 • Computer-aided drafting operations 407
general system operation • input commands • manipulation commands • output commands review • problems
SECTION FOUR • DESIGN DRAFTING APPLICATIONS 429
Chapter 12 • Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing 430
summary of geometric dimensioning and positional tolerancing terms general tolerancing
• geometric dimensioning and positional tolerancing defined • modifiers • feature control symbol • true position • flatness • straightness • circularity (roundness! • cylindricity
• angularity • parallelism • perpendicularity • profile • runout • review • problems
Chapter 13 • Fasteners 457
classifications of fasteners • threads • screw thread forms • tap and die • threads per
inch (TPI) • pitch • single and multiple threads • right-hand and left-hand threads •
thread representation • thread relief (undercut) • screw, bolt, and stud • rivets • keys
and keyseats • grooved fasteners • spring pins • fastening systems • retaining rings •
review • problems
Chapter 14 • Springs 505
spring classification • helical springs • flat springs • terminology of springs • required
spring data • how to draw a compression spring • how to draw an extension spring • other
spring design layout • standard drafting practices section view of a spring • isometric
views • review • problems
VIIChapter 15 • Cams 521
cam principle • basic types of followers • cam mechanism • cam terms • cam motion
• laying out the cam from the displacement diagram • how to draw a cam with an offset
follower • how to draw a cam with a flat-faced follower • timing diagram • dimensioning
a cam • review • problems
Chapter 16 : Gears 535
kinds of gears • gearratio • pitch diameter • gear blank • backlash • basic terminology
• diametral pitch • pressure angle • center-to-center distances • measurements required
to use a gear tooth caliper • required tooth-cutting data • rack • bevel gear • worm and
worm gear • gear train • materials • design and layout of gears • review • problems
Chapter 17 • Assembly and detail drawings 552
the engineering department • drawing revisions • invention agreement • title block • size
of lettering within title block • checking procedure • numbering system • parts list •
personal technical file • the design procedure • working drawings • patent drawings •
computer drawings (see Chapters 10 and 11) • review • problems
Chapter 18 • Pictorial drawings 579
types of pictorial drawings • axonometric drawings • oblique drawings • perspective
drawing • isometric principles • nonisometric lines • hidden lines • offset measurements
• center lines • box construction • irregularly shaped objects • isometric curves • isometric circles or arcs isometric arcs • isometric knurls • isometric screw threads
isometric spheres • isometric intersections • isometric rounds and fillets • isometric dimensioning • isometric templates • perspective drawing procedures • review • problems
SECTION FIVE • RELATED TECHNOLOGY 619
Chapter 19 • Welding 620
welding processes • basic welding symbol • size of weld • length of weld • placement
of weld • intermittent welds • process reference • contour symbol • field welds • welding joints • types of welds • multiple reference line • spot weld • projection weld • seam
weld • welding template • review • problems
Chapter 20 • Shop processes 644
shop processes casting • forging • extruding • stamping • machining • special workholding devices • heat treatment of steels • automation and integration (CAM and CIM
FMSl • computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) • industrial robots • CIM FMS • review
Chapter 2 1 • Pipe drafting 684
types of pipe • types of joints and fittings • types of valves • pipe drawings • dimensioning pipe drawings • review • problems
Chapter 22 • Electronic drafting 705
electronics symbols • schematic diagrams • connection diagrams • block diagrams •
logic diagrams • printed circuit board drawings • review • problems
Chapter 23 • Charts and graphs 720
functional classes: an overview • five basic components • specific charts and graphs •
review • problems
Chapter 24 • The design process 791
time • learning the design process • the design process: phases and steps • design
projects: routine and non-routine • review • problems
vinAppendix A • Mechanical drafting mathematics 842
mathematics for drafters • rounding decimal fractions • expressing common fractions as
decimal fractions • millimeter-inch equivalents (conversion factors) • evaluating formulas
• ratio and proportion • arithmetic operations on angles expressed in degrees, minutes,
and seconds • degrees, minutes, seconds—decimal degree conversion • types of angles
• angles formed by a transversal • types of triangles • common polygons • definitions of
properties of circles • geometric principles of circle circumference, central angles, arcs,
and tangents • geometric principles of angles formed inside a circle • geometric principles of angles formed on a circle and angles formed outside a circle • internally and
externally tangent circles • trigonometry: trigonometric functions • trigonometry: basic
calculations of sides • trigonometry: common drafting applications • trigonometry: oblique
triangles— law of sines and law of cosines • review
Appendix B • contents 874
Glossary 928
Index 935
AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS OF INTEREST TO
DESIGNERS, ARCHITECTS, AND DRAFTERS
TITLE OF STANDARD
Abbreviations Y1.1-1972
American National Standard Drafting Practices
Size and Format Y1 4 .1-1980
Line Conventions and Lettering Y14 2M-1979
Multi and Sectional View Drawings Y14.3-1975(R1980)
Pictorial Drawing Y14 4-1957
Dimensioning and Tolerancing Y14 5M-1982
Screw Threads Y1 4.6-1 978
Screw Threads (Metric Supplement) Y14.6aM-1981
Gears and Splines
Spur, Helical, and Racks Y14 7. 1-1971
Bevel and Hyphoid Y1 4.7 2-1 978
Forgings Y1 4.9-1 958
Springs Y14 13M-1981
Electrical and Electronic Diagram Y14.15-1966(R1973)
Interconnection Diagrams Y1 4. 15a- 1971
Information Sheet Y14.15b-1973
Fluid Power Diagrams Y14.17-1966(R1980)
Digital Representation for Communication of Product Definition Data Y14.26M-1981
Computer-Aided Preparation of Product Definition Data Dictionary of Terms Y1 4.26.3-1 975
Digital Representation of Physical Object Shapes Y14 Report
Guideline — User Instructions Y1 4 Report No. 2
Guideline — Design Requirements Y1 4 Report No. 3
Ground Vehicle Drawing Practices In Preparation
Chasis Frames Y14.32 1-1974
Parts Lists, Data Lists, and Index Lists Y14.34M-1982
Surface Texture Symbols Y14 36-1978
Illustrations for Publication and Projection Y15 1M-1979
Time Series Charts Y15.2M-1979
Process Charts Y15 3M-1979
Graphic Symbols for:
Electrical and Electronics Diagrams Y32.2-1975
Plumbing Y32 4-1977
Use on Railroad Maps and Profiles Y32 7-1972(R1979)
Fluid Power Diagrams Y32.10-1967(R1974)
Process Flow Diagrams in Petroleum and Chemical Industries Y32.1 1-1961
Mechanical and Acoustical Element as Used in Schematic Diagrams Y32.18-1972(R1978)
Pipe Fittings, Valves, and Piping Z32.2 3-1949(R1953)
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Z32 2.4-1949(R1953)
Heat Power Apparatus Z32.2.6-1 950(R1 956)
Letter Symbols for:
Glossary of Terms Concerning Letter Symbols Y1 1 -1972
Hydraulics Y10.2-1958
Quantities Used in Mechanics for Solid Bodies Y10.3-1968
Heat and Thermodynamics Y10. 4-1982
Quantities Used in Electrical Science and Electrical Engineering Y10 5-1968
Aeronautical Sciences Y 1 7- 1 954
Structural Analysis Y10 8-1962
Meteorology Y10.10-1953(R1973)
Acoustics Y10 1 1-1953(R1959)
Chemical Engineering Y10 12-1955(R1973)
Rocket Propulsion Y10 14-1959
Petroleum Reservoir Engineering and Electric Logging Y10 15-1958(R1973)
Shell Theory Y10 16-1964(R1973)
Guide for Selecting Greek Letters Used as Symbols for Engineering Mathematics Y10 17-1961 (R1 973)
Illuminating Engineering Y10 1 8-1967(R1 977)
Mathematical Signs and Symbols for Use in Physical Sciences and Technology Y10 20-1975
Table 48
927Glossary
Absolute System A type of numerical control system in which all coordinates are located from a fixed
or absolute zero point
Acme Screw thread form
Actual Size Actual measured size of a feature
Acute Angle An angle less than 90
Addendum Radial distance from pitch circle to top
of gear tooth
Allen Screw Special set screw or cap screw with
hexagon socket in head
Allowance Minimum clearance between mating
parts
Alloy Two or more metals in combination, usually
a fine metal with a baser metal
Alphanumeric Refers to the totality of characters
that are either alphabetic or numeric
Aluminum A lightweight but relatively strong metal:
often alloyed with copper to increase hardness and
strength
Ammonia A colorless gas used in the development
process of diazo and sepia prints
Angle Iron A structural shape whose section is a
right angle
Angularity Tolerancing of a feature at a specified
angle from another feature
Anneal To soften metals by heating to remove internal stresses caused by rolling and forging
Anodizing The process of protecting aluminum by
oxidizing in an acid bath using a direct current
Application A definable set of drafting tasks to be
accomplished in a given drafting area; may be accomplished partly through manual procedures and partly
through computerized procedures
Arc A part of a circle
Arc-weld To weld by electric arc; the work is usually the positive terminal
Artificial Intelligence The ability of a machine to
improve its own operation or the ability of a machine
to perform functions that are normally associated with
human intelligence such as learning, adapting, reasoning, self-correction, and automatic improvement
Assembly Drawing A drawing showing the working
relationship of the various parts of a machine or
structure as they fit together
Automated Assembly Assembly by means of operations performed automatically by machines that are
controlled and monitored by computers
Automated Process Planning Using a computer in
developing a process plan
Automation The conversion of a process or system
to automatic operation
Auxiliary View An additional view of an object, usually of a surface inclined to the principal surfaces of
the object to provide a true size and shape view
Axes Plural of axis
Axis An imaginary line around which parts rotate
or are regularly arranged
Babbitt A soft alloy for bearings, mostly of tin with
small amounts of copper and antimony
Backlash Lost motion between moving parts, such
as threaded shaft and nut or the teeth of meshing
gears
Baseline Dimensioning A system of dimensioning
where as many features of a part as are functionally
practical are located from a common set of datums
Basic Dimension A theoretically "perfect" dimension similar to a reference or nominal dimension. It
is used to identify the exact location, size, or shape
of a feature.
Basic Size The size from which the limits of size
are derived by the application of allowances and
tolerances
Bearing A supporting member for a rotating shaft
Bend Allowance The amount of sheet metal required to make a bend over a specific radius
Bevel An inclined edge; not a right angle to joining surface
Bilateral Tolerances Tolerances that are applied
to a nominal dimension in the positive and negative directions
Bisect To divide into two equal parts
Blanking A stamping operation in which a press
uses a die to cut blanks from flat sheets or strips
of metal
Blueprint A copy of a drawing
Bolt Circle A circular center line on a drawing, containing the centers of holes about a common center
Bore To enlarge a hole with a boring bar or tool in
a lathe, drill press or boring mill
Boss A cylindrical projection on a casting or a
forging
Brass An alloy of copper and zinc
Braze To join with hard solder of brass or zinc
928
JBroach A tool for removing metal by pulling or
pushing it across the work; the most common use is
producing irregular hole shapes such as squares, hexagons, ovals or splines
Bronze An alloy of eight or nine parts of copper
and one part of tin
Buff To finish or polish on a buffing wheel composed of fabric with abrasive powders
Burr The ragged edge or ridge left on metal after a
cutting operation
Burnish To finish or polish by pressure upon a
smooth rolling or sliding tool
Bushing A metal lining which acts as a bearing
between rotating parts such as a shaft and pulley:
also used on jigs to guide cutting tool
CAD (Computer-aided drafting) The use of computers and peripheral devices to aid in the documentation for design projects
Callout A note on the drawing giving a dimension,
specification or machine process
Calipers Instrument for measuring diameters
Cam A rotating shape for changing circular motion
to reciprocating motion
Carburize To heat a low-carbon steel to approximately 2000= F in contact with material which adds
carbon to the surface of the steel
Case Harden To harden the outer surface of a
carburized steel by heating and then quenching
Center Drill A special drill to produce bearing
holes in the ends of a workpiece to be mounted
between centers
Central Processing Unit (CPU) A unit of a computer that includes circuits controlling the interpretation and execution of instructions
Chain Dimensioning Successive dimensions that
extend from one feature to another, rather than each
originating at a datum
Chamfer A bevel on an external edge or corner, usually at 45 :
Character A letter, digit or other symbol that is used
as part of the organization, control, or representation of data
Chase To cut threads with an external cutting tool
Chill To harden the outer surface of cast iron by
quick cooling as in a metal mold
Chuck A mechanism for holding a rotating tool
or workpiece
Circularity A tolerance that controls elemental tolerance zones around a circular feature that is independent of other features
Circular Pitch The length of the arc along the pitch
circle between the center of one gear tooth to the
center of the next
Circular Runout A tolerance that identifies an infinite number of elemental tolerance zones on a feature
when the feature is rotated 360 for each element
Clearance Fit A condition between mating parts in
which there is always a clearance assembly
Clockwise Rotation in the same direction as hands
of a clock
Coin To form a part in one stamping operation
Cold Rolled Steel Bessemer steel containing . 12%
to .20% carbon that has been rolled while cold to
produce a smooth, quite accurate stock
Collar A round flange or ring fitted on a shaft to
prevent sliding
Concentric Having a common center as circles
or diameters
Concentricity A tolerance in which the axis of a feature must be coaxial to a specified datum regardless
of the datum s and the features size
Configuration A group of machines, devices, parts,
etc. that makes up a system
Coordinate An ordered set of data values, either
absolute or relative, that specifies a location
Coordinate Dimensioning A type of rectangular
datum dimensioning in which all dimensions are
measured from two or three mutually perpendicular
datum planes; all dimensions originate at a datum
and include regular extension and dimension lines
and arrowheads
Cope The upper portion of a flask used in molding
Core To form a hollow portion in a casting by using
a dry-sand core or a green-sand core in a mold
Counterbore The enlargement of the end of a hole
to a specified diameter and depth
Countersink The chamfered end of a hole to receive a flat head screw
CPU Central processing unit
Cursor 1 1 1 On CRT a movable marker that is visible on the viewing surface and is used to indicate a
position at which an action is to take place or the
position on which the next device operation would
normally be directed. (21 On digitizers, a movable
reference, usually optical cross hairs used by an operator to indicate manually the position of a reference
point or line where an action is to take place.
Cylindricity A tolerance that simultaneously controls the surface of revolution for straightness. parallelism, and circularity of a feature, and is independent
of any other features on a part
Data A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in formalized manner suitable for communication interpretation or processing by human or
automatic means
Datum Points, lines, planes, cylinders and the like
assumed to be exact for purposes of computation
from which the location or geometric relationship
(form) of features of a part may be established
Datum Feature A feature that is used to establish
a datum
Datum Identification Symbol A special rectangu
lar box that contains the datum reference letter
929Dedendum The radial distance between the pitch
circle and the bottom of the tooth
Delineation Pictorial representation: a chart, a diagram or a sketch
Design Size The size, of a feature after an allowance for clearance has been applied and tolerances
have been assigned
Detail Drawing A drawing of a single part that provides all the information necessary in the production of that part
Development Drawing of the surface of an object
unfolded on a plane
Deviation The variance from a specified dimension
or design requirement
Diagram A figure or drawing which is marked out
by lines; a chart or outline
Diameter The length of a straight line passing
through the center of a circle and terminating at the
circumference on each end
Diazo Material that is either a film or paper sensitized by means of azo dyes used for photocopying
Die Hardened metal piece shaped to cut or form a
required shape in a sheet or metal by pressing it
against a mating die
Die Casting Process of forcing molten metal under
pressure into metal dies or molds, producing a very
accurate and smooth casting
Die Stamping Process of cutting or forming a piece
of sheet metal with a die
Digitize To use numeric characters to express or
represent data
Digitizer A device for converting positional information into digital signals: typically, a drawing or
other graphic is placed on the measuring surface of
the digitizer and traced by the operator using a cursor
Dimension Measurements given on a drawing such
as size and location
Direct Numerical Control
( DNC) The use of a common host computer for distribution of part programs
to remote machine tools
Display A visual presentation of data on an output device
Dowel A cylindrical pin. commonly used to prevent
sliding between two contacting flat surfaces
Draft The tapered shape of the parts of a pattern
to permit it to be easily withdrawn from the sand or
withdrawn from the dies
Drag Lower portion of a flask used in molding
Draw To temper steel
Drill To cut a cylindrical hole with a drill; a blind
hole does not go through the piece
Drill Press A machine for drilling and other holeforming operations
Drop Forge To form a piece while hot between dies
in a drop hammer or with great pressure
Eccentric Not having the same center; off center
Extrusion Metal which has been shaped by forcing it in its hot or cold state through dies of the
desired shape
Fabrication A term used to distinguish production
operations from assembly operations
Face To finish a surface at right angles, or nearly
so, to the center line of rotation on a lathe
FAO Finish all over
Fastener A mechanical device for holding two or
more bodies in definite positions with respect to
each other
Feature A portion of a part, such as a diameter,
hole, keyway or flat surface
Ferrous Having iron as a metal's base material
File To finish or smooth with a file
Fillet An interior rounded intersection between
two surfaces
Fin A thin extrusion of metal at the intersection of
dies or sand molds
Finish General finish requirements such as paint,
chemical or electroplating, rather than surface texture or roughness (see surface texture)
Fit The clearance or interference between two mating parts
Fixture A special device for holding the work in a
machine tool
Flange A relatively thin rim around a piece
Flask A box made of two or more parts for holding
the sand in sand molding
Flatbed Plotter A plotter that draws an image on
a data medium such as paper or film mounted on
a table
Flat Pattern A layout showing true dimensions of
a part before bending; may be actual size pattern on
polyester film for shop use
Flatness A tolerance that controls the amount of
variation from the perfect plane on a feature independent of any other features on the part
Flute Groove, as on twist drills, reamers, and taps
Forge To force metal while it is hot to take on a
desired shape by hammering or pressing
Form Tolerancing The permitted variation of a feature from the perfect form indicated on the drawing
Fusion Weld The intimate mixing of molten metals
Gage The thickness of sheet metal by number
Galvanize To cover a surface with a thin layer of
molten alloy, composed mainly of zinc
Gasket A thin piece of rubber, metal or some
other material, placed between surfaces to make a
tight joint
Gate The opening in a sand mold at the bottom of
the sprue through which the molten metal passes to
enter the cavity or mold
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing A means
of dimensioning and tolerancing a drawing with
930respect to the actual function or relationship or
part features which can be most economically produced; it includes positional and form dimensioning
and tolerancing
Grind To remove metal by means of an abrasive
wheel, often made of carborundum, used where accuracy is required
Group Technology Grouping of parts into families
based on similarities in design or production processes
Gusset A small plate used in reinforcing assemblies
Hard Copy A copy of output in a visually readable
form (e.g., printed reports, listings, documents, summaries, and drawings)
Harden To heat steel above a critical temperature
and then quench in water, oil or air
Hardness Test Techniques used to measure the
degree of hardness of heat-treated materials
Heat Treat To change the properties of metals by
heating and then cooling
Hexagon A polygon having six angles and six sides
Hone A method of finishing a hole or other surface
to a precise tolerance by using a spring-loaded abrasive block and rotary motion
Horizontal Parallel to the horizon
Inclined A line or plane at an angle to a horizontal
line or plane
Incremental System A system of numerically controlled machining that always refers to the preceding point when making the next movement; also
known as continuous path or contouring method of
NC machining
Input The transfer of information into a computer
or machine control unit (see "output")
Intelligent Robot Robot that can make decisions
based on data received from sensing devices
Interchangeable Refers to a part made to limit
dimensions so that it will fit any mating part similarly manufactured
Intermediate A translucent reproduction made on
vellum, cloth or film from an original drawing to serve
in place of the original for making other prints
Involute A spiral curve generated by a point on a
chord as it unwinds from a circle or a polygon
Isometric Drawing A pictorial drawing of an object
so positioned that all three axes make equal angles
with the picture plane, and measurements on all
three axes are made to the same scale
Jig A device for guiding a tool in cutting a piece
Journal Portion of a rotating shaft supported by
a bearing
Kerf Groove or cut made by a saw
Key A small piece of metal sunk partly into both
shaft and hub to prevent rotation of mating parts
Keyseat A slot in a shaft to hold a key
Keyslot The slot machined in a shaft for Woodrufftype keys
Keyway A slot in a hub or portion surrounding a
shaft to receive a key
Lathe A machine used to shape materials by rotating against a tool
Layout Lines drawn on material as guides for subsequent operations
Least Material Condition (LMC) A condition of
a feature in which it contains the least amount
of material
Light Pen A hand-held data-entry device used only
with refresh displays. It consists of an optical lens
and photocell, with associative circuitry mounted in
a wand. Most light pens have a switch allowing the
pen to be sensitive to light from the screen.
Limit Dimensions A tolerancing method showing
only the maximum and minimum dimensions that
establish the limits
Limits The maximum and minimum allowable sizes
of a feature
Location Tolerance A tolerance that specifies the
allowable variation from the perfect location
Lug An irregular projection of metal, but not round
as in the case of a boss: usually with a hole in it for a
bolt or screw
Magnaflux A nondestructive inspection technique
that makes use of a magnetic field and magnetic particles to locate internal flaws in ferrous metal parts
Main Storage The general-purpose storage of a
computer: usually, main storage can be accessed directly by the operating registers
Malleable Casting A casting that has been made
less brittle and tougher by annealing
Material Handling The movement and handling of
materials, either manually or through the use of powered equipment
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) When a feature contains the maximum amount of material:
that is. minimum hole diameter and maximum shaft
diameter
Menu A list of options which are displayed on the
CRT or a plastic or paper overlay
Microcomputer A computer that is constructed
using a microprocessor as a basic element of the
CPU: all electronic components are arranged on one
printed circuit board
Mill To remove material by means of a rotating cutter on a milling machine
Modifier The application of MMC or RFS to alter
the normally implied interpretation of a tolerance
specification
Mold The mass of sand or other material that forms
the cavity into which molten metal is poured
931Neck To cut a groove called a neck around a cylindrical piece
Nonferrous A description of metals not derived
from an iron base or an iron alloy base: nonferrous
metals include aluminum, magnesium, and copper,
among others
Normalize To heat steel above its critical temperature, and then cooling it in air
Normalizing A process in which ferrous alloys are
heated and then cooled in still air to room temperatures to restore the uniform grain structure free of
strains caused by cold working or welding
Numerical Control A system of controlling a machine or tool by means of numeric codes that direct
commands to control devices attached or built into
the machine or tool
Oblique Drawing A pictorial drawing of an object
so drawn that one of its principal faces is parallel to
the plane of projection, and is projected in its true
size and shape; the third set of edges is oblique to
the plane of projection at some convenient angle
Obtuse Angle An angle larger than 90 c
Octagon A polygon having eight angles and eight
sides
Ordinate The Y coordinate of a point: i.e.. its vertical distance from the X axis measured parallel to the
Y axis: the vertical axis of a graph or chart
Orthographic Projection A projection on a picture
plane formed by perpendicular projectors from the
object to the picture plane: third-angle projection is
used in the United States and first-angle projection
is used in most countries outside the United States
Output Data that have been processed from an
internal storage to an external storage; opposite
of "input"
Parallel Having the same direction, such as two
lines which, if extended, would never meet
Parallelism A tolerance controlling interdependent
surfaces and axes that must be an equal distance
from a datum plane or axis
Part Individual component of an assembly
Pattern A model, usually of wood, used in forming
a mold for a casting
Peen To hammer into shape with a ballpeen hammer
Pentagon A polygon having five angles and five
sides
Perpendicular Lines or planes at a right angle to a
given line or plane
Perpendicularity A tolerance controlling surfaces
and axes which must be at right angles with a datum
axis
Perspective Drawing A pictorial drawing in which
receding lines converge at vanishing points on the
horizon: the most natural of all pictorial drawings
Pickle To clean forgings or castings in dilute sulphuric acid
Pilot A piece that guides a tool or machine part
Pilot Hole A small hole used to guide a cutting tool
for making a larger hole
Pinion The smaller of two mating gear
Pitch The distance from a point on one thread to a
corresponding point on the next thread; the slope of
a surface
Pitch Circle An imaginary circle corresponding to
the circumference of the friction gear from which the
spur gear is derived
Plane To remove material by means of a planer
Plate To coat a metal piece with another metal.
such as chrome or nickel, by electrochemical methods
Polish To produce a highly finished or polished surface by friction, using a very fine abrasive
Polygon A plane geometric figure with three or
more sides
Positional Tolerancing The permitted variation of
a feature from the exact or true position indicated
on the drawing
Position Tolerance A tolerance that controls the
position of a feature as related to a datum or datums
Precision The quality or state of being precise or
accurate: mechanical exactness
Printed Circuit Board A special board on which a
predetermined pattern of printed circuits has been
formed and to which electronic components have
been attached
Printer A device that prints the output of a computer
Prism A solid whose bases or ends are any congruent and parallel polygons, and whose sides are
parallelograms
Prismatic Pertaining to or like a prism
Processor The computer in a CAD system
Profile of a Line A tolerance that controls the
allowable variation along an elemental tolerance
zone with regard to a basic profile
Profile of a Surface A tolerance that controls the
allowable variation of a surface from a basic profile
or configuration
Program A set of step-by-step instructions telling
the computer to solve a problem with the information input to it or contained in memory
Projected Tolerance Zone A tolerance zone that
applies to the location of an axis above the surface
of the feature being controlled
Punch To cut an opening of a desired shape with a
rigid tool having the same shape
Quench To immerse a heated piece of metal in
water or oil in order to harden it
Rack A flat bar with gear teeth in a straight line to
engage with teeth in a gear
Raster The coordinate grid dividing the display
area of a graphics display
^
932Reference Dimension A non-toleranced dimension
used for information purposes only, which does not
govern production or inspection operations
Refresh Display A CRT device that requires the
refreshing of its screen presentation at a high rate so
that the image will not fade or flicker
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) The condition
where tolerance of position or form must be met irrespective of where the feature lies within its size
tolerance
Relief An offset of surfaces to provide clearance
Rendering Finishing a drawing to give it a realistic
appearance; a representation
Resistance Welding The process of welding metals
by using the resistance of the metals to the flow of
electricity to produce the heat for fusion of the metals
Rib A relatively thin flat member acting as a brace
or support
Rivet To connect with rivets or to clench over the
end of a pin by hammering
Rotate To revolve through an angle relative to
an origin
Round An exterior rounded intersection of two
surfaces
Runout The composite variation from the desired
form of a part surface of revolution during full rotation of the part on a datum axis
Sandblast To blow sand at high velocity with compressed air against castings or forgings to clean them
Scrape To remove metal by scraping with a hand
scraper, usually to fit a bearing
Sectional View A view of an object obtained by the
imaginary cutting away of the front portion of the
object to show the interior detail
Shape To remove metal from a piece with a shaper
Shear To cut metal by means of shearing with two
blades in sliding contact
Shim A thin piece of metal or other material used
as a spacer in adjusting two parts
Size Tolerance A tolerance that specifies how far
individual features may vary from the desired size
Software A set of programs, procedures, rules, and
possibly associated documentation concerned with
the operation of a CAD system
Solder To join with solder, usually composed of
lead and tin
Specification A concise statement of the requirements of a material, an item, or a service, and of the
procedure to be followed to determine if the requirements have been met
Spin To form a rotating piece of sheet metal into a
desired shape by pressing it with a smooth tool
against a rotating form
Spline A keyway. usually one of a series cut around
a shaft or hole
Spotface To produce a round spot or bearing surface around a hole, usually with a spotfacer: similar
to a counterbore
Spot Weld A resistance-type weld that joins pieces
of metal by welding separate spots rather than a continuous weld
Sprue A hole in the sand leading to the gate which
leads to the mold, through which the metal enters
Straightness A tolerance that controls the allowable variation of a surface or an axis from a theoretically perfect plane or line
Stress Relieving To heat a metal part to a suitable
temperature and holding that temperature for a determined time, then gradually cooling it in air: this treatment reduces the internal stresses induced by casting,
quenching, machining, cold working or welding
Stretchout A flat pattern development for use in
laying out. cutting and folding lines on flat stock, such
as paper or sheet metal, to be formed into an object
Stylus A penlike device that provides input or
output of coordinate data usually for the purpose
of indicating where the next entered character will
be displayed
Surface Texture The roughness, waviness. lay. and
flaws of a surface
Swage To hammer metal into shape while it is held
over a swage or die that fits in a hole in the swage
block or anvil
Sweat To fasten metal together by the use of solder between the pieces and by the application of
heat and pressure
Symbol A letter, character or schematic design
representing a unit or component
Tabular Dimension A type of rectangular datum
dimensioning in which dimensions from mutually
perpendicular datum planes are listed in a table on
the drawing instead of on the pictorial portion
Tap A tool used to produce internal threads by
hand or machine
Taper Pin A small tapered pin for fastening, usually to prevent a collar or hub from rotating on
a shaft
Taper Reamer Produces accurately tapered holes,
as for a taper pin
Temper To reheat hardened steel to bring it to a
desired degree of hardness
Template A guide or pattern used to mark out
the work
Tensile Strength The maximum load ipullla piece
supports without breaking or failing
Tin A silvery metal used in alloys and for coating
other metals with tin plate
Tolerance Total amount of variation permitted in
limit dimension of a part
Tooling Standard and or special tools for producing a particular part including jigs fixtures, gauges
cutting tools etcTorque The rotational or twisting force in a turning shaft
Total Runout A tolerance that simultaneously controls a surface related to a datum in all directions
Trammel An instrument consisting of a straightedge
with two adjustable fixed points for drawing curves
and ellipses
Transition Fit A condition in which two parts are
toleranced so that either a clearance or an interference can result when the parts are assembled
Translucent A quality of material that passes light
but diffuses it so that objects are not identifiable
True Position The basic or theoretically exact position of a feature
Truncated Having the apex, vertex or end cut off
by a plane
Turn To produce on a lathe a cylindrical surface
parallel to the center line
Typical This term, when associated with any dimension or feature, means the dimension or feature
applies to the locations that appear to be identical
in size and shape
Uniform Having the same form or character:
unvarying
Unilateral Tolerance A tolerance that allows variations in only one direction
Upset To form a head or enlarged end on a bar by
pressure or by hammering between dies
User A person who operates a CAD system
Vector A directed line segment which, in computer
graphics, is always defined by its two end points
Vernier Scale A small movable scale, attached to a
larger fixed scale, for obtaining fractional subdivisions of the fixed scale
Vertex The highest point of something; the top; the
summit; plural: vertices
Vertical Perpendicular to the horizon
Virtual Condition A condition of a feature in which
all tolerances of location, size and form are considered
Web A thin flat part joining larger parts: also known
as a rib
Welding Uniting metal pieces by pressure or fusionwelding processes
Woodruff Key A semicircular flat key
Working Drawings A set of drawings which provides
details for the production of each part, and information for the correct assembly of the finished product
Workpiece A part in any stage of manufacturing
before it becomes a finished part
Workstation The assigned location where a worker
performs his or her job (i.e.. the keyboard and the
system displayl
Wrought Iron Iron of low carbon content: useful
because of its toughness, ductility, and malleability
934Index
Acme thread form. 4 59
Addendum in gears, 54 I
Adjacent alignment chart, 728
Airbrushes, 49. 5/
Alignment charts, 74 1. 743-52
Allowance, 353
Angle gears, 536
Angle plate fixture, 660, 661
Angle plate jig, 658, 659
Angles
acute, arc tangent constructed to an, 113
bisecting, 99
described, 94
dimensioning, 33 1-32
obtuse, arc tangent constructed to an.
114
right, arc tangent constructed to an, 112
transfer of, 104
ANSI standard, for
clearance locational fits. 360-61
force and shrink fits, 362-63
interference locational fits, 360-61
running and sliding fits, 359
transition locational fits. 360-61
Appliques, use of. 57
Arc tangent
constructed to
acute angle. 1 13
obtuse angle, 1 14
right angle. I 12
straight line and curve. 1 1 5
two radii or diameters. I 16
Architect's scale. 39
Architectural drawings. 20
Arcs
dimensioning. 331-32
drawing. 99
isometric. 59 I
drawing. 589-91
template for drawing, 588-89
Arrowheads, 329
Artistic drawings, described. 2
Assembly drawings. 558-59
Auxiliary views, 225-44
auxiliary section. 23 I
drawing. 226-27
irregular curved surface. 229-30
round surface. 229
round surface projection from an inclined or slanted surface. 227-28
half auxiliary. 232
partial views and. 23 I
secondary, 2 3 I
Axonometric drawings, 579-81
diametric projection. 580
trimetic projection, 580-81
Axonometric projections, 7 8
Axonometric sketching. 77. 78, 82
Backing weld. 63 1-32
Bar charts, 720, 721
spreadsheets and. 736
Base circle, cams, defined. 523
Baseline diagrams, 706
Beam compass, 30
Beam diagrams. 732. 733, 770-76
Bends. 305-7
finding
bend allowance of. 307. 308
straight sides of, 307
total straight-side length adjoining.
308
sheet metal, dimensioning. 346
Bevel gears. 536. 537 545
Beveled retaining rings. 489. 49
1
Bolts, 468. 469
bolt center, locating. 336-37
center lines, concentric arcs and. 337
defined. 466
Boring mills. 655-56
Bow compass, with lead clutch. 29
Bowed, retaining rings. 489
Box jig. 659
Brass pipe. 685
Brazing. 620
Broaching machines. 656
Burnishing plates, care of 57-58
Bushings. 669-71
Butterfly scriber. 48-49
Buttress thread form 460
Cabinet drawings. 582
CAD CAM. 8
equipment 2 \
notations
on drawings and \6
of tooth gears with 542-43
Calipers
measurement of tooth gears with
vernier
Callouts. dimensioning. 338-
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing).
672-76
Index 935mm
Cams
dimensioning, 528-29
displacement diagram, laying out from,
524-27
flat-faced follower, drawing, 5 17
mechanisms of, 522
motion of, 523-24
offset follower, drawing, 525-26
principles of, 52 1-22
terminology of, 522-23
timing diagram, 528
Cap screws, 466
drawing, 467
Cast iron pipe, 684
Casting, 645-47
Cavalier drawings, 581-82
Center lines, 72
orthographic projections and, 157
Centrifugal casting, 646
Chain intermittent weld, 624
Chain and sprockets, 538
Chamfers
external, dimensioning, 343
head fits for undercut. 344
internal, dimensioning, 343
Channel jig. 659, 660
Charts
communicating information, 720-22
components of, 733-35
generating information, 722-33
Check valves. 690, 691
data, 696-97
Chords, dimensioning, 331-32
Circles
described, 95
drawing, 99
an involute of, 135
isometric, drawing, 589-91
locating center of, 110-11
Circular diameter in gears, 540
Civil engineer's scale. 39
Clamping principles, 664-68
Clearance, 353
Clearance in gears, 541
Closed jig, 658
Compasses, 27-30
care of, 57
Compression springs, 505-7
drawing, 509-12
Computer-aided design (CAD), 8
equipment, 23
notations on drawings and, 364-72
Computer-aided drafting, 392-428
advantages of, 398-99
commands
input, 409-10, 412, 414
manipulation, 414, 416-17
output, 417
hardware, 394-97
digitizer, 395
functions menu, 396
graphics display, 395
keyboard, 395
plotter, 397
processor, 397
text display, 395
micro, 399, 402-5
overview of, 392-94
software, 397
system operation, 407-9
cursor control, 408
digitizing, 408
entering commands, 408-9
Computer-aided manufacturing, 672-76
Computer-integrated manufacturing,
678-81
Computer numerical control, 673-75
applications, 675-76
Concrete, prestressed, drawings, 19
Concurrency charts, 741, 743-52
Cones
described, 97
dimensioning, 347
truncated, radial line development and,
300-2
Copper pipe, 685
Curve plotting, multiview drawings, 1 63-64
Curves
adjustable, 30
arc tangent constructed to, 115
cycloidal, drawing, 135-36
dimensioning, 333
French, 33, 34
ogee, drawing, 117-18
parabolic, drawing a, 131
Cutting plane line, 72
Cycloidal curve, drawing a, 13 5-36
Cylinder
dimensioning, 340
truncated, parallel line development of,
296-98
Datums, 435
establishing, 435-36
Decimal-inch dimensioning, 324
Descriptive geometry, 245-88
azimuth bearing. 263-64
bearing of a line, 263
bearings and headings
angles between, 266-67
construction of a line with, 267-70
fold lines and, 246-63
cylinder and plane surface intersection line projection, 262
distance between nonparallel lines,
252
distance between a plane surface and
936 Indexa point in space. 254-55
edge view of a plane surface. 253-54
finding true line length. 248-49
intersection of two planes by line
projection. 261
piercing point by construction determination, 257-59
piercing point by inspection determination. 257
piercing point by line projection determination, 259-61
plane projection into another view,
252
point location in space. 248
point view of a line construction,
249-50
projecting into other views, 247-48
sphere and plane surface intersection,
262-63
true angle between two planes, 2 55
true distance between a line and a
point in space, 250-5 I
true distance between parallel lines,
251
two prisms intersection, 263
visibility of lines determination. 256-57
grade percent. 265
north/south deviation. 263
notations used in. 246
projection. 245
slope angle, 264-65
steps used in, 245-46
Design layouts. 5 58
Design procedure. 557-58
Design process. 7-9, 791-841
learning. 792
phases and steps
alternative solutions evaluation.
799-804
alternative solutions synthesis. 796.
798-99
problem identification and defining.
792-96
solution. 804-19
time. 791
Design projects. 819-29
Detail drawings. 560
Developments
bends. 305-7
defined. 289
design practices. 291
laps and seams. 290-9 I
notches. 305
surface, 289-90
thickness of materials. 29 1-92
triangulation. 302
Diametral pitch in gears. 54 I
Die casting, 646
Dies, 460
Dimension, bolt holes, 348-49
Dimension lines. 72. 326-28
Dimensioning
angles. 33 1-32
arcs. 33 1-3 2
cams. 528-29
chords. 331-32
components. 325-29
cones. 347
contours not defined as arcs. 333
curved surfaces. 332
curves. 333
cylinders, 340
double, 340
external chamfers. 343
flat tapers. 34 5
geometric
angularity. 442
circularity. 44 I
concentricity, 445-48
cylindricity. 44 I
defined. 432
feature control symbol 436-37
flatness, 439
modifiers. 432-36
parallelism. 442
perpendicularity. 442
profile. 442-44
runout, 444
straightness, 439-4 I
terms of. 4 30-31
true position. 437-38
holes
along a line. 337-38
cutouts. 334
locations of. 336
internal chamfers. 34 3
internal slots. 34 1-42
isometric. 595-96
keyseats 4 73
keyways. 345
knurls. 344
multiple radii. 333
necks and undercuts. 34 1
offsets. 333.334
pad and a boss. 346
pipe drawings. 701-2
pyramids. 346-47
radius. 332
rectangular coordinate
reference. 340-4 I
repetitive features. 338
round holes 33 J
round tapersrounded ends.
Indexm
rules, 357-58
sectional views, 346
shafts, 348
sheet metal bends, 346
spheres, 334
squares, 340
steps in, 329-30
symbols, 330-31
systems, 323-2 5
tabular, 351
techniques, 330-56
threads, 346
Dimensions
nominal, 342-43
not to scale, 342
staggered, 344
Dimetric projection, axonometric drawings, 580
Displacement diagram, defined, 522-23
Divider, defined, 30
Drafters, left-handed, 24
Drafting
electronic, 705-19
diagrams, 705-1
printed circuit board drawings, 712-14
symbols, 705, 706
overlay, 59-61
Drafting brushes, 37
Drafting equipment
care of, 56-57
drawing
surface, 24
table, 23
parallel straightedge, 2 5
T-squares, 24-25
Drafting instruments, 22-66
CAD/CAM, 23
conventional, 22-23
See also specific type of instrument
Drafting machines, 25-26
Drafting sets, equipment contained in,
27-37
Drawing scales, 37-40
Drawing surface, 24
Drawing table, 23
Drawings
architectual, 20
artistic, 2
assembly, 5 58-59
axonometric, 579-81
diametric projection, 580
trimetic projection, 580-81
cabinet, 582
cavalier, 581-82
checking procedure, 554, 556
detail, 560
mechanical drawings, isometric, 14
multiview, 146-92
aligned features, 168
centering, 160-61
conventional breaks in, 170-71
curve plotting, 163-64
cylindrical intersections, 164-66
first angle projection of, 173
incomplete views and, 166-67
intersecting surfaces, treatment of, 163
orthographic projection, 147-58
planning, 158-59
representing holes in, 168-70
rounds and fillets, 162
runouts, 162
sketching procedure, 159-60
visualization of, 171-72
numbering systems, 5 56
oblique, 581-82
parts list of, 5 56
patent, 561
perspective, 582
procedures. 596-602
pictorial drawings, 579-617
axonometric, 579-81
box construction, 585-86
center lines, 585
hidden lines, 584
isometric circles, 587-91
isometric principles of, 582-84
nonisometric lines, 584
offset measurements, 585
perspective, 582
pipe, 698-701
revisions, 552-53
technical, 2-3, 5-7
applications of, 9-15
architectural, 10, 12, 13
civil, 12
described, 2-3, 5
electrical, 1
HVAC, 1
purpose of, 7-9
regulation of, 15
structural, 1
types of, 5-7
text on, 58-59
title block, 554
types of, 2-7
See also specific type of drawing
Drill bushings, 669
mounting, 669, 671
renewable, 670
Drill presses, 653
Drill size, tolerancing, 335-36
Drop bow compass, 29, 30
Drop forging, 647, 648
Dry cleaning powder, 37
938 IndexDry transfer sheets. 57
Duplex fixture, 662
Dwell, defined, 523
Electronic drafting, 705-19
diagrams
block, 708-9
connection, 706-7
logic, 710-11
schematic, 705-6
electronic, 712-14
symbols, 705, 706
Ellipse
drawing
concentric circle method, 1 19-2 I
foci, 122-23
inclined plane, 594
major and minor axis location. 124
tangent drawn to
from a distant point, 12 5-26
with located center, 124-25
trammel, drawing a, 121-22
Empirical equations, 753-61
Ends, rounded, dimensioning. 342
Equilateral triangles, 95
drawing, 107
Erasers, 36-37
Extension lines, 72, 325
Extension springs, 507
drawing. 512-13
External retaining rings, 489
Extruding, 648-49
Fasteners
bolts. 465-67
classifications of. 457
grooved, 474-86
pins. 475-84
sizes. 477. 481
spring pins. 486-87
studs. 481
types. 476-77
keys and keyseats. 472-73
pitch. 460-61
retaining rings. 488-98
external series, 497-98
internal series, 495-96
materials and finishes, 49
1
selection considerations, 491
symbols. 493-94
types of. 489-9
1
rivets. 470-72
screw thread forms. 4 58-60
screws, 465-67
studs, 465-67
tap and die, 460
threads, 458
relief. 463. 465
representation of. 462-63
right-hand and left-hand, 462
single and multiple. 461
threads per inch (TPI). 460
Fastening devices, 671, 672
Fastening systems, 488
Field welds. 627-28
Files, drawing, 56
Fillet weld. 628
Fillets
isometric, 595
multiview drawings and, 162
Finish marks. 350
Fittings
pipe. 685-90
symbols for, 698-99
screwed, 685-690
Fixed-renewable bushings. 669
Fixtures. 660-63, 675
Flange weld, 633-34
Flanged fittings, 690
Flanged joints. 690
Flat springs, 507-8
Flow charts, 723
Foci ellipse, drawing a, 122-23
Foreshortening. 147
Forge welding, 620
Forging. 647-48
Fractional dimensioning. 325
French curves. 33. 34
Friction-joint compass. 2 7, 28
Fusion welding, 620
symbols, 622
Gate valves. 690. 691
data, 692-93
Gears
backlash, 540
blank. 539
design and layout of. 548
diametral pitch. 54 I
materials of, 548
pitch diameter. 5 39
rack. 544
ratio, 538-39
terminology of. 540-4 I
tooth caliper, using. 542-43
tooth cutting data. ^ 12- n ~^17
train. 546 548
types of. 535-38
Geometric
elemental construction principles.
98-106
nomenclature 93-97
Geometric dimensioning
angularity 44 2
circularity 44 I
concentricit\ 4 1 5- 18
Index 939cylindricity. 44 1
datums, 435
defined, 432
establishing, 435-36
feature control symbol, 436-37
flatness, 439
least material condition. 434
maximum material condition, 432-33
modifiers, 432
parallelism, 442
perpendicularity, 442
profile, 442-44
projected tolerance zone, 435
regardless of feature size, 434
runout, 444
straightness, 439-41
terms of, 430-31
true position, 437-38
Geometry, descriptive, 245-88
azimuth bearing, 263-64
bearing of a line, 263
bearings and headings
angles between, 266-67
construction of a line with, 267-70
fold lines and, 246-63
cylinder and plane surface intersection line projection, 262
distance between nonparallel lines.
252
distance between a plane surface and
a point in space, 254-55
edge view of a plane surface. 2 53-54
finding true line length. 248-49
intersection of two planes by line
projection, 261
piercing point by construction determination, 257-59
piercing point by inspection determination, 257
piercing point by line projection determination, 259-61
plane projection into another view,
252
point location in space, 248
point view of a line construction,
249-50
projecting into other views, 247-48
sphere and plane surface intersection,
262-63
true angle between two planes, 255
. true distance between a line and a
point in space, 250-5 1
true distance between parallel lines.
251
two prisms intersection, 263
visibility of lines determination,
256-57
grade percent, 265
north/south deviation, 263
notations used in, 246
projection, 245
slope angle. 264-65
steps used in, 245-46
Globe valve, 690, 691
data, 694-95
Graphical calculus, 730, 731
Graphical integration, pole and ray method
of, 761-70
Graphs
communicating information, 720-22
components of, 733-35
generating information, 722-33
Grinders. 654
Groove weld, 628-30
Helical springs, 505-7
Helix, drawing a, 132-33
Hex head bolt. 469
Hexagon, drawing a, 109
Hidden lines, 72
orthographic projections and, 1 56-57
pictorial drawings, 584
Highway diagrams, 708
Holes
bolt center, locating. 336-37
bolt, dimensioning, 348-49
counterbored. callouts for, 338, 339
countersunk, callouts for. 338. 339
cutouts, dimensioning, 334
dimensioning, 334
along a line, 337-38
locations of, 336
limits, 353
multiview drawings and, 168-70
tapered, callouts for, 338
Horizontal lines, 73
Hyperbola, drawing a, 129-31
Illustrations
described, 5
mechanical, 6
Inclined plane, drawing an ellipse on. 594
Indexing fixture, 662
Indexing jig, 660
Industrial robots. 676-78
Ink, tools, 43
Interference fit. 353
Internal retaining rings, 489
Intersections, isometric. 593-95
Invention agreement, 554
Investment casting, 646
ISO metric thread form, 4 58, 459
Isometric
arcs. 591
drawing. 589-91
940 Indextemplate for drawing. 588-89
circles, drawing, 589-91
dimensioning, 595-96
drawings, 582-84
fillets, 595
intersections, 593-95
knurls, 592
object, centering. 595
rounds, 595
screw threads, 592
sketching, 78, 83
spheres, 592-93
templates, 596
Isometric projections
axonometric drawings and, 579
springs, 5 14
Isosceles triangle, 95
jigs, 657,658-60
joints
pipe, 685-90
welding, 628
Keys and keyseats. 472-73
Keyways. dimensioning, 345
Knuckle thread form, 459-60
Knurls
dimensioning, 344
isometric. 592
Laps, 290-91
Lathes, 651-52
Lead holders. 35-36
Leader lines. 328
Leads, 35
Leaf jig. 659, 660
Lettering
characteristics of good. 70
freehand techniques. 71
guidelines. 7 I
pens. 48
styles, 67-70
Lettering sets, mechanical. 46-48
Linear coordinate graphs. 723
Linear graphs. 724
Lineless diagrams. 708
Liner bushings. 669
Lines
angular. 73
bisecting. 98
characteristics of. 72
described. 94
divide into proportional parts. 103-4
dividing into equal parts. 102-3
drawing an involute of. 134
horizontal and vertical. 73
parallel. 73-74
parallel to a curved, drawing. 100
parallel to a straight, drawing, 100
perpendicular, 74, 101-2
sketching, 75
straight, arc tangent constructed to. 115
Locators. 664. 666
Log-linear graphs. 72 5. 727
Log-log graphs. 725. 727 728
Machine screws. 466
drawing, 467
Machining. 65 1-57
Measuring. 40-42
Mechanical drawings, isometric. 14
Mechanical engineer's scale. 37-39
Mechanical illustration. 6
Mechanical lettering sets. 46-48
Mechanical pictorial drawings. 21
Metric dimensioning, 323-24
MicroCADD. 399. 402-5
advantages of. 402-3
limitations of. 403-5
Micrometer
described. 4 1
reading a, 4 1-42
Milling machines. 653
Miter gears. 536. 537
Multistation jig. 660
Multiview drawings. 146-92
aligned features. 168
centering, 160-61
conventional breaks in. 170-71
curve plotting. 163-64
cylindrical intersections 164-66
first angle projection of. 173
incomplete views and. 166-67
intersecting surfaces, treatment of. 163
orthographic projection 147-58
center lines and. I 57
hidden lines and. 156-57
planning. 158-59
representing holes in. 168-70
rounds and fillets. 162
runouts. 162
sketching procedure 159-60
visualization of 17 1-72
Nomograms
alignment charts and. 74 I
concurrency charts 74 I 743-52
Nomographs
Nonisometric lines
pictorial drawings. 584
true length of 594-95
Notations. 3c> I
on drawings 364-72
detail notes 3w 368 ?7/
Index 94 1^
general notes. 366. 367, 369-70
note specifications, 366
writing notes. 366
Notches. 305
Numerically controlled machines. 656-57
Nuts, 469
Oblique drawings, 581-82
Oblique projections, 7
Oblique, sketching, 78, 79, 84-87
Octagon, drawing a, 109-10
Offsets, dimensioning. 333, 334
Ogee curves, drawing, 117-18
Oil-groove bushings. 670
Open jig, 658
Open-carriage typewriter, 58
Orienting dimensioning. 325
Orthographic
sketching, 77, 81
view of, 77, 82
Orthographic projection, 5. 7
center lines and, 157
hidden lines and, 156-57
multiple, 6
multiview drawings, 147-58
Outside diameter in gears, 540
Overlay drafting, 59-61
Paper, sizes of, 5 1-54
Parabola
drawing a. 126-27
focus point of. 127-28
Parabolic curve, drawing a. 131
Parallel alignment chart, 729
Parallel line development, 292-98
truncated cylinder developed from,
296-98
truncated prism developed from, 294-96
Parallel lines, 73-74
Parallel projections, 5, 7
Parallel straightedge. 2 5
Parts list, 556
Patent drawings, 561
Pencils, 35
Pens
lettering, 48
technical, 43-44
cleaning, 44-46
Pentagon, drawing a, 108
Perpendicular lines, 74
Perspective
projection. 7
one point. 8
sketching, 77, 84-87
three point, 8
Perspective drawings, 582
procedures. 596-602
Phantom lines, 72
Pictorial charts, 72 1
Pictorial drawings, 579-617
axonometric, 579-81
box construction, 585-86
center lines, 585
hidden lines, 584
isometric circles, 587-91
isometric principles of, 582-84
nonisometric lines, 584
offset measurements, 585
perspective, 582
Pie charts, 720
spreadsheets and, 736
Pinion gears, 535
Pins
grooved. 475-84
spring, 486-87
Pipe
drawings, 698-701
dimensions, 701-2
joints and fittings, 685-90
symbols for. 700
types of, 684-85
valves, 690-98
Piping drawings, 18
Pitch
diameter in gears, 540
fasteners and, 460-61
Planers, 655
Plastic pipe. 685
Plate fixtures, 660, 661
Plate jig. 658
Plug weld. 632, 633
Points in space, 93
Point-to-point diagrams, 706
Polar graphs, 724
Pole method of graphical integration,
761-70
Polygons
construction. 106-10
described, 95
force, 736, 738-41
Polyhedron, described, 97
Positional tolerancing, defined. 432
Power metallurgy, casting and, 647
Power saws, 654
Precision grinders, 654
Press forging, 647
Press-fit bushings, 669
Prism
described. 97
truncated, parallel line development
and. 294-96
Profile charts. 72 1
Projection plane, 6
defined, 147
Projection weld, 636-37
942 IndexProjections
axonometric. 7. 8
descriptive geometry. 245
dimetric, 580
isometric. 579
axonometric drawings and. 579
springs. 5 14
oblique, 7
orthographic. 5, 7
center lines and. I 57
hidden lines and. 156-57
multiple. 6
multiview drawings, 147-58
parallel. 5. 7
perspective. 7
trimetic, 580-81
Proportional dividers. 30
Protractors. 26. 3 5
Pyramid
described. 97
dimensioning. 346-47
truncated, radial line development and.
299-300
Quadrilateral, described. 95
Rack gears, 53 5
Radial line development. 298-302
truncated cone development from, 300-2
truncated pyramid developed from.
299-300
Radii, arc tangent constructed to. 116
Radius, dimensioning. 332


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