كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering

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كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering  Empty
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أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering
An Interactive e
FIFTH EDITION
William D. Callister, Jr.
Department of Metallurgical Engineering The University of Utah

كتاب Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering  F_o_m_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapters 1 through 13 discuss core topics (found in both print and on
the CD-ROM) and supplementary topics (in the eText only)
LIST OF SYMBOLS xix
1. Introduction 1
Learning Objectives 2
1.1 Historical Perspective 2
1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2
1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4
1.4 Classification of Materials 5
1.5 Advanced Materials 6
1.6 Modern Materials’ Needs 6
References 7
2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 9
Learning Objectives 10
2.1 Introduction 10
ATOMIC STRUCTURE 10
2.2 Fundamental Concepts 10
2.3 Electrons in Atoms 11
2.4 The Periodic Table 17
ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 18
2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 18
2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 20
2.7 Secondary Bonding or Van der Waals Bonding 24
2.8 Molecules 26
Summary 27
Important Terms and Concepts 27
References 28
Questions and Problems 28
3. Structures of Metals and Ceramics 30
Learning Objectives 31
3.1 Introduction 31
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 31
3.2 Fundamental Concepts 31
3.3 Unit Cells 32
3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 33xii ● Contents
3.5 Density Computations—Metals 37
3.6 Ceramic Crystal Structures 38
3.7 Density Computations—Ceramics 45
3.8 Silicate Ceramics 46
• The Silicates (CD-ROM) S-1
3.9 Carbon 47
• Fullerenes (CD-ROM) S-3
3.10 Polymorphism and Allotropy 49
3.11 Crystal Systems 49
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC DIRECTIONS AND
PLANES 51
3.12 Crystallographic Directions 51
3.13 Crystallographic Planes 54
3.14 Linear and Planar Atomic Densities
(CD-ROM) S-4

3.15 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 58
CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE
MATERIALS 62
3.16 Single Crystals 62
3.17 Polycrystalline Materials 62
3.18 Anisotropy 63
3.19 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of
Crystal Structures (CD-ROM) S-6

3.20 Noncrystalline Solids 64
Summary 66
Important Terms and Concepts 67
References 67
Questions and Problems 68
4. Polymer Structures 76
Learning Objectives 77
4.1 Introduction 77
4.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 77
4.3 Polymer Molecules 79
4.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 80
4.5 Molecular Weight 82
4.6 Molecular Shape 87
4.7 Molecular Structure 88
4.8 Molecular Configurations
(CD-ROM) S-11

4.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting
Polymers 90
4.10 Copolymers 91
4.11 Polymer Crystallinity 92
4.12 Polymer Crystals 95
Summary 97
Important Terms and Concepts 98
References 98
Questions and Problems 99
5. Imperfections in Solids 102
Learning Objectives 103
5.1 Introduction 103
POINT DEFECTS 103
5.2 Point Defects in Metals 103
5.3 Point Defects in Ceramics 105
5.4 Impurities in Solids 107
5.5 Point Defects in Polymers 110
5.6 Specification of Composition 110
• Composition Conversions
(CD-ROM) S-14
MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 111
5.7 Dislocations—Linear Defects 111
5.8 Interfacial Defects 115
5.9 Bulk or Volume Defects 118
5.10 Atomic Vibrations 118
MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 118
5.11 General 118
5.12 Microscopic Techniques
(CD-ROM) S-17

5.13 Grain Size Determination 119
Summary 120
Important Terms and Concepts 121
References 121
Questions and Problems 122
6. Diffusion 126
Learning Objectives 127
6.1 Introduction 127
6.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 127
6.3 Steady-State Diffusion 130
6.4 Nonsteady-State Diffusion 132
6.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 136
6.6 Other Diffusion Paths 141
6.7 Diffusion in Ionic and Polymeric
Materials 141
Summary 142
Important Terms and Concepts 142
References 142
Questions and Problems 143
7. Mechanical Properties 147
Learning Objectives 148
7.1 Introduction 148
7.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 149
ELASTIC DEFORMATION 153
7.3 Stress–Strain Behavior 153
7.4 Anelasticity 157
7.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 157Contents ● xiii
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—METALS 160
7.6 Tensile Properties 160
7.7 True Stress and Strain 167
7.8 Elastic Recovery During Plastic
Deformation 170
7.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional
Deformation 170
MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—CERAMICS 171
7.10 Flexural Strength 171
7.11 Elastic Behavior 173
7.12 Influence of Porosity on the Mechanical
Properties of Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-22

MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR—POLYMERS 173
7.13 Stress–Strain Behavior 173
7.14 Macroscopic Deformation 175
• 7.15 Viscoelasticity (CD-ROM) S-22
HARDNESS AND OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTY
CONSIDERATIONS 176
7.16 Hardness 176
7.17 Hardness of Ceramic Materials 181
7.18 Tear Strength and Hardness of
Polymers 181
PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY
FACTORS 183
7.19 Variability of Material Properties 183
• Computation of Average and Standard
Deviation Values (CD-ROM) S-28
7.20 Design/Safety Factors 183
Summary 185
Important Terms and Concepts 186
References 186
Questions and Problems 187
8. Deformation and Strengthening
Mechanisms 197
Learning Objectives 198
8.1 Introduction 198
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR METALS 198
8.2 Historical 198
8.3 Basic Concepts of Dislocations 199
8.4 Characteristics of Dislocations 201
8.5 Slip Systems 203
• 8.6 Slip in Single Crystals (CD-ROM) S-31
8.7 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline
Metals 204
8.8 Deformation by Twinning
(CD-ROM) S-34

MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN
METALS 206
8.9 Strengthening by Grain Size
Reduction 206
8.10 Solid-Solution Strengthening 208
8.11 Strain Hardening 210
RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN
GROWTH 213
8.12 Recovery 213
8.13 Recrystallization 213
8.14 Grain Growth 218
DEFORMATION MECHANISMS FOR CERAMIC
MATERIALS 219
8.15 Crystalline Ceramics 220
8.16 Noncrystalline Ceramics 220
MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR
STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 221
8.17 Deformation of Semicrystalline
Polymers 221
8.18a Factors That Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-35

8.18b Factors That Influence the Mechanical
Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers
(Concise Version) 223
8.19 Deformation of Elastomers 224
Summary 227
Important Terms and Concepts 228
References 228
Questions and Problems 228
9. Failure 234
Learning Objectives 235
9.1 Introduction 235
FRACTURE 235
9.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 235
9.3 Ductile Fracture 236
• Fractographic Studies (CD-ROM) S-38
9.4 Brittle Fracture 238
9.5a Principles of Fracture Mechanics
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-38

9.5b Principles of Fracture Mechanics
(Concise Version) 238
9.6 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 248
• Static Fatigue (CD-ROM) S-53
9.7 Fracture of Polymers 249
9.8 Impact Fracture Testing 250xiv ● Contents
FATIGUE 255
9.9 Cyclic Stresses 255
9.10 The S–N Curve 257
9.11 Fatigue in Polymeric Materials 260
9.12a Crack Initiation and Propagation
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-54

9.12b Crack Initiation and Propagation
(Concise Version) 260
9.13 Crack Propagation Rate
(CD-ROM) S-57

9.14 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 263
• 9.15 Environmental Effects (CD-ROM) S-62
CREEP 265
9.16 Generalized Creep Behavior 266
9.17a Stress and Temperature Effects
[Detailed Version (CD-ROM)] S-63

9.17b Stress and Temperature Effects (Concise
Version) 267
9.18 Data Extrapolation Methods
(CD-ROM) S-65

9.19 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 268
9.20 Creep in Ceramic and Polymeric
Materials 269
Summary 269
Important Terms and Concepts 272
References 272
Questions and Problems 273
10 Phase Diagrams 281
Learning Objectives 282
10.1 Introduction 282
DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 282
10.2 Solubility Limit 283
10.3 Phases 283
10.4 Microstructure 284
10.5 Phase Equilibria 284
EQUILIBRIUM PHASE DIAGRAMS 285
10.6 Binary Isomorphous Systems 286
10.7 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 288
10.8 Development of Microstructure in
Isomorphous Alloys (CD-ROM) S-67

10.9 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous
Alloys 292
10.10 Binary Eutectic Systems 292
10.11 Development of Microstructure in
Eutectic Alloys (CD-ROM) S-70

10.12 Equilibrium Diagrams Having
Intermediate Phases or Compounds 297
10.13 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 298
10.14 Congruent Phase Transformations 301
10.15 Ceramic Phase Diagrams (CD-ROM)
S-77

10.16 Ternary Phase Diagrams 301
• 10.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule (CD-ROM) S-81
THE IRON–CARBON SYSTEM 302
10.18 The Iron–Iron Carbide (Fe–Fe3C)
Phase Diagram 302
10.19 Development of Microstructures in
Iron–Carbon Alloys 305
10.20 The Influence of Other Alloying
Elements (CD-ROM) S-83

Summary 313
Important Terms and Concepts 314
References 314
Questions and Problems 315
11 Phase Transformations 323
Learning Objectives 324
11.1 Introduction 324
PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METALS 324
11.2 Basic Concepts 325
11.3 The Kinetics of Solid-State
Reactions 325
11.4 Multiphase Transformations 327
MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN
IRON–CARBON ALLOYS 327
11.5 Isothermal Transformation
Diagrams 328
11.6 Continuous Cooling Transformation
Diagrams (CD-ROM) S-85

11.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron–Carbon
Alloys 339
11.8 Tempered Martensite 344
11.9 Review of Phase Transformations for
Iron–Carbon Alloys 346
PRECIPITATION HARDENING 347
11.10 Heat Treatments 347
11.11 Mechanism of Hardening 349
11.12 Miscellaneous Considerations 351
CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASS
TRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 352
11.13 Crystallization 353
11.14 Melting 354
11.15 The Glass Transition 354
11.16 Melting and Glass Transition
Temperatures 354
11.17 Factors That Influence Melting and
Glass Transition Temperatures
(CD-ROM) S-87
•Contents ● xv
Summary 356
Important Terms and Concepts 357
References 357
Questions and Problems 358
12. Electrical Properties 365
Learning Objectives 366
12.1 Introduction 366
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 366
12.2 Ohm’s Law 366
12.3 Electrical Conductivity 367
12.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 368
12.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 368
12.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and
Atomic Bonding Models 371
12.7 Electron Mobility 372
12.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 373
12.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial
Alloys 376
SEMICONDUCTIVITY 376
12.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 377
12.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 379
12.12 The Temperature Variation of
Conductivity and Carrier
Concentration 383
• 12.13 The Hall Effect (CD-ROM) S-91
• 12.14 Semiconductor Devices (CD-ROM) S-93
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS
AND IN POLYMERS 389
12.15 Conduction in Ionic Materials 389
12.16 Electrical Properties of Polymers 390
DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 391
• 12.17 Capacitance (CD-ROM) S-99
12.18 Field Vectors and Polarization
(CD-ROM) S-101

• 12.19 Types of Polarization (CD-ROM) S-105
12.20 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric
Constant (CD-ROM) S-106

• 12.21 Dielectric Strength (CD-ROM) S-107
• 12.22 Dielectric Materials (CD-ROM) S-107
OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF
MATERIALS 391
• 12.23 Ferroelectricity (CD-ROM) S-108
• 12.24 Piezoelectricity (CD-ROM) S-109
Summary 391
Important Terms and Concepts 393
References 393
Questions and Problems 394
13. Types and Applications
of Materials 401
Learning Objectives 402
13.1 Introduction 402
TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 402
13.2 Ferrous Alloys 402
13.3 Nonferrous Alloys 414
TYPES OF CERAMICS 422
13.4 Glasses 423
13.5 Glass–Ceramics 423
13.6 Clay Products 424
13.7 Refractories 424
• Fireclay, Silica, Basic, and Special
Refractories
(CD-ROM) S-110
13.8 Abrasives 425
13.9 Cements 425
• 13.10 Advanced Ceramics (CD-ROM) S-111
13.11 Diamond and Graphite 427
TYPES OF POLYMERS 428
13.12 Plastics 428
13.13 Elastomers 431
13.14 Fibers 432
13.15 Miscellaneous Applications 433
13.16 Advanced Polymeric Materials
(CD-ROM) S-113

Summary 434
Important Terms and Concepts 435
References 435
Questions and Problems 436
Chapters 14 through 21 discuss just supplementary topics, and are
found only on the CD-ROM (and not in print)
14. Synthesis, Fabrication, and Processing
of Materials (CD-ROM) S-118
Learning Objectives S-119
14.1 Introduction S-119
FABRICATION OF METALS S-119
14.2 Forming Operations S-119
14.3 Casting S-121
14.4 Miscellaneous Techniques S-122xvi ● Contents
THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS S-124
14.5 Annealing Processes S-124
14.6 Heat Treatment of Steels S-126
FABRICATION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS S-136
14.7 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses
S-137
14.8 Fabrication of Clay Products S-142
14.9 Powder Pressing S-145
14.10 Tape Casting S-149
SYNTHESIS AND FABRICATION OF POLYMERS
S-149
14.11 Polymerization S-150
14.12 Polymer Additives S-151
14.13 Forming Techniques for Plastics S-153
14.14 Fabrication of Elastomers S-155
14.15 Fabrication of Fibers and Films S-155
Summary S-156
Important Terms and Concepts S-157
References S-158
Questions and Problems S-158
15. Composites (CD-ROM) S-162
Learning Objectives S-163
15.1 Introduction S-163
PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES S-165
15.2 Large-Particle Composites S-165
15.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites
S-169
FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES S-170
15.4 Influence of Fiber Length S-170
15.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and
Concentration S-171
15.6 The Fiber Phase S-180
15.7 The Matrix Phase S-180
15.8 Polymer–Matrix Composites S-182
15.9 Metal–Matrix Composites S-185
15.10 Ceramic–Matrix Composites S-186
15.11 Carbon–Carbon Composites S-188
15.12 Hybrid Composites S-189
15.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced
Composites S-189
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES S-195
15.14 Laminar Composites S-195
15.15 Sandwich Panels S-196
Summary S-196
Important Terms and Concepts S-198
References S-198
Questions and Problems S-199
16. Corrosion and Degradation of
Materials (CD-ROM) S-204
Learning Objectives S-205
16.1 Introduction S-205
CORROSION OF METALS S-205
16.2 Electrochemical Considerations S-206
16.3 Corrosion Rates S-212
16.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates S-214
16.5 Passivity S-221
16.6 Environmental Effects S-222
16.7 Forms of Corrosion S-223
16.8 Corrosion Environments S-231
16.9 Corrosion Prevention S-232
16.10 Oxidation S-234
CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS S-237
DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS S-237
16.11 Swelling and Dissolution S-238
16.12 Bond Rupture S-238
16.13 Weathering S-241
Summary S-241
Important Terms and Concepts S-242
References S-242
Questions and Problems S-243
17. Thermal Properties (CD-ROM) S-247
Learning Objectives S-248
17.1 Introduction S-248
17.2 Heat Capacity S-248
17.3 Thermal Expansion S-250
17.4 Thermal Conductivity S-253
17.5 Thermal Stresses S-256
Summary S-258
Important Terms and Concepts S-259
References S-259
Questions and Problems S-259
18. Magnetic Properties (CD-ROM) S-263
Learning Objectives S-264
18.1 Introduction S-264
18.2 Basic Concepts S-264
18.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism S-268
18.4 Ferromagnetism S-270
18.5 Antiferromagnetism and
Ferrimagnetism S-272
18.6 The Influence of Temperature on
Magnetic Behavior S-276
18.7 Domains and Hysteresis S-276
18.8 Soft Magnetic Materials S-280
18.9 Hard Magnetic Materials S-282Contents ● xvii
18.10 Magnetic Storage S-284
18.11 Superconductivity S-287
Summary S-291
Important Terms and Concepts S-292
References S-292
Questions and Problems S-292
19. Optical Properties (CD-ROM) S-297
Learning Objectives S-298
19.1 Introduction S-298
BASIC CONCEPTS S-298
19.2 Electromagnetic Radiation S-298
19.3 Light Interactions with Solids S-300
19.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions
S-301
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS S-302
OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS S-303
19.5 Refraction S-303
19.6 Reflection S-304
19.7 Absorption S-305
19.8 Transmission S-308
19.9 Color S-309
19.10 Opacity and Translucency in
Insulators S-310
APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA S-311
19.11 Luminescence S-311
19.12 Photoconductivity S-312
19.13 Lasers S-313
19.14 Optical Fibers in Communications S-315
Summary S-320
Important Terms and Concepts S-321
References S-321
Questions and Problems S-322
20. Materials Selection and Design
Considerations (CD-ROM) S-324
Learning Objectives S-325
20.1 Introduction S-325
MATERIALS SELECTION FOR A TORSIONALLY
STRESSED CYLINDRICAL SHAFT S-325
20.2 Strength S-326
20.3 Other Property Considerations and the
Final Decision S-331
AUTOMOBILE VALVE SPRING S-332
20.4 Introduction S-332
20.5 Automobile Valve Spring S-334
ARTIFICIAL TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT S-339
20.6 Anatomy of the Hip Joint S-339
20.7 Material Requirements S-341
20.8 Materials Employed S-343
THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM ON THE SPACE
SHUTTLE ORBITER S-345
20.9 Introduction S-345
20.10 Thermal Protection System—Design
Requirements S-345
20.11 Thermal Protection
System—Components S-347
MATERIALS FOR INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
PACKAGES S-351
20.12 Introduction S-351
20.13 Leadframe Design and Materials S-353
20.14 Die Bonding S-354
20.15 Wire Bonding S-356
20.16 Package Encapsulation S-358
20.17 Tape Automated Bonding S-360
Summary S-362
References S-363
Questions and Problems S-364
21. Economic, Environmental, and
Societal Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering (CD-ROM) S-368
Learning Objectives S-369
21.1 Introduction S-369
ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS S-369
21.2 Component Design S-370
21.3 Materials S-370
21.4 Manufacturing Techniques S-370
ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL
CONSIDERATIONS S-371
21.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science
and Engineering S-373
Summary S-376
References S-376
Appendix A The International System of
Units (SI) 439
Appendix B Properties of Selected
Engineering Materials 441
B.1 Density 441
B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 444
B.3 Poisson’s Ratio 448
B.4 Strength and Ductility 449
B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 454
B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal
Expansion 455
B.7 Thermal Conductivity 459xviii ● Contents
B.8 Specific Heat 462
B.9 Electrical Resistivity 464
B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 467
Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs
for Selected Engineering Materials 469
Appendix D Mer Structures for
Common Polymers 475
Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting
Temperatures for Common Polymeric
Materials 479
Glossary 480
Answers to Selected Problems 495
Index 501
Index
Page numbers in italics refer to the glossary.
A
Abrasive ceramics, 422, 425
Abrasives, 480
Absorption coefficient, S–308
Absorption of light:
in metals, S–302
in nonmetals, S–303—S–310
Absorptivity, S–300
ABS polymer, 429
AmBnXp crystal structures, 43
Acceptors, 382, 480
Acetabulum, S–340
Acetabular cup, S–344
Acetic acid, 80
Acetylene, 78
Acid rain, as corrosion environment, S–231
Acids, 80
Acid slags, S–110
Acrylics, see Polymethyl methacrylate
Acrylonitrile, see Polyacrylonitrile
(PAN)
Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, 431
Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
(ABS), 429
Activation energy, 480
for creep, S–63—S–64
for diffusion, 136
for viscous flow, S–159
phase transformations, 326–327
Activation polarization, S–215—
S–216, 480
Addition polymerization, S–150—
S–151, 480
Additives, polymer, S–151—
S–153
Adhesives, 433, 480
Advanced ceramics, 422, S–111—
S–113
Advanced flexible reusable surface insulation (AFRSI),
S–347—S–348
501
wrought, 414
yield strength values, 449–451
Alloy steels, 338, 403, 480. See
also Steels
Alnico, S–283
 Iron, see Ferrite ()
Alternating copolymers, 91, 92,
480
Alumina, see Aluminum oxide
Aluminosilicates, S–142
Aluminum:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374, 376
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization temperature,
217
slip systems, 204
superconducting critical temperature, S–290
thermal properties, S–251
used beverage cans, S–368
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Aluminum alloys, 416–418
fatigue behavior, 276
integrated circuits, S–352
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, 454, S–49
precipitation hardening, 323,
349–351
properties and applications, 417
Aluminum-copper alloys, phase
diagram, 350
Aluminum-lithium alloys, 417, 418
Aluminum-neodymium phase
diagram, 319
Aluminum nitride, use in
electronic packaging,
S–112—S–113
Advanced materials, 6
Advanced polymers, S–113—
S–117
Age hardening, see Precipitation
hardening
Air, as quenching medium, S–132
AISI/SAE steel designation
scheme, 406
Akermanite, S–1
Alcohols, 80
Aldehydes, 80
Alkali metals, 17
Alkaline earth metals, 17
Allotropy, 49, 480
Alloys, 402, 480. See also Solid solutions; specific alloys
atomic weight equations, S–15
cast, 414
composition specification,
110–111
compositions for various,
467–468
costs, 469–471
defined, 107
density equations, S–15
density values, 441–443
ductility values, 449–451
electrical resistivity values,
464–466
fracture toughness values, 454
heat treatable, 414
high-temperature, 268–269
linear coefficient of thermal
expansion values, 455–456
modulus of elasticity values,
444–446
Poisson’s ratio values, 448
specific heat values, 462–463
strengthening, see Strengthening
of metals
tensile strength values, 449–451
thermal conductivity values,
459–460502 ● Index
Aluminum oxide:
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
hardness, 182
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
Poisson’s ratio, 154
sintered microstructure, S–148
stress-strain behavior, 173
thermal properties, S–251
translucency, 4, S–311
use in artificial hip, S–344
use in ceramic armor, S–112
use in electronic packaging,
S–112
as whiskers and fibers, S–181
Aluminum oxide-chromium oxide
phase diagram, S–77, S–78
Ammonia, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 22
Amorphous materials, 31, 64–65,
480
Anelasticity, 157, 480
Anions, 38, 480
Anisotropy, 63–64, 480
of elastic modulus, 64, 158,
188–189
Annealing, S–87, S–124, S–125—
S–126, 480
ferrous alloys, S–125—S–126
glass, S–140—S–141, 480
Annealing point, glass, S–139, 480
Annealing twins, 117
Anodes, S–206, 480
area effect, galvanic corrosion,
S–225
sacrificial, S–233, 490
Antiferromagnetism, S–272, 480
temperature dependence, S–276
Aramid:
cost, as a fiber, 473
fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix
composites, S–183—S–184
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
mer structure, S–184, 477
properties as fiber, S–181
Argon, bonding energy and melting temperature, 22
Aromatic hydrocarbons (chain
groups), 80, S–87
Artificial aging, 351, 480
Artificial hip replacement, materials selection, S–341—
S–345
Asphaltic concrete, S–168
ASTM standards, 148
Atactic configuration, S–12, 480
Athermal transformation, 337, 480
Atomic bonding, see Bonding
Atomic force micrograph, 9, S–20
Atomic mass, 10
Atomic mass unit (amu), 10–11,
480
Atomic models:
Bohr, 11, 13, 481
wave-mechanical, 12–13, 494
Atomic number, 10, 480
Atomic packing factor, 34, 480
Atomic point defects, 103,
105–107
Atomic radii, of selected metals,
33
Atomic structure, 10–18
Atomic vibrations, 118, S–248—
S–249, 480
Atomic weight, 10, 480
metal alloys, equations for,
S–15
Atom percent, 110–111, 480
Austenite, 302–304, 481
transformations, 327–339,
S–85—S–87
summary, 346–347
Austenitic stainless steels,
407–408
Austenitizing, S–126, 481
Automobile valve spring design,
S–332—S–339
Average value, 183, S–28
Avogadro’s number, 11
Avrami equation, 325, 353
AX crystal structures, 41–42
A
mXp crystal structures, 42–43
B
Bainite, 332–333, 347, S–85, 481
mechanical properties, 342, 343
Bakelite, see Phenol-formaldehyde
(Bakelite)
Band gap, 370
Band gap energy, 481
determination, 385
selected semiconductors, 377
Bands, see Energy bands
Barcol hardness, 182
Barium titanate:
crystal structure, 43, 44, S–108
as dielectric, S–107
as ferroelectric, S–108—S–109
Base (transistor), S–95—S–96
Basic refractories, S–110—S–111
Basic slags, S–111
Beachmarks (fatigue), 261,
S–55—S–56
Bend strength, 172. See also flexural strength
Beryllia, S–111
Beryllium-copper alloys, 416
Beverage containers, 1, S–367
stages of production, S–118
Bifunctional mers, 82, 481
Bimetallic strips, S–260
Binary eutectic alloys, 292–297,
S–70—S–77
tensile strength, 362
Binary isomorphous alloys, 286–
287, S–67—S–70
mechanical properties, 292
microstructure development,
equilibrium cooling, S–67,
S–68
microstructure development,
nonequilibrium cooling,
S–67—S–70
Biocompatibility, S–341—S–342
Biomaterials, 6
Block copolymers, 92, 481
Blowing, of glass, S–139—S–140
Blow molding, plastics, S–155
Body-centered cubic structure,
34–35, 481
slip systems, 204
twinning in, S–35
Bohr atomic model, 11, 13, 481
Bohr magneton, S–268, 481
Boltzmann’s constant, 104, 481
Bonding:
carbon-carbon, 81
cementitious, 426–427
covalent, 22–23, 38, 482
hybrid sp, 16
hydrogen, 25, 26, 486
ionic, 20–22, 38, 486
metallic, 23–24, 487
van der Waals, see van der
Waals bonding
Bonding energy, 20, 481
and melting temperature for
selected materials, 21, 22Index ● 503
Cemented carbide, S–166, S–167
Cementite, 302–303, 481
decomposition, 409, 413
proeutectoid, 310–311
in white iron, 410, 411
Cementitious bond, 426–427
Cements, 422, 425–427, 481
Ceramic armor, S–112
Ceramic-matrix composites,
S–186—S–188, 481
Ceramics, 5, 481. See also Glass
advanced, S–111—S–113
application-classification
scheme, 422
brittle fracture, 248–249
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, S–251, 457
color, S–309—S–310
corrosion, S–237
costs, 471–472
crystal structures, 38–44, 60–61
summary, 44
defects, 105–107
defined, 5
density computation, 45–46
density values, 443
elastic modulus values, 154,
446
electrical conductivity values
for selected, 389
electrical resistivity values, 466
fabrication techniques classification, S–137
flexural strength values, 165,
452
fracture toughness values, 244,
S–49, 454–455
impurities in, 109–110
indices of refraction, S–304
as insulators, 389, S–101, S–107
magnetic, S–272—S–276
mechanical properties of,
171–173
phase diagrams, S–77—S–81
plastic deformation, 220–221
Poisson’s ratio values, 154, 448
porosity, S–147—S–148
porosity, influence on properties, S–22
silicates, 46–47, S–1—S–3
specific heat values, S–251, 463
as superconductors, S–289—
S–290
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
mer structure, 93, 476
Butane, 78–79
C
Cadmium sulfide:
color, S–309
electrical characteristics, 377
Calcination, 426, 481
Calendering, S–191
Cantilever beam, materials selection, S–364
Capacitance, S–99—S–100, 481
Capacitors, S–99—S–103
Carbon:
vs. graphite, S–181, S–183
polymorphism, 47–48, 49
Carbon black, as reinforcement in
rubbers, 432, S–166—
S–167
Carbon-carbon composites, S–188,
S–351, 481
Carbon diffusion, in steels, 306–
307, 345
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymermatrix composites, S–183,
S–185
Carbon fibers, S–183
properties as fiber, S–181
Carburizing, 134, 481
Case-hardened gear, 126
Case hardening, 126, 265, 481
Cast alloys, 414
Casting techniques:
metals, S–121—S–122
plastics, S–155
slip, S–143—S–144
tape, S–149
Cast irons, 305, 403, 409–414, 481
annealing, S–126
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
graphite formation in, 409–410
heat treatment effect on microstructure, 413
phase diagram, 409, 413
stress-strain behavior (gray),
188
Cathodes, S–207, 481
Cathodic protection, S–225,
S–232—S–234, 481
Cations, 38, 481
Bonding forces, 18–19
Bond rupture, in polymers, S–238,
S–240—S–241
Bone:
as composite, S–163
mechanical properties, S–339
Boron carbide:
in ceramic armor, S–112
hardness, 182
Boron:
boron-doped silicon semiconductors, 381–382, 383–385
fiber-reinforced composites,
S–184, S–186
properties as a fiber, S–181
Boron nitride, S–112
Borosilicate glass:
composition, 423
electrical conductivity, 389
viscosity, S–138
Borsic fiber-reinforced composites, S–186
Bragg’s law, S–6—S–8, 481
Branched polymers, 89, 481
Brass, 414, 415, 481
annealing behavior, 216
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374, 395
fatigue behavior, 276
phase diagrams, 298–299
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization temperature,
217
stress corrosion, 229, 230
stress-strain behavior, 163
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Brazing, S–123, 481
Breakdown, dielectric, S–94,
S–107
Brinell hardness tests, 179
Brittle fracture, 164–165, 235–236,
238–240, 481
ceramics, 248–249
Brittle materials, thermal shock,
S–257—S–258
Bronze, 416, 481
Buckminsterfullerene, S–3—S–4
Burgers vector, 112, 113, 114, 124,
481
Butadiene:
degradation resistance, S–239504 ● Index
thermal conductivity values,
S–251, 460
thermal properties, S–251,
S–253, S–255, S–257—
S–258
traditional vs. new, S–111
translucency and opacity,
S–310—S–311
Ceramic tile systems (Space Shuttle), S–348—S–351
Cercor (glass ceramic), 423
Cermets, S–166—S–167, 481
Cesium chloride structure, 41–42,
44
Chain-folded model, 95–96, 481
Chain-reaction polymerization,
S–150—S–151, 481
Chain stiffening/stiffness, 88,
S–87, S–89—S–90
Charge carriers:
majority vs. minority, 381
temperature variation, 384–386
Charpy impact test, 251–254, 481
Chevron markings, 238–239
Chips, semiconductor, S–97—
S–99, S–351—S–352
Chlorine, bonding energy and
melting temperature, 22
Chloroprene, mer structure, 93, 476
Chloroprene rubber:
characteristics and applications,
431
melting and glass transition temperatures, 479
Chrome-vanadium steels, S–337—
S–339
cis, S–12, 482
Clay products, 422, 424, S–142—
S–145
characteristics, S–142
drying and firing, 424, S–144—
S–145
fabrication, S–142—S–144
Cleavage, 238
Clinker, 426
Close-packed crystal structures:
ceramics, 60–61
metals, 58–59
Coarse pearlite, 331, S–85, S–87,
482
Coatings (polymer), 433
Cobalt:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
Curie temperature, S–276
as ferromagnetic material,
S–270
Cobalt-nickel-chromiummolybdenum alloy, for artificial hips, S–343—S–344
Coercivity (coercive force), S–279,
482
Cold work, percent, 210
Cold working, see Strain hardening
Collector, S–96
Color, 482
metals, S–303
nonmetals, S–309—S–310
Colorants, S–152, 482
Compact disc, S–367
Component, 282, S–81, 482
Composites:
aramid fiber-reinforced polymer, S–183—S–184
carbon-carbon, S–188, S–351
carbon fiber-reinforced polymer, S–183
ceramic-matrix, S–186—S–188
classification scheme, S–164—
S–165
costs, 474
definition, 5, S–163
dispersion-strengthened, S–169
elastic behavior:
longitudinal, S–173—S–174
transverse, S–176
fiber-reinforced, see Fiberreinforced composites
glass fiber-reinforced polymer,
S–182
hybrid, S–189, 486
laminar, S–164, S–179, S–195—
S–196, 487
large-particle, S–164, S–165—
S–169
metal-matrix, S–185—S–186
particle-reinforced, S–165—
S–169
production processes, S–189—
S–192
properties, glass-, carbon-, aramid-fiber reinforced, S–185
rule of mixtures expressions,
S–165—S–166, S–174,
S–176, S–177, S–178, S–194
strength:
longitudinal, S–177
transverse, S–177
stress-strain behavior, S–172—
S–173
structural, S–195—S–196
Composition, 482
conversion equations, S–14—
S–17, 123, 124
specification of, 110–111
Compression molding, plastics,
S–153—S–154
Compression tests, 151
Compressive deformation, 150,
170–171
Computers, semiconductors in,
97–99
Concentration, 110, 482. See also
Composition
Concentration cells, S–225
Concentration gradient, 131, 482
Concentration polarization,
S–216—S–217, 482
Concentration profile, 130, 482
Concrete, S–167—S–169, 482
electrical conductivity, 389
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
Condensation polymerization,
S–151, 482
Conducting polymers, 390
Conduction:
electronic, 368, 368–372
ionic, 368, 389–390
Conduction band, 370, 482
Conductivity, see Electrical conductivity; Thermal conductivity
Configuration, polymer,
S–11—S–13
Conformation, polymer, 88
Congruent phase transformations,
301, 482
Constitutional diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Continuous casting, S–122
Continuous cooling transformation
diagrams, S–85—S–88, 482
4340 steel, S–88
0.76 wt% C steel, S–86
1.13 wt% C steel, 361
Continuous fibers, S–171
Conventional hard magnetic materials, S–282—S–283
Conversion factors, magnetic
units, S–267
Cooling rate, of cylindrical
rounds, S–133
Ceramics (Continued)Index ● 505
Critical fiber length, S–170—
S–171
Critical resolved shear stress,
S–31, 482
as related to dislocation density,
230
Critical stress, 242, 245, S–42,
S–49
Critical temperature (superconductivity), S–288, S–290
Crosslinking, 89–90, 482
elastomers, 225–226
influence on viscoelastic behavior, S–26—S–27
thermosetting polymers, 91
Crystalline materials, 31, 62, 482
defects, 103–107
single crystals, 62, 491
Crystallinity, polymers, 92–95, 482
influence on mechanical properties, 224, S–36, S–37
Crystallites, 95, 482
Crystallization (polymers),
353–354
Crystallographic directions, 51–54
families, 53
Crystallographic planes, 54–58
atomic arrangements, 57, 58
close-packed, 58–61
diffraction by, S–7—S–8
families, 57
Crystal structures, 31–37, 482. See
also Body-centered cubic
structure; Close-packed
crystal structures; Face-centered cubic structure; Hexagonal close-packed
structure
ceramics, 38–44
close-packed, 58–61
determination by x-ray diffraction, S–6—S–10
selected metals, 33
types, 33–35, 41–44, 58–61
Crystal systems, 49–50, 482
Cubic crystal system, 49, 50
Cubic ferrites, S–273—S–275
Cunife, S–283
Cup-and-cone fracture, 237, S–38
Curie temperature, S–276, 482
ferroelectric, S–109
ferromagnetic, S–250
Curing, plastics, S–153
Current density, 367
Cyclic stresses, 255–257
Corrosion inhibitors, S–232
Corrosion penetration rate,
S–213, 482
artificial hip alloys, S–344
minimum for body implant materials, S–342
Corrosion prevention, S–232—
S–234
Corundum, 425. See also Aluminum oxide
crystal structure, 73
Cost of various materials, 469–474
Coulombic force, 21, 482
Covalency, degree of, 23
Covalent bonding, 22–23, 38, 77,
482
Crack formation, 236
fatigue and, 260–262,
S–54—S–57
glass, S–141
Crack propagation, 236. See also
Fracture mechanics
in brittle fracture, 238
in ceramics, 248–249, S–53
in ductile fracture, 236–237
fatigue and, 260–262,
S–54—S–62
Griffith theory, S–41—S–42
Crack propagation rate,
S–57—S–62
Cracks:
stable vs. unstable, 236
stress analysis of, 239–242,
S–38—S–41, S–43—S–45
Crack surface displacement
modes, 243, 244, S–43
Crazing, 250, 251
Creep, 265–269, S–63—S–66,
482
ceramics, 269
influence of temperature and
stress on, 267–268,
S–63—S–65
mechanisms, S–64—S–65
in polymers, 269, S–27
stages of, 266
steady-state rate, 266
viscoelastic, S–27
Creep modulus, S–27
Creep rupture tests, 267
data extrapolation, S–65—S–66
Crevice corrosion, S–225—S–226,
S–342, 482
Cristobalite, 47, S–80
Critical cooling rate, S–85—S–88
Coordination numbers, 34, 35, 38–
40, 46, 482
Copolymers, 82, 91–92, 482
styrenic block, S–115—S–116
Copper:
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
diffraction pattern, 75
elastic and shear moduli, 154
electrical conductivity, 374
OFHC, 376
Poisson’s ratio, 154
recrystallization, 217, 326
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
yield and tensile strengths, ductility, 165
Copper alloys, 414–416
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–354—S–355
properties and applications of,
415
Copper-beryllium alloys, 376
phase diagram, 363
Copper-nickel alloys:
ductility vs. composition, 209,
292
electrical conductivity, 375–376
phase diagrams, 286–287
tensile strength vs. composition,
209, 292
yield strength vs. composition,
209
Copper-silver phase diagram,
292–294, S–82
Copper-titanium phase diagram,
319
Coring, S–70
Corningware (glass ceramic), 423
Corrosion, 482
ceramic materials, S–237
electrochemistry of, S–206—
S–212
environmental effects, S–222—
S–223
environments, S–231—S–232
forms of, S–223—S–231
galvanic series, S–212, S–213
integrated circuits, S–354
overview of, S–205
passivity, S–221—S–222
rates, S–212—S–214
prediction, S–214—S–221
Corrosion fatigue, S–62, S–342,
482506 ● Index
D
Damping capacity, steel vs. cast
iron, 413
Data scatter, 183
Debye temperature, S–249—
S–250
Decarburization, 143
Defects, see also Dislocations
atomic vibrations and, 118
dependence of properties on,
102
in ceramics, 105–107
interfacial, 115–118
point, 103–111, 489
volume, 118
Defect structure, 105, 483
Deformation:
elastic, see Elastic deformation
elastomers, 224
plastic, see Plastic deformation
Deformation mechanism maps,
S–64—S–65
Degradation of polymers,
S–237—S–240, 483
Degree of polymerization, 84, 483
Degrees of freedom, S–81
Delayed fracture, S–53
Density:
computation for ceramics,
45–46
computation for metal alloys,
S–15
computation for metals, 37
of dislocations, 201
polymers, 443–444
relation to percent crystallinity
for polymers, 94
values for various materials,
441–444
Design, S–325. See also Materials
selection
component, S–370
Design examples:
cold work and recrystallization,
217–218
conductivity of an n-type semiconductor, 387–388
cubic mixed-ferrite magnet,
S–275—S–276
creep rupture lifetime for an
S-590 steel, S–66
fatigue life prediction,
S–61—S–62
filament-wound composite shaft,
S–192—S–195
nonsteady-state diffusion,
139–140
spherical pressure vessel (failure
of), 245–248, S–51—S–53
steel shaft, alloy/heat treatment
of, S–135—S–136
tensile-testing apparatus,
184–185
Design factor, 183
Design guidelines, S–328
Design stress, 183, 483
Devitrification, 423, 483
Dezincification, of brass, S–228
Diamagnetism, S–268—S–269, 483
Diamond, 48, 427
as abrasive, 425
bonding energy and melting
temperature, 22
cost, 472
films, 427, 428
hardness, 181, 182
thermal conductivity value, 460
Diamond cubic structure, 48
Die (silicon), S–352
Die bonding, S–354
Die casting, S–120, S–122
Dielectric breakdown, S–94, S–107
Dielectric constant, S–100—S–101,
483
frequency dependence, S–106—
S–107
relationship to refractive index,
S–303—S–304
selected ceramics and polymers,
S–101
Dielectric displacement, S–102,
483
Dielectric loss, S–106
Dielectric materials, S–99, S–107,
483
Dielectric strength, S–107, 483
selected ceramics and polymers,
S–101
Diffraction, S–6, 483
Diffraction angle, S–9
Diffractometers, S–8
Diffusion, 127, 483
grain growth and, 218
interstitial, 95, 486
in ionic materials, 141
mechanisms, 127–129
and microstructure development, S–68—S–70, S–72—
S–74, 306–307
nonsteady-state, 132–135, 488
in polymers, 141
short-circuit, 141
steady-state, 130–131, 492
vacancy, 129, 494
Diffusion coefficient, 131, 483
relation to ionic mobility, 390
temperature dependence,
136–139
values for various metal systems, 136
Diffusion couples, 127
Diffusion flux, 130, 483
Digitization of information/signals,
S–285—S–287, S–317—
S–318
Dimethyl ether, 80
Dimethylsiloxane, 93, 431, 432,
476. See also Silicones;
Silicone rubber
melting and glass transition
temperatures, 479
Diode, S–93, 483
Dipole moment, S–101
Dipoles:
electric, 25, 483
induced, 25–26
magnetic, S–264—S–265
permanent, 26, S–105
Directional solidification, 269
Directions, see Crystallographic
directions
Discontinuous fibers, S–171
Dislocation density, 201, 228, 230,
483
Dislocation etch pits, 197
Dislocation line, 111–112, 113,
114, 483
Dislocation motion, 199–200
caterpillar locomotion analogy,
200
in ceramics, 220
at grain boundaries, 207
influence on strength, 206–208
in polymers, 112
recovery and, 213
Dislocations, 111–114, 483
characteristics of, 201–202
interactions, 201–202
multiplication, 203
at phase boundaries, 340, 344
plastic deformation and, 160,
199–206
strain fields, 201
Dispersed phase, S–164, 483
definition, S–164Index ● 507
Electroluminescence, S–312, 484
Electrolytes, S–208, 484
Electromagnetic radiation,
S–298—S–300
interactions with atoms/electrons, S–301—S–302
Electromagnetic spectrum,
S–298—S–299
Electron band structure, see
Energy bands
Electron cloud, 12, 23
Electron configurations, 15–16,
484
elements, 16
periodic table and, 17
stable, 15
Electronegativity, 18, 23, 484
influence on solid solubility, 108
values for the elements, 18
Electroneutrality, 106, 484
Electron gas, 371
Electronic conduction, 367,
368–372
Electronic packaging:
advanced ceramics in, S–112—
S–113
case study, materials selection,
S–351—S–361
Electronic polarization, S–105,
S–106, S–301, S–305, 489
Electron microscopy, S–17—S–20
Electron mobility, 372–373
selected semiconductors, 377
Electron orbitals, 11
Electron probability distribution,
12, 13
Electrons, 10
conduction process, 378,
S–95—S–96
energy bands, see Energy bands
energy levels, 11–14
free, see Free electrons
scattering, 373, S–249
in semiconductors, 377–383
temperature variation of concentration, 383–387
spin, 14, S–268
valence, 15
Electron states, 484
Electron transitions, S–301—
S–302
metals, S–302
nonmetals, S–305—S–307
Electron volt, 21, 484
Electropositivity, 18, 484
torsionally stressed shaft,
S–330—S–331
tubular filament-wound shaft,
S–193—S–195
Eddy currents, S–281
Edge dislocations, 111–112, 199–
200, 483. See also Dislocations
interactions, 202
E-glass, S–181, S–182
Elastic deformation, 153–160, 483
Elastic modulus, see Modulus of
elasticity
Elastic recovery, 483
Elastic strain energy, S–41—S–42
Elastic strain recovery, 170, 483
Elastomers, 174, 431–432, 483
in composites, S–166
deformation, 224–225
thermoplastic, S–115—S–117
trade names, properties and
applications, 431
Electrical conduction:
in insulators and semiconductors, 371–372
in metals, 371
Electrical conductivity, 367, 373–
374, 484
influence of impurities, 375
influence of plastic deformation,
375
influence of temperature, 374–375
integrated circuit lead-frame
materials, S–355
selected ceramics and polymers,
389
selected metals, 374
selected semiconductors, 377
temperature variation, 383–
387, 397
Electrical resistivity, 366, 490. See
also Electrical conductivity
values for various materials,
464–467
Electric dipole moment, S–101
Electric dipoles, see Dipoles
Electric field, 367, 373, 484
Electrochemical cells, S–208—
S–209
Electrochemical reactions,
S–206—S–212
Electrodeposition, S–208
Electrode potentials, S–207—
S–209
values of, S–210
geometry, S–164
Dispersion-strengthened composites, S–169, 483
Disposal of materials, S–371—
S–372
Domain growth, S–278
iron single crystal, S–263
Domains, S–271, S–276—S–279,
483
Domain walls, S–277
Donors, 381, 483
Doping, 383, 385–387, 483
Double bonds, 77–78
Drain casting, S–143, S–144
Drawing:
glass, S–139, S–140
influence on polymer properties, 224, S–36—S–37
metals, S–121, 483
polymer fibers, S–155, 483
Drift velocity, electron, 373
Driving force, 131, 483
electrochemical reactions, S–209
grain growth, 218
recrystallization, 213
sintering, S–147
steady-state diffusion, 131
Dry corrosion, S–234
Drying, clay products, S–144—
S–145
Ductile fracture, 164–165, 236–
237, 483
Ductile iron, 410, 411, 483
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
Ductile-to-brittle transition, 253–
254, 483
polymers, 249, 254
and temper embrittlement, 346
Ductility, 164–165, 483
artificial hip materials, S–344
fine and coarse pearlite, 342
precipitation hardened aluminum alloy, 352
selected materials, 449–453
selected metals, 165
spheroidite, 342
tempered martensite, 345
Durometer hardness, 180, 182
E
Economics, materials selection:
considerations in materials engineering, S–369—S–370
Dispersed phase (Continued)508 ● Index
Elongation, percent, 164
selected materials, 449–453
selected metals, 165
selected polymers, 165
Embrittlement:
hydrogen, S–230—S–231
temper, 345–346
Emf series, S–209—S–211
Emitter, S–96
Endurance limit, 258. See also
Fatigue limit
Energy:
activation, see Activation
energy
bonding, 20–22, 481
current concerns about, 6–7,
S–372—S–373
free, 284, 285, 485
grain boundary, 116–117
photon, S–300
surface, 115
vacancy formation, 104
Energy band gap, see Band gap
Energy bands, 368–370
structures for metals, insulators,
and semiconductors, 370
Energy levels (states), 11–14,
368–369
Energy and materials, S–372
Energy product, magnetic, S–282
Engineering stress/strain, 149–151,
492
Entropy, 225, 284
Environmental considerations and
materials, S–371—S–376
Epoxies:
degradation resistance, S–239
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–359—S–360
mer structure, 475
polymer-matrix composites,
S–185
trade names, characteristics, applications, 430
Equilibrium:
definition of, 284
phase, 284–285, 484
Equilibrium diagrams, see Phase
diagrams
Erosion-corrosion, S–228—S–229,
484
Error bars, S–30
Error function, Gaussian, 133
Etching, S–17
Etch pits, 197
Ethane, 78
Ethers, 80
Ethylene, 77–78
polymerization, 81
Eutectic isotherm, 294
Eutectic phase, S–72, 484
Eutectic reactions, 294, S–72, 484
iron-iron carbide system, 305
Eutectic structure, S–73, 484
Eutectic systems:
binary, 292–297, S–70—S–77
microstructure development,
S–70—S–77
Eutectoid, shift of position,
S–83—S–84
Eutectoid ferrite, 308
Eutectoid reactions, 298, 300–301,
484
iron-iron carbide system, 305
kinetics, 328–329
Eutectoid steel, microstructure
changes/development,
305–307
Exchange current density, S–215
Excited states, S–302, 484
Exhaustion, in extrinsic semiconductors, 386
Expansion, thermal, see Thermal
expansion
Extrinsic semiconductors, 379–
383, 484
saturation, 386
Extrusion, 484
clay products, S–143
metals, S–120—S–121
polymers, S–155
F
Fabrication:
ceramics, S–136—S–137
clay products, S–142—S–144
fiber-reinforced composites,
S–189—S–192
integrated circuits, S–351—
S–361
metals, S–119—S–124
Face-centered cubic structure, 33–
34, 484
anion stacking, 60–61
close-packed planes, 58–59
slip systems, 203–204
Factor of safety, 184, 246, S–51,
S–326
Failure, mechanical, see Creep;
Fatigue; Fracture
Faraday constant, S–211
Fatigue, 255–265, S–54—S–63,
484
automobile valve springs,
S–335—S–336
corrosion, S–62—S–63
crack initiation and propagation, 260–263, S–54—S–61
cyclic stresses, 255–257
environmental effects, S–62
low- and high-cycle, 259
polymers, 260
probability curves, 259
thermal, S–62
Fatigue life, 259, 484
factors that affect, 263–265
prediction, S–60—S–62
Fatigue limit, 258, S–335, S–336,
484
Fatigue strength, 258, 484
artificial hip materials, S–342,
S–344
Fatigue testing, 257
S–N curves, 257–259, 260, 276,
S–336
Feldspar, S–142
Felt reusable surface insulation
(FRSI), S–347—S–348
Fermi energy, 370, 381, 396,
S–250, 484
Ferrimagnetism, S–272—S–276,
484
temperature dependence,
S–276—S–277
Ferrite (), 302–304, 484
eutectoid/proeutectoid, 281,
308–309, 490
from decomposition of cementite, 409
Ferrites (magnetic ceramics),
S–272—S–276, 484
Curie temperature, S–276
as magnetic storage, S–285—
S–286
Ferritic stainless steels, 407, 408
Ferroelectricity, S–108—S–109,
484
Ferroelectric materials, S–109
Ferromagnetic domain walls, 117
Ferromagnetism, S–270—S–271,
484
temperature dependence, S–276
Ferrous alloys, 484. See also Cast
irons; Iron; Steels
annealing, S–125—S–126Index ● 509
fundamentals of, 235–236
polymers, 249–250
types, 164–165, 236–238
Fracture mechanics, 328, S–38,
S–41—S–42, 485
applied to ceramics, 248
crack propagation rate,
S–57—S–62
Griffith theory, 239–241,
S–38—S–39, S–41—S–42
polymers, 250
stress analysis of cracks,
S–43—S–45
use in design, 245–248,
S–48—S–53
Fracture profiles, 236
Fracture strength, 162. See also
Flexural strength
ceramics, 172
distribution of, 248–249
influence of porosity, S–22,
S–23
influence of specimen size, 248,
S–180
Fracture toughness, 167, 242–245,
S–45—S–48, 485
ceramic-matrix composites,
S–187—S–188
values for selected materials,
244, S–49, 454–455
Free electrons, 371–373, 485
contributions to heat capacity,
S–250
role in heat conduction, S–254
Free energy, 284, 285, 485
Frenkel defects, 106, 485
Fringed-micelle model, 95
Full annealing, S–87, S–126, 485
Fullerenes, S–3—S–4
Functional groups, 79, 80
Furnace heating elements, 376
Fused silica, 65
characteristics, 423, S–138
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
index of refraction, S–304
modulus of elasticity, 154
thermal properties, S–251
G
Gadolinium, S–270
Gallium arsenide:
cost, 472
diffraction pattern, 30
spinning, S–155
tensile strength values, S–181,
453
thermal conductivity values, 461
Fibrous refractory composite insulation (FRCI), S–349
Fick’s first law, 131, S–254, 484
Fick’s second law, 132, S–261, 485
Fictive temperature, S–137
Field ion microscopy, 102
Filament winding, S–191—S–192
Filler bars, Space Shuttle, S–350
Fillers, S–152, 485
Films:
diamond, 427, 428
polymer, 433
Fine pearlite, 331, 340, 342, 485
Fireclay refractories, S–110
Firing, 424, S–145, 485
Fixation agents, S–345
Flame retardants, S–152—S–153,
485
Flexural strength, 171–172, 485
influence of porosity on, ceramics, S–22, S–23
values for selected ceramics,
165, 452
Fluorescence, S–312, 485
Fluorite single crystals, 62
Fluorite structure, 42–43
Fluorocarbons, 81
trade names, characteristics, applications, 429, 431
Foams, 433–434, 485
Forces:
bonding, 18–20
coulombic, 21, 482
Forging, S–120, 485
Formaldehyde, 80
Forming operations, metals,
S–119—S–121
Forsterite, S–1
Forward bias, S–94, S–95—S–96,
485
Fractographic investigations, S–38
Fractographs:
cup-and-cone fracture surfaces,
S–39
fatigue striations, 262, S–56
intergranular fracture, 240
transgranular fracture, 240
Fracture, see also Brittle fracture;
Ductile fracture; Impact
fracture testing
delayed, S–53
classification, 305, 403
continuous cooling transformation diagrams, S–85—S–88
costs, 469–470
hypereutectoid, 310–312, 486
hypoeutectoid, 307–309, 486
isothermal transformation diagrams, 328–339
microstructures, 305–312
mechanical properties of, 339–
343, 444–445, 448, 449–450
Fiber efficiency parameter, S–178
Fiberglass, 423
Fiberglass-reinforced composites,
S–182
Fiber-reinforced composites,
S–170, 484
continuous and aligned,
S–171—S–178
discontinuous and aligned,
S–178
discontinuous and randomly oriented, S–178—S–179
fiber length effect, S–170—
S–171
fiber orientation/concentration
effect, S–171—S–180
fiber phase, S–180—S–181
longitudinal loading, S–172—
S–176, S–177
matrix phase, S–180—S–181
processing, S–189—S–192
reinforcement efficiency, S–179
transverse loading, S–176—
S–177
Fibers, 432, 484
coefficient of thermal expansion
values, 458
in composites, S–164—S–165
continuous vs. discontinuous,
S–171
fiber phase, S–180, S–181
length effect, S–170—S–171
orientation and concentration, S–171—S–179
costs, 473
density values, 444
elastic modulus values, S–181,
447
electrical resistivity values, 467
optical, S–318—S–320
polymer, 432
properties of selected, S–181
specific heat values, 464
Ferrous alloys (Continued)510 ● Index
electrical characteristics, 377
for lasers, S–315, S–317
for light-emitting diodes, S–323
Gallium phosphide:
electrical characteristics, 377
for light-emitting diodes, S–323
Galvanic corrosion, S–224—
S–225, 485
Galvanic couples, S–208
Galvanic series, S–212, S–213, 485
Galvanized steel, 422, S–233
Garnets, S–274
Gas constant, 104, 485
Gating system, S–121
Gauge length, 149
Gaussian error function, 133
Geometrical isomerism, 91,
S–12—S–13
Germanium:
crystal structure, 48
electrical characteristics, 377,
397
Gibbs phase rule, S–81—S–83,
485
Gilding metal, 415
Glass:
as amorphous material, 64–65
annealing, S–126, S–140
blowing, S–139, S–140
classification, 422
color, S–310
commercial; compositions and
characteristics, 423
corrosion resistance, S–237
cost, 472
dielectric properties, S–101
electrical conductivity, 389
flexural strength, 165
forming techniques, S–139—
S–140
hardness, 182
heat treatment, S–140—S–141
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–359
melting point, S–138
modulus of elasticity, 154, 443
optical flint, 423
plane strain fracture toughness,
244, S–49, 454
refractive index, S–304
soda-lime, composition, 423
softening point, S–138
strain point, S–138
stress-strain behavior, 173
structure, 65
surface crack propagation, 248
tempering, S–139—S–140
thermal properties, S–251
viscous properties, S–138—
S–139
working point, S–138, 494
Glass-ceramics, 423, 485
composition and properties, 423
flexural strength, 165, 452
microstructure, 401
modulus of elasticity, 154, 446
Glass fibers, 423, S–182
fiberglass-reinforced composites,
S–182, S–185
forming, S–139
properties as fiber, S–181
Glass transition, polymers, 354,
355
Glass transition temperature, 354–
355, S–137—S–138, 485
factors that affect, polymers,
S–89—S–90
values for selected polymers,
356, 479
Gold, 421
AFM micrograph of surface, 9
atomic radius and crystal structure, 33
electrical conductivity, 374
for integrated circuit fabrication, S–357
slip systems, 204
thermal properties, S–251
Goodman’s law, S–336
Graft copolymers, 92, 485
Grain boundaries, 62, 115–117,
485
Grain boundary energy, 116–117
Grain growth, 218–219, 485
Grains, 485
definition, 62
distortion during plastic deformation, 204–205
Grain size, 485
dependence on time, 219
determination, 119–120
mechanical properties and, 219
reduction, and strengthening of
metals, 206–207
refinement of by annealing,
S–126
Grain size number (ASTM), 120
Graphite:
in cast irons, 409–411
compared to carbon, S–181,
S–183
cost, 472
from decomposition of cementite, 409
electrical conductivity, 389
properties/applications, 427–428
properties as whisker, S–181
as a refractory, S–111
structure of, 48
Gray cast iron, 410, 411, 485
compositions, mechanical properties, and applications, 412
Green ceramic bodies, S–144, 485
Green products, S–372
Griffith theory of brittle fracture,
S–41—S–42
Ground state, 15, S–302, 485
Gutta percha, S–13
H
Half-cells, standard, S–209—
S–210
Half-reactions, S–207
Hall coefficient, S–91
Hall effect, S–91—S–92, 485
Hall-Petch equation, 207
Hall voltage, S–91
Halogens, 17
Hardenability, S–127—S–131, 485
Hardenability band, S–130—
S–131
Hardenability curves, S–127—
S–131
Hard magnetic materials, S–282—
S–284, 485
properties, S–283
Hardness, 485
bainite, pearlite vs. transformation temperature, 343
ceramics, 181, 182
comparison of scales, 180–181
conversion diagram, 181
correlation with tensile strength,
180, 182
fine and coarse pearlite, spheroidite, 340, 342
pearlite, martensite, tempered
martensite, 343
polymers, 182
tempered martensite, 343, 346
Hardness tests, 177–180
summary of tests, 178
Hard sphere model, 32
Head-to-head configuration, S–11
Gallium arsenide (Continued)Index ● 511
electrical conductivity, 375–376
in metals, 107–109
thermal conductivity, S–255
Incongruent phase transformation,
301
Index of refraction, S–303—
S–304, 486
selected materials, S–304
Indices, Miller, 54–57, 488
Indium antimonide, electrical characteristics, 377
Induced dipoles, 25
Inert gases, 17
Inhibitors, S–232, 486
Initial permeability, S–278
Injection molding, S–154
Insulators (electrical), 486. See
also Dielectric materials
ceramics and polymers as, 389,
S–107—S–108
color, S–309—S–310
defined, 368
electron band structure, 370,
371–372
translucency and opacity,
S–310—S–311
Insulators (thermal), Space Shuttle thermal protection system, S–345—S–351
Integrated circuits, S–97—S–99,
486
advanced ceramics in, S–112—
S–113
fabrication, S–351—S–361
materials selection, S–351—
S–361
scanning electron micrograph,
365, S–98
Interatomic bonding, 20–24
Interatomic separation, 19, 20
Interdiffusion, 127, 486
Interfacial defects, 115–118
Interfacial energy, 118
Intergranular corrosion, S–227—
S–228, 486
Intergranular fracture, 238, 240,
486
Intermediate solid solutions, 298,
301, 486
Intermetallic compounds, 69, 298,
350, S–358, 486
Interplanar spacing, cubic crystals,
S–8
Interstitial diffusion, 129, 486
Interstitial impurity defects, 108
Hip joint replacement, materials
selection, S–341—S–345
Holes, 371, 377–379, 485
mobility, selected semiconductors, 377
temperature dependence of concentration, 383–387
Homopolymers, 82, 486
Honeycomb structure, S–196
Hooke’s law, 153, S–22
Hot pressing, S–147
Hot working, 215, S–119, 486. See
also Heat treatments
HSLA (high-strength, low-alloy)
steels, 404–405, 485
Hybrid composites, S–189, 486
Hydration, of cement, 426
Hydrocarbons, 77–79
Hydrogen:
diffusive purification, 131, 143,
145
reduction, S–215
Hydrogen bonding, 22, 25, 26, 486
Hydrogen chloride, 26, 29
Hydrogen electrode, S–209—
S–210
Hydrogen embrittlement, S–230—
S–231, 486
Hydrogen fluoride, 26, 29
Hydrogen induced cracking, S–230
Hydrogen stress cracking, S–230
Hydroplastic forming, S–143, 486
Hydroplasticity, S–142
Hydrostatic powder pressing,
S–146
Hypereutectoid alloys, 310–312,
486
Hypoeutectoid alloys, 307–310,
486
Hysteresis, S–278—S–280
Hysteresis, ferromagnetic, 486
soft and hard magnetic materials, S–280—S–282
I
Impact energy, 251, 486
fine pearlite, 341
temperature dependence, 253
Impact fracture testing, 250–255
Impact strength, polymers, 254
Imperfections, see Defects; Dislocations
Impurities:
in ceramics, 109–110
diffusion, 127–128
Head-to-tail configuration, S–11
Heat affected zone, S–123
Heat capacity, S–248—S–250,
485
temperature dependence,
S–249—S–250
vibrational contribution,
S–248—S–249
Heat flux, S–253
Heat transfer:
mechanism


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