كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics

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كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics    كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics  Emptyالجمعة 20 أغسطس 2021, 10:12 am

أخواني في الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics
Fifteenth Edition
Frederick E. Giesecke
Late Professor Emeritus of Drawing
Texas A&M University
ALVA MITCHELL
Late Professor Emeritus of Engineering Drawing
Texas A & M University
HENRY CECIL SPENCER
Late Professor Emeritus of Technical Drawing
Illinois Institute of Technology
IVAN LEROY HILL
Late Professor Emeritus of Engineering Graphics
Illinois Institute of Technology
JOHN THOMAS DYGDON
Professor Emeritus of Engineering Graphics
Illinois Institute of Technology
JAMES E. NOVAK
Senior Lecturer and Director, Engineering Graphics Division
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering
Illinois Institute of Technology
SHAWNA LOCKHART
Formerly Adjunct Professor, Engineering Graphics
Department of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering
Montana State University
MARLA GOODMAN
CINDY M. JOHNSON

كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics  T_d_w_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


C O N T E N T S xi
C H A P T E R O N E
THE WORLDWIDE LANGUAGE FOR
GRAPHIC DESIGN 2
UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF TECHNICAL
DRAWINGS 4
The Design Process 5
Concurrent Engineering 6
Computer-Aided Design and Product
Development 6
Designing Quality into Products 7
The Digital Database 7
1.1 GRAPHICS TOOLS IN ACTION 8
Design Phase: Problem Identification 8
Design Phase: Ideation 9
Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection 9
Design Phase: Refinement 10
Design Phase: Analysis 11
Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection 12
Design Phase: Implementation 13
Design Phase: Documentation 14
1.2 RAPID PROTOTYPING 15
1.3 DRAFTING STANDARDS 16
1.4 CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES 16
Examine Manufactured Products 16
Study the Natural World 16
Watch the Web 16
Research Patent Drawings 17
Design Groups 17
1.5 PRODUCT DEFINITION 18
1.6 SHOWING THE DESIGN PROCESS IN A
PORTFOLIO 18
KEY WORDS 20
CHAPTER SUMMARY 20
REVIEW QUESTIONS 20
CHAPTER EXERCISES 21
REVERSE ENGINEERING PROJECTS 22
Can Opener Project 22
Locking Pliers Project 28
C H A P T E R T W O
LAYOUTS AND LETTERING 30
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS 32
Types of Projections 32
Drawing Vocabulary 34
2.1 ALPHABET OF LINES 34
2.2 FREEHAND LINES 36
2.3 MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS 36
U.S. Customary Units 36
The Metric System 36
2.4 DRAWING SCALE 37
2.5 SPECIFYING THE SCALE ON A
DRAWING 37
2.6 LETTERING 40
2.7 LETTERING STANDARDS 40
2.8 USING GUIDELINES FOR HAND
LETTERING 40
2.9 VERTICAL AND INCLINED LETTERS AND
NUMERALS 41
2.10 FRACTIONS 43
2.11 SPACING OF LETTERS AND WORDS 44
2.12 LETTERING FOR TITLES 45
2.13 DRAWING PENCILS 46
2.14 TEMPLATES 47
2.15 CAD TOOLS 47
2.16 SKETCHING AND DRAWING MEDIA 49
2.17 STANDARD SHEETS 49
2.18 STANDARD LAYOUT ELEMENTS 50
Margins and Borders 50
Zones 50
Typical Letter Sizes 50
Title Block 51
2.19 LAYOUTS 52
CONTENTSxii C O N T E N T S
3.10 ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS 85
3.11 MAKING AN ISOMETRIC DRAWING 86
3.12 OFFSET LOCATION MEASUREMENTS 88
Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces 89
3.13 HIDDEN LINES AND CENTERLINES 89
3.14 ANGLES IN ISOMETRIC 90
3.15 IRREGULAR OBJECTS 91
3.16 CURVES IN ISOMETRIC 91
3.17 TRUE ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC 92
3.18 ORIENTING ELLIPSES IN ISOMETRIC
DRAWINGS 93
3.19 DRAWING ISOMETRIC CYLINDERS 95
3.20 SCREW THREADS IN ISOMETRIC 95
3.21 ARCS IN ISOMETRIC 95
3.22 SPHERES IN ISOMETRIC 96
3.23 OBLIQUE SKETCHES 98
Appearance of Oblique Drawings 98
Choosing the Front Surface 98
Angle of Receding Lines 98
3.24 LENGTH OF RECEDING LINES 99
Cavalier Projection 99
Cabinet Projection 99
3.25 CHOICE OF POSITION IN OBLIQUE
DRAWINGS 100
3.26 ELLIPSES FOR OBLIQUE DRAWINGS 100
3.27 ANGLES IN OBLIQUE PROJECTION 101
3.28 SKETCHING ASSEMBLIES 103
3.29 SKETCHING PERSPECTIVES 104
The Three Types of Perspective 105
Bird’s-Eye View Versus Worm’s-Eye View 107
3.30 CURVES AND CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE 107
3.31 SHADING 108
3.32 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 108
3.33 DRAWING ON DRAWING 109
KEY WORDS 116
CHAPTER SUMMARY 116
REVIEW QUESTIONS 116
SKETCHING EXERCISES 117
2.20 PLANNING YOUR DRAWING
OR SKETCH 52
Show Details Clearly 52
KEY WORDS 57
CHAPTER SUMMARY 57
REVIEW QUESTIONS 57
CHAPTER EXERCISES 58
Drawing Exercises 58
Lettering Exercises 60
C H A P T E R T H R E E
VISUALIZATION AND
SKETCHING 62
UNDERSTANDING SOLID OBJECTS 64
Types of Solids 64
UNDERSTANDING SKETCHING
TECHNIQUES 66
Analyzing Complex Objects 66
Viewpoint 68
Shading 68
Edges and Vertices 69
Points and Lines 69
Angles 70
Drawings and Sketches 70
Freehand Sketching 71
3.1 TECHNIQUE OF LINES 72
Lineweights 72
3.2 SKETCHING STRAIGHT LINES 73
Blocking in a Freehand Drawing 73
3.3 SKETCHING CIRCLES,
ARCS, AND ELLIPSES 75
Circles 75
Sketching Arcs 77
Sketching Ellipses 77
3.4 MAINTAINING PROPORTIONS 77
3.5 ONE-VIEW DRAWINGS 79
3.6 PICTORIAL SKETCHING 80
3.7 PROJECTION METHODS 82
3.8 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION 82
Axonometric Projections and 3D Models 83
3.9 ISOMETRIC PROJECTION 84
Isometric Axes 84
Nonisometric Lines 84
Isometric Scales 84C O N T E N T S xiii
4.21 USER COORDINATE SYSTEMS 153
4.22 TRANSFORMATIONS 154
Geometric Transformations 154
Viewing Transformations 155
KEY WORDS 161
CHAPTER SUMMARY 161
SKILLS SUMMARY 161
REVIEW QUESTIONS 161
CHAPTER EXERCISES 162
C H A P T E R F I V E
MODELING AND DESIGN 170
REFINEMENT AND MODELING 172
KINDS OF MODELS 173
Descriptive Models 173
Analytical Models 174
5.1 2D MODELS 176
Paper Drawings 176
2D CAD Models 176
2D Constraint-Based Modeling 178
5.2 3D MODELS 179
Physical Models 179
3D CAD Models 181
5.3 TYPES OF 3D MODELS 182
Wireframe Models 182
Surface Models 184
Solid Models 190
5.4 CONSTRAINT-BASED MODELING 191
5.5 CONSTRAINTS DEFINE THE GEOMETRY 193
Feature-Based Modeling 196
5.6 PLANNING PARTS FOR DESIGN
FLEXIBILITY 197
5.7 SKETCH CONSTRAINTS 199
Overconstrained Sketches 203
Underconstrained Sketches 203
Applying Constraints 203
Setting the Base Point 204
5.8 THE BASE FEATURE 205
Adding Features to the Model 206
Parent-Child Relationships 207
Datum Planes and Surfaces 209
5.9 EDITING THE MODEL 212
Standard Features 213
Working with Built-in Features 213
Complex Shapes 216
C H A P T E R F O U R
GEOMETRY FOR MODELING
AND DESIGN 124
COORDINATES FOR 3D CAD MODELING 126
Specifying Location 127
GEOMETRIC ENTITIES 130
Points 130
Lines 130
Planes 131
Circles 132
Arcs 133
4.1 MANUALLY BISECTING A LINE OR
CIRCULAR ARC 134
4.2 DRAWING TANGENTS TO TWO
CIRCLES 135
4.3 DRAWING AN ARC TANGENT TO A LINE OR
ARC AND THROUGH A POINT 135
4.4 BISECTING AN ANGLE 137
4.5 DRAWING A LINE THROUGH A POINT AND
PARALLEL TO A LINE 137
4.6 DRAWING A TRIANGLE WITH SIDES
GIVEN 138
4.7 DRAWING A RIGHT TRIANGLE WITH
HYPOTENUSE AND ONE SIDE GIVEN 138
4.8 LAYING OUT AN ANGLE 138
4.9 DRAWING AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE 139
4.10 POLYGONS 139
4.11 DRAWING A REGULAR PENTAGON 140
4.12 DRAWING A HEXAGON 140
4.13 ELLIPSES 141
4.14 SPLINE CURVES 142
4.15 GEOMETRIC RELATIONSHIPS 145
4.16 SOLID PRIMITIVES 146
Making Complex Shapes with Boolean
Operations 147
4.17 RECOGNIZING SYMMETRY 149
Right- and Left-Hand Parts 149
Parting-Line Symmetry 150
4.18 EXTRUDED FORMS 151
Swept Shapes 151
4.19 REVOLVED FORMS 152
4.20 IRREGULAR SURFACES 152xiv C O N T E N T S
6.12 NORMAL EDGES 252
6.13 INCLINED EDGES 252
6.14 OBLIQUE EDGES 252
6.15 PARALLEL EDGES 252
6.16 ANGLES 253
6.17 VERTICES 253
6.18 INTERPRETING POINTS 253
6.19 INTERPRETING LINES 253
6.20 SIMILAR SHAPES OF SURFACES 254
6.21 INTERPRETING VIEWS 254
6.22 MODELS 256
Rules for Visualizing from a Drawing:
Putting It All Together 256
6.23 PROJECTING A THIRD VIEW 256
6.24 BECOMING A 3D VISUALIZER 258
KEY WORDS 262
CHAPTER SUMMARY 262
REVIEW QUESTIONS 262
CHAPTER EXERCISES 263
C H A P T E R S E V E N
2D DRAWING
REPRESENTATION 284
PRACTICES FOR 2D DOCUMENTATION
DRAWINGS 286
Common Manufactured Features 286
Conventional Representations 287
Intersections and Tangencies 287
Removed Views 287
7.1 VISUALIZING AND DRAWING COMPLEX
CYLINDRICAL SHAPES 288
7.2 CYLINDERS WHEN SLICED 289
7.3 CYLINDERS AND ELLIPSES 290
7.4 INTERSECTIONS AND TANGENCIES 290
Intersections of Cylinders 291
7.5 FILLETS AND ROUNDS 293
7.6 RUNOUTS 294
7.7 CONVENTIONAL EDGES 295
7.8 NECESSARY VIEWS 296
7.9 PARTIAL VIEWS 297
Showing Enlarged Details 298
Conventional Breaks 298
5.10 CONSTRAINT-BASED MODELING
MODES 216
Assemblies 217
Drawings from the Model 218
5.11 CHOOSING THE RIGHT MODELING
METHOD 222
KEY WORDS 228
CHAPTER SUMMARY 228
REVIEW QUESTIONS 228
CHAPTER EXERCISES 229
C H A P T E R S I X
ORTHOGRAPHIC
PROJECTION 232
UNDERSTANDING PROJECTIONS 234
Views of Objects 234
The Six Standard Views 235
Principal Dimensions 235
Projection Method 236
The Glass Box 236
Spacing between Views 238
Transferring Depth Dimensions 238
Measuring from a Reference Surface 238
Necessary Views 239
Orientation of the Front View 240
First- and Third-Angle Projection 240
Third-Angle Projection 241
Alternative Arrangements for
Third-Angle Projection 242
First-Angle Projection 242
Projection System Drawing Symbol 242
Hidden Lines 243
Centerlines 244
6.1 HIDDEN LINE TECHNIQUE 244
6.2 PRECEDENCE OF LINES 244
6.3 CENTERLINES 246
6.4 LAYING OUT A DRAWING 246
6.5 DEVELOPING VIEWS FROM 3D
MODELS 247
Placing the Views 248
Isometric Views 249
6.6 VISUALIZATION 250
Surfaces, Edges, and Corners 250
6.7 VIEWS OF SURFACES 250
6.8 NORMAL SURFACES 251
6.9 INCLINED SURFACES 251
6.10 OBLIQUE SURFACES 251
6.11 EDGES 252C O N T E N T S xv
CHAPTER SUMMARY 350
REVIEW QUESTIONS 350
CHAPTER EXERCISES 351
C H A P T E R N I N E
AUXILIARY VIEWS 362
UNDERSTANDING AUXILIARY VIEWS 364
The Auxiliary Plane 364
Primary Auxiliary Views 365
Visualizing an Auxiliary View
as a Revolved Drawing 366
Classification of Auxiliary Views 366
Successive Auxiliary Views 368
Secondary Auxiliary Views 368
Reference Planes 369
9.1 USING TRIANGLES TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS 371
9.2 USING GRID PAPER TO SKETCH AUXILIARY
VIEWS 371
9.3 USING CAD TO CREATE AUXILIARY
VIEWS 373
9.4 CIRCLES AND ELLIPSES IN AUXILIARY
VIEWS 373
9.5 HIDDEN LINES IN AUXILIARY VIEWS 373
9.6 PARTIAL AUXILIARY VIEWS 375
9.7 HALF AUXILIARY VIEWS 375
9.8 REVERSE CONSTRUCTION 375
9.9 AUXILIARY SECTIONS 376
9.10 VIEWING-PLANE LINES
AND ARROWS 377
9.11 USES OF AUXILIARY VIEWS 378
9.12 TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE 378
9.13 POINT VIEW OF A LINE 380
Showing the Point View of a Line 380
9.14 EDGE VIEW OF A PLANE 381
Showing the Edge View of a Plane 381
9.15 TRUE SIZE OF AN OBLIQUE SURFACE 382
Showing the True Size and Shape
of an Oblique Surface 382
9.16 DIHEDRAL ANGLES 384
UNDERSTANDING DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS 385
Surface Terminology 385
Developable Surfaces 386
Principles of Intersections 386
7.10 ALIGNMENT OF VIEWS 299
7.11 REMOVED VIEWS 300
7.12 RIGHT-HAND AND LEFT-HAND PARTS 301
7.13 REVOLUTION CONVENTIONS 302
Common Hole Features Shown in
Orthographic Views 303
Common Features Shown in
Orthographic Views 304
KEY WORDS 307
CHAPTER SUMMARY 307
REVIEW QUESTIONS 307
CHAPTER EXERCISES 308
C H A P T E R E I G H T
SECTION VIEWS 326
UNDERSTANDING SECTIONS 328
Sections of Single Parts 328
Full Sections 328
The Cutting Plane 328
Lines behind the Cutting Plane 328
8.1 PLACEMENT OF SECTION VIEWS 331
8.2 LABELING CUTTING PLANES 332
8.3 LINE PRECEDENCE 332
8.4 RULES FOR LINES IN SECTION VIEWS 333
8.5 CUTTING-PLANE LINE STYLE 334
Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction 334
8.6 SECTION-LINING TECHNIQUE 335
Section Lining Large Areas 336
Section-Lining Symbols 336
Section Lining in CAD 337
8.7 HALF SECTIONS 337
8.8 BROKEN OUT SECTIONS 338
8.9 REVOLVED SECTIONS 339
8.10 REMOVED SECTIONS 340
8.11 OFFSET SECTIONS 342
8.12 RIBS IN SECTION 343
8.13 ALIGNED SECTIONS 343
8.14 PARTIAL VIEWS 345
8.15 INTERSECTIONS IN SECTIONS 346
8.16 CONVENTIONAL BREAKS
AND SECTIONS 346
8.17 ASSEMBLY SECTIONS 346
KEY WORDS 350xvi C O N T E N T S
10.2 ASSEMBLIES AND DESIGN 424
Layout Drawings 425
Assembling to a Skeleton 425
Global Parameters 427
Seed Parts 428
Constraint-Based Drawing Elements 429
10.3 ASSEMBLIES AND SIMULATION 429
10.4 PARTS FOR ASSEMBLIES 430
Standard Parts 430
Fastener Libraries 431
10.5 USING YOUR MODEL TO CHECK FITS 432
Interference Checking 432
Accessibility Checking 433
10.6 MANUFACTURING PROCESSES 434
Designing Plastic Parts 434
Cast Parts 437
Modeling Machined Parts 437
Modeling Sheet Metal Parts 438
Other Methods of Production 440
10.7 DOS AND DON’TS OF PRACTICAL
DESIGN 441
Casting Design 441
Practical Considerations 441
10.8 MANUFACTURING MATERIALS 443
Material Assignment in Models 444
10.9 APPEARANCE, SERVICE LIFE, AND
RECYCLING 445
10.10 DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY AND SURFACE
FINISH 445
10.11 NET-SHAPE MANUFACTURING 446
10.12 COMPUTER-INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING 447
10.13 SHARED MANUFACTURING 448
10.14 MANUFACTURING METHODS AND THE
DRAWING 448
10.15 MODELING FOR TESTING AND
REFINEMENT 451
10.16 DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES 451
Understanding Mass Property Calculations 454
10.17 EXPORTING DATA FROM THE
DATABASE 456
File Formats 456
Common Formats for Export 457
Vector versus Raster Data 459
10.18 DOWNSTREAM APPLICATIONS 460
Spreadsheets 460
Equation Solvers 460
Finite Element Analysis 463
9.17 DEVELOPMENTS 387
Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and
Developing the Prism 387
Finding the Intersection of a Plane
and a Cylinder and Developing
the Cylinder 389
9.18 HEMS AND JOINTS FOR SHEET METAL AND
OTHER MATERIALS 390
9.19 MORE EXAMPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS AND
INTERSECTIONS 390
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Prism 390
Developing a Plane and an Oblique Cylinder 391
Developing a Plane and a Pyramid 391
Developing a Plane and a Cone 391
Developing a Hood and Flue 392
9.20 TRANSITION PIECES 393
9.21 TRIANGULATION 393
9.22 DEVELOPING A TRANSITION PIECE
CONNECTING RECTANGULAR PIPES ON THE
SAME AXIS 394
9.23 DEVELOPING A PLANE AND A SPHERE 394
9.24 REVOLUTION 395
Axis of Revolution 395
Creating a Revolved Drawing 395
9.25 PRIMARY AND SUCCESSIVE
REVOLUTIONS 396
9.26 TRUE LENGTH OF A LINE: REVOLUTION
METHOD 396
KEY WORDS 398
CHAPTER SUMMARY 398
REVIEW QUESTIONS 398
CHAPTER EXERCISES 399
Design Project 399
Auxiliary View Exercises 399
Revolution Exercises 407
Development Exercises 410
C H A P T E R T E N
MODELING FOR MANUFACTURE
AND ASSEMBLY 414
DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE, ASSEMBLY,
DISASSEMBLY, AND SERVICE 416
10.1 ASSEMBLY MODELS 418
Constraint-Based Assemblies 419
Choosing the Parent Part 420
Assembly Constraints 421
Managing Assembly Files 423C O N T E N T S xvii
11.19 FILLETS AND ROUNDS 517
11.20 SIZE DIMENSIONING: PRISMS 518
11.21 SIZE DIMENSIONING: CYLINDERS 518
11.22 SIZE DIMENSIONING: HOLES 519
11.23 APPLYING STANDARD DIMENSIONING
SYMBOLS 520
11.24 DIMENSIONING COUNTERBORES AND
SPOTFACES WITH FILLETS 521
11.25 DIMENSIONING TRIANGULAR PRISMS,
PYRAMIDS, AND CONES 522
11.26 DIMENSIONING CURVES 522
11.27 DIMENSIONING
CURVED SURFACES 523
11.28 DIMENSIONING ROUNDED-END
SHAPES 523
11.29 DIMENSIONING THREADS 524
11.30 DIMENSIONING TAPERS 524
11.31 DIMENSIONING CHAMFERS 524
11.32 SHAFT CENTERS 525
11.33 DIMENSIONING KEYWAYS 525
11.34 DIMENSIONING KNURLS 525
11.35 FINISH MARKS 526
11.36 SURFACE ROUGHNESS 526
Applications of Surface
Roughness Symbols 527
11.37 LOCATION DIMENSIONS 530
11.38 MATING DIMENSIONS 532
11.39 COORDINATE DIMENSIONING 533
11.40 TABULAR DIMENSIONS 534
11.41 DIMENSIONING FOR NUMERICALLYCONTROLLED MACHINING 534
11.42 MACHINE, PATTERN, AND FORGING
DIMENSIONS 535
11.43 SHEET METAL BENDS 536
11.44 NOTES 536
11.45 STANDARDS 538
11.46 DOS AND DON’TS OF DIMENSIONING 538
KEY WORDS 543
CHAPTER SUMMARY 543
REVIEW QUESTIONS 543
CHAPTER EXERCISES 544
Simulation Software 468
Human Factors 470
Integrated Modeling and Design Software 472
10.19 PROTOTYPING YOUR DESIGN 474
Rapid Prototyping 474
Translating the Model 474
Rapid Prototyping Systems 476
Rapid Tooling 480
KEY WORDS 486
CHAPTER SUMMARY 487
REVIEW QUESTIONS 488
CHAPTER EXERCISES 490
Mass Properties Exercises 500
C H A P T E R E L E V E N
DIMENSIONING 502
UNDERSTANDING DIMENSIONING 504
Three Aspects of Good Dimensioning 505
Tolerance 505
Geometric Breakdown 506
11.1 LINES USED IN DIMENSIONING 506
11.2 USING DIMENSION AND
EXTENSION LINES 508
11.3 ARROWHEADS 508
11.4 LEADERS 509
11.5 DRAWING SCALE AND
DIMENSIONING 509
11.6 DIRECTION OF DIMENSION VALUES
AND NOTES 510
11.7 DIMENSION UNITS 510
11.8 MILLIMETER VALUES 510
11.9 DECIMAL-INCH VALUES 511
11.10 RULES FOR DIMENSION VALUES 512
11.11 RULES FOR ROUNDING DECIMAL
DIMENSION VALUES 512
11.12 DUAL DIMENSIONING 512
11.13 COMBINATION UNITS 513
11.14 DIMENSIONING SYMBOLS 513
11.15 PLACING AND SHOWING DIMENSIONS
LEGIBLY 514
Rules for Placing Dimensions Properly 514
11.16 SUPERFLUOUS DIMENSIONS 516
11.17 DIMENSIONING ANGLES 517
11.18 DIMENSIONING ARCS 517xviii C O N T E N T S
12.20 TOLERANCES AND DIGITAL PRODUCT
DEFINITION 581
12.21 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 582
KEY WORDS 587
CHAPTER SUMMARY 587
REVIEW QUESTIONS 588
CHAPTER EXERCISES 588
Design Project 588
Tolerancing Projects 588
C H A P T E R T H I R T E E N
THREADS, FASTENERS, AND
SPRINGS 592
UNDERSTANDING THREADS AND
FASTENERS 594
Screw Thread Terms 595
Screw Thread Forms 596
Thread Pitch 597
Thread Series 598
Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads 598
Single and Multiple Threads 599
American National Thread Fits 599
Metric and Unified Thread Fits 600
Three Methods for Drawing Thread 600
13.1 THREAD NOTES 604
Acme Thread Notes 605
13.2 EXTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS 606
13.3 INTERNAL THREAD SYMBOLS 606
13.4 DETAILED REPRESENTATION:
METRIC, UNIFIED, AND AMERICAN
NATIONAL THREADS 608
Detailed Internal Square Thread 608
Detailed External Square Thread 608
13.5 THREADS IN ASSEMBLY 610
13.6 MODELING THREAD 610
13.7 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD PIPE
THREADS 610
13.8 USE OF PHANTOM LINES 612
13.9 TAPPED HOLES 612
13.10 BOLTS, STUDS, AND SCREWS 613
13.11 STANDARD BOLTS AND NUTS 614
13.12 DRAWING STANDARD BOLTS 615
13.13 SPECIFICATIONS FOR BOLTS AND
NUTS 615
13.14 LOCKNUTS AND LOCKING DEVICES 617
13.15 STANDARD CAP SCREWS 618
C H A P T E R T W E L V E
TOLERANCING 546
UNDERSTANDING TOLERANCE 548
Tolerance 548
Quality Control 548
Definitions for Size Designation 548
Variations in Form 549
Tolerance Envelope 549
Implied Right Angles 550
Fits between Mating Parts 551
Selective Assembly 553
Hole System 554
Shaft System 554
12.1 SPECIFYING TOLERANCES 556
12.2 GENERAL TOLERANCE NOTES 556
12.3 LIMIT TOLERANCES 557
Single-Limit Dimensioning 557
12.4 PLUS-OR-MINUS TOLERANCES 558
12.5 TOLERANCE STACKING 559
Chained or Continuous Dimensioning 559
Baseline Dimensioning 559
12.6 USING AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
LIMITS AND FIT TABLES 560
12.7 TOLERANCES AND MACHINING
PROCESSES 561
12.8 METRIC SYSTEM OF TOLERANCES
AND FITS 562
12.9 PREFERRED SIZES 564
12.10 PREFERRED FITS 564
12.11 GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING
AND TOLERANCING 565
12.12 SYMBOLS FOR TOLERANCES OF POSITION
AND FORM 566
12.13 DATUM FEATURES 568
Datum Features Versus
Datum Feature Simulator 569
Datum Reference Frame 569
Datum Targets 570
12.14 POSITIONAL TOLERANCES 572
12.15 MAXIMUM MATERIAL CONDITION 574
12.16 TOLERANCES OF ANGLES 575
12.17 FORM TOLERANCES FOR SINGLE
FEATURES 576
12.18 ORIENTATIONS FOR RELATED
FEATURES 578
12.19 USING GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND
TOLERANCING 580C O N T E N T S xix
14.12 DRAWING REVISIONS 650
14.13 SIMPLIFYING DRAWINGS 651
14.14 PATENT DRAWINGS 652
KEY WORDS 657
CHAPTER SUMMARY 657
REVIEW QUESTIONS 657
CHAPTER EXERCISES 658
Design Project 658
Working Drawing Exercises 659
C H A P T E R F I F T E E N
DRAWING CONTROL AND DATA
MANAGEMENT 710
DOCUMENTATION AND THE DESIGN
DATABASE 712
15.1 REQUIREMENTS FOR ENGINEERING
DOCUMENTATION 713
15.2 DRAWING CONTROL METHODS 713
Drawing Approval and Release 713
Change Orders 714
Revision Block 714
A Drawing as a Snapshot in Time 715
15.3 GOOD PRACTICES FOR ELECTRONIC
DRAWING STORAGE 715
Storing Electronic Files 715
Organized Directory Structures 715
File Naming Conventions 716
15.4 DRAWING STANDARDS 717
15.5 PERMISSION AND OWNERSHIP 718
15.6 BACKING UP DRAWING FILES 718
15.7 STORAGE MEDIA 718
15.8 USING THE 3D DESIGN DATABASE
IN CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 719
15.9 QUALITY MANAGEMENT 719
ISO 9000/9001 719
15.10 PRODUCT DATA MANAGEMENT 721
Organized by Product 721
A Relational Database 722
15.11 MANAGING WORK FLOW 724
Archiving Work History 724
Individual Productivity 724
15.12 DATA MANAGEMENT AND THE WEB 725
CAD Files on the Web 725
KEY WORDS 728
CHAPTER SUMMARY 728
13.16 STANDARD MACHINE SCREWS 619
13.17 STANDARD SET SCREWS 620
13.18 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
WOOD SCREWS 621
13.19 MISCELLANEOUS FASTENERS 621
13.20 KEYS 622
13.21 MACHINE PINS 622
13.22 RIVETS 623
Riveted Joints 623
Rivet Symbols 624
Small Rivets 624
Blind Rivets 624
13.23 SPRINGS 625
Helical Springs 625
13.24 DRAWING HELICAL SPRINGS 626
13.25 MODELING SPRINGS 627
KEY WORDS 631
CHAPTER SUMMARY 631
REVIEW QUESTIONS 631
CHAPTER EXERCISES 631
Design Project 631
Thread and Fastener Projects 631
C H A P T E R F O U R T E E N
WORKING DRAWINGS 636
WORKING DRAWINGS OR CONSTRUCTION
DRAWINGS 638
Assembly Drawings 639
Detail Drawings or Piece Part Drawings 640
14.1 SUBASSEMBLIES 642
14.2 IDENTIFICATION 642
Multidetail Drawings 643
14.3 PARTS LISTS 644
14.4 ASSEMBLY SECTIONS 645
14.5 WORKING DRAWING ASSEMBLY 646
14.6 INSTALLATION ASSEMBLIES 647
14.7 CHECK ASSEMBLIES 647
14.8 WORKING DRAWING FORMATS 648
Number of Details per Sheet 648
Digital Drawing Transmittal 648
Title and Record Strips 649
14.9 DRAWING NUMBERS 650
14.10 ZONING 650
14.11 CHECKING DRAWINGS 650xx C O N T E N T S
17.1 DRAWING SIZE, FORMAT, AND TITLE 762
17.2 LINE CONVENTIONS AND LETTERING 762
17.3 STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS 762
17.4 ABBREVIATIONS 763
17.5 GROUPING PARTS 763
17.6 ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRICAL/
ELECTRONIC SYMBOLS 764
17.7 CONNECTIONS AND CROSSOVERS 766
17.8 INTERRUPTED PATHS 766
17.9 TERMINALS 767
17.10 COLOR CODING 768
17.11 DIVISION OF PARTS 769
17.12 ELECTRON TUBE PIN IDENTIFICATION 769
17.13 REFERENCE DESIGNATIONS 770
17.14 NUMERICAL VALUES 770
17.15 FUNCTIONAL IDENTIFICATION
AND OTHER INFORMATION 771
17.16 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 771
17.17 PRINTED CIRCUITS 772
17.18 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 773
KEY WORDS 775
CHAPTER SUMMARY 775
REVIEW QUESTIONS 775
CHAPTER EXERCISES 776
C H A P T E R E I G H T E E N
STRUCTURAL DRAWING 780
STRUCTURAL DRAWINGS 782
18.1 WOOD CONSTRUCTION 783
Nominal Sizes for Wood Products 783
Symbols for Finished Surfaces on
Wood Products 783
Wood Joints 784
Connector Designs 784
Metal Ring Connectors 784
Straps and Plates 785
18.2 STRUCTURAL STEEL 786
Piece Marks 786
Erection Plans 786
18.3 STRUCTURAL STEEL SHAPES 788
18.4 SPECIFICATIONS 788
18.5 WELDED AND BOLTED CONNECTIONS 789
REVIEW QUESTIONS 728
CHAPTER EXERCISES 728
C H A P T E R S I X T E E N
GEARS AND CAMS 730
UNDERSTANDING GEARS 732
Using Gears to Transmit Power 732
Spur Gear Definitions and Formulas 732
16.1 CONSTRUCTING A BASE CIRCLE 734
16.2 THE INVOLUTE TOOTH SHAPE 734
16.3 APPROXIMATE INVOLUTE USING
CIRCULAR ARCS 734
16.4 SPACING GEAR TEETH 735
16.5 RACK TEETH 736
16.6 WORKING DRAWINGS OF SPUR GEARS 736
16.7 SPUR GEAR DESIGN 737
16.8 WORM GEARS 738
16.9 WORKING DRAWINGS OF
WORM GEARS 739
16.10 BEVEL GEARS 740
16.11 BEVEL GEAR DEFINITIONS AND
FORMULAS 740
16.12 WORKING DRAWINGS OF
BEVEL GEARS 741
16.13 CAMS 743
16.14 DISPLACEMENT DIAGRAMS 744
16.15 CAM PROFILES 744
16.16 OFFSET AND PIVOTED CAM
FOLLOWERS 746
16.17 CYLINDRICAL CAMS 747
16.18 OTHER DRIVE DEVICES 747
KEY WORDS 750
CHAPTER SUMMARY 750
REVIEW QUESTIONS 750
CHAPTER EXERCISES 751
C H A P T E R S E V E N T E E N
ELECTRONIC DIAGRAMS 756
UNDERSTANDING ELECTRONIC
DIAGRAMS 758
Standard Symbols 758
CAD Symbol Libraries 758
Types of Electronic Diagrams 760C O N T E N T S xxi
20.1 STEEL AND WROUGHT IRON PIPE 834
20.2 CAST IRON PIPE 834
20.3 SEAMLESS BRASS AND COPPER PIPE 835
20.4 COPPER TUBING 835
20.5 PLASTIC AND SPECIALTY PIPES 836
20.6 PIPE FITTINGS 837
20.7 PIPE JOINTS 838
Flanged Joints 838
Welded Joints 838
20.8 VALVES 839
Globe Valves 839
Check Valves 839
Gate Valves 839
Solenoid-Actuated Valves 840
20.9 AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD
CODE FOR PRESSURE PIPING 840
KEY WORDS 843
CHAPTER SUMMARY 843
REVIEW QUESTIONS 843
CHAPTER EXERCISES 844
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - O N E
WELDING REPRESENTATION 846
UNDERSTANDING WELDMENT
DRAWINGS 848
Welding Processes 848
Standard Symbols 848
UNDERSTANDING A WELDING SYMBOL 849
21.1 TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS 850
21.2 TYPES OF WELDS 850
21.3 WELDING SYMBOLS 851
21.4 FILLET WELDS 853
21.5 GROOVE WELDS 855
21.6 BACK OR BACKING WELDS 856
21.7 SURFACE WELDS 856
21.8 PLUG AND SLOT WELDS 856
21.9 SPOT WELDS 857
21.10 SEAM WELDS 857
21.11 PROJECTION WELDS 858
21.12 FLASH AND UPSET WELDS 858
21.13 WELDING APPLICATIONS 859
21.14 WELDING TEMPLATES 860
18.6 RIVETED CONNECTIONS 789
18.7 FRAME BEAM CONNECTIONS 790
18.8 WELDING 791
18.9 HIGH-STRENGTH BOLTING FOR
STRUCTURAL JOINTS 792
18.10 ACCURACY OF DIMENSIONS 794
18.11 CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION 794
18.12 REINFORCED CONCRETE DRAWINGS 795
18.13 STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS 797
18.14 STONE CONSTRUCTION 798
KEY WORDS 802
CHAPTER SUMMARY 802
REVIEW QUESTIONS 802
CHAPTER EXERCISES 803
C H A P T E R N I N E T E E N
LANDFORM DRAWINGS 808
UNDERSTANDING LANDFORM DRAWINGS 810
Definitions 810
GETTING INFORMATION FOR MAPS 812
19.1 SYMBOLS 815
19.2 BEARINGS 815
19.3 ELEVATION 815
19.4 CONTOURS 816
Interpolating Elevation Data 817
3D Terrain Models 819
19.5 CITY MAPS 819
Subdivision Plats 820
Uses for Subdivision Plats 821
Landscape Drawings 821
19.6 STRUCTURE LOCATION PLANS 822
19.7 HIGHWAY PLANS 823
KEY WORDS 826
CHAPTER SUMMARY 826
REVIEW QUESTIONS 826
CHAPTER EXERCISES 827
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y
PIPING DRAWINGS 828
UNDERSTANDING PIPING DRAWINGS 830
Standard Symbols 830
Types of Drawings 830
Dimensioning Piping Drawings 833xxii C O N T E N T S
23.3 DRAWING AN ANGULAR PERSPECTIVE
23.4 POSITION OF THE STATION POINT
23.5 LOCATION OF THE PICTURE PLANE
23.6 BIRD’S-EYE VIEW OR WORM’S-EYE VIEW
23.7 THE THREE TYPES OF PERSPECTIVES
23.8 ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
23.9 ONE-POINT PERSPECTIVE OF A
CYLINDRICAL SHAPE
23.10 TWO-POINT PERSPECTIVE
23.11 THREE-POINT PERSPECTIVE
23.12 MEASUREMENTS IN PERSPECTIVE
23.13 DIRECT MEASUREMENTS ALONG
INCLINED LINES
23.14 VANISHING POINTS OF INCLINED LINES
23.15 INCLINED LINES IN PERSPECTIVE,
JOINING ENDPOINT METHOD
23.16 CURVES AND CIRCLES IN PERSPECTIVE
23.17 THE PERSPECTIVE PLAN METHOD
23.18 PERSPECTIVE DIAGRAM
23.19 SHADING
23.20 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
GLOSSARY G-1
APPENDICES A-1
INDEX I-1
CREDITS C-1
21.15 COMPUTER GRAPHICS 860
KEY WORDS 864
CHAPTER SUMMARY 864
REVIEW QUESTIONS 864
CHAPTER EXERCISES 865
Roof Truss Exercises 869
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - T W O
AXONOMETRIC
PROJECTION ONLINE ONLY
UNDERSTANDING AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION
Projection Methods Reviewed
Types of Axonometric Projection
22.1 DIMETRIC PROJECTION
22.2 APPROXIMATE DIMETRIC DRAWINGS
22.3 TRIMETRIC PROJECTION
22.4 TRIMETRIC SCALES
22.5 TRIMETRIC ELLIPSES
22.6 AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION USING
INTERSECTIONS
22.7 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
22.8 OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS
Directions of Projectors
22.9 ELLIPSES FOR OBLIQUE DRAWINGS
Alternative Four-Center Ellipses
Four-Center Ellipse for Cavalier Drawings
22.10 OFFSET MEASUREMENTS
22.11 OBLIQUE DIMENSIONING
22.12 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
KEY WORDS
CHAPTER SUMMARY
REVIEW QUESTIONS
CHAPTER EXERCISES
C H A P T E R T W E N T Y - T H R E E
PERSPECTIVE
DRAWINGS ONLINE ONLY
UNDERSTANDING PERSPECTIVES
23.1 PERSPECTIVE FROM A MULTIVIEW
PROJECTION
23.2 NONROTATED SIDE VIEW METHOD FOR
PERSPECTIVE
INDEX
I-1
2D CAD models, 176–177
2D drawings. See also drawings.
aligned sections, 302
aligning views, 299–300
break lines, 297–298
common manufactured features, 286, 304
complex cylindrical shapes, 288
conventional breaks, 298–299
conventional edges, 295
conventions, 287
cylinders, 289–290
ellipses, 290
enlarged details, 298
fillets, 293–294
hole features, in orthographic views, 303
intersections, 287, 290–291
necessary views, 296–297
partial views, 297–298
plotting curves by hand, 289
removed views, 287, 299–301
revolution conventions, 302
revolved sectional views, 302
right- and left-hand parts, 301–302
rounds, 293–294
runouts, 294
tangencies, 287, 290–291
tangent surfaces, hiding, 292
2D models
constraint-based modeling, 178
paper drawings, 176
wireframe, 222
3D CAD modeling
assembly drawings, example, 654–656
case study: bicycle brake, 157–159
combining shapes. See solid primitives.
coordinates, 126–130
creating auxiliary views, 397
vertices, 127
virtual prototypes, 181
VR (virtual reality), 181
3D data, contour maps from, 824
3D models
developing views from, 247–248
isometric projection, 83
physical models, 179–180
prototypes, 179–180
solid models, 190, 223
surface models, 184–189
terrain models, 819
types of, 182–183, 223
wireframe modeling, 182–183, 223
visualizing, 258
3D printing, as prototyping tool, 479
3D shapes, formulas for, A-34–A-35
8-pitch thread, 598
12-pitch thread, 598
16-pitch thread, 598
30° angles, estimating, 90
45° miter line, 238, 259
A
abbreviations
dimensioning, 537
electronic diagrams, 763
list of, A-4–A-29
absolute coordinates, 128, 153
accessibility, checking fits, 433
accuracy
checking working drawings, 650
dimensional, 445–446
dimensioning, structural drawings, 794
importance of, 70
isometric drawings, 94
surface models, 188
verifying, 455
working drawings, 650
Acme threads
detailed description, 607
forms, 596
notes, 605
fits, 605
specifications, A-57, A-65
actual local feature, 548
actual mating envelope, 549
actual minimal material envelope, 549
actual size, 548
adapters between copper pipe and threaded
pipe, 836
adaptive control (AC), 447
addendum, 736
addendum circle, 734
adjacent views, 369
aerial photogrammetry, 812
aeronautical maps, 811
AISC Manual of Steel Construction, 790
align constraint, 422
align offset, 422
aligned sections, 302, 343–345
Allen key screw drivers, 619
allowance, 450, 548
alloys and their characteristics, 443
alternate views, 369
aluminum, as drawing medium, 49
American bond, 797
American Gear Manufacturers Association
(AGMA), 731
American National screw threads,
A-53–A-55
American National Standard cap screws,
618
American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping, 840
American National Standard for Steel Pipe
Flanges and Flanged Fittings, 838
American National Standard pipe thread,
610–611
American National Standard Unified screw
threads, A-53–A-55
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standards, 16
abbreviations, A-4 to A-29
bolts, 614–615, A-58 to A-60
cap screws, 618, A-58 to A-62
cast iron pipe flanges and fittings,
A-89–A-92
cast iron pipe screwed fittings,
A-87–A-89
cast iron pipe thicknesses and weights,
A-86
clearance locational fits, A-38–A-39
cotter pins, A-72
dimensions, 520–521, 538
electronic diagram symbols, A-80
flanged fittings, 835
force and shrink fits, A-42–A-43
heating, ventilating, and ductwork symbols, A-79
locational interference fits, A-41
machine screws, A-63–A-64
metric hole basis clearance fits,
A-45–A-46
metric hole basis transition and
interference fits, A-47–A-48
metric shaft basis clearance fits,
A-49–A-50
metric shaft basis transition and
interference fits, A-51–A-52
nuts, 614–615, A-58–A-60
pipe threads, 610–611
piping symbols, A-78
rivets, 623–624
running and sliding fits, A-36–A-37
screw threads, 598–599, 604–605,
A-55–A-55
sheets, 49I-2 I N D E X
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standards, continued
slotted and socket heads, 478,
A-61–A-62
springs, 625
taper pins, A-71
tolerance, 560, 566
transition locational fits, A-40
twist drill sizes, A-56 to A-57
washers, A-68 to A-69
wood screws, 621
Woodruff keys, A-66
wrought steel pipe and taper pipe threads,
A-85
American National thread, 594, 596
American National thread fits, 599
American Records Management Association
(ARMA), 713
American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), 16
American Welding Society Standards,
A-74–A-76
analysis stage, design process, 5, 11–12
analytical models, 174–175
analyzing complex objects, 66–67
angle of thread, 595
angles
bisecting, 137
dihedral, 384
dimensioning, 517
implied right, 550
isometric drawings, 90
oblique projection, 101
sketching techniques, 70
tolerance, 575
views of, 253
angles, laying out
chord method, 138
sine method, 138
tangent method, 138
angular perspective. See two-point
perspective.
angular tolerance, 558
angularity, specifying, 578–579
annotation scaling, 54
annular space, copper pipe, 836
ANSI/AF&PA NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction, 783
ANSI/AWS A2.4, Standard Symbols for
Welding, Brazing, and Nondestructive
Examination, 848
ANSI/IEEE 200 Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronic Diagrams, 758
apparent intersection, 145
appearance, manufacturing materials, 445
approval, engineering documents, 713
approval block, 51, 713
approximated curves, 142, 144
arc welding, 848, 850
Archimedes, history of the screw
principle, 595
architects’ scale, 39, A-93
architectural terra cotta, 798
archiving work history, 724
arcs
bisecting manually, 134
defining, 132–133
delta angles, 133
dimensioning, 517
drawing tangents to, 135–136
formulas for, 132–133
included angles, 133
isometric, 95
sketching, 76–77
arrow-side welds, 851
arrowheads, dimensioning, 508
artificial intelligence (AI), 448
ASCII file formats, 456–457
ashlar masonry, 798
ASME Y14.41 Digital Product Definition
Data Practices, 540, 713
ASME/ANSI Y14.6 Screw Thread Representation, 598, 604
assemblies
constraint-based modeling, 217–218
DFA (design for assembly), 416
simulation, 429
sketching techniques, 103
assemblies, and design
assembling to a skeleton, 425–426
bottom-up design, 424, 449–450
constraint-based drawing elements,
428–429
global parameters, 427–428
layout drawings, 425
middle-out design, 424
overview, 424
seed parts, 428–429
top-down design, 424, 449–450
assemblies, checking fits, 432–433
assembly constraints, 421–422
assembly drawings
3D CAD, example, 654–656
assembly sections, 640, 645–646
check assemblies, 647
dimensions, 640
exploded views, 639–640
hidden lines, 640
installation assemblies, 647
outline assemblies, 647
overview, 639–640
poche, 645
section lining, 645
views, 639
working drawings, 638
assembly files, managing, 423
assembly mode, constraint-based modeling,
216
assembly models
constraint-based assemblies, 419
dynamic assemblies, 418, 421
parent parts, choosing, 420
static assemblies, 418
subassemblies, 418
assembly parts
fastener libraries, 431
standard parts, 430–431
assembly sections, 346, 640, 645–646
associativity, constraint-based
modeling, 218
AutoCAD
2D CAD models, 176–177
2D constraints, 178
annotation scaling, 54
constraint defaults, changing, 201
constraints, 136, 160
electronic diagram symbols, 764
geometric construction geometry, 136
isometric drawings, 97
object snap, 129, 134, 137
perspective views, 111
scaling text, 54
Autodesk Inventor, spur gears, 748
automated assembly, 447
automated materials handling, 447
auxiliary plane, 364
auxiliary sections, 376
auxiliary views
adjacent views, 369
alternate views, 369
circles and ellipses, 372, 373
classification of, 366
creating with CAD, 373, 397
depth, 366–367
descriptive geometry, 378
developments and intersections, 385–395
front adjacent, 366
half, 375
height, 366–367
hidden lines, 373
partial, 375
plotting curves manually, 374–375
primary, 365
projecting, 370–371
purpose of, 364, 378
reference planes, 369
reverse construction, 375
secondary, 368
showing true size, 364, 372
sketching, 371
successive, 368
third, 368
top adjacent, 366
visualizing as revolved drawing, 366
width, 366–367
AWS Standard Welding Terms and Definitions, 848
axes, positioning in isometric drawings, 85
axes method for sketching ellipses, 76
axis of revolution, 395
axis of screw, 595
axonometric projection, 32, 82–83
piping drawings, 832
sketches, 81
B
back or backing welds, 850, 856
backing up drawing files, 718
ball tags, 642–643I N D E X I-3
balloon numbers, 642–643
barreled parts, tolerance, 549
base circle, constructing, 734
base features, 205–206
base points, setting, 204–205
baseline dimensioning, 531, 559
basic angle tolerancing method, 575
basic dimension symbols, 567
basic hole system, 554–555, 563
basic shaft system, 554–555, 563
basic size, metric tolerances, 562
batter, 517
beam web, 791
bearings, landform drawings, 815
bell and spigot joints, 834
bend allowance, 450, 536
“bent” arrow symbol, 851
bevel gears, 740–741
Bezier curves, 143–144
bidirectional associativity, constraint-based
modeling, 218
bilateral system of tolerances, 558
bilateral tolerance, 548
bill of materials (BOM), 642, 644–645
bird’s-eye view, 107
bisecting
angles, 137
arcs, 134
lines, 74, 134
black pipe, 834
blind holes, 213
blind rivets, 624
blocking
freehand, 73
irregular objects, 78
bolted steel connections, 789
bolts, high-strength steel, 792–793
bolts and nuts
bolt lengths, 615
clearance holes, 613
drawing standard bolts, 615
finish, 614
hex head bolt grades, 617
lock nuts, 617
overview, 613–614
proportions, 614
SAE grades, 617
sketching, 616
specifications, A-58–A-60
threads, 614
BOM (bill of material), 642, 644–645
Boolean operations, 147–148
border blocking, 73
borders, 50
boss, 214, 286
bottom views, 234–235
bottom-up design, 424, 449–450
bowed parts, tolerance, 549
box construction
isometric drawings, 86
oblique drawings, 101
box primitive, 146
bracket method for dual dimensioning, 512
brake press, 438
break lines, 297–298
breaks, in 2D drawings, 298–299
BREP (boundary representation), 184
brick and mortar construction, 797
Briggs standard threads, 610–611
broken out sections, 338
B-splines, 143–144
built-in features, 213
bushing, 214, 286
butt joint, 850
butt welded fittings, 837
buttress thread, 597
C
C (centralizing) thread fits, Acme, 605
cabinet projection, 99
CAD (computer-aided design). See also 3D
CAD modeling; AutoCAD.
advantages of, 47
creating auxiliary views, 373
database, 540
definition, 7
files, documentation management on the
Web, 725
lettering examples, 40
model space, 48
paper space, 48
in product development, 6–7
tools for structural drawings, 799–800
cadastral maps, 811
CAE (computer-aided engineering), 7
calibration and inspection of tolerances, 555
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing),
7, 458
cam followers
definition, 743
offset, 746–747
pivoted, 746–747
cams
cylindrical, 747
definition, 743
displacement diagrams, 744
pitch curve, 744
profiles, 743, 744–745
cap screws
American National Standard, 618
sketching, 616
specifications, A-58–A-62
capillary joints. See solder joints.
cartography, 811
case studies
Ability Fabricators, Inc., 449–450
bicycle brake, 157–159
brake assembly, 465–467
coffee brewer, 418, 421
Delta Design, documentation management, 726–727
floating bridge, 191–192
furniture design, 109
graphics and design process, Santa Cruz
Bicycles, 8–15
heart model, 186
Hyatt Regency walkway collapse, 712
modeling sheet metal parts, 449–450
Oral-B toothbrush, 112–115
vibration analysis, Quantel USA,
481–482
robot hand, 219–221
Santa Cruz Bicycles, 8–15
sketching techniques, 109, 112–115
Smart Tourniquet, 224–227
surface models, 224–227
symmetry, 157–159
Zuma coffee brewer, 418, 421
cast iron pipe, 834
cast iron pipe ANSI standards
drilling for bolts, A-90–A-92
flanges and fittings, A-89–A-92
screwed fittings, A-87–A-88
thicknesses and weight, A-86
casting
design tips, 441–442
metal parts, 437
sand casting, 437, 448
cavalier projection, 99
cavities, 480
cellular manufacturing, 447–448
center of gravity, 453
centerline method
for four-center ellipses, 94
for sketching circles, 75
centerlines
dimensioning, 506
isometric drawings, 89
uses for, 244, 246
centralizing (C) thread fits, 605
centroid, 453
ceramic manufacturing materials, 443
cgs (centimeter-gram-second) system, 456
chained dimensions, 559
chamfers
definition, 214, 286, 524
dimensioning, 524
change permission, engineering
documents, 718
chassis, displaying functional
designations, 771
check valves, 839
checked-by block, 713
checking assemblies, 647
chord method for laying out angles, 138
chordal addendum, 736
chordal dimensions, 523
chordal thickness, 736
chords, 792
circled numbers in drawings, 642–643
circles
in auxiliary views, 373
Circle command, 136
circumference, 132
defining, 132–133
diameter, 132
dividing equally, 735
drawing tangents to, 135
formulas for, 132–133, A-30I-4 I N D E X
circles, continued
great, 394–395
involutes, 734
oblique, 98, 100
radius, 132
sketching, 75
in perspectives, 107
circuit diagrams, 760–761
circular pitch, 736
circularity (roundness) tolerance, 576
circumference, 132
city maps, 820–821
Class 1 thread fits, 599
Class 2 thread fits, 599
Class 3 thread fits, 599
clay construction, 797
clearances
fits, 551, A-38–A-39
holes, 612–613
clip angles, 792
close running fits, A-36
close sliding fits, A-36
CMM (coordinate measuring machine), 16
CNC (computer numerical control), 447
coarse threads, 598
coincident (align) constraint, 422
color coding, electronic diagrams, 768
combination screw drivers, 619
combination units, dimensioning, 513
combined tolerance symbols, 567
combining surfaces, 187
comma-delimited text format, 457
common manufactured features, 286, 304
complex cylindrical shapes, in 2D
drawings, 288
complex surfaces, 187, 216
composite materials, 443
compression springs, 625
computer graphics
electronic diagrams, 773
sketching techniques, 108
computer numerical control (CNC), 447
computer-aided design (CAD). See CAD.
computer-aided engineering (CAE), 7
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM),
7, 458
computer-aided process planning
(CAPP), 447
computer-integrated manufacturing
AC (adaptive control), 447
AI (artificial intelligence), 448
automated assembly, 447
automated materials handling, 447
CAPP (computer-aided process
planning), 447
cellular manufacturing, 447–448
CNC (computer numerical control), 447
expert systems, 448
FMS (flexible manufacturing
systems), 448
GT (group technology), 447
industrial robots, 447
JIT (just-in-time) production, 447
concentric (insert) constraint, 422
concentricity tolerance, 579–580
concrete construction, 794–796
concurrent engineering
design process, 6
documentation management, 719
cones
definition, 65
developments, 391–392
dimensioning, 522
formulas, A-34
primitive, 146
conic sections, 386
connection diagrams, 760–761
connections
electronic diagrams, 766
structural steel drawings, 786
welded and bolted, 789
constraining
degrees of freedom, 570
sketches, 110
constraint-based modeling
2D models, 178
advantages of, 191
assemblies, 217–218 , 419
case studies, 11, 191–192, 219–221
cosmetic dimensions, 195
definition, 178
design intent, 197–198, 219–221
drawing elements, 428–429
driven dimensions, 194, 195
driving dimensions, 194
feature dimensions, 194
feature-based modeling, 196–197
formulas in dimensions, 194–195
global parameters, 195
parameters, 193
reference dimensions, 195
variables, 193
constraint-based modeling, features
adding, 206
base features, 205–206
built-in, 213
datums, 209–211
editing, 212
existing, specifying an edge for, 206
hole properties, 213
parent-child relationships, 207–209
placed, 213
standard, 213
constraint-based modeling modes
assembly mode, 216
associativity, 218
bidirectional associativity, 218
drawing mode, 216
drawings from the model, 218–221
part mode, 216
subassemblies, 216
constraints
applying, 203
base points, setting, 204–205
AutoCAD, 160
defaults, changing, 201
design intent, 197–198
geometric, 193
overconstrained sketches, 203
sketch constraints, 110, 199–202
underconstrained sketches, 203
relationships, table of, 202
size, 193
types of, 193
construction drawings. See working
drawings.
construction lines, 36, 66
continuous dimensioning, 559
contour intervals, landform drawings, 816
contour maps from 3D data, 824
contours
landform drawings, 811, 816
sketching techniques, 67
convex, 854
conventions for 2D drawings, 287
breaks, 298–299, 346
edges, 295
converting
motion with gears. See gears.
between U.S. and metric measures, A-73
Coon’s patch, 187
coordinate dimensions, 531, 533
coordinate measuring machine (CMM), 16
coordinate systems
for 3D CAD modeling, 126–130, 153
invention of, 127
origins (point of intersection), 127
right-hand rule, 126
specifying location, 126, 129–130
user-created, 153–154
X- and Y-axes, 127
coordinates
absolute, 128
cylindrical, 129
definition, 127
polar, 128
relative, 128
spherical, 129
copper pipe
adapting to threaded pipe, 836
drawings, 835
joints and fittings, 836
copper tubing, 835–836
cores, 480
corner joint, 850
corner views, 250. See also vertices.
corners, rounding on plastic parts, 436
cosmetic dimensions, 195
cost estimates, modeling, 461–462
cotter pins, 617, A-72
counterbored holes
definition, 213–214, 286
dimensioning, 521
countersunk holes, 213–214, 286, 521
CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) pipe
drawings, 836
creativity techniques, 16–17
crest (of thread), 595
cross section. See section views.I N D E X I-5
crossovers, in electronic diagrams, 766
cubic splines, 142
curved surfaces, dimensioning, 523
curves
dimensioning, 522
freeform. See spline curves.
isometric drawings, 91
perspectives, 107
plotting by hand in 2D drawings, 289
cutaway views. See section views.
cutting planes
choosing, 331
description, 328
direction, visualizing, 334
half sections, 337
labeling, 332
cutting-plane lines
definition, 328
illustration, 329
line style, 334
cycloids, A-103
cylinder primitive, 146
cylinders
in 2D drawings, 290
complex shapes in 2D drawings, 288
definition, 65
elements of, 65
formulas, A-35
intersection with a plane, 389
isometric drawings, 95
size dimensioning, 518–519
sliced, 289
cylindrical cams, 747
cylindrical coordinates, 129
cylindricity tolerance, 576, 577
D
da Vinci, Leonardo, 17, 595
DAI (Design Activity Identification), in title
blocks, 51
databases, 7, 722–723
datum
description, 209–211
identifying, 567
landform drawings, 810
tolerance symbols, 567, A-81
datum features, 568–571
versus datum feature simulator, 569, 571
datum planes, 209–210
datum reference frame, 569
datum targets, 570
decimal dimension values, rounding, 512
decimal-inch drawing scale, A-93, A-95
decimal-inch values, dimensioning, 511
dedendum, 736
default coordinate system, 153
Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and
Control (DMAIC), 7
degrees of freedom, constraining, 570
delta angles, 133
depth
auxiliary views, 366–367
thread, 595
in orthographic views, 235
depth dimensions, transferring, 238
derived surfaces, 187
Descartes, René, 127
descriptive geometry, 177, 378
descriptive models, 173
Design Activity Identification (DAI), in title
blocks, 51
design database, documentation management, 712
design drawings, 786
design for assembly (DFA), 416
design for manufacture (DFM), 416. See
also manufacturing processes.
Design for Six Sigma (DFSS), 7
design intent
capturing, 219–221
case study: Santa Cruz Bicycles, 11
constraint-based modeling, 197–198
planning for, 197–198
design process
case study: Santa Cruz bicycles, 8–15
design intent, 11
in a portfolio, 18–19
stages of, 5–6, 8-15
definition, 5
designating fitting size, 837
designing quality into products, 7
detail drawings, 638, 640–641
detailed thread drawings, 600–601, 603
Detailing for Steel Construction, 786
developable surfaces, 386
developed piping drawings, 832
development of a surface, 385
developments
definition, 385
equator, 395
generatrix, 385
great circle, 394–395
hems and joints, 390
hood and flue, 392–393
hyperboloids, 385
intersections, 385–389
laying out a surface, 387
meridian, 395
plane and a cone, 391–392
plane and a pyramid, 391
plane and a sphere, 394–395
plane and an oblique cylinder, 391
plane and an oblique prism, 390
polyconic method, 395
polycylindric method, 395
surface types, 385
transition pieces, 393–394
triangulation, 393
deviation, metric tolerances, 562
DFA (design for assembly), 416
DFM (design for manufacture), 416. See
also manufacturing processes.
DFSS (Design for Six Sigma), 7
diameter, 132
diametral pitch, 734, 737
difference (subtract) operation, 147–148
differential leveling, landform drawings, 815
digital databases, 7, 722–723
digital product definition, 581–584
digitizing, surface models, 187
dihedral angles, 384
dimension lines, 506, 508
dimension values, rules for, 512
dimensional accuracy, 445–446
dimensional constraints, 160
dimensioning
abbreviations, 537
angles, 517
arcs, 517
arrowheads, 508
BA (bend allowance), 536
centerlines, 506
chamfers, 524
choosing dimensions, 505
cones, 522
coordinate, 533
counterbores, 521
curved surfaces, 523
curves, 522
cylinders, 518–519
direction of values and notes, 510
dos and don’ts, 538–539
drawing scale, indicating, 509
extension lines, 506, 508
fillet welds, 853
fillets, 517
finish marks, 526
general notes, 536
geometric breakdown, 506–507
holes, 519–520
IML (inside mold line), 536
isometric drawings, 86
keyways, 525
knurls, 525
lay symbols, 529
leaders, 509
legibility, 510, 514–515
lines used in, 506
local notes, 536–537
mold line, 536
neutral axis, 536
for numerically-controlled
machining, 534
OML (outside mold line), 536
overview, 504–506
piping drawings, 833
placing dimensions, 505, 514–515
portfolio, 541–542
prisms, 518
pyramids, 522
roughness values, 528
rounded-end shapes, 523
rounds, 517
shaft centers, 525
sheet metal bends, 536
spotfaces, 521
standards, 538
stretchout, 536
structural steel drawings, 794I-6 I N D E X
dimensioning, continued
supplementary notes, 536–537
surface roughness, 526–527
surface texture symbols, 527–528, 529
symbols, 513, 520–521
tabular, 534
tapers, 524
technique, 505
in terms of material removal, 515
threads, 524
tolerance, 505
triangular prisms, 522
units, 510–512
waviness values, 528
dimensions
assembly drawings, 640
baseline, 531
chordal, 523
coordinate, 531
forging, 535
holes about a common center, 530–531
location, 506–507, 530–531
machine, 535
mating, 532
pattern, 535
size, 506–507
superfluous, 516
units of measure, 505
dimetric projection, 83
diode symbol, electronic diagrams, 764
directory structures, documentation management, 715–716
displacement diagrams for cams, 744
Divide command, 735
Dividers Method for drawing pentagons,
140
dividing lines equally or proportionally, 74
DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze,
Improve, and Control), 7
documentation
purpose of technical drawing, 4
design process, 5
documentation management
approval block, 713
archiving work history, 724
ARMA (American Records Management
Association), 713
ASME Y14.41 Digital Product Definition Data Practices, 713
backing up drawing files, 718
case studies, 712, 726–727
checked-by block, 713
in concurrent engineering teams, 719
design database, 712
drawing control methods, 713–715
drawing standards, 717
drawn-by block, 713
ECOs (engineering change orders), 714
electronic storage, 715
engineering ethics, 712
enterprise level, 721
FDA guidelines, 713
file naming conventions, 716
flat-file databases, 722–723
individual productivity, 724
International Organization for Standardization, 719–720
ISO 9000/9001, 719–720
organizing by product, 721
organizing directory structures, 715–716
ownership, 718
PIN (part identification number), 716
PDM (product data management) system, 721, 724
permissions, 718
quality management, 719–720
relational databases, 722–723
release, 713
requirements for, 713
retention period, 713
revision blocks, 714–715
storage media, 718
on the Web, 725
work flow management, 724–725
work group level, 721
dos and don’ts, dimensioning, 538–539
double-curved surfaces, 64, 385
double-line piping drawings, 830–831
double-square screw drivers, 619
doughnut-shaped solids. See tori.
downloading, fasteners, 628
downstream applications. See modeling,
downstream applications.
draft, plastic parts, 434, 436
drafting standards. See standards.
drawing control methods, 713–715
Drawing Exchange Format (DXF), 458
drawing format, electronic diagrams, 762
drawing media, 49
drawing mode, 216
drawing number, in title blocks, 51
drawing pencils, 45–46
drawing scales, 37–39, 74, A-93–A-95
drawing size, electronic diagrams, 762
drawing standards, 717
drawing title, electronic diagrams, 762
drawings. See also 2D drawings; electronic
diagrams; sketching.
ball tags, 642–643
balloon numbers, 642–643
BOM (bill of material), 642, 644–645
for buildings. See structural drawings.
circled numbers, 642–643
for civil structures. See structural
drawings.
concrete construction. See structural
drawings, concrete construction.
construction. See structural drawings;
working drawings.
detail, 640–641
identification, 642–643
of individual parts, 640–641
of landforms. See landform drawings.
laying out, 246
managing. See documentation
management.
multidetail, 643
part, 640–641
parts list. See BOM (bill of material).
piece part, 640–641
piping. See piping drawings.
reading, 255
sheet metal, 448, 483, 484
size, in title blocks, 51
standard bolts, 615
structural steel. See structural drawings,
structural steel.
subassemblies, 642
threads. See threads, drawing.
title, in title blocks, 51
welding, 448, 484
wood construction. See structural drawings, wood construction.
drawings, assembly. See assembly drawings.
drawings, lines. See also lines.
definition, 34
freehand technique, 34, 36
types of, 34–35
drawings, scale. See also scale.
definition, 37
indicating, 509
laying out a drawing, 38
specifying on a drawing, 37
drawn-by block, 713
drill bits, sizes, A-56–A-57
driven dimensions, 194, 195
driving dimensions, 194
dual dimensioning, 512
ductwork symbols, A-79
Dview, AutoCAD command, 111
DXF (Drawing Exchange Format), 458
dynamic assemblies, 418, 421
E
ECN (engineering change notification), 714
ECOs (engineering change orders), 7, 714
ECR (engineering change request), 714
edge joint, 850
edges
in 2D drawings, 295
sketching techniques, 69
in views, 250–252
editing
features, 212
surface models, 188
EDM (enterprise data management), 7
egg-shaped solids. See ellipsoids.
8-pitch thread, 598
eight-point method for sketching ellipses, 92
ejector pins, plastic parts, 434–435
elasticity, 464
electric resistance welding. See resistance
welding.
electron tube pin identification, in electronic
diagrams, 769
electronic diagrams
abbreviations, 763
IEEE 200 Graphic Symbols for Electrical
and Electronic Diagrams, 758I N D E X I-7
chassis, displaying functional
designations, 771
circuit diagram, 760–761
color coding, 768
computer graphics, 773
connection diagram, 760–761
connections, 766
crossovers, 766
division of parts, 769
drawing size, format, and title, 762
electron tube pin identification, 769
examples, 758, 759
functional block diagram, 760
functional identification, 771
ground points, 771
grouping parts, 763
inductance, 770
integrated circuits, 771
interconnection diagram, 760
interrupted paths, 766
lettering, 762
line conventions, 762
MIL-STD-681 Identification Coding and
Application of Hook Up and Lead
Wires, 758
numerical values, 770
part value placement, 770
portfolio, 774
printed circuits, 772
reference designations, 770
resistors, 771
schematic diagram, 760–761
semiconductors, 770
signal paths, 762
single-line diagram, 760
standards, 758, A-80
terminals, 767–768
transformer windings, 771
types of, 760–761
UL (Underwriters’ Laboratory)
standards, 758
wiring diagram, 760–761
electronic diagrams, symbols
arranging, 764–765
AutoCAD tool palette, 764
diodes, 764
relays, 762
signal paths, 764–765
size, 762
stages, 764
standard symbols, 758, 762, A-80
switches, 762
symbol libraries, 758
template for, 764
electronic survey instruments, 812
elements
cylinders, 65
standard layouts, 50–51
surface, 385
elevation view, 793. See also landform
drawings, elevation.
ellipses
in 2D drawings, 290
approximate, A-96
approximating perimeter of, 141
in auxiliary views, 373
definition, 65
double-curved surface, 385
drawing, 141
examples, 65
formulas, A-33
locating the foci of, 141
orienting in isometric drawings, 93
pencil and string method for drawing,
141
sketching, 76
embryo heart model, 186
enclosing-square method for sketching
circles, 75
enclosing-rectangle method for four-center
ellipses, 94
engineering change notification (ECN), 714
engineering change orders (ECOs), 7, 714
engineering change request (ECR), 714
engineering drawings. See documentation
management; drawings; sketching.
engineering ethics, 712
engineering maps, 811
engineers’ drawing scale, 37, A-93, A-95
English bond, 797
enlarging shapes with a grid of squares, 78
enterprise data management (EDM), 7
enterprise level documentation management,
721
epicycloid, A-103
equation solvers, 460
equator, 395
equilateral hyperbolas, A-100
erasers, 46
erection plans, 786–787
ergonomics, 433. See also human factors.
essential shapes, 66
ethics, of engineering drawings, 712
examples. See case studies; portfolios
(examples).
expert systems, 448
exploded views, assembly drawings,
639–640
export formats, 457–459
exporting data from the database. See modeling, exporting data from the database.
extension figure, 790
extension lines, 506, 508
extension springs, 625–626
external square thread, 608
external threads
defined, 595
dimensioning, 524
forms, 596–597
notes, 604–605
symbols, 606
extruded forms, 151
extruded surfaces, 184–185
extrusion, definition, 151
F
faces
flanges, 838
objects. See planar surfaces; polyhedra.
factor of safety, 451
fasteners
downloading, 628
overview, 594, 621
portfolio, 629–630
FDA guidelines, documentation management, 713
FDM (fused deposition modeling), 478
FEA (finite element analysis), 174, 190,
463–467
feather keys, 622
features. See also constraint-based modeling, features.
datum, 568–571
definition, 196
first created. See base feature.
size designation, 548
tolerance, 548
feature control frame, 566
feature dimensions, 194
feature of size, 548
feature-based modeling, 196–197. See also
constraint-based modeling.
ferrous metals, manufacturing materials, 443
field rivets, 624
file formats, 456–457
file naming conventions, documentation
management, 716
filler beams, 786
fillets. See also runouts.
in 2D drawings, 293–294
definition, 214, 286
dimensioning, 517
example, 215, 286
shading, 293
fillet weld length, 854
fillet welds, 791, 850, 853–855
filling sectioned areas, assembly drawings,
645
fillister head cap screws, 618
fine thread, 598
finish, bolts, 614
finish marks, dimensioning, 526
finishing operations, 448
finite element analysis (FEA), 174, 190,
463–467
finite elements, 463
first-angle projection, 240–241, 242–243
fit. See also tolerance.
allowance, 548–549, 551
assemblies. See assemblies, checking fits.
case study, 583
clearance locational, A-38–A-39
force and shrink, A-42–A-43
interference, 551, 554–555
line, 552
locational interference, A-41
mating parts, 551
metric hole basis clearance, A-45–A-46I-8 I N D E X
fit, continued
metric hole basis transition and interference, A-47–A-48
metric shaft basis clearance, A-49–A-50
metric shaft basis transition and interference, A-51–A-52
metric system, 562–563
running and sliding, A-36–A-37
specifying, 552
study, 583
thread, 599–600
transition locational, 552, A-40
types and subtypes, 560
fit, threads
Acme thread notes, 605
American National thread fits, 599
C (centralizing), 605
definition and classes, 599
G (general purpose), 605
metric, 600
unified, 600
fitting size, designating, 837
flanged fittings, 837
flanged joints, 834, 838
flanges
cast iron pipe, A-89–A-92
definition, 214, 286
in structural steel shapes, 788
flared joints, 835–836
flash welds, 850, 853, 858
flat head cap screws, 618
flat keys, 622, A-65
flat patterns. See also developments.
definition, 385
modeling sheet metal parts, 438–439
flat springs, 625–626
flat-file databases, 722–723
flatness tolerance, 576
Flemish bond, 797
flip constraint, 422
flush symbol, 854
FMS (flexible manufacturing systems), 448
foci of an ellipse, locating, 141
folding lines, 237, 364
fonts (lettering), 40
force fits, A-42–A-43
foreshortening, 83
forging, 448, 535
form tolerance
for single features, 576–577
symbols, 566–568
variations, 549
forming metal, principal methods, 448
formulas
circles and arcs, 132
in dimensions, 194–195
for geometric entities, A-30–A-35
operators, table of, 195
45° miter line, 238, 259
four-center ellipses, sketching, 93–94
fps (foot-pound-second) system, 456
fractions, lettering, 43
frame beam connections, 790
freeform curves. See spline curves.
freehand compass, 75
freehand sketching
arcs, 77
blocking in borders, 71
construction lines, 36
ellipses, 76
finding the midpoint on a line, 71
lines, 34, 36, 71
long freehand lines, 73
friction wheels, 732
front adjacent, 366
front orientation, 240
front views, 234–236
frontal plane projection, 236
full sections
definition, 328–329
visualizing, 330–331
functional block diagrams, 760
functional decomposition, as design aid, 16
functional identification, in electronic diagrams, 771
fundamental deviation, metric tolerances,
562–563
fused deposition modeling (FDM), 478
G
G (general purpose) notes for thread fits,
605
gage
line thickness, 34
thread pitch, 597
wire, standards, A-70
gage blocks, 555
gage line, of angles, 790
galvanized pipe, 834
gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 848
gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 848
gas welding, 848, 850
gaskets, 838
gate valves, 839
gauge, sheet metal, 450
GDT (geometric dimensioning and tolerancing), 580, A-81–A-84
gear blanks, 736
gear ratio, 732
gears
alternative devices, 747
base circle, constructing, 734
bevel, 740–741
circular pitch, 736
converting motion, 732
definition, 732
friction wheels, 732
gear ratio, 732
helical, 732
herringbone, 732
hypoid, 732
line of contact, 734
linear pitch, 736
pinion, 732
pitch circles, 732
pitch diameter, 732
portfolio, 748–749
rack, 736
rack teeth, 736
rpm (revolutions per minute), 732
spacing gear teeth, 735
spur, 732–737
stock models and drawings, 742
transmitting power, 732
worm, 738–739
gears, involute tooth shape
addendum circle, 734
approximating with circular arcs,
734–735
diametral pitch, 734
hobbing, 735
root circle, 734
chordal addendum, 736
chordal thickness, 736
dedendum, 736
definition, 732–733
designing, 737
diametral pitch, 737
formulas, 732–733
gear blanks, 736
outside diameter, 736
pitch diameter, 736
root diameter, 736
whole depth, 736
working drawings, 736–737
general notes, dimensioning, 536
general purpose (G) notes for thread fits,
605
generatrix, 385
Genesis space capsule crash, 70
geometric breakdown, dimensioning,
506–507
geometric characteristic symbols, 566, A-81
geometric constraints, 136, 160, 193
geometric constructions
angle layout, 138
arcs, 133
arcs tangent to arcs, 136
bisecting angles, 137
bisecting lines and circular arcs, 134
circles, 132–133,
conic sections, 386
cycloids, A-103
ellipses, 141, 143–47, A-96
epicycloid, A-103
equilateral triangles, 139
equilateral hyperbolas, A-100
geometric entities, 130–133
helix, A-101
hexagons, 139
hyperbolas, A-99
hypocycloids, A-103
involutes, A-102
parabolas, A-97–A-98
parallel lines, 137
pentagons, 140
polygons, 139–140
spiral of Archimedes, A-101
spline curves, 142–144I N D E X I-9
tangents with arcs, 135–136
tangents with circles, 135
triangles, 138, 139
geometric continuity, 215
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
(GDT), 580, A-81–A-84
geometric entities. See specific shapes.
geometric method for drawing pentagons,
140
geometric methods for plane figures, 78
geometric tolerances. See GDT (geometric
dimensioning and tolerancing


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كتاب Technical Drawing With Engineering Graphics
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