كتاب Bakery Products Science and Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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 كتاب Bakery Products Science and Technology

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أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Bakery Products Science and Technology
Editor
Y. H. Hui
Associate Editors
Harold Corke
Ingrid De Leyn
Wai-Kit Nip
Nanna Cross

كتاب Bakery Products Science and Technology  B_p_s_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Contributors, vii
Preface. xi
H.-M.Lai and T-C. Lin
1. Bakery Products: Science and Technology, 3
Part I. Flours
2. Wheat Flour Classification, 69
3. Wheat Flour of the Third Millennium, 87
4. Gluten, 97
5 . Rye 109
0.M. Lukow
L. De Bry
K. Khan and G. Nygard
K.-H. Liukkonen, R.-L. Heinio, M. Snlmenkallio-Marttila, K. Autio,
K. Katirza, and K. Poutanerz
C. M. Rose11and M. Gdmez
6. Rice 123
Part 11. Major Baking Ingredients
7. Sweeteners, 137
8. Eggs, 161
9. Yeast, 173
K-K. Nip
J? Kiosseoglou and A. Paraskevopoulou
I? Gklinas
10. Fat Replacers, 193
J? Oreopoulou
11. Water, 21 1
C. Chieh
12. Functional Additives, 233
I. De Leyn
Part 111. Principles of Baking
13. Mixing, Dough Making, and Dough Makeup, 245
N. Haegens
Vvi Contents
14. Fermentation, 261
C.-H. Yang
15. Baking, 273
M.-H. Chang
16. Sensory Attributes of Bakery Products, 285
R.-L. Heinio
Part IV. Bread
17. Manufacture, 301
W Zhou and N. Therdthai
18. Quality Control, 319
S. S. Sahi and K. Little
19. Enzymes in Breadmaking, 337
H. Goesaert, K. Gebruers, C. M. Courtin, K. Brijs, andJ A. Delcour
20. Sourdough, 365
A. Diowhz and WAmbroziak
21. Frozen Dough, 38 1
I? D. Ribotta, A. E. Ledn, andM. C. AEdn
Part V. Special Products
Cake Manufacture, 393
F D. Conforti
Cracker Manufacture, 411
7: Yoneyaand W-K.Nip
Nonenzymatic Browning for Cookies, Crackers, and Biscuits,
M. Villamiel
Specialities from All Over the World,
N. Haegens
Dietetic Bakery Products, 455
S. Chan
Gluten-Free Cereal-Based Products, 47 1
E. K. Arendt and M. M. Moore
Muffins and Bagels, 497
N. Cross
Pretzel Production and Quality Control,
K. Seetharaman
Italian Bakery, 527
M. A. Pagani, M. Lucisano, and M. Mariotti
Index
A
Acetic acid, 367, 369, 372-374, 376
Acidophilic organism, 223
Acidulants, 422
Acid(s), 223, 505
acid dissociation constant Ka, 223
conjugate acid, 224
diprotic acid, 223
polyprotic acid, 223
strong acids, 223
triprotic acid, 223, 228
Acrylamide, 437
Aftertaste, 506, 513
Alcohol sponge, 267
Alcohol, 267
Alkali, 523-524
Allergen, 504, 515
Alpha-amylase, 423
Amaranth, 478-479
Amorphous water, 217
Amphiphilic substance, 214-225
Amylase, 129, 337,339, 344-348, 356
alpha-amylase, 344-347
amyloglucosidase, 345-346
anti-staling, 346-348
beta-amylase, 345-347
classification, 344-345
flour standardization, 346
functionality in breadmaking, 345-348
inhibitors, 345
maltogenic amylase, 345, 347
mode of action, 345,347
overdosing, 346
thermal stability, 346-348
Amylograph, 126
Amylolytic enzymes (diastase), 423
Amylopectin, 125, 130
Amylose, 125-127, 130
Antioxidant activity, 437
Apple sponge, 267
Aqueous solutions, 221
boiling point, 221
buffer solutions, 223
concentration, 222
equilibrium molar concentration, 223
freezing point, 22 1
ice formation, 222
of electrolytes, 222
osmotic pressure, 222
pH, 223
vapor pressure, 22 1
cross-links, 341-342, 351, 353
ferulic acid, 341, 353, 355
functionality in breadmaking, 34 1-342, 348-349
hydrolysis, 348-350
oxidative gelation, 341-342, 351, 353, 355
physicochemical properties, 341-342
solubilized AX, 341,349
structure model, 341
water-extractable AXs (HMWILMW), 341-342,
water-unextractable AXs, 341-342, 349-350, 356
Arabinoxylans (AXs), 341-342,348-349,353
349-350
Asparagine, 437
B
Babka, 452
Backslopping, 372
Bagel, 510-512
New York style, 5 10
troubleshooting, 514
561562 Index
Bakery products
bioprocessing, 291
bread, 288
breakfast cereals, 289
cell structure, 530
chemical agents, 293
crispness, See Friability
crust, 539, 541, 543
factors affecting, 289
friability, 528, 531, 545, 547
functional ingredients, 295
native grain and kur, 287
other cereal products, 289
porosity, 532, 546-548
quality, 529, 545
sensory attributes, 287
shelflife, 534-535, 537,539,541, 543, 553, 556
softness, 528,535-536,539
storage, 293
Baker's percent, 502-503,512, 515
Baking, 214, 404, 508, 514
alternative sweeteners, 32
high intensity sweeteners, 33
sugar alcohols, 32
chemical leavening, 15
acids, 16
baking powder, 18
chocolate, 37
cocoa, 37
daiIy products, 33
cheese, 36
condensed milk, 35
cream, 33
dried milk products, 35
evaporated milk, 35
fermented milk, 33
fresh liquid milk, 33
whey, 35
eggs, 36, 167
fats and oils, 18
butter, 22
margarine, 23
processing, 2 1
shortening, 23
vegetable oil, 24
flavorings, 40
fruits, 37
nuts, 37
nutritive sweeteners, 29
brown sugar, 30
Fondant, 30
Fructose, 31
honey, 31
invert sugar, 30
molasses, 30
starch hydrolysates, 31
sucrose, 304
other grains, 8
barley, 11
corn, 10
oat, 10
Rice, 11
Rye, 8
soy, 12
powder, 130, 398, See Chemical leavening
SAS, double acting, 398
single acting, 398
salt, 40
soda, 398
spices, 40
stages, 273
wheat, 4, 5
yeast, 14
Barm brack, 451
Bases, 223
base dissociation constant Kb, 223
conjugate base, 224
strong bases, 223
weak bases, 223
depositing of, 407
doneness of, 404
Beta-amylase, 423
Biological leavening, See Fermentation process
Biopreservation, 375
Biscuits, 484
gluten-free, 484
high fat powder, 484
short dough, 484
Boiled sponge, 266
Boiling, 513
Boterkoeken, 445
Boterpistolets, 445
Bread, 128-130,299-303,306-307,310-311,313
Batter, 407
crust color, 346, 348-349, 352
crumb grain, 240, 242
flavor, 339,346,348
gourmet, 301
hearth loaves, 234-235
leavened, 301
quality, 311, 337-338, 342-344,346, 350, 353, 356
quick bread, 301-302
retrogradation, 236, 239-240, 242
staling, 339-340,342-343, 346-350
antistaling amylase, 346-348
crystallinity, 347
endoxylanase, 349
lipase, 350Index 563
maltodextrins, 347
staling model, 339, 340, 347
starch structure, 347
crisp breads, 528,544
Grissini, 528, 532, 539, 543-544
substitutes, 528
unleavened, 301
volume, 236,238-239,242,342-343,346,349-352,
whole-meal, 301-302
yeast bread, 301-302
baking, 301-302,306-314
baking chamber, 308
batch oven, 307
burner, 307, 308
continuous oven, 307
energy efficiency, 308
forced convection oven, 309
heat transfer mode, 308-309
heating system, 308
impingement oven, 309
microwave oven, 309
power, 307,309
safety, 308
air blast cooler, 310
vacuum cooler, 310
dough makeup, 303,311,313
dividing, 302-303, 313-314
energy input, 302-303, 313
mixing, 303,305-307,312-314
molding, 303,305, 313
over-mixing, 303
panning, 303
sheeting, 305
sponge-and-dough process, 302-303
straight-dough process, 302-303
weighing, 303
flavor, 301,306-307,309
hydrocolloids, 306
lactic acid bacteria, 306
yeast, 301-303, 306-307
packaging, 302,310,314
antistaling agent, 311
emulsifier, 302,311
modified atmosphere (MAP), 310-3 1 1
oxygen scavenger, 3 1 1
proofing, 302,305-307,310,312-314
relative humidity, 307, 310
temperature, 303,306-310, 313-314
354,356
Breadmaking, 301-302,305,307,313-314
cooling, 302-303,310,313-314
fermentation, 301, 303, 306-307, 312, 314
Breakage, 523-524
Brittle, See Breakage
Browning, 425,433, 436-437
Buckwheat knr, 129-130
Buffer solutions, 223
Bulk fermentation, 320
Bulking agent
Lacitol &actyTMin Holland), 152
C
Cake(s), 130-131, 402
egg as functional ingredient, 167
foam style, 400, 402
high altitude adjustments, 404
shortening style, 393
testing for doneness, 404
trouble shooting, 405
Caramelization, 275, 397, 433, 436, 515
Carbohydrate-based fat replacers, 195-196
Carbohydrates, 2 15
Carbon dioxide, 262
Celiac disease, 104, 106, 128, 131, 372, 471-474
clinical symptoms, 473
diagnostic procedures, 471
dietary treatment, 473
disease mechanism, 472
epidemiology, 471
iceberg model, 472
possible causes, 473
Cell structure formation, 278
Cellulase, 356
Cereal-based products, 433-434, 436-437, 439
Chapati (Chapatti), 129, 450
Chemical and physical leavening, 528,546-549,553
Chemical potential, 229
Chorleywood bread process, 32 1
e n e r u input, 321
partial vacuum, 321
positive pressure, 32 1
pressure vacuum, 322
processing time, 322
Choereg, 444
Ciabatta, 45 1
Clarified butter, 403
Codex Alimentarious, 474, 499, 501
Color, 436-437
Conjugate acid and base, 224
Cookie, 131
Cooling, 508
Cracker production, 411
changes in dough, 424
after baking (cooling), 425
before baking, 425
during baking, 425
packaging and storage, 425
coagulationigelation of, 167564
Cracker production (continued)
general description, 412
ingredients, 414
basic ingredients, 414
roles, 42 1
quality control, 426
sanitary requirements, 429-432
trouble shooting, 426, 429
Cream crackers, 425
production, 412
Cream of tartar, 400
Creaming method, 398, 401
Critical pressure, 217
Critical temperature, 217
Cross-linked rice k u r , 130
Crumb softener, 423
Crumb structure, 344, 346, 349-351,354
color,326, 329
damage, 323,327-328
firmnesshrming, 339,341-342,346-347,349-350,
holes, 328
open, 327
structure, 327-328
blisters, 324
color, 326
356
Crust
Cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGTase), 129
D
Depositing, 508
muffins, 508
Dextrinizing enzyme, 423
Diabetes
baked products suitable for, 461
banana bread, 463
DietaIy fiber, 375
Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), 127
Dipole moment, 2 16
Dough conditioner, 424
sodium bisulfite, 242
sodium metabisulfite, 424
frozen, 381
Dough, 248,261
conditioners, 525
cutting, 326
damage, 323
degassing, 255
development time, 52 1
development, 327
dividing, 323
extensibility, 239
fat, 326
final molder, 323
Index
first molding, 323
gas production, 324
gas retention, 234, 239-240, 324
handlingiprocessibility, 338, 343, 348, 350-352, 356
intermediate proof, 322-323, 327,
machinability, 233,238,240
makeup, 257
mixing, 521,523
no time dough, 249
processing, 320
relative humidity, 323
rheological properties, 340, 342, 346, 348-349, 352,
stability, 343, 349-350, 353-354, 356
stickiness, 238, 239, 349, 351, 353, 355
strength, 340, 350-351, 353-355
temperature control, 253
temperature, 322, 325, 327, 523
texturizing, 256
Doughnuts, 131
Dried sourdough 368
D-tagatose, 151
354
E
Egg, 161,215,400,424
composition of, 162
function in a batter, 400
functionality of, 165
functionality in baking, 167
protein, 482-484
cross-linking, 483
separated method, 403
white, 398
coagulationigelation of, 167
composition and structure of, 163
foaming properties of, 166
formation of foam, 400
functional properties of, 165
handling of the foam, 398
coagulationigelation of, 167
composition and structure of, 164
emulsifying properties of, 165
functional properties of, 165
yolk, 130, 400
Electrolytes, 222
Emulsifiers, 215, 225, 239-240,344,350, 355, 423
as fat replacers, 196, 200
calcium stearoyl lactylate, 423
calcium stearoylL2-lactylate,241
cephalins, 226
crumb softener, 239, 241
diacetyl tartaric acid ester, 241
diglycerides, 423
dough conditioner, 239, 241Index 565
glyceryl monostearate, 241
lecithin(s), 226, 240
monoglyceride(s), 239-240, 423
sodium stearoyl lactylate, 423
surfactant, 240
classification, 348-349
endoxylanase inhibitors, 350
functionality in breadmaking, 348-350,
overdosing, 349
substrate selectivity, 350
Enzymes, 236,337-356, 485
alpha-amylase, 236
amylase, 337, 339, 344-348,356
amylopectin retrogradation, 485
antistaling, 485
bacterial amylase, 237
beta-amylase, 237
cereal amylase, 333
endoxylanase, 238,337,348-350,354-356
functions, 485
fungal amylase, 237, 328, 333
glucose (hexose) oxidase, 337,351,354-355,
improvers, 270
inhibitors, 345
Endoxylanase, 337,348-350, 354-356
amylase inhibitors, 345
endoxylanase inhibitors, 350
protease inhibitors, 348
lipase, 337,350-351,353,355-356
lipoxidase, 238,
lipoxygenase, 337, 343, 350-353
malt, 237
maltogenic amylase, 333
oxidoreductase, 337,351-354, 356
protease, 238, 346, 348
pullulanase, 237-238
SKB, 237
transglutaminase, 354-355
Equilibrium molar concentration, 223
Exopolysaccharides 374
Extrusion, 433-434, 436-437, 523
pressure, 523-524
process, 523
F
FAOAWHO, 499
Farinograph, 521, 524
FAST index, 437
Fat analogs, 195,200
barriers, 195
based fat replacers, 195-196,200
extenders, 195, 200
functionality in bakery products, 201
low calorie, 196, 200
mimetics, 195, 199
modified bakeIy foods, 202
physical properties, 203
sensory properties, 206
textural properties, 204
replacement in bakery foods, 201
replacers, 193
substitutes, 194-195, 200
carbohydrate based, 195-196
Fat replacers, 193,498-499,504-505,515
cellulose, 196, 198
fibers, 196, 198
gums, 196, 198
inulin, 196, 199
maltodextrins and dextrins, 196-197
pectin, 196, 199
polydextrose, 196- 197
starch and modified starches, 195-196
classification, 195
fat based, 196,200
emulsifiers, 196, 200
fat (lipid) analogsisubstitutes, 196, 200
low calorie fats, 196, 200
microparticulated protein, 196, 199
modified protein, concentrates, 196, 199
protein based, 196, 199
safety, 207
Fat substitutes, 395
carbohydrate-based, 395
fat-derived, 395
Salatrim, 395
protein-based, 395
Fat, 266, 421
cakes, 25
cookies and crackers, 26
coating fat, 28
dough fat, 27
filling fat, 27
spray oil, 28
laminated products, 24
yeast products, 24
Fatty acids (FAs), 343,350-351
polyunsaturated FAs, 343,350-351, 353
FDA, 499,515
Fermentation, 176,225,261 (Seealso Yeast)
definition, 176
mother dough, See Sour dough
sourdough, 528-530,532-533,536-54 1,543,
547-555
sponge-and-dough, 530,532,535, 541, 543
starters, 537, 551
straight-dough, 535-536
Final proof, 270
Flavor, 365, 367, 370, 373566 Index
Flavoring, 424
Flour microkra, 371
Flour, 268,395,502-503,531
all-purpose, 396
graham crackers, 411
cake, 396
effect of bleaching on, 396
milling of, 396
barley, 533
chestnut, 533, 547, 556
common wheat, 531-533,535
durum wheat, 532-534,540-541,543,545
italian standard, 533-534
rheological properties, 534, 549
rye, 532-534,537,539,551
self-rising, 396
angel food, 402
chiffon, 403
Genoese, 403
sponge, 403
Flow chart, breadmaking, 444
Fluorescence, 437
Focaccia, 451
Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of
Food allergy, 456-457
Foam style cakes, 400, 402
2004,501
eggs, 459
peanuts, 456
sulfites, 456
egg free chocolate cake, 460
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
World Health Organization (FAOMHO), 499
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 499
Food fermentation, 174-175
Food intolerance, 456-457
celiac disease, 456
gluten intolerance, 456
gluten free bread, 458
lactose intolerance, 457
dairy freeitofu baked cheesecake, 459
Food labeling, 499, 501
Food safety, 87-88,94, 96
additive, 87-88, 92-93, 96, 233
contaminant, 87-88,94
mycotoxin, 87-88, 89, 94
pesticide, 87-89, 94
Food Standards Agency of the United Kingdom, 501,
Food Standards Australia, New Zealand, 501, 515
Formula, 505, 510, 515
Formulation, 87,92
5 15
adulteration, 88, 92-93, 95
aids, 92
blend, 89, 92, 93
e-number, 92-93, 96
improver, 88, 90, 96
Frozen dough, 381
additives, 386
gas retention properties, 383
yeast, 382
Fructose, 433-434,437-438
Fruit sponge, 267
Functional foods, 498-499, 5 15
Furosine, 435-436
2-Furoyl-methylLGABA,435-436
G
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), 435-436
Gas cells, 342-343, 349-350,
gas retention properties, 342-343
stability, 343, 350
Gauffres liegeois, 445
Gelatinization, 515
Genetically modified (GM), 502
Genetics of gluten proteins, 99
Glassy water, 2 17 (SeeAmorphous water)
Glucose, 433-434,437-438
oxidase, 129, 337, 351, 354-355
Glutathione, 234-235, 348, 351, 354
Gluten allergies, 103
Gluten from genetically modified organisms (GMO),
Gluten proteins, 234, 339-342, 348,350,353-354
cross-links, 340-341, 351, 353-354
disulphide bond, 234-236, 340-341, 351,353
extensibility, 236
extractability, 340
gliadins, 339-340, 350, 354
glutenins, 339-340, 350
polymers, 340, 351, 355
subunits (HMWILMW), 340,351,354
hydration capacity, 236, 239
interactions, 341, 347, 350
network, 340,342-343,348,350,353,355
devitalized (nonviscoelastic) gluten, 100
functional properties, 101
104
Gluten, 97, 396, 474
film formation, 101
gluten index, 101
lipid binding, 102
thermosetting, 101-102
water-holding capacity (WHC), 102
gliadin, 396,474, 476
glutenin, 396, 474
quality, 99, 101
replacers, 128
rheological properties, 99, 101
viscoelastic properties, 97-99, 101-1 02Index 567
vital wheat gluten (VWG), 97, 100, 102-103,
235-236,512,514
Gluten-free, 128-129, 131,474, 484-485, 501
biscuits, 484
bread, 372, 375,458, 478, 484, 488
enzymes, 485-486
hydrocolloids (gums), 479
hydroxypropyl methylcellulose,48 1
konjac, 480
xanthan, 480
lactic acid bacteria, 487
pastaipizza, 484
protein sources, 481
egg proteins, 482-484
dairy proteins, 481
soybeans, 482
surimi, 482
pseudocereals, 477-479
amaranth, 478-479,
buckwheat, 477-478, 484,
quinoa, 478-479
sourdough, 487
starch-based ingredients, 475
corn, 477
potato starch, 477
rice, 476
sorghum, 479
wheat starch, 475
Glycemic index, 374,525
GMP, 502
Good Manufacturing practice (GMP),502
Grading of wheat, 73-82
Canada, 75-82
standards, 73
United States, 73-75
Grains, 267
GRAS (generally recognized as safe), 102
Gum, 480
konjac, 480
xanthan, 480
H
Hard water, 224
permanent hard waters, 224
temporary hard waters, 224
treatment, 224
ion exchange, 225
lime, 224
osmosis, 225
Health, 501
Canada, 501
claims, 501
high fiber
Healthier bakery products, 455, 460
bueberry muffin, 461
low-fat
bueberry muffin, 461
cocolate chip biscuit, 468
dairy freeitofu baked cheesecake, 459
diabetic banana bread, 463
chocolate chip biscuit, 468
low sugar
Heat transfer, 274, 405
conduction, 275,405
convection, 274,405
radiation, 274
Henderson-Hesselbach Equation, 224
High altitude adjustments, 404
High intensity sweeteners, 148
solution properties, 481
acesulfame Potassium (Acesulfanie-KTM,
alitame, 151
aspartame (NutrasweetTM, EqualTM),149-150
cyclamate, 151
neotame, 150
saccharin (Sweet ‘N LowTM,Sugar TwinTM),
148- 149
sucralose (SpendaTM),150
applications to bakery products, 145
composition, 145
creamed honey, 145
crystallized honey, 145
Pfund scale, 145
plasticized honey, 146
spun honey, 145
Hop sponge, 267
Hot Tins tins, 328
Human stages of development, 467
Humidity, 220
acesulfamTM),150
Honey, 145
absolute humidity, 220
dew point, 220
relative humidity, 220
Hydrated proton, 222
Hydrocolloids, 128-129, 242
agar, 128
carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 128,242
carrageenan, 128,
guar gum, 128-129,242
hydroxypropylr~ietliylcellulose(HPMC), 128- 129
locus bean gum, 128-129
xanthan gum, 128- 129
bonding, 217
peroxide, 351, 353-356
Hydrolysis, 262
Hydrophilic effect, 214, 225
Hydrophobic effect, 214, 225
Hydroxymethylfurfural,436-437
Hydrogen568 Index
I
Ice, 217, 220
crystallization, 220
formation and supercooling, 220
freeze drying, 218
freezing point, 220
from solution, 222
homogeneous nucleation, 220
melting points, 22 1
nucleation, 220
structure of, 2 18
supercooling, 220
vapor pressure, 218,220
Immunoreactivity, 375
Infrared spectroscopy, 2 16
Intermediate proof, 270
Intermolecular interaction, 2 17
Ion exchange, 225
Isomerization, 437,439
Italian baked products, 528, 543, See also Italian
bread and Italian sweet products,
baking conditions, 532, 539-541, 543, 552
classification, 528-529, 545-547
PDO (Protected Designation of Origin),
PGI (Protected Geographical Indication),
physical characteristics, 530, 532, 536, 548
production sector, 529,530, 543, 545
Ciabatta, 532, 535, 542
Coppia ferrarese, 532, 540-542
Michetta, 532, 540, 542-543
Pane Carasau, 532,539,543-544
Pane casereccio di Genzano, 532, 541-542
Pane di Altamura, 532, 534,537,540-542
Pane di segale, 532
Pane toscano, 532, 540-542
Pasta dura, 532, 542
Italian sweet products, 543
Amaretti, 547-5 48,556-5 57
Canestrelli, 548-5 49
Cannoli, 547,549-550
Castagnaccio, 547-5 50, 556
Colomba, 529,547-548,550-555
KruniiiY,547-5 50
Merendine, 529, 5 53
Ofelle,547-5 50
Pandoro, 529,547-554
Panettone, 529,547-554
Panforte, 547-548, 556
Pardulas, 547, 549-550
Pasta dimandorle, 547, 556-557
Pastiera, 547,549-550
540-542
540-541,554
Italian bread, 529
K
Kiln, 521, 523,
drying, 524
Kochstuck, 447
Kosher baking, 463
fruit mousse, 464
KOy, 453
L
Labelling, reduced fat products, 194
Laccase, 353
Lacitol (LactyTMin Holland), 152
Lactic acid 367, 369, 372, 373, 374
bacteria (LAB), 180, 186, 536-539, 550-5151
Lactococcus lactis, 447
Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, 537-5 38, 5 50
Lactose, 147-148, 433-434, 438
lactase, 147
lactose intolerance, 147
all-in-one proceses, 412
sponge-dough process, 412
Laminated crackers, 412
Lao bing, 446
Leavening agents, 215, 398, 422, 505
air, 398
ammonium bicarbonate, 422
baking powder, 215, 398
baking soda, 215, 398
egg whites, 398
liquids, 398, 400
sodium bicarbonate, 422
yeast, 422
Lifestyle choice diets, 465
sports nutrition, 465
high-carbo calzone, 465
veganism, 465
carrot cake, 466
vegetarianism, 465
Limpa, 453
Lipase, 337,350-351,353,355-356
functionality in breadmaking, 350-35 1
phospholipase, 351
Lipids, 215, 338, 343, 350
functionality in breadmaking, 343, 350
galactolipids, 343, 350
nonpolar lipids, 343, 350
polar lipids, 339, 343, 350
starch lipids, 343
triacylglycerols, 352
classification, 351
co-oxidation, 352-353
functionality in breadmaking, 352-353
hydroxyperoxides, 351-352
Lipoxygenase, 337,343,350-353Index 569
Liquid sponge, 264
Loaf volume, 325, 329, 332
Lysine, 433-437
M
Mahleb, 445
Maillard reaction, 275, 425, 433-437, 504, 507, 523
browning, 227, 398,
angel food cake, 403
role of milk in, 400
Malt Bur, 423
diastatic, 423
non-diastatic, 423
Maltose, 433, 437-439
Maltulose, 437-439
Maple syrup, 147
Mastel, 446
Matzos, 411
Measurement of bread quality, 329
production, 412
crumb color, 326, 329
crumb quality, 329
loaf volume, 329, 331
Melanoidins, 436
Melting point, 220
supercooling, 220
Meringue method, 400
Methionine, 434
Microwave
baking, 228
spectroscopy,2 16
Milk, 215
powder, 268
Mills, 90-92, 94, 127
burr mills, 127
hammer mills, 127
roller mills, 127
roller, 90-92, 94
stone, 90-91, 94
automation, 251
batch, 406
continuous, 406
oakes, 407
objectives, 246
scaling, 245
stages, 246
time, 246, 449, 521
types, 246
votator, 407
Mixing, 245-246,401,406,508,511
Molasses, 144-145
Monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, 505-507
Mouthfeel, 506, 513, 516
Muffins, 130-131,454,497,508
bread-type, 502,508-509
cake-type, 502,508-509
english, 497
quick-bread, 497
Multi-purpose additive, 152
Muslims, 464
Mycotoxins 376
N
Naan, 450
Natural sponge, 265
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), 126
NLEA, 499,516
Nonfat dry milk powder, 507
Nonstarch polysaccharides, 338, 341-342
No-time dough, 263,321-322
Nutrition Labeling Education Act (NLEA),499
0
Obesity, 460, 467-498
Organic compounds, 2 15
Organic Foods Production Act of 1990, 501
Organic gluten, 104
Osmotic pressure, 222
Optimization of gluten-free breads, 488
Oven problems, 279
flash Heat, 280
Oven, 281,405,408,508,521,523
band, 408
convection, 405
conventional, 405
conveyor, 282
deck, 508, 515
electronic, 283
impingement, 409
rack, 283
reel, 281, 409, 508, 516
spring, 275,346,349-350
steam, 279
temperature, 524
traveling tray oven, 281
Halal baking, 464
double-Lap, 281
single-Lap, 281
tunnel, 282, 408
zones, 523
Optimization of gluten-free breads, 488
Overweight, 498
Oxidation, 340-341, 343, 350-355
Oxidizing agent(s),233, 340, 344, 351, 353, 355
ascorbic acid, 234, 242, 251
azodicarbonamide, 234
potassium brornate, 234570 Index
Oxidizing agent(s) (continued)
potassium iodate, 234
principles, 250
Oxidoreductase, 337, 351-354, 356
P
Packaging, 508, 514,524
Pain
a la Grecque, 445
briare, 447
tradition, 448
Panettone, 370
PZo di queijo, 446
Pappadam, 45 1
Parameter, 87, 89-94
chemical, 87-90,94
NIR, 90,92-94
protein, 88, 90-93
rheological, 87, 90-92
starch, 90, 92-93
water, 90, 92-93,95
XYZ-graph, 90,92, 94
Partially hydrogenated shortenings, 42 1
Pastdpizza, 484-485
gluten-free, 485
Pasting behavionr, 126-127, 130
Pentosans, 2 14
Performance, 94-95
agronomy, 95
bakery, 94
predicting, 95
process, 95
Peroxidase, 35 1, 353
pH, 223
Phyllo, 454
Phytates, 375
Pide, 454
Plastic sponge, 264
Polar molecules, 2 16
Polydextrose (LittsseTM in Holland), 152
Potato starch, 477
Pregelatinized rice Bur, 128, 131
Preparation of gluten, 100
drying conditions, 100
industrial-scale isolation, 100
zalcohol washing process, 100
batter process, 100
hydrocyclone process, 100
Martin process, 100
laboratory-scale isolation, 100
glutomatic washing system, 100
hand washing method, 100
Preservative,270
Pretzel, 519
color, 523-524
hard, 520, 523-524
hardness, 521
soft, 525
sourdough, 525
texture, 523-524
feedback control, 313-314
modeling, 314
Process control for bread making, 303, 311-314
computational fiid dynamics (CFD), 309, 314
dynamic, 314
off-line, 306
on-line, 305, 311-314
PID control, 313
programmable logic controller, 303, 313
SCADA system, 313
Process monitoring system, 3 1 1
image analysis, 312
light microscopy, 312
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 312
mechanical sensors, 313
near infrared (NIR), 312-3 14
noninvasive method, 312
ultrasound, 312
vision technology, 311-312
x-ray, 312
Production of bakery products, 42
soft wheat products, 46
cake baking, 55
cake formula balancing, 51
chiffon method, 51, 53
commercially made cookie, 48
cookies, 46
crackers, 46
creaming method, 49
handmade cookie, 49
mixing methods, 46, 49
pastries, 56,
pies, 56
puff pasty, 25
sponge method, 50
types of cakes, 50
types of doughmaking processes, 44
chorleywood bread process, 45
sponge-and-dough method, 44
steps in yeast dough production, 42
straight dough method, 44
sourdoughs, 45
yeast products, 42
lean dough, 42
rich dough, 42
rolled-in yeast dough, 42
special dough, 42
Prolamins, 128
Proofing time, 521,525
Proofing, 513-514Index 571
Protease, 346, 348, 424
classification, 348
functionality in breadmaking, 348
protease inhibitors, 348
albumins, 97
amino acid composition, 98
based fat replacers, 196, 199
content, 520, 525
crosslink, 228
denaturation, 277
essential amino acids, 98
gliadins, 97
globulins, 97
glutenins, 97, 99
Proteins, 97, 214, 227
high molecular weight glutenin subunits
low molecular weight glutenin subunits
(HMWGS),99
(LMWGS), 99
isoelectric point, 228
microparticullated, 196, 199
modified, 196,199
molecular weight distribution,99
monomeric, 98
peptide bond, 228
polymeric, 99
wheat protein, 228
Pulla, 447
Puri, 452
Q
Quality assurance, 524
Quinoa, 478-479
R
Radicals, 351-353, 356
Raisinjuice concentrate, 148
Raisin sponge, 267
Rapid viscoanalyser (RVA), 126
Recipes
banana bread
conventional,463
diabetic, 463
gluten free, 458
standard, 458
multigrain rolls, 467
high carbo, 465
conventional, 466
vegan, 466
baked, 459
dairy free, 459
bread
calzone
carrot cake
cheesecake
standard baked, 459
tofu based, 459
chocolate cake
eggless, 460
standard, 460
chocolate chip cookies
conventional,468,
healthier version, 468
kosher Muslin, 464
traditional, 464
gluten free bread, 458
muffin
fruit mousse
blueberry conventional, 461
low fat healthy, 461
salmon and kumara, 469
wholemeal, 469
quiche
Redox reaction, 351,353-354
Reduced sugar and sugarless baking, 155
Reducing agents, 235,348
L-cysteine, 235, 249
sorbic acid, 250
Reducing sugars, 433-437
Refiner's syrup, 145
Religious dietaIy laws, 104, 106
Religious requirements, 463
Halal, 463
kosher, 464
recipe for fruit mousse, 464
recipe for dairy freeitofu baked cheesecake, 459
recipe for fruit mousse 464
Replacement for wheat k u r , see Wheat k u r replacement
Retrogradation, 227
Reverse osmosis, 222
Rewena, 452
Rice, 476
bran, 125, 127
brown rice Bur, 476
brown rice, 125, 127, 129, 130-131
composition, 124- 125
consumption, 123-124
fortification, 126
milling, 125
paddy rice, 124
parboiled rice, 125, 128
polished rice, 125, 127
pregerminated rice, 130
production, 123
storage, 127
waxy rice, 125-127, 131
white rice kurs, 476
Ritz crackers, 425
Rogge verdomme, 445
Ruisleipa, 447572 Index
Rye, 109
arabinoxylans, 112-113
bread, 449
bioactive compounds, 113-1 14
effect of processing, 113
chemical composition, 11 1
consumer products, 115
bread products, 116-117
consumption, 109-1 10
flavor, 117-118
health-effects, 114-115,
nutritional value, 114-1 15
microstructure, 111-1 12
production, 109-1 10
sourdough, 448
S
Saccharifying enzyme, 423
Saka manju, 451
Saline crackers, 411
Salt, 269, 423,523,525
Saltines, 425
San Francisco bread, 365, 370
Sarmisakli, 454
Savory crackers, 411
production, 412
Scaling, 502, 516
Scones, 454
Semisweet graham crackers, 411
Semisweet machine-cut cookies, 4 11
Shelf-life, 374, 508, 510, 516
antistaling additives, 60
emulsifiers,60-61
enzymes, 60-61
mechanism, 57,59
production, 412
staling, 60, 61
Short dough, 421,545,547,549-550
Shortening, 394
hydrogenation, 394
oil, 394
Shortening-style cakes, 393, 401
continuous batter mixing, 402
creaming method, 401, 40 1
emulsion method, 402
flour-batter method, 401
single-stage method, 402
sugar batter method, 401
Skim, 129-130
Sodium aluminum sulfate, 505
Sodium bicarbonate, 505-506, 516,525
Sodium crackers, 425
Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamidegel
electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE),98
Sodium hydroxide (Seealkali)
Solutions, 22 1
Sorghum, 479
sorghum molasses, 147
sweet sorghum logo, 147
Sourdough, 177, 186, 365
definition 366,
fermentation, 366-367, 373
Ankerbrot-Reimelt system, 368
Isernhager process, 368
Monheimer process, 368
prolonged fermentation, 368
spontaneous fermentation, 368
functional aspects, 373
health benefits, 374
history, 365
lactic acid bacteria, 487
microkra, 368
lactic acid bacteria, 369
yeast, 370
process, 366
rye sourdough, 366
types, 368
wheat sourdough, 366
daiIy replacement, 457
egg replacement, 459
flour, 131
protein, 130
Soybeans, 482
Sponge cake, 403
use of eggs in, 400, 403
Sponge-dough method, 263
Sports nutrition, 465
carbo-loading, 465
recipe for Calzone, 465
S O Y
Staling, 486, See Baked products quality, Shelf life
Starch degradation products, 345
LMW (malto)dextrins,345-347
reducingifermentable sugars (maltose), 346, 348
residual starch fraction, 347
Starch sugars, 140-142, 144
dextrose anhydrous, 142
dextrose monohydrate, 142
fructose crystals, 142
maltodextrins, 141
corn syrups, 141
dextrose syrups, 142
enriched fructose syrup (55% fructose), 144
high conversion syrups, 141
high fructose syrup (42% fructose), 144
high maltose syrups, 141
amylopectin, 226, 338-339, 347
amylose leaching, 339, 346
Starch syrups, 140-142, 144
Starch, 125, 129,214,226,338-340,344-345,475Index 573
amylose, 226, 338-339, 347
amylose-lipid (inclusion) complex, 339,343, 350,
as fat replacer, 195-196
cassava starch, 129-130
corn starch, 129-131
crystallinity, 338-339, 347
damaged starch, 127,338,346
degradation products, 345
356
LMW (malto)dextrins, 345-347
reducingifermentable sugars (maltose), 346
residual starch fraction, 347
gelatinization, 276, 338-339, 346, 475, 502, 507-508,
granules, 338-339, 343, 345-346
interactions, 341, 342, 347
network, 339, 347
potato starch, 131,
pregelatinized tapioca starch, 130-131
proteins in, 226-227
replacement for wheat %ur, 457
retrogradation, 338-339, 342, 347, 356,
rigidity, 339
Starter cultures, 371
definition, 372
Straight-dough, 263
Subcritical water, 220
Sucrose, 433-434, 438
Sugar, 269,397
alternatives, 397-398
brown sugar, 397
carmelization, 504
function of sugar in cakes, 397
functions in baking, 462
loaf, 445
refining process, 397
replacers, 498, 504, 516
syrups, 143, 148
Sulfhydryl oxidase, 353-354
Supercooling, 222
Supercritical water, 220
Superheating, 222
Supplementation 375
Surfactant, 225
Surimi, 482
Sweeteners, 137, 422
519,523
artificial, 462
extender, 151
functional considerations, 155
functionality in baked products, 153
functions in baking, 462
lack of bake stability, 462
thalose, 151
uses in baked products, 152-153
Synthesis of gluten proteins, 99
T
Texture profile analysis, 329
Thalose, 151
Tortilla, 452
Traditional sugars, 138
baker's Drivert, 140
baker's special, 139
beet sugar, 139
brown sugar, 139
cane sugar, 138
fondant sugar, 140
icing sugar, 140
invert sugar, 140
liquor, 138
massecnite, 138
powderd sugar, 139
sucrose, 138
turbinado sugar, 140
typical screen anaylsis, 138
U.S. FDA definition, 138
Trans-fatty acids, 421
Transglutaminase, 129, 354-355
overdosing, 354
Triple point, 219,220
Tritium, 212
Tryptophan, 437
Tsoureki, 449
U
US Clean Water Act, 2 13
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 212
US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2 12
US Office of Water Quality, 2 13
V
Vapor pressure, 2 18, 220
of ice, 218
of water, 219
humidity, 220
Vazsonyi, 450
Veganism, 465
Vegetarianism, 465
lacto, 465
lacto-ovo, 465
Villi, 447
Viscosity, 339, 341-342, 346
aqueous phase, 339,341-342
dough, 340,346
Vital wheat gluten
bakery products, 102-103
flour fortification, 102
modified gluten proteins, 103
nonbakery uses, 103
recipes containing VWG, 103
uses, 102574 Index
W
Wafers, 131
Water activity, 229 (SeeHumidity)
chemical potential, 229
isotherm, 230
relative vapor pressure, 229
Water crackers, 4 1I
production, 412
Water molecules, 2 15
dipole moment, 216
polarity of molecule, 216
abnormal propeIties, 2 17
absorption, 338-339,342,348,353
amorphous solid water, 2 17
boiling point, 220,
bottled water, 2 12
bound water, 221, 230
density, 2 19
dielectric constant, 219, 222
drinking waters, 2 12
free water, 22 1, 230
hard water, 224
heat capacity, 2 19
heavy water, 2 12
holding, 342, 349
ion product of Kw,222
natural waters, 2 12
phase transition, 217, 220
radioactive water, 212-213
redistribution, 339, 341-342, 351
self-ionization of, 222
solid water, 217 (SeeIce)
surface tension, 2 19
thermal conductivity, 2 19
treatment, 222
triple point, 219-220
vapor pressure, 219
viscosity, 219
Walkerton water incident, 2 13
water regulating agencies, 2 13
water vapor, 2 16
Water, 211-212,219-220,268,423,520-521
Weak acids, 223
Weak bases, 223
Wetting agent, 225
Wheat characteristics, 72-73, 82-85
hard wheat, 72, 82-83, 85
red wheat, 72, 83-84
soft wheat, 72-73, 82, 84
spring wheat, 72-73,83-84
white wheat, 72, 84-85
winter wheat, 72-73, 84
yield, 72
Wheat classes, 69, 73, 75-85
Canada, 81,83
Durum, 69,73,75, 76,81,83,85
extra strong, 81, 83
Hard Red Spring, 73, 75,76-79, 80-85
Hard Red Winter, 73, 75,82, 83-85
Hard White, 73, 75, 76, 85
mixed, 75
Prairie Spring, 81
Soft Red Winter, 73,75, 82
Soft White, 73, 75, 81-82, 85
unclassed, 75
United States, 75
Wheat end-products, 70, 83-85
Wheat k u r classification, 69-86
Canada, 75-81
classification systems, 70-8 1
disposition and consumption, 70
quality, 81-85
standards and grading, 73
United States, 73-75
uses, 83-85
world exports, 72
world imports, 72
world wheat production, 70
arabinoxylan, 338, 341-342
lipids, 338, 343
nonstarch polysaccharides, 338, 341-342
protein, 338-340
starch, 338-340, 344-345
Wheat k u r milling, 5
Wheat k u r replacement, 458
bean kurs, 457
nuts, 457
sorghum, 457
starches, 456, 457
teff, 457
Wheat k u r constituents, 338, 353, 356
Wheat quality, 343-344, 356
Wheat starch, 475
amylopectin, 476
amylose, 476
cellulose, 480
Whey powder, 130
Whey solids, 147-148
Whey, 424
World Health Organization (WHO), 2 14
X
Xanthan gum, 480
Y
Yeast, 173-191, 215,222, 225, 262, 269, 382, 520,523,
525,536-539
active dry, 180-182
rehydration, 183
aroma production, 182, 184-185, 187Index 575
color, 177, 179, 183
compressed, 179-180
definition, 173, 176
dough, 183
behaviour in, 183-187
cell growth in, 186
fermentation tolerance, 186-187
rheology, 186-187
enzyme activity, 179, 182, 184-185, 187
food applications, 174-175
foods, 185-187
freezing, 182
gas production, 179-180, 183, 185-187
glutathione, 180, 183, 186
historical development, 176-177
inhibitors, 181, 185-186
instant active dry, 181
ions and yeast, 225
levels in dough, 184, 187
liquid (cream), 180
manufacturing, 177- 182
packaging, 180-18 1
preincubation, 183-184
protein content, 178-179
quality control, 181, 183
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 537-5 38
Saccharomyces exiguus, 537-538, 550
species, 174-176
storage, 179-181, 183
strains, 181-182
sugar utilization, 177
sweet (sugared) dough, 181, 184-185
temperature, 182
gas production, 184
growth, 182
trehalose, 177, 180
wild, 178, 180, 183
yeast food, 225
yield, 179
Yufka, 454


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