كتاب Aerodynamics - a Complete Course in Elementary Aerodynamics With Experiments and Examples
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 كتاب Aerodynamics - a Complete Course in Elementary Aerodynamics With Experiments and Examples

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Aerodynamics - a Complete Course in Elementary Aerodynamics With Experiments and Examples
By
N. A. V. Piercy
D.sc., M.inst.c.e., M.i.mech.e., F.r.ae.s.
Reader in Aeronautics in the
University Of London
Head of the Department Ofaeronautics, Queen Mary College
Member
Of the Association of Consulting Engineers
Second Edition
Art.
Preface
Notation

كتاب Aerodynamics - a Complete Course in Elementary Aerodynamics With Experiments and Examples  A_d_e_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Chapter I
Page
V
xiii
AIR AT REST, THE ATMOSPHERE AND STATIC LIFT
14.
Properties of Air ; Density ; Pressure
57. Hydrostatic Equation. Incompressibility Assumption.
Measurement of Small Pressures .
8-9. Buoyancy of Gas-filled Envelope. Balloons and Airships .
10. Centre of Pressure
1115. Relation between Pressure, Density, and Temperature of a
Gas. Isothermal Atmosphere. Troposphere. The International Standard Atmosphere. Application to Altimeters .
16-17. Gas-bag Lift in General. Vertical Stability
18. Atmospheric Stability and Potential Temperature
19-20. Bulk
Elasticity. Velocity of Sound
CHAPTER II
AIR FLOW AND AERODYNAMIC FORCE
21. Streamlines and Types of Flow .
22. Absence of
Slip at a Material Boundary
23-25. Viscosity : Qualitative Theory ; Maxwell's Definition ; Experimental Laws
26-28. Relation between Component Stresses in Non-uniform Flow ;
Static Pressure. Forces on an Element
29-33. Bernoulli's Equation : Variation of Density and Pressure ;
Adiabatic Flow
; Temperature Variation ; the Incompressible Flow Assumption ; Pitot Tube ; Basis of Velocity
Measurement
34-41. Equation of Continuity. Experimental Streamlines. Stream
Function. Circulation and
Vorticity. Gradient of Pitot
Head across Streamlines. Irrotational Flow .
42-43. The Boundary Layer Experimentally Considered
44-46. Constituents of Aerodynamic Force. Integration of Normal
Pressure and Skin Friction
47-49c. Rayleigh's Formula. Reynolds Number. Simple Dynamically Similar Motions. Aerodynamic Scale. Mach Number. Froude Number. Corresponding Speeds
CHAPTER III
WIND-TUNNEL EXPERIMENT
50-53. Nature of Wind-tunnel Work. Atmospheric Tunnels
54. Coefficients of Lift, Drag, and Moment
vii
46
11
13
18
20
21
23
26
26
32
35
44
52
54
58
68
75Vlll CONTENTS
ART.
66-69.
69A.
60.
61-63.
64-66.
Suspension of Models. Double Balance Method. Aerodynamic Balance. Some Tunnel Corrections
Pitot Traverse Method
Aerofoil Characteristics .
Application of Complete Model Data ; Examples. Arrangement of
Single Model Experiment. Compressed-air
Tunnel
Practical Aspect of Aerodynamic Scale. Scale Effects.
Gauge of Turbulence .
PAGE
77
86
89
92
97
CHAPTER III A
EXPERIMENT AT HIGH SPEEDS
66. Variable-density Tunnel 103
66A. Induced-flow Subsonic Tunnel. Wall Adjustment.
Blockage 106
66B-66C. Supersonic Tunnel. Illustrative Results 109
66D. Pitot Tube at
Supersonic Speeds. Plane Shock Wave . 114
CHAPTER IV
AIRCRAFT IN STEADY FLIGHT
67-69. Examples of Heavier-than-air Craft. Aeroplanes v. Airships. Aeroplane Speed for Minimum Drag .
70-72. Airship in Straight Horizontal Flight and Climb
73-76. Aeroplane in Level Flight. Size of Wings; Landing Conditions
; Flaps
77-79. Power Curves
; Top Speed ; Rate of Climb
80. Climbing, Correction for Speed .
81-83. Effects of Altitude, Loading, and Partial Engine Failure .
84-85. Gliding; Effects of Wind; Motor-less Gliders
86-89. Downwash. Elevator Angle; Examples; C.G. Location.
90. Nose Dive
91-96. Circling and Helical Flight. Rolling and Autorotation.
Handley Page Slot. Dihedral Angle
118
126
129
137
140
143
146
149
155
156
CHAPTER V
FUNDAMENTALS OF THE IRROTATIONAL FLOW
96-100.
101-106.
106-109.
110-114.
115.
116-117.
118-120.
Boundary Condition. Velocity-potential. Physical Meaning of . Potential Flow. Laplace's Equation
Source. Sink. Irrotational Circulation. Combined Source
and Sink. Doublet .
Flow over Faired Nose of Long Board. Oval Cylinder.
Circular Cylinder without and with Circulation
Potential Function. Examples. Formulae for Velocity
Circulation round
Elliptic Cylinder or Plate. Flow through
Hyperbolic Channel .
Rankine's Method.
Elliptic Cylinder or Plate in Motion .
Acceleration from Rest. Impulse and Kinetic Energy of
the Flow Generated by a Normal Plate
163
167
172
180
184
186
190CONTENTS IX
CHAPTER VI
TWO-DIMENSIONAL AEROFOILS
ART.
121-124.
PAGE
Conformal Transformation; Singular Points. Flow past
Normal Plate by Transformation. Inclined Plate 194
125-127. Joukowski Symmetrical Sections ; Formulae for Shape.
Velocity and Pressure. More General Transformation
Formula. Karman-Trefftz Sections 203
128-129B. Piercy Symmetrical Sections. Approximate Formulae.
Velocity over Profile. Comparison with Experiment and
Example 212
130-133A. Circular Arc Aerofoil. Joukowski and Piercy Wing Sections 220
134-139. Joukowski's Hypothesis ; Calculation of Circulation ; Streamlines with and without Circulation. Investigation of Lift,
Lift Curve Slope and Moment 227
140. Comparison with Experiment . 235
CHAPTER VIA
THIN AEROFOILS AT ORDINARY SPEEDS
140A-140B. Method and Equations .
140c. Application to Circular Arc
140D-140F. General Case. Aerodynamic Centre. Example
237
240
241
CHAPTER VIB
COMPRESSIBLE INVISCID FLOW
140G-140i. Assumptions. General Equation of Continuity , . 245
140J-140K. Euler's Dynamical Equations. Kelvin's (or Thomson's)
Theorem 247
140L-140M. Irrotational Flow. Integration of Euler's Equations . 260
140N-140O. Steady Irrotational Flow in Two Dimensions. Electrical
and Hydraulic Analogies 252
CHAPTER VIC
THIN AEROFOILS AT HIGH SPEEDS
140P-140Q. Subsonic Speeds. Glauert's Theory. Comparison with
Experiment. Shock Stall 259
140R-140T. Supersonic Speeds. Mach Angle. Ackeret's Theory. Comparison with Experiment .262
CHAPTER VII
VORTICES AND THEIR RELATION TO DRAG AND LIFT
141-147. Definitions. Rankine's Vortex. General Theorems . 267
148-150. Induced Velocity for Short Straight Vortex and Vortex
Pair. Analogies 272X CONTENTS
ART. PAGE
151-155. Constraint of Walls. Method of
Images ; Vortex and Vortex Pair within Circular Tunnel; Other Examples. Application of Conformal Transformation; Streamlines for
Vortex between Parallel Walls .

276
155A-155B.Lift from Wall Pressures. Source and Doublet in Stream
between Walls 283
156-162. Generation of Vortices
; Impulse ; Production and Disintegration of Vortex Sheets. Karman Trail ; Application to Circular Cylinder. Form Drag 287
163-168. Lanchester's
Trailing Vortices. Starting Vortex. Residual
Kinetic Energy ; Induced Drag ; Example of Uniform
Lift. Variation of Circulation in Free
Flight. Example
from Experiment . 295
CHAPTER VIII
WING THEORY
169-171. General Equations of Monoplane Theory 309
172-177. The 'Second Problem.' Distribution of Given
Impulse for
Minimum Kinetic
Energy ; Elliptic Loading. Minimum
Drag Reduction Formulae ; Examples .312
178-180. Solution of the Arbitrary Wing by Fourier Series. Elliptic
Shape Compared with Others. Comparison with Experiment . 320
181-186. General Theorems Relating to Biplanes. Prandtl's Biplane
Factor
; Examples. Equal Wing Biplane Comparison
with Monoplane ; Examples . 327
187-188. Tunnel Corrections for Incidence and Induced Drag 335
189-192. Approximate Calculation of Downwash at Tail Plane ; Tunnel Constraint at Tail Plane
; Correction Formulae. Tail
Planes of Biplanes 339
CHAPTER IX
VISCOUS FLOW AND SKIN DRAG
193-199. Laminar Pipe Flow : Theory and Comparison with Experiment. Turbulent Flow in Pipes ; the Seventh-root Law.
Flow in Annular Channel. Eccentric and Flat Cores in
Pipes 346
200-204. General Equations for Steady Viscous Flow. Extension of
Skin Friction Formula 357
205-207. Viscous Circulation.
Stability of Curved Flow . 365
208-209. Oseen's and Prandtl's Approximate Equations . 369
210-2 1 7 . Flat Plates with Steady Flow : Solutions for Small and Large
Scales
;
Formation of Boundary Layer ; Method of Successive Approximation. Karman's Theorem ; Examples 370
2 18-2 ISA. Transition Reynolds Number. Detection of Transition . 384
219-221. Flat Plates with Turbulent Boundary Layers : Power
Formulae. Transitional Friction. Experimental Results 387
221A-221B. Displacement and Momentum Thicknesses. Alternative
Form of Kdrm&n's Equation .391CONTENTS XI
ART.
222-223.
224-230.
PAGE
Note on Laminar Skin Friction of
Cylindrical Profiles.
Breakaway. Effect of Wake. Frictions of Bodies and
Flat Plates Compared 393
Turbulence and Roughness. Reynolds Equations of Mean
Motion. Eddy Viscosity. Mixing Length. Similarity
Theory. Skin Drag. Application to Aircraft Surfaces.
Review of
Passage from Model to Full Scale . 399
CHAPTER IX A
REDUCTION OF PROFILE DRAG
230A-230B. Normal Profile
Drag. Dependence of Friction on Transition
Point
230c-230F. Laminar Flow Wings. Early Example. Maintenance of
Negative Pressure Gradient. Position of Maximum
Thickness. Incidence Effect
; Favourable Range. Velocity Diagrams. Examples of Shape Adjustment. Camber
and Pitching Moment .
230G-230H. Boundary Layer Control. Cascade Wing
230i. Prediction of Lift with Laminar Boundary Layer .
230j~230K. High Speeds,
back
Minimum Maximum
Velocity Ratio. Sweep-
409
412
419
421
423
CHAPTER X
AIRSCREWS AND THE AUTOGYRO
231-232. The Ideal
Propeller ; Ideal Efficiency of Propulsion 425
233-238. Airscrews. Definitions. Blade Element
Theory. Vortex
Theory ; Interference Factors ; Coefficients ; Method of
Calculation
; Example 427
239. Variable Pitch. Static Thrust 438
240-241. Tip Losses and Solidity. Compressibility Stall 440
242. Preliminary Design : Empirical Formulae for Diameter and
Inflow
; Shape ; Stresses 443
243-245. Helicopter and Autogyro. Approximate Theory of Autogyro Rotor. Typical Experimental Results , 446
CHAPTER XI
PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY
246-260. Preliminary Discussion. Equivalent Monoplane Aspect
Ratio. Induced, Profile and Parasite Drags; Examples 451
251. Struts and Streamline Wires
457
252-263. Jones Efficiency ; Streamline Aeroplane. Subdivision of
Parasite Drag 469
254-258. Airscrew Interference
; Example .461
259-260A. Prediction of Speed and Climb ; Bairstow's and the LesleyReid Methods. Method for Isolated Question 466
261-262. Take-off and Landing Run. Range and Endurance. , 473Xll CONTENTS
ART. PAGE
262A-262F. Aerodynamic Efficiency ; Charts. Airscrew Effects ; Application to Prediction ; Wing-loading and High-altitude
Flying ; Laminar Flow Effect 477
263. Autogyro and Helicopter 487
263A. Correction of Flight Observations . 489
CHAPTER XII
SAFETY IN FLIGHT
264-265. General Problem. Wind Axes. Damping Factor 493
266-269. Introduction to Longitudinal Stability : Aerodynamic Dihedral
; Short Oscillation ; Examples ; Simplified Phugoid
Oscillation
; Example 496
270-273. Classical Equations for Longitudinal Stability. Glauert's
Non-dimensional
System. Recast Equations. Approximate Factorisation . 503
274-278. Engine-off Stability : Force and Moment Derivatives.
Example. Phugoid Oscillation Reconsidered 508
279-280. Effects of
Stalling on Tail Efficiency and Damping 513
281-284. Level Flight ; High Speeds ; Free Elevators ; Climbing . 514
285. Graphical Analysis .516
286. Introduction to Lateral
Stability 618
287-289. Asymmetric Equations ; Solution with Wind Axes ; Approximate Factorisation 519
290-292. Discussion in Terms of Derivatives. Example. Evaluation of Lateral Derivatives
521
293-295. Design and Stalling of Controls. Control in Relation to
Stability. Large Disturbances. Flat Spin . 523
296. Load Factors in
Flight ; Accelerometer Records 526
AUTHOR INDEX 629
SUBJECT INDEX 531NOTATION
(Some of the symbols are also used occasionally in connections
other than those stated below.)
A . Aerodynamic force ; aspect ratio ; transverse
moment of inertia.
A.R.C.R. & M. Aeronautical Research Committee's
Reports and
Memoranda.
A.S.I . Air speed indicator.
a . Axial inflow factor of airscrews
; leverage of
Aerodynamic force about C.G. of craft ; slope
of lift curve of wings ; velocity of sound in air.
a
9
. Slope of lift curve of tail plane.
a . Angle of incidence.
a, . Tail-setting angle.
B . Gas constant
; longitudinal moment of inertia ;
number of blades of an airscrew.
B
lt B* Stability coefficients.
b . Rotational interference factor of airscrews.
fi
. Transverse dihedral
; twice the mean camber of a
wing.
C . Directional moment of inertia
; sectional area of
tunnel.
C.A.T . Compressed air tunnel.
C
lf C2 Stability coefficients.
C
L, CD, etc Non-dimensional coefficients of lift, drag, etc., on
basis of stagnation pressure.
C.G . Centre of gravity.
C.P . Centre of
pressure.
c . Chord of wing or aerofoil ; molecular velocity.
y . Ratio of specific heats ; tan'1 (drag/lift).
D . Diameter
; drag.
D
lt D2 Stability coefficients.
A, 8 Thickness of boundary layer; displacement thickness.
E .
Elasticity ; kinetic energy.
E
lt Et Stability coefficients.MV NOTATION
e . Base of the Napierian logarithms.
e . Angle of downwash.
F . Skin friction
(in Chapter II) ; Froude Number.
~
Frequency.
. Vorticity.
g . Acceleration due to gravity.
H . Horse
power ; the boundary layer ratio 8/0.
h . Aerodynamic gap ; height or altitude.
7] .A co-ordinate ; efficiency ; elevator angle.
6 . Airscrew blade angle ; angle of climb ; angular
co-ordinate
; temperature on the Centigrade
scale
;
momentum thickness.
/ .
Impulse ; second moment of area.
i . V-l ; as suffix to D : denoting induced drag ;
incidence of autogyro disc.
/ . The advance of an airscrew per revolution in terms
of its diameter.
K . Circulation.
k . Radius of
gyration ; roughness.
^A ^B *c Inertia coefficients.
*L *D etc - Non-dimensional coefficients of lift, drag, etc., on
basis of twice the stagnation pressure.
k
99 kx British drag and lift coefficients of autogyro rotor.
L . Lift
; rolling moment.
/ . Length ; leverage of tail lift about C.G. of craft.
X . Damping factor ; mean free path of molecule ;
mean lift
per unit span.
M
Pitching moment ; Mach number.
m . Mass
; with suffix : non-dimensional moment
derivative
;
Mach
angle,
ji . Coefficient of viscosity ;
*
relative density of
aeroplane
'
;
a co-ordinate.
N .
Yawing moment.
N.A.C.A National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics,
U.S.A.
N.P.L . National Physical Laboratory, Teddington.
n . Distance along a normal to a surface ; revolutions
per sec.
v
. Kinematic coefficient of
viscosity ; a co-ordinate.
5 .A co-ordinate.
P . Pitch of an airscrew
; pressure gradient ; total
pressure.NOTATION XV
p . Angular velocity of roll ; pressure or stress.
p . Density of air in slugs per cu. ft.
Q . Torque.
q . Angular velocity of pitch ; resultant fluid
velocity.
R
.
Radius
; Reynolds number.
R
lt Rt Routh's discriminant.
R.A.E . Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough.
r . Angular velocity of yaw ; lift/drag ratio ;
radius.
r
a . Over-all lift /drag ratio.
5 . Area, particularly of wings.
s . Distance along contour or streamline ; semi-span,
a . Density of air relative to sea-level standard ;
Prandtl's biplane factor ; sectional area of
vortex
; solidity of an airscrew.
r . Thickness
; thrust.
t . Period of time in sec.
;
the complex co-ordinate
5 +
j.
Unit of time in non-dimensional
stability equations.
T . Absolute
temperature ; skin friction in Chapter
IX
; tail angle of aerofoil section ; tail volume
ratio.

. Aerodynamic stagger ; angle of bank ; angle of
helical path of airscrew element ; velocity
'n>n
; yaw.
f undisturbed
velocity in the direct Oz.
jcity of a body.
lircraft.
/ components in the directions Ox,
o.
Deity ; mean loading of wing in
at ; potential function $ + i^.
it ibrce.
)f stability charts.
'dinates
; with suffixes : non-dimenderivatives.NOTATION
z The complex co-ordinate x + iy.
& -
Angular velocity of an airscrew.
o>
. Angular velocity.
t& - . Impulsive pressure.
V2 . 9'/ 9*1 +
V4
AUTHOR INDEX
The numbers refer to
pages.
Abbot, 406
Ackeret, J., 264
Aihara, T., 253
Bailey, A., 106
Bairstow, L., 119, 369, 470, 493
Baker, G. S., 390
Beavan, J. A., 106
Bell, A. H., 102
Bernoulli, D., 35, 252
Betz, A., 88, 224, 323
Bioletti, C., 450
Blasius, H., 352, 373, 390, 394
Boss, N. K., 334
Boussinesq, J., 196, 401
Bradfield, Miss F. B., 89
Bryan, G. H., 119, 493
Bryant, L. W., 498, 528
Burgers, J. M., 341, 386
Busemann, A., 266
Cave, Miss B. M., 369
Cierva, J. de la, 446
Clark, K. W., 89
Cope, W, F., 6
Cowley, W. L., 504
D
Diehl, W. S., 454
Douglas, G. P., 442, 443
Dryden, H. L., 412
Drzewieki, S., 430
Eiffel, G., 68
Euler, L., 247
Fage, A., 211. 298, 353, 384, 394, 397,
409, 410, 423
Fairey, Sir R., 476
Fairthorne, R. A., 89
Falkner, V. M., 211, 390, 393, 394, 397
Farren, W. S., 82
Froude, W. and R. E., 65, 425
Garrard, W. C., 238, 415
Garner, H. M., 524
Gates, S. B., 516
Gebers, 390
Glauert, H., 174, 211, 234, 242, 259, 320,
339, 341, 354, 379, 440, 446, 493
Glauert, Mrs. H., 221, 234
Goett, 88
Goldstein, S., 108, 237, 415, 441
Gouge, A., 456, 473
Gray, W. E., 386
H
Hagen, G., 350
Handley Page, Sir F., 161
Hansen, M., 385
Hartshorn, A. S., 341, 442
Helmholtz, H. v., 270, 289
Hiemenz, K , 394
Hocker, C., 405
Hooker, S. G., 263, 266
Hooper, M. S., 354
Houghton, R., 6
Howarth, L., 393, 421
Hugoniot, 116
Hyde, G. A., 106
Imai, I., 253
Jeans, Sir J. H., 362
Jeffreys, H., 528
Jennings, W. G., 422
Jones, Sir B. M., 87, 397, 459, 493
Jones, E. T., 422
Jones, R., 102. 397, 410
Jouguet, E., 264
Joukowski, N., 203, 228
K
Kaplan, C., 253
Karden, H., 300
Karman, Th. v., 210, 253, 291, 341,
387, 390, 402
Kelvin, Lord, 192, 248, 270
Keinpf, G., 390
Kerber, L. V., 461
629530
Keune, 224
Klemin, A., 528
Kutta, W., 221
Lachmann, G. V., 498
Lamb, Sir H., 237, 286, 287
Lanchester, F. W., 68, 118, 430, 493, 501
Lang, Miss, 369
Langley, 68
Lavender, T., 397, 623
Lees, C. H., 352, 357
Lesley, E. P., 470
Levy, H., 604
Lindsey, W. F., 262
Lilienthal, O., 68
Liptrot, R. N., 473
Littell, R. E., 262
Lock, C. N. H., 106, 430, 446
M
Maas, Van der, 452
Maccoll, J. W., 269
Marshall, Miss D., 385
Maxwell, J. C., 29, 32
Mines, R., 44
Mises, R. v., 234
Munk, M., 328, 498
N
Nagamiya, T., 474
Nazir, P. P., 162, 514
Nikuradse, 392
AUTHOR INDEX
O
Oseen, C. W., 370
Otten, G., 452
Ower, E., 523
Pannell, J. R., 351
Perring, W. G. A., 442
Phillips, H., 118
Piercy, N. A. V., 44, 53, 151, 212, 219,
290, 301, 354, 362, 371, 373, 393, 395,
415
Piper, R. W., 212
Pohlhausen, K., 394
Poiseuille, J. L. M., 350
Prandtl, L., 88, 266, 289, 300, 330, 334,
370, 387, 392, 395, 401, 405, 420, 440
Prescott, J., 362
Preston, J. H., 212, 219, 373, 393
R
Rankine, W. J. M., 116, 188, 267, 426
Rayleigh, Lord, 32, 58, 117, 188, 253, 367
Reid, E. G., 470
Relf, E. F., 102, 118, 276, 397, 405, 413,
623
Reynolds, O., 60, 350, 399
Riaboushinsky, D., 254
Richardson, E. G., 290, 369, 379, 395
Rolinson, D., 149
Routh, E. J., 280, 505
Rubach, 291
Saph, 351
Schlichting, H., 405
Schoder, 351
Sharman, C. F., 254
Simmons, L. F. G., 298
Squire, 395, 410
Stack, J., 262
Stanton, Sir T., 261, 351, 404
Stokes, Sir G., 370
Takenouti, Y., 474
Taylor, Sir G., 108, 254, 259, 266, 368,
402, 422
Tchapliguine, A., 263
Terazawa, K., 336
Thomson, Sir W., see Kelvin
Theodorsen, T., 237
Tietjens, O. G., 232, 350
Tomotika, S., 474
Townend, H. C. H., 353, 452
Trefftz, E., 210
Tsien, H., 263
Tyler, R. A., 393
W
Walker, W. S., 211, 397
Weick, R. E., 422
Wheatley, J. B., 460
White, C. M., 355
Whitehead, L. G., 212, 219, 393, 415,
423, 424
Wieselsberger, C., 390
Williams, D. H., 397, 410, 528
Winny, H. R, 354, 371, 386
Wood, S. A., 106
Wood, 422
Wright Brothers, 119
Wright, D., 135
Wright, K. V., 524
Young, A. D., 89, 395, 396
Zijnen, 386SUBJECT INDEX
The numbers refer to
pages.
Acceleration from rest, of flow, 191
of aerofoil, 296
Accelerometer, 527
Ackeret's theory, 264
Actuator, 425
Acyclic flow, 171
Adiabatic flow, 37
Aerodynamic centre, 92, 243, 497
climb of
airship, 129
efficiency, 477
force, 54, 75
coefficient, 76
scale, 61, 67, 97
smoothness, 404
Aerofoil characteristics, preliminary, 89
shaping, 207, 210, 215, 219, 225, 414,
417, 423
testing, 80, 106, 335, 413
theory, 194, 237, 259, 309, 412, 424
velocity curves, 416
Aerofoils, Joukowski, 203, 221
Karman-Trefftz, 210, 219, 224
laminar flow, 412
Piercy, 212, 219, 225, 413
rectangular and tapered, 323
Ailerons, 119, 158, 161, 418, 624
Air brakes, 136
Air, properties of, 1
Aircraft, types of, 9, 118, 446
Airscrew factors, 434
interference, 461
slipstream effects, 465, 471, 481, 486
Airscrews, approximations for, 443
blade element
theory, 429
compressibility losses, 442
practical formulae, 435, 444
, Speed, 471
static thrust, 439
tip losses, 440
variable
pitch, 139, 438
vortex
theory, 432
Airships, 9, 18, 122, 126, 478
Airspeed indicator, 43
Altimeter, 17, 490
Altitude effects, 17, 22, 67, 143, 466,
476, 484
Arbitrary wing, 320
Aspect ratio, 89, 302, 316, 319, 333,
337, 486
Atmosphere, standard, 16
isothermal, 13
Atmospheric tunnel, 71
Autogyro, 446, 487
Autorotation, 160
Balance, aerodynamic, 82
Balloons, 8, 18
Bank, angle of, 167
Bernoulli's equation, 35, 40, 50, 163,
186, 251, 426, etc.
Biplane, 123
definitions, 327
factor, 330, 454
of least drag, 331
Biplanes, tail planes of, 345
theorems
relating to, 328
Blade
angle, 428
Blockage, 108
Boundary, 26, 163, 187, 237, 261, 265,
364
layer, 52, 219; see flat plate
control, 419
theory, 370 et seq.
Breakaway, 178, 190, 219, 290, 393, 396,
409, 412, 419, 422
Buoyancy, 8, 18
Camber, 221, 224, 226, 237, 418, 423,
443
Cascade wing, 421
Cavitation, 170, 269
Ceiling, 19, 144, 469, 483
Centre of
pressure coefficient, 80
of aerofoil, 90, 236, 237, 243, 418
of aeroplane, 154
of bulkhead, 11
stationary, 234, 244
travel, 91
Chattock
gauge, 6
Circling flight, 156
Circular arc skeleton, 220, 226, 240
cylinder, 176, 195, 263, 292, 394, 397
Circulation and lift, 179, 230, 259
definition of, 49
generation of, 296
irrotational, 169, 228, 260, 366
persistence of, 248
631532 SUBJECT INDEX
Circulation and lift contd
prediction of, 228, 421
round wing, 228, 239, 260, 300, 310,
314, 323, 422
viscous, 365, 367
Climb, 129, 139, 438, 469, 472, 479, 488
correction for atmosphere, 491
slipstream, 472, 481
speed, 140
wind, 148
diagram, 492
Complex variable, 180
velocity, 181
Compressed-air tunnel, 96, 105
Compressible flow, 37, 103, 245, 259, 423
analogies, 254
Compressibility effects, 41, 108, 113,
253, 261, 266, 442
stall, see shock stall
Condensation, 257
Conformal transformation, 194
applied to aerofoils, 203, 210, 212,
221, 225
normal and inclined
plate, 198
parallel walls, 280
Constraint, tunnel, 108, 113, 276, 304,
335
Continuity, equation of, 44, 166, 245
Controls, 119, 129, 133, 152, 158, 161,
623
Convergent flow, 85, 169, 413
nozzle, 72
Critical
angle, 89, 135, 161
Mach number, 113, 262, 423
Reynolds number, 100, 350, 355
Curved flow, 367
Cyclic flow, 171
Cylinder in motion, 186
D
Damping factor, 495, 500, 503, 606, 612,
514
Density, definition, 1
of air, 2
of hydrogen and helium, 8
of water, 6
variation of in air flow, 37, 103, 116,
247, 253, 259
with altitude, 17, 67, 490
Derivatives, 505, 608, 614, 521
Descending flight, 146, 155, 158
Dihedral, longitudinal, 496
lateral, 162, 518
Displacement thickness, 391
Divergence, 496, 500
Divergent duct, 71, 185
Doublet, 172, 182, 285
Downwash, 149, 304, 339, 497, 609, 513
Drag, absence of in potential flow, 190
coefficients, 75
components of, 66, 364
form, 294, 410, 414, 418, 452, 455, 469
Drag, glider, 461, 471
induced, 123, 299, 311, 315, 328, 336,
453, 459
minimum, 126, 312, 331, 458, 478
of aerofoil, 90, etc.
aircraft
parts, 466, 459, 464
airship, 123, 127, 398
autogyro, 449, 488
circular cylinder, 62
core in
pipe, 366
flap, 134
flat
plate, 99, 370, 385, 387, 398
normal
plate, 136, 190
pipe, 350, 352, 403
rough plate, 406
sphere, 99, 409
streamline wire, 457
strut, 99, 398, 467
profile, 113, 409, 442, 445, 452
skin, 403
total
parasitic, 123, 147, 486
Dynamical equations, Euler's, 247
Dynamic head, 41, 115
Dynamically similar motions, 60, 66,
75, 92, 96
E
Eccentric core in
pipe, 356
Eddy viscosity, 400
Efficiency, Aerodynamic, 477
Jones, 459
of airscrew, 429, 437, 466
propulsion, 427, 477
Elasticity of air, 21
Electrical analogies, 264, 276
Elevator
angle, 152
lag, 525
Elevators, 119
free, 516
Elliptic cylinder, 185, 188, 394, 422, 424
loading, 314, 322
wing, 315
Endurance, 476
Engine failure, 145
performance, 466, 471, 476, 485
Equal wing biplane, 332
Equipotentials, 164
Equivalence theorem, Munk's, 328
Equivalent monoplane aspect ratio, 463
Experiment, methods of, 61, 68, 304,
378, 386, 407, 509, 526
at high speeds, 103
Experimental mean pitch, 429
Fairing, 68
Fin, 119, 146, 454, 518
Fineness ratio, 176, 211, 467
Flaps, 133
Flat core in
pipe, 356
'
Flat plate ' glider drag, 452
Flat
plate boundary layer, 372, 388, 392
friction, 373, 383, 386, 388SUBJECT INDEX 633
Flow over faired nose, 172
in tunnel, 285
near stagnation point, 183
types of, 23
Form
drag, see drag
Fourier series, use of, 243, 321
Frequency, 61, 292
Friction
velocity, 402
Froude's law, 66
theory of propulsion, 425
Fuel consumption, 475
Gap, 327
Gas laws, 13, 15
Geometric
pitch, 428
Glauert's dimensionless
system, 505
lift theorem, 259
Glider drag, see drag
stability, 508
Gliders, 148
Gliding, 146
H
Handley Page slot, 161
Helical
flight, 158
Helicopter, 120, 446, 487
High speeds, see Mach, pitot, subsonic,
supersonic, etc.
Hot wire
anemometry, 43, 379
Hydraulic analogy, 254
mean depth, 355
Hydrostatic equation, 5
Hyperbola, inversion of, 212, 225
Hyperbolic channel, 186
Images, method of, 276, 338, 342
Impulse, 191, 287, 293, 298, 312
Impulsive pressure, 165
Incidence, 89, 229, 311, 316, 325
effect on laminar flow, 415
Indicated air
speed, 44
Induced
drag, see drag
method, 147
flow tunnel, 107
velocity, 270
Integration of Euler's equations, 250
Interference, 77, 108, 132, 152, 327
et
seq., 399, 451, 452, 455, 457 et seq.
Isothermal flow, 37
Jet constraint, 338
propulsion, 142, 452, 484
Joukowski transformation formula, 203
aerofoils, 204, 221
approximate formulae for, 206
Joukowski's hypothesis, 227, 236, 297
K
Karman's boundary layer theorem, 380
modified form of, 392
similarity theory, 402
Karman trail, 292
Karman-Trefftz aerofoils, 210, 224
approximate formulae for, 211
Kelvin's theorem, 248
Kinematic coefficient of
viscosity, 59, 67
Kinetic
energy of irrotational flow, 192
minimum, 193, 312
of slipstream, 427
of
trailing vortices, 299
Laminar flow, 23, 29, 49, 347, 354, 359,
373, 392
wings, 412
sub-layer, 353
Landing conditions, 132
run, 473
Laplace's equation, 166
Lapse rate, 17
Lateral oscillation, 519, 521
stability, 518
Lift, aerodynamic, of airship, 128
and circulation, 179, 230, 259, 296, 311
coefficients, 75
favourable
range of, 415
curve slope, 233, 236, 261, 266, 317
evaluation from aerofoil
pressures, 66,
109, 364
from
trailing vortices, 301
from wall
pressures, 109, 283
-drag balance, 79
ratio, 57, 75, 90, 92, 101, 266, 477,
488
elliptic, 314
generation of, 296
-grading, 323
effect on rolling moment, 523
of aerofoils, 90, 93, 102, 131, 133, 232,
236, 311, 315, 321
at subsonic speeds, 114, 259, 442
at supersonic speeds, 114, 264
of autogyro, 449, 488
of spinning cylinder, 180
of
elliptic cylinder, 422
static, 8, 10, 18
uniform, 300, 324
Load, disposable, 122, 145
factor, 526
Longitudinal stability, 494, 496
graphical analysis, 516
M
Mach number, 64, 103, 423
angle, 262
Maxwell's law, 31
Maximum
velocity ratio, 220, 417, 423
thickness location, 206, 210, 215, 219,
414, 418534 SUBJECT INDEX
Mean camber, 224
motion, equations of, 399
Minimum
flying speed, 131, 488
Mixing length, Prandtl's, 401
Moment, pitching, 92, 119, 152, 233,
239, 418, 495
coefficients of, 75
rolling, 158, 162, 495, 522
yawing, 146, 168, 495, 623
Momentum thickness, 391
Monoplane theory, equations of, 311
N
Non-dimensional coefficients, 76, 505
Normal
plate, 136, 189, 193, 198, 313
profile drag, 409
Nose dive, 155
O
Open jet tunnel, 74, 97
constraint, 338
Operational methods, 528
Orthogonal biplane, 327
Oscillation, see phugoid, short, etc.
Oseen's approximation, 369
for flat
plate, 370
Oval
cylinder, 1 75
Parachute, 57
Parallel flow, see laminar
Path lines, 24, 189, 274, 282, 287
Parasite drag, 77, 137, 456, 460
Performance, prediction of, 451, 466,
471, 482
reduction of, to standard conditions,
148, 489
Phugoid oscillation, 501, 507, 512, 525
Piercy aerofoils, 207, 212, 219, 225, 410,
413
approximate formulae for, 215, 227
Pipe flow, steady, 349, 354
turbulent, 351, 355
Pitch, of aircraft, 119, 495
of airscrew, 428
variable, 139, 438
Pitot boundary, 53
head, 41
and
vorticity, 51
at supersonic speed, 114
-static tube, 43
tube, 41
fractional, 379
Potential flow, 166, 250
function, 180
temperature, 21
Power
curves, 137, 143, 157, 468
dive, 146
factor of tunnel, 71, 103
formulae, 387
loading, 127, 459, 480, 482
Prandtl's approximation, 370, 385
Pressure diagrams, aerofoil, 65, 91, 219
airship, 127
circular cylinder, 178
strut, 219
static, 2, 17, 34
variation in flow, 39, 115
Profile drag, see drag
Propeller, ideal, 425
Pusher airscrew, 462, 464
Q
Qualitative compressibility effect, 253
theory of viscosity, 27
R
Range, 475
Rankine-Hugoniot law, 116
Rankine's method, 187
vortex, 267
Rarefied air tunnel, 104
Rayleigh's formula, 68
Rectangular aerofoil, 323
Reduction formulae, 317
Relative density, of air, 17, 44
of aeroplane, 496, 506
Reynolds number, 60, 97, 104, etc.
'
effective,' 408
transition, 384, 386, 389
Rolling subsidence, 518, 621
Rotating cylinder, 365
Roughness, 403, 406
Routh's discriminant, 505, 517
Rudder, 119, 157, 518, 523
Scale effect, 62, 93, 98, 101, 385, 398,
407, 410
' Second problem, aerofoil theory,' 312
Sesqiii-plane, 327
Seventh-root law, 352, 387
Shock stall, 113, 262, 442
wave, 106, 112, 115, 262, 266, 423
Short oscillation, 498, 507, 512, 625
Singular points, 198, 216, 286
Sink, 168
Slip, absence of, 25, 350
of airscrew, 429
Slipstream, 425, 463, 465, 472, 480
Skin
drag, 403
friction, 31, 55, 363
coefficient, 397
distribution on monoplane, 459
measurement of, 378
of aerofoils, 398, 410
of airships, 398
of cylinders, 393
of
plates, see flat plate
of pipes, see pipe
reduction of, on wings, 411
transitional, 389SUBJECT INDEX 535
Smoothness, aerodynamic, 405, 406
Smooth-turbulent formulae, 404
Soaring, 149
Solidity, of airscrew, 427, 434
of rotor, 488
Sonic throat, 38, 106, 110
Sound, velocity of, 22
wave, 259, 263, 265
Source, 167, 285
and sink, 171
Span-grading, 323
-loading, 315
Specific consumption, 476
Spin, 74, 160, 526
Spinning divergence, 521
Spoilers, 137, 524
Stability, asymmetric, see lateral
atmospheric, 20
coefficients, 504, 507, 511, 520
graphical analysis, 153, 497, 516
longitudinal, see longitudinal
of fluid motion, 292, 355, 367, 418
Stagger, 327
Stagnation point, 41, 183, 227, 368, 395
pressure, 42, 115
Stalling, 89, 102, 131, 135, 160, 290,
301, 420, 422, 438, 440, 449, 488
of Controls, 75, 153, 161, 418, 524
Starting vortex, 296
Stilling length, 351
Stoke's approximation, 369
operator, 247
Stratosphere, 1, 14, 21, 22, 63, 67,
485
Stream function denned, 47
Streamline, 23
aeroplane, 459
wall, 107
wires, 457
Stresses, component, 32, 360, 400
Strip method, 159, 430, 522
Strut, 99, 210, 219, 442, 457
Subsidence, 496, 500
Subsonic flow, 63, 250, 259, 423
experiment in, 103, 113, 442
Successive approximation method, 373
Supersonic flow, 114, 115, 262 et scq.
experiment in, 109, 113, 261, 166
Surface of discontinuity, 238, 288
Symmetric flight, 122, 494
T
Tail
angle, 210, 214
efficiency, 513
-first lay-out, 498, 513
plane, 119, 149, 339, 497, 500, 509
-setting angle, 152, 154, 497
Take-off, 134, 136, 149, 438, 473
Tank, electric, 254, 276
ship, 66
Tapered wing, 323, 326
Temperature variation in flow, 37
Thomson's theorem, see Kelvin
Thrust and
torque coefficients, 435, 440,
443, 467, 471
apparent, 462
Townend
ring, 452
Trailing vortex pair, 297 et seq.
Transformation formula?, 194, 198, 203,
210, 213, 216, 281
Transformed sections, 204, 207, 210,
219, 226, 230, 417, 419
Transition, 385, 398, 409
curve, 389, 398
delay of, 412, 413, 419
effect on friction, 389, 411
effect on form
drag, 455
effect 011 profile drag, 413, 486
effect of incidence, 416
detection, 386
point, 386
Reynolds number, 386, 472, 481
tunnel and
flight, 399, 407, 410
Troposphere, 1, 14
Tunnel, atmospheric, 71
compressed air, 96
constraint, 108, 276, 281, 335
full-scale or giant, 74, 98
high-speed, 103, 106
laminar flow, 413, 455
supersonic, 109
variable-density, 103
vertical spinning, 74
Turbulence factor, 407
gauge of, in tunnel, 101
Turbulent flow, 24, 99, 351, 387, 395,
309 et
scq., 407, 409 et scq.
U
Uniform flow, 23, 181
lift, 300
Upgust, 319, 528
Upward wind, 148
Velocity amplitude, 368, 395
defect, 403
induced, 270, 272, 310, 329
in potential flow, 183, 208
-potential, 163
physical explanation of, 165
ratio diagram, 416
maximum, 220, 423
Venturi tube, 44, 186
Viscosity, coefficient of, 31
theory and laws of, 27-31
eddy, 400636 SUBJECT INDEX
Viscous flow, equations of, 362
Vortex, between walls, 281
bound, 272, 283
laws of inviscid, 270
pair, 274, 278
energy of, 290
impulse of, 287
Rankine's, 268
sheet, 288
starting, 296
street, 291
theory of airscrews, 432
Vortices, generation of, 287
trailing, 298 et scq.
wing-tip, 300
Vorticity, 49-51, 237, 245, 250, 267,
298, 349, 359, 364, 371, 402
W
Wake
blockage, 108
effect on
pressures, 393
on tail plane, 513
exploration, 86, 109
Wall, flexible tunnel, 107
Wave, see shock, sound
-making resistance, 65
Waves in water channel, 256
Wind axes, 495
effects on flight, 148
-tunnel corrections, 84, 169, 335, 344
Wing-loading, 122, 131, 136, 479, 484
Yaw, 119, 146, 156, 162, 454, 455, 495,
518,


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