كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
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وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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 كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials

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كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials    كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials  Emptyالجمعة 18 يونيو 2021, 7:01 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials
Theory, Modelling, and Applications
Second Edition
Wit Grzesik
Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, Opole University of Technoloy, Poland

كتاب Advanced Machining Processes of Metallic Materials  A_m_p_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


1 Introduction
2 Metal Cutting Operations and Terminology
3 Trends in Metal Cutting Theory and Practice
4 Cutting Tool Materials
5 Modelling and Simulation of Machining Processes and Operations
6 Orthogonal and Oblique Cutting Mechanics
7 Chip Formation and Control
8 Cutting Vibrations
9 Heat in Metal Cutting
10 Cutting Fluids
11 Tribology of Metal Cutting
12 Tool Wear and Damage
13 Machinability of Engineering Materials
14 Machining Economics and Optimization
15 Advanced Machining Processes
16 Micro-Machining
17 Nanomanufacturing/Nanotechnology
18 Sensor-Assisted Machining
19 Virtual/Digital and Internet-Based Machining
20 Surface Integrity
INDEX
NOMENCLATURE
LATIN SYMBOLS
A shape factor in Shaw’s equation for heat partition
A
a apparent area of contact between two surface; average value of shape
factor A
A
c cross-sectional area of the uncut chip, i.e., the cross-sectional area of
the layer of material being removed by one cutting edge measured
normal to the resultant cutting direction; contact area
A
m maximum value of shape factor A
A
r real area of contact between two surfaces
Ash area of shear plane
A
α tool flank, i.e., the surface over which the surface produced on the
workpiece passes
A
γ tool face, i.e., the surface over which the chip flows
a
e working engagement, i.e., the instantaneous engagement of the
complete tool with the workpiece, measured in the working plane
P
fe and perpendicular to the direction of feed motion (previously
known as depth of cut in a slab-milling operation)
af feed engagement, i.e., the instantaneous engagement of the tool
cutting edge with the workpiece, measured in the working plane Pfe
and in the direction of feed motion (in single-point machining
operations it is equal to the feed f; in multipoint tool operations, it
is equal to the feed per tooth)
a
p back engagement, i.e., the instantaneous engagement of the complete tool with the workpiece, measured perpendicular to the working plane Pfe (previously known as depth of cut in a single-point
tool operation and width of cut in a slab-milling operation)
apl lower limit of depth of cut (doc)
a
pu upper limit of doc
a
v amplitude of vibration
B groove width in a groove tool; zone where the flank is regularly
worn
B
e equivalent groove width in a groove tool
xiiiBL length of groove backwall wear
BW width of groove backwall wear
b width of cut; width of the cutting edge
b
cr the lowest blim obtained for the phasing most favourable for chatter
generation
blim limiting stable axial depth of cut
C constant in upper boundary prediction for the shear angle by Oxley,
constant in Shaw’s equation
CT1, CT2, CT3 constant in general tool-life equation
Cv
cutting speed for 1 min of tool life (in m/min)
C
m cost of machining, neglecting non-productive costs
Cmat cost of material for one workpiece
Cmin minimum cost of production, i.e., the minimum value of Cpr
Cmt total machining cost
C
pr production cost, i.e., the average cost of producing each component
on one machine tool
Cv constant in the inverse Taylor equation equal to the cutting speed
for T 5 1 min
Ct constant in the original Taylor tool-life equation
CT constant in the Taylor equation equal to T for vc 5 1 m/min
c rigidity constant
cd damping force per unit velocity, i.e., the viscous damping constant
cp
specific heat capacity
D tool diameter (e.g. drill or milling cutter)
dF variation in the cutting force
E Young’s modulus; process activation energy
Ec
cutting energy
Ef
energy required to perform feed motion; friction energy
Ep
energy required to perform plastic deformation
Esh energy required to perform shearing
Efα
energy required to overcome friction on the flank face
Efγ
energy required to overcome friction on the rake face
e base of natural logarithm
e
c specific cutting energy
efγ specific friction energy related to the rake face
esh specific cutting energy related to shearing
F resultant cutting force
F(t) periodic force (in function of time)
Fa
active force
Fc
cutting component of the resultant tool force, Fr
xiv NomenclatureFc
N an asymptotic value of the cutting force Fc
F
dyn force component due to chip deformation in HSC
Ff
feed force
Fm
momentum force
Fo Fourier number
Fo
objective function
Fp
ploughing force
Fr
resultant tool force
Fsh force required to shear the work material on the shear plane
FshN force perpendicular to the shear plane
F
su resultant shear force in HSC

tangential force on the flank face

N force perpendicular to flank face

frictional force on the tool face; frictional force between sliding
chip and tool

N force perpendicular to the rake face
f feed rate, i.e., the displacement of the tool relative to the workpiece,
in the direction of feed motion, per revolution of the workpiece or
tool
fm feed per minute
fmax maximum available machine feed
fl lower limit of feed
fn resonance of frequency
fnd natural damped frequency of the system
fopt optimum value of feed
fu upper limit of feed
fz feed per tooth
HT hardness of the tool material
HW hardness of the workpiece material
HRC Rockwell hardness number (C scale)
HSC high spot count (count(s)) (see also High Speed Cutting)
h uncut chip thickness, i.e., the thickness of the layer of material being
removed by one cutting edge at the selected point measured normal
to the resultant cutting force direction
hch chip thickness
hcmin mean uncut chip thickness, i.e., the mean value of hc
h
cmax maximum uncut chip thickness, i.e., the maximum value of hc
Im[G] imaginary part of the FRF
K constant for a machining operation; can be regarded as the distance
travelled by the tool in relation to the workpiece during the
machining time tm.
Nomenclature xvK1 - K8 constant in LPM
[K] global stiffness matrix
KB distance from the cutting edge to the back crater contour
KE radial displacement of the tool corner
KF width of the land between the crater and cutting edge
KM distance from the cutting edge to the deepest crater point
KT crater depth; depth of groove backwall wear
K1C fracture toughness
k shear stress in the slip-line field; constant in the Stabler’s formula;
damping ratio; negative slope of the tool-life curve
k
c specific cutting pressure
kh chip thickness compression ratio (also Λh)
L tool length; cutting length; lay (surface texture)
l land length in a grooved tool
l
c natural tool-chip contact length
l
ca length of the active cutting edge
l
cr restricted tool-chip contact length
l
e equivalent restricted contact length
l
m length of machined surface
l
nc natural contact length
lp
length of the plastic contact
lsh length of shear plane (also lAB)
lsl sliding-contact length
lst sticking-contact length
lt length of tool
l
w length of workpiece or hole to be machined; length of cut path or
cut surface
M total machine and operator rate (cost per unit time), including
machine depreciation
Mt operator’s Wo and machine and operator overheads; mean line (M)
system
MR machinability rating
Mr1 upper material ratio (%)
Mr2 lower material ratio (%)
Mt machine-tool depreciation rate (cost per unit time)
M 0
t machine-tool rate including overheads (cost unit time)
MT1 - MT5 extreme finishing; finishing; semi-roughing, roughing and heavy
roughing machining operations
m slope of linear plastic stress - strain relation; relative shear stress in
Rowe and Spick’s model; mass of the vibration system; width of the
contact zone
xvi Nomenclaturem
avg average number of teeth in the cut
mch mass of chip specimen
m1 strain rate sensitivity exponent
N number of teeth on the cutting tool; number of full waves; nose
wear
Nb batch size, i.e., the number of components in the batch to be
machined
Nt number of tools used in machining the batch of components
NL1 notch wear length on main cutting edge
NL2 notch wear length on secondary cutting edge
NW1 notch wear width on main cutting edge
NW2 notch wear width on secondary cutting edge
NT thermal number; number of tool changes necessary during the
machining of a batch of components
n strain-hardening index or exponent; constant in Taylor’s tool-life
equation; spindle rotation speed
n
opt optimum value of rotational speed
n
s rotational frequency of a machine-tool spindle
ns
c rotational frequency of a machine-tool spindle for minimum
production cost
n
sef rotational frequency of a machine-tool spindle for minimum
efficiency (maximum profit rate)
n
s
p rotational frequency of a machine-tool spindle foe minimum
production time
nt rotational frequency of the cutting tool or abrasive wheel
n
w rotational frequency of workpiece
P
power
{P} vector of all applied loads
Pc local peak count (count/cm) (also cutting power)
Pe
electrical power consumed by the machine tool during a machining
operation
Pe
c Peclet number
Pf
assumed working plane
P
fe working plane
Pg
tool-face orthogonal plane
Pm
power required to perform the machining operation
Pn
cutting edge normal plane
Po
tool orthogonal plane
Pp
tool back plane
P
pe working back plane
Nomenclature xviiPr
tool reference plane, the rate of production
P
re working reference plane
Ps
tool cutting edge plane
P
se working cutting edge plane
Psh shear plane
pA hydrostatic pressure in point A at the free surface
ps specific cutting power, i.e., the work required to remove a unit
volume of material
Q total amount of heat generated in machining
Q1 heat source due to plastic deformation
Q2 frictional heat source
Q3 heat source at the contact between the workpiece and the flank
Q4 heat source from which a small part of heat is transferred to the
sub-surface layer
QW volumetric material removal rate
qc heat flux flowing to the chip
qt heat flux flowing to the tool
qw heat flux flowing to the workpiece
q_ heat flow rate
R thermal number; universal gas constant; surface roughness
{R} load vector
R
a arithmetical mean value of surface roughness (CLA)
R
c Rockwell hardness number (C scale)
Rch heat partition coefficient, i.e., percentage of heat entering the chip
Rk core roughness depth
Rku kurtosis
RKF heat partition coefficient defined by Kato and Fujii
Rmin(τ) minimum radius of up-curling
Rmr(c) material ratio at depth ‘c’
R
o groove radius
Rp maximum height of peaks
Rpk reduced peak height
Rq root mean square (RMS) average
RR heat partition coefficient defined by Reznikov
Rsk skew (skewness)
Rsm average peak spacing
RSH heat partition coefficient defined by Shaw
Rt total height of the profile (obsolete Rmax)
Rv maximum depth of valleys
Rvk reduced valley depth
xviii NomenclatureRz maximum height of the profile
Rzt theoretical value of P - V parameter
RΔa centre line average (CLA) slope (deg)
RΔq RMS slope (deg)
Rλa CLA wavelength
Rλq RMS wavelength
rmin radius of the cutting edge at which cutting is taking place
rc
cutting ratio
rchip radius of the chip curvature
r
n radius of the cutting edge
rs
side-curling radius
ru
up-curling radius; chip curvature
rui radius of initial chip curl
ruf radius of final chip curl

corner radius, i.e., the radius of a rounded tool corner
S tool major cutting edge; income per component
S
a active cutting edge
S’ tool minor cutting edge
SD depth of secondary face wear
SL sampling length
SW width of secondary face wear
s lamellar spacing
T temperature; absolute temperature; tool life
T average tool life
Te economic tool life (also TE)
Tm
melting temperature
To
reference temperature
Tmod velocity modified temperature
Tp
tool life for maximum production rate (also TQ)
TR reference tool life
Tr room (ambient) temperature; tool life for a cutting speed of vr
t time
t
a acceleration time
t
c tool changing time, i.e., the average machine time to change a
worn tool or to index (and, if necessary, replace) a worn insert
t
cs interchange time
t
e magazine indexing (travelling) time
td deceleration time
tl non-productive time, i.e., the average machine time to load and
unload a component and to return the cutting tool to the beginning
of the cut
Nomenclature xixtl loading and unloading time
t
m machining time, i.e., machine time to machine a component
t
max maximum operation time
t
pr production time, i.e., the average time to produce one component
on one machine tool
t
r transportation (approach) time per workpiece
tx
rapid travel location time
{U} matrix of nodal velocities
{u} displacement vector
Vw
volume of tool material lost due to wear
VBB average width of flank wear land in the central portion of the active
cutting edge
VBBmax maximum width of flank wear land in the central portion of the
active cutting edge
VBC width of flank wear at tool corner
VBN width of notch wear
V
m. volume of material removed in machining
VN width of the flank wear land at the wear notch
VB0 wear of minor flank face
v
ac mean cutting speed, i.e., the average value of v along the major
cutting edge
v
c cutting speed, i.e., the instantaneous velocity of the primary motion
of the selected point on the cutting edge relative to the workpiece
v
cc optimum cutting speed for minimum production cost
v
ce cutting speed at minimum cost
vch chip velocity
v
cp optimum cutting speed for minimum production time
vcR reference cutting speed in tool-life equation for grooved tool
vcT cutting speed corresponding to defined tool life T
vcTmax cutting speed corresponding to maximum tool life Tmax
v
e resultant cutting speed, i.e., the instantaneous velocity of the
resultant cutting motion of the selected point on the cutting edge
relative to the workpiece
vef cutting speed for maximum efficiency (maximum rate of profit)
vf feed velocity
vHSC UTS-depending cutting speed in HSC
v
max maximum cutting speed, i.e., maximum of vc
vmin minimum cutting speed, i.e., minimum of vc
vp
cutting speed for minimum production time
xx Nomenclaturev
po cutting speed when maximum power is used
v
r cutting speed giving a reference tool life of Tr
vs
shearing velocity; sliding velocity
vsl
ch chip velocity along the sliding region
vst
ch chip velocity along the sticking region
W weight of workpiece; waviness
Wc
tool coating effect factor
Wg
chip-groove effect factor
w width of cut
X1 coded value of speed in LPM
X2 coded value of feed in LPM
x distance from the point of chip separation
GREEK SYMBOLS
α alpha-phase, thermal diffusivity
α
e thermal expansion coefficient
α
n tool normal clearance
α
ne working normal clearance
αT thermal diffusivity of the tool material
αW thermal diffusivity of the workpiece material
β proportion of heat conducted into the workpiece; beta-phase
χ characteristic of contact length in Rowe and Spick’s model
Γ proportion of heat generated in primary deformation zone
conducted into workpiece
γ gamma-phase
γAB strain on shear plane in Oxley’s model
γEF shear strain along the exit boundary EF in Oxley’s model
γc catastrophic shear strain
γe effective rake angle (also γef and γeff)
γf tool side rake angle
γf1 tool side rake angle in the land
γf2 tool side rake angle in the groove
γg tool geometric rake angle (direction of the maximum slope of the
rake)
γh homogenous shear strain
γn tool normal rake
γne working normal rake
Nomenclature xxiγo tool orthogonal rake
γp tool back rake
γsb total shear strain in the shear band (sb)
γsh shear strain
γ_ sh shear strain rate
rT local temperature gradient (Hamilton’s vectoral operator-nabla) in
Km21
Δx thickness of the shear zone (band)
Δt time elapsed for material element to travel a distance Δs
Δs distance along the shear plane
Δs2 thickness of the shear zone in Oxley’s model
ΔΘf mean temperature rise due to friction
δ
u response (deflection) in the u direction
δ
v response (deflection) in the v direction
ε uniaxial true strain; fraction of waves
εb chip strain caused by bending
ε
max chip strain at fracture
ε
p the equivalent strain
εp accumulated plastic strain
ε
p
eff effective plastic strain
εp
o reference plastic strain
ε_
p equivalent strain rate
ε_p
o reference plastic strain rate
ε_0
p strain rate equal to 1.0 s21
ε
r tool-included angle
εr
e working included angle
η resultant cutting speed angle, i.e., the angle between the direction of
primary motion and the resultant cutting direction; angle between
the texture line and the shear plane; contact length factor
ηb chip back-flow angle
ηc chip flow angle; angle of maximum slope of the rake angle
ηs chip side-flow angle
θ temperature, mean angle of friction on tool face; groove tangent
angle
θint temperature at tool-chip interface
θ
fmax maximum temperature rise of material passing through the
secondary deformation zone
θ
max maximum interface temperature along the rake face (also tmax)
θ
n mean angle of friction measured in the normal plane
xxii Nomenclatureθ
smax maximum shear-plane temperature (maximum temperature rise of
material passing through the primary deformation zone)
θ
o initial workpiece temperature
Θ(T) thermal softening factor
Θs mean shear-plane temperature
Θt average interface temperature
κ
r tool cutting edge angle
κ
0 r
tool minor cutting edge angle
κre working cutting edge angle
κ0
re working minor cutting edge angle
λ thermal conductivity
λT thermal conductivity of the tool material
λW thermal conductivity of the workpiece material
λ
s tool cutting edge inclination
λs
e working cutting edge inclination
μ coefficient of friction, viscosity
μa adhesion component of coefficient of friction
μc equivalent coefficient of friction
μcmax maximum coefficient of friction
μm mechanical component of coefficient of friction
μRe[G] real part of the FRF
ν coefficient of tool-life variability
ρ density of work material
σ uniaxial true stress
1 σ tensile residual stress
2 σ compressive residual stress
σ effective von Misses stress
σ
c normal contact stress acting on the tool - chip interface
σ
cmax maximum normal contact stress acting on the tool - chip interface
σ
c mean value of normal contact stress
σf flow stress; fracture stress
σ
n normal stress on the tool face
σ
nmax maximum normal stress on the tool face
σ
o initial yield stress at the reference temperature To; constant in
uniaxial true strain relationship
σsh normal stress on the shear plane (also σs)
σT standard deviation
τ chip flow angle
τ
c shear contact stress acting on the tool - chip interface
Nomenclature xxiiiτc mean value of shear contact stress
τ
o shear flow stress at zero plastic strain in Oxley’s model
τ
s shear stress on the shear plane
τsh shear flow stress of the work material
τst shear stress on the tool face in the sticking region
τ
so shear stress in the shear plane with zero normal stress applied
Φ shear angle
Φ
n shear angle in the normal plane Pn
Φ
o shear angle for unstrained (softer) material
ΦT shear angle calculated from mechanical properties of the workpiece
material
ω angular frequency of vibration; angle between the resultant cutting
force and the shear plane
ωf angular frequency of external harmonic force
ω
n natural angular frequency
ABBREVIATIONS
AC Adaptive control; air cooled
ACC Adaptive control constraint
ACO Adaptive control optimization
A/D Analog-to-digital converter
ADF Amplitude distribution function
ADI Austempered ductile iron
AE Acoustic emission
AFM Abrasive-flow machining; atomic force microscopy
AFRP Aramid fibre reinforced plastic
AGV Automated guided vehicle
AI Artificial intelligence
AJM Abrasive-jet machining
ALE Arbitrary Lagrangian - Eulerian formulation
Al2O3 Aluminium oxide, white ceramics
AMPR Advanced Manufacturing Research Program
AMZ Altered material zone
ANN Artificial neural network
ANSI American National Standards Institute
APL A programming language
APS Advanced process system
xxiv NomenclatureAR Autoregression
ARMD Area-restricted molecular dynamics
ASM American Society for Metals (now ASM International)
ATC Automatic tool changer
BAC Bearing area curve
BEM Boundary element method
BHN Brinell hardness number (see HB)
BUE Built-up-edge
bcc Body-centred cubic
CAD Computer-aided design
CAE Computer-aided engineering
CAM Computer-aided manufacturing
CAPP Computer-aided process planning
CAT Computer-aided testing
CAVE Computer Automated Visualization Environment
CBGF Circular thread-milling tool
CBN Cubic boron nitride
CBN-HT CBN hard turning
CCD Charge-coupled device (camera)
CCI Coherence correlation interferometry
CE Concurrent engineering; control emulator
CF Cutting fluid
CFEST Cutting Fluid Evaluation Software Testbed
CFRP Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic
CGI Compacted graphite iron
CIM Computer-integrated manufacturing
CIRP International Institution for Production Engineering Research
CLA Centre-line average
CM Communication medium
CMM Coordinate measuring machine
CNC Computer numerical control
COS Computerized optimization system
CT Cermet
CVD Chemical vapour deposition
CVL Copper vapour laser
DARPA Defence Advanced Research Project Agency
DBGF Direct circular thread-milling tool
DBTT Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature
D
c Diameter of cutter
DLC Diamond-like coating
Nomenclature xxvDLL Dynamic link library
DM Digital manufacturing
DN Product of the spindle diameter in mm and the spindle speed in
rpm
DNC Direct numerical control; distributed numerical control
DPU Data processing unit
DRIE Deep reactive ion etching
DSC Differential scanning calorimeter
DSP Digital signal processing
DUV Deep ultraviolet lithography
DVA Dynamic vibration absorber
EBM Electron-beam machining
ECG Electrochemical grinding
ECM Electrochemical machining
ECT Effective chip thickness
EDM Electrical discharge machining
EDG Electro-discharge grinding
EDX Energy dispersion X-ray
EL Evaluating length
ELACM Eximer laser-assisted chemical machining
ELID Electrolytic in-process dressing
EMF Electromotive force (also emf)
EP Extreme pressure
Ew1;Ew2 Offsets in turn-milling operations
e-manufacturing Electronic-manufacturing
e-work Electronic-work
FDA Finite different approach
FDM Finite different method
FEA Finite element approach (analysis)
FEM Finite element method
FES Fuzzy expert system
FFT Fast Fourier transform
FIB Focused ion beam (micromachining)
FMS Flexible manufacturing system; Federation of Materials Societies
FOF Factory of the future
FRF Frequency response function
FRP Fiberglass-reinforced plastic
FTP File transfer protocol
fcc Face-centred cubic
GAC Geometric adaptive control
xxvi NomenclatureGFRP Graphite-fibre reinforced plastic; glass-fiber reinforced plastic
GGG Nodular cast iron (German equivalent to CGI; see CGI)
HB Brinell hardness number
HEM High efficiency machining
Hi-E High efficiency machining (range)
HK Knoop hardness number
HK100 Knoop hardness using 100g load
HM Hard machining, hard milling
HMC Horizontal machining centre
HMI Human - machine interface
HPC High pressure coolant (supply)
H-PCBN High content PCBN
HPC High performance cutting
HPDL High power diode laser
HPM High performance machining; hard part machining
HPMA High precision motorised arm
HPPA High precision pull-down arm
HPRA High precision removable arm
HR Rockwell hardness number, including scales such as HRA, HRB,
HRC, etc.; hot rolled
HSM High speed machining
HSC High speed cutting
HSS High speed steel
HSS-Co Cobalt enriched high speed steels
HT Hard turning
HTML Hyper Text Markup Language
HV Vickers hardness number
HVM High velocity machining
hcp Hexagonal close-packed
ICM Iterative convergence method
ID Inside diameter
IMM Intelligent machining module
IMS Intelligent manufacturing system, intelligent maintenance system
I/O Input/output
IPM Inductive probe module
IR Infrared (e.g. camera, pyrometer)
IT Information technology; intelligent tool
ITC Intelligent thermal control
JC Johnson - Cook material model
Nomenclature xxviiJIT Just-in-time
KHN Knoop hardness number (obsolete; see HK)
LAM Laser-assisted machining
LAN Local area network
LASER Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
LBM Laser-beam machining
LCD Liquid crystal display
LFM Laser flash method
LDF Linear discriminant function
LIGA Photo-lithography and electroplating method
LN Liquid nitrogen
LODTM Large optics diamond turning machine
LPM Linear programming method
L-PCBN Low-content PCBN
MCD Machine code data
MC-HT Mixed ceramics hard turning
MCU Machine control unit
MD Molecular dynamics
MDB Machinability database
MDC Machinability Data Centre
MDI Manual data input
MEMS Micro-electromechanical system
MES Manufacturing execution system
MMC Metal matrix composite
MO Mineral oil
MQC Minimum quantity cooling
MQL Minimum (minimal) quantity lubrication
MQCL Minimum quantity cooling lubrication
MRP Material requirements planning
MRR Material removal rate
MST Microsystems technology
MTM Multitasking machining
MVL Minimum volume lubrication
mMT Micro/mezzo-scale machine tool
NC Numerical control
NEMS Nano-electromechanical system
NDT Non-destructive testing; nil ductility transition
NGM New generation manufacturing
NNI National Nanotechnology Initiative
xxviii NomenclatureNPT Non-productive times
OD Outside diameter
OFHC Oxygen-free, high conductivity (for copper)
PAC Plasma-arc cutting
PACVD Plasma-assisted CVD (coating deposition technique)
PAM Plasma-assisted machining
PC Personal computer; printed circuit; polycarbonate
PCB Printed circuit board
PCBN Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride
PCD Polycrystalline diamond
PDZ Primary deformation zone
PGI Phase grating interferometer
PH Precipitation hardenable (steel)
PKM Parallel kinematic machine
PLC Programmable logic controller
PLM Product lifecycle management
P/M Powder metallurgy
PSZ Partially-stabilized zirconia
PVD Physical vapour deposition
QA Quality assurance
QC Quality control
RCF Rolling contact fatigue
RCT Restricted-contact tool
RF Radio frequency
RMI Radio machine interface
RMS Root-mean-square (also rms)
RNS Remote notification system
RP Rapid prototyping
SDZ Secondary deformation zone
SiC Silicon carbide
Si3N4 Silicon nitride, nitride ceramics
SL or SLA Stereolithography technique; sampling length
SLF Slip-line field
SLS Selective lased sintering
SMS Short message service
SMART Smart Assistant to Machinists
SPDT Single-point diamond turning
SPM Scanning probe microscopy
STM Scanning tunnelling microscope
TAM Thermally assisted machining
Nomenclature xxixTAHMP Thermally assisted hybrid machining process
TCM Tool condition monitoring
TDZ Tertiary deformation zone
TFTs Thin film thermocouple sensor
TiAlN Titanium - aluminium nitride
TiC Titanium carbide
Ti(C,N) Titanium carbo-nitride
TiN Titanium nitride
TMP Total machining performance
TMS Tool monitoring system
TQC Total quality control
TQM Total quality management
TRS Tensile rupture strength
UAM Ultrasonic-assisted machining
UCL Upper control limit
UCT Uncut/undeformed chip thickness
UF Ultra fine (e.g., carbide grade)
UHSM Ultra-high speed machining
UM Ultrasonic machining
UR Unit removal
UTS Ultimate tensile strength (also Rm)
UV Ultraviolet
UVC Ultrasonic vibration cutting
VED Video edge detection
VLSI Very large-scale integration
VM Virtual manufacturing
VMC Vertical machining centre
VR Virtual reality
WAP Wireless Application Protocol
WC Sintered tungsten carbide (equivalent to HM in German)
WEDG Wire electro-discharge grinding
WIP Work in progress
https:// World Wide Web
XML Extensive Markup Language
Y Yield strength
ZD Zero defect (manufacturing)
INDEX
Note: Page numbers followed by “f ” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.
A
ABAQUS, 75 - 77
Ablation, 405, 423
Abrasion
micro-machining, 416
tools, 216f, 217, 220 - 221
ultra-precision engineering, 456 - 458
ultrasonically assisted machining, 382 - 385
AC systems. See Adaptive control (AC) systems
ACC. See Adaptive control with constraints
(ACC)
Accuracy. See also Precision
high-speed machining, 288 - 289
micro-machining, 402
multitasking machining, 368
nanotechnology, 447
ACO. See Adaptive control with optimization
(ACO)
Acoustic emission (AE), 469, 473, 481 - 482
Active vibration dampers, 161
Adaptive control (AC) systems, 488 - 489
Adaptive control with constraints (ACC),
488
Adaptive control with optimization (ACO),
488
ADF. See Amplitude distribution function (ADF)
Adhesion, 197
Adhesive wear, 221
Adiabatic shear, 116, 121 - 122
Advanced manufacturing technologies, grouping
of, 2f
AdvantEdge, 75 - 77
AE. See Acoustic emission (AE)
Aerospace industry
high-speed machining, 298 - 299
materials, 255 - 257
micro-machining, 401
multitasking machining, 373
virtual reality, 519
AFM. See Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
AI-based modelling, 276
Air cooling, 319 - 320
ALE formulation. See Arbitrary
Lagrangian - Eulerian (ALE) formulation
Alloyed steels, 38 - 39, 251 - 252. See also Steels
Alloys: machinability, 251 - 252, 255 - 263
Altered material zone (AMZ), 554 - 555
Aluminium and alloys, 260 - 261, 304, 304t, 307
Aluminium oxide (alumina) (ceramics), 44 - 45,
48t
Amplitude distribution function (ADF), 541
AMZ. See Altered material zone (AMZ)
Analysis
sensor signals, 474 - 475, 483
surface topography, 539 - 549
Analytical methods: modelling, 68 - 69
Angles
rake angle, 98 - 100, 104 - 105, 134, 325
tool geometries, 17 - 19
Anisotropic bars, 160
ANNs. See Artificial neural networks (ANNs)
Arbitrary Lagrangian - Eulerian (ALE)
formulation, 73 - 74, 75f
Architecture: virtual manufacturing systems,
510
Artificial intelligence, 276
Artificial neural networks (ANNs), 474 - 475
Atomic force microscopy (AFM), 451 - 452, 462f,
463, 552
Attritional wear, 221
Austempered ductile iron, 253 - 254
Austenite, 340 - 341
Automation. See Multitasking machining
machining processes, 517 - 518
manufacturing, 21 - 24
monitoring, 467
Automotive crankshaft, 366 - 367
Automotive industry
crankshaft manufacture, 365 - 366
indexable drills, 354 - 355
materials, 253 - 254, 254t
micro-machining, 401
multitasking machining, 373, 383 - 385
near-dry machining (NDM), 319
563B
BAC. See Bearing area curves (BAC)
Back engagement. See Depth of cut
Balance: high-speed machining, 294
Ball-and-vee-type kinematic mounting system,
412 - 413
Ball-end milling (cutters), 89f
Bearing area curves (BAC), 338, 338f, 541 - 542
Bearings: high-speed machining, 295
Beyond Blast, 190
Biocide, 193
Biomolecular motors, 458, 459f
Bolt-on flanges, 427 - 428
Boring
meaning, 12
micro-adjustable head, 501 - 502
multi-step tools, 379f
tools, 160, 160f, 355, 379f, 380f, 499 - 501
Boron nitride, 49 - 50
Boron oxide, 331
Breakage
chips, 138 - 145
tools, 478 - 481
Broaching, 13f, 334
BUE. See Built-up edge (BUE)
Built-up edge (BUE). See also Machinability
chip formation, 115, 117
cutting forces, 99 - 100
tool wear, 216f, 217
Bulk material zone, 533, 554
C
Calamaz et al. model, 82t
CAM. See Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
Carbides, 39 - 43, 227, 229, 309 - 310. See also
Materials
Carbon dioxide, 191
Carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRPs), 387 - 388
Carbon steels, 250 - 251. See also Materials; Steels
Cast irons, 246, 253 - 254, 304t, 305. See also
Materials
CAVE. See Computer Automated Visualization
Environment (CAVE)
Cavities, 382, 422
CBN tools. See Cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools
CCI. See Coherence correlation interferometry
(CCI)
CDMA (code division multiple access),
529
CE. See Concurrent engineering (CE)
Cemented carbides, 39 - 43. See also Carbides
Centre for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS),
524 - 525
Ceramics, 44 - 46, 48t, 391. See also Materials
Cermets, 43
microstructures and application range
of, 43f
CFRPs. See Carbon fibre-reinforced plastics
(CFRPs)
CFs. See Cooling fluids (CFs)Cutting
fluids (CFs)
Chamfering, 12
Chatter, 149, 151 - 152, 154 - 158
suppression, 158f, 159, 159f, 161f
Chemical reactions, 199, 223
Chemical techniques: overview, 7 - 8, 8t
Chemical vapour deposition (CVD), 49 - 50,
52 - 55
Chip compression ratio, 107, 129f, 130
Chips. See also Tool-chip interface
breaking, 138 - 145
classification, 113 - 117
cutting mechanics, 107, 111
disposal, 307
flow direction, 134 - 137
formation, 113
grooved chip breakers, 136 - 138, 136f
hard machining, 325 - 328, 327f
heat, 163 - 165, 164f
high-speed machining, 291 - 292
modelling, 126 - 134
removal temperature, 287 - 288
transport, 186
CIM. See Computer-integrated manufacturing
(CIM)
Circular interpolation milling, 357 - 359
Circular-turn broaching, 365 - 366
Clamping: tools, 294 - 295, 346
Classifications
chips, 113 - 117
cutting fluids, 183 - 185, 184f
machining process models, 68 - 72
mass-reducing processes, 7 - 8
materials, 35 - 39, 242 - 243
vibrations, 147 - 149
564 IndexCLSM. See Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy
(CLSM)
CMC system. See Coromant Material
Classification (CMC) system
CMMs. See Coordinate measuring machines
(CMMs)
CMS. See Collision monitoring system (CMS)
CNC Heidenhain controls, 447
CNC machine tool, 2
Coating deposition methods, 54f
comparison of, 55f
Coatings
cutting tools, 50 - 60
deposition processes, 52 - 55, 55f
heat distribution, 166 - 167, 170 - 172
performance alteration, 201, 201f
properties, 50 - 52
self-lubricating, 312 - 313
third generation, 56
tool wear, 236
Coefficient of friction, 207, 207f
Coherence correlation interferometry (CCI),
553 - 554, 553f
Cold model: residual stresses, 556
Collision detection, 482 - 483
Collision monitoring system (CMS), 482 - 483,
483f
Colwell’s method, 135
Compacted graphite iron, 253 - 254
Complete machining, 368. See also Multitasking
machining
Composite materials, 261 - 263
Computer aided modelling and database systems,
282f
Computer Automated Visualization Environment
(CAVE), 519 - 520
Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 509
Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM),
505 - 506, 510
Computerized optimization system (COS),
282 - 283
Concurrent engineering (CE), 505 - 506
Conduction techniques: temperature
measurement, 175, 177
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM),
236
Constitutive models, 82t, 85f
Contact length, 129 - 130, 205 - 206, 206t
Contact load, 198
Contact stresses, 202 - 203, 203t, 205, 210 - 213
Contact stylus profilometer, 550
Continuous chips, 114 - 117, 115f, 130, 131f
Control
chips, 144 - 145, 144f
machine tool chatter, 157
nanotechnology, 441
Cooling, 185, 185f, 303t, 304 - 305. See also
Cutting fluids (CFs)
air, 319 - 320
media, 188 - 192
multitasking machining, 376 - 377
Cooling fluids (CFs), 302
Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs), 490
Core drilling, 12
Coromant Material Classification (CMC) system,
243 - 244
Corrosion wear, 221, 223
COS. See Computerized optimization system
(COS)
Costs
cutting fluids, 24 - 25, 186, 302
machining, 265 - 269, 275f
multitasking machining benefit, 369
tooling, 353
Coulomb - Amonton law of dry sliding friction,
207
Counterboring, 12
Counterdrilling, 12
Countersinking, 12
Cracking, 215 - 217, 216f, 554 - 555
Crankshaft
HEM of, 366f
turn broaching of, 365f
Crater wear, 216f, 217
Critical machining operations, 299 - 300
Cryogenic machining, 191 - 192, 191f, 192f
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools, 329 - 331
Cutting fluids (CFs), 183. See also Cooling;
Lubrication; Minimal/minimum quantity
lubrication (MQL); Tribology
application, 188 - 192, 316f
benefits, 186 - 188
categories, 183 - 186
costs, 302
functions, 186 - 188, 313 - 314
maintenance and disposal, 193 - 194
Index 565Cutting fluids (CFs) (Continued)
near-dry machining, 313 - 314, 321
performance evaluation, 194
Cutting forces, 289 - 291, 290f
Cutting operations, 7. See also individual
operations
heat flow, 165 - 168
mechanics, 93
new technologies, 24 - 32
process substitution, 379
simplification and improvement, 353 - 367
structural model, 72f
theory and practice trends, 21
tribology, 197 - 201
Cutting parameters: optimization, 269 - 275
Cutting speed, 25 - 26, 28. See also High-speed
machining (HSM)
chip formation, 115 - 116, 116f, 121 - 122
cutting forces, 99 - 100, 99f
hardness (correction), 246 - 247
heat generation, 164 - 165, 164f, 167f
influence, 259f
interface temperature, 170
micro-machining, 426 - 427
tool life influence, 224 - 225, 225f
CVD. See Chemical vapour deposition (CVD)
CyberCut project, 521, 522f
Cycle time, 344 - 345, 369 - 370
D
Damage: tools, 215
Damping: machine tool stability, 158 - 161, 160f
Dark layers, 338 - 340
Data
machinability, 248 - 250
material properties, 81 - 90
modelling, 81 - 90
Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE), 423, 423f
Deep ultraviolet (DUV) lithography,
420 - 422
DEFORM. See Design Environment for Forming
(DEFORM)
Deformation. See also Elastic deformation; Plastic
deformation
energy, 287
zones, 106 - 111
DELMIA V5-6 Automation Platform, 518f
Deltaturn Super Precision Lathe, 449
Deposition processes, 52 - 55, 55f
Depth of cut, 15
cutting forces, 99f
hardness correction, 246 - 247
tool life influence, 224 - 225
Design Environment for Forming (DEFORM),
75 - 77
Destructive Solid Geometry (DSG),
521
Deterministic approaches, 275 - 276
Diagnostics, 523 - 524
Diamond, 49 - 50. See also Coatings; Materials
micro-machining, 418 - 419
nanotechnology, 443
ultra-precision engineering, 460
Diamond fly cutting, 413
Diffusion wear, 221
Digital manufacturing, 506 - 507
Digitizing, 492
types of, 492f
DIN classification: cutting fluids, 184f
Direct approach: FEM analysis, 77
Discontinuous chips, 114 - 120, 115f, 119f, 130
Disposal: cutting fluids, 193 - 194
Dissolution, 405 - 406
DN number, 288
DNA tweezers, 458, 459f
DRIE. See Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE)
Drilling operations, 11 - 14, 11f, 89f
circular milling comparison, 357f
cooling systems, 319 - 320
dry machining, 308 - 309
high-speed machining, 297
indexable drills, 353 - 355, 354f
micro-machining, 414 - 416
thriller tool, 309, 362 - 363
titanium and alloys, 256
ultrasonically assisted machining, 387 - 388
DriveDiag software, 523 - 524
Dry machining, 24 - 25, 302 - 305, 305f
equipment, 305 - 309
evaluation, 304
operations, 309 - 313
DSG. See Destructive Solid Geometry (DSG)
Ductile machining, 443
DUV lithography. See Deep ultraviolet (DUV)
lithography
DVA. See Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVA)
566 IndexDynamic thermocouple, 175 - 177
Dynamic vibration absorbers (DVA), 160
Dynamometers, 100 - 102, 101f
E
EBM. See Electron-beam machining (EBM)
Economics, 265 - 269
EDG. See Electro-discharge grinding (EDG)
EDM. See Electrical discharge machining (EDM)
Elastic deformation, 385 - 386
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), 298, 405,
408 - 409, 414 - 416
Electro-discharge grinding (EDG), 408 - 409
Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID), 456
Electron beam, 414
Electron-beam machining (EBM), 405
Electronics industry, 399 - 401, 461t
Electronic-work (e-work), 521
Elemental chips, 114 - 118, 115f, 119f
ELID. See Electrolytic in-process dressing (ELID)
Elliptical vibration cutting, 386, 386f
E-manufacturing, 521
Emissivity, 178 - 180
Emulsions, 183 - 184
Energy, 7 - 8, 8t, 102 - 103, 405
FEM analysis, 77
heat conversion, 163
nano-scale cutting, 124 - 125
orthogonal and oblique cutting, 102 - 103
plasma-assisted machining, 393
and resource efficient manufacturing,
272
Energy balance approach, 77
Energy efficiency, 272 - 275
Energy footprint, 273 - 274
Engraving, 416 - 417
Environment
control, 448 - 449
issues, 193 - 194, 194f, 510
EP additives. See Extreme-pressure (EP) additives
Equipment. See Tools
Errors
compensation, 483 - 484
measurement, 430 - 431
sources, 88 - 90, 89t, 150 - 151, 151f, 341f
Eulerian techniques, 73 - 74, 77
Exemplary nanomanufacturing products, 442f
Exhaust systems, 307, 309
Expert systems, 276, 279 - 281, 280f
Extreme-pressure (EP) additives, 183, 185f
F
Factories
micro-machining, 418
virtual, 519 - 520
Failure: tools, 215 - 217, 217f
Fast Fourier transform (FFT), 474 - 475
Fast tool servo (FTS) turning, 413
Fatty alcohols, 315 - 316
FDA/FDM. See Finite difference approach/
method (FDA/FDM)
Feed
marks, 545f
motion, 14
optimization, 269 - 272
rate, 99f, 346, 546, 547f
tool life influence, 224 - 225, 225f
Feedback control, 159 - 160
FEM. See Finite element method (FEM)
FFT. See Fast Fourier transform (FFT)
Finite difference approach/method (FDA/FDM),
73, 77 - 79, 80f, 89t, 174f
Finite element method (FEM), 73 - 77, 76f, 89f,
168, 231 - 233
chip formation, 130 - 133, 131f, 143f
cutting temperature, 171 - 175
high-speed machining, 285 - 288
stresses, 213, 556 - 557
tool wear, 232f
tool-chip friction, 86
Five-axis machines, 347, 349f, 373, 375 - 376,
377f
Fixturing: micro-machining, 429
Flank face, 93 - 94, 94f
Flank wear, 217
Flaws: surface integrity, 536 - 537
Flexible manufacturing, 21 - 24
Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS),
505 - 506
Flooding: cutting fluid, 188, 303t
Flow
chips, 134 - 137
heat, 163 - 168
stress data, 81
Index 567FMS. See Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS)
Forced vibrations, 148 - 151
Forces
chip-breakage, 142 - 145
hard machining, 325
high-speed machining, 289 - 291, 291f
orthogonal and oblique cutting, 95 - 102
plasma-assisted machining, 395 - 396
sensors, 472f
tool condition monitoring, 479 - 481
ultrasonically assisted machining, 385 - 386
Form: surface topography, 537
Form Talysurf PGI 1240, 551f, 552
Fractures
chips, 118 - 120, 119f, 141 - 142, 141f
tools, 215 - 217
Free vibrations, 147
FRF. See Frequency response function (FRF)
Frequency response function (FRF), 157 - 158
Freshly generated sliding surfaces, 198
Friction. See also Lubrication; Tribology
coefficient of, 207, 207f
cutting speed limitation, 286 - 287
heat generation, 163
plasma-assisted machining, 393 - 395
tool/chip, 86, 97, 206 - 209
tribology, 197, 199
Friction stress, 208
FTS turning. See Fast tool servo (FTS) turning
Fuzzy logic, 276, 279 - 280
G
GAC. See Geometric adaptive control (GAC)
Gao - Zhang (GZ) model, 82t
Gear wheel, hard broaching of, 334f
Gears, 334, 375, 441, 441f
Geometric adaptive control (GAC), 488
Geometry
chip breakers, 138 - 140
hard machining, 325
orthogonal and oblique cutting mechanics,
93 - 95
tools, 17 - 19, 99 - 100
Glues, 429
Grain size, 41 - 42, 45
Grinding, 324 - 325, 376 - 377, 559
Groove cutting, 418 - 419
Grooved tools, 136 - 138, 136f, 219
Grooving, 217 - 218
GSM (global system for mobile communication),
529
GZ model. See Gao - Zhang (GZ) model
H
Hard broaching (HB) machine, 334
Hard coatings
characteristics of, 58t, 59t
concepts for, 57f
Hard machining (HM), 323 - 342
applications, 331 - 335
features, 323 - 325
physical aspects, 325 - 331
surface finish, 335 - 341
Hard turning (HT). See also Turning
grinding comparison, 323 - 325
monitoring systems, 483 - 484
near-dry machining, 321
plastic deformation, 329
Hardness
coatings, 50 - 52, 51f
contact length, 205 - 206
cutting speed/depth, 246 - 247
material membership, 280 - 281
materials, 36 - 38, 382
workpiece, 62f
Harmonic response locus, 149
HB machine. See Hard broaching (HB) machine
Heat. See also Temperature; Thermal processes
coatings, 166 - 167, 170 - 172
distribution, 77 - 78, 163 - 168, 288 - 289
dry machining, 311 - 312
generation, 352, 385 - 386
localized, 388
micro-machining, 405
sources, 163 - 165
structural changes, 38
transmission ratios, 166
Heat partition coefficient, 165 - 168, 167f
Heat partition model, 168
Heat-resistant superalloys (HRSAs), 243,
257 - 260, 258f, 259f
Helical interpolation milling, 359
HEM. See High-efficiency machining (HEM)
Hexapod machine, 351 - 352, 351f
568 IndexHigh-efficiency machining (HEM), 24 - 25,
345 - 346. See also High-performance
machining (HPM)
potential and demands of, 345f
High-feed hole-making tools, 356f
High-performance cutting (HPC), 343Highperformance machining (HPM)
High-performance machining (HPM), 343 - 367
features, 343 - 344
operational simplification and improvement,
353 - 367
tools, 346 - 353
High-precision pull-down arms (HPPA), 493 - 494
High-precision removable arms (HPRA),
493 - 494, 495f
High-pressure coolant (HPC) supply systems,
189f, 190f
High-speed cutting (HSC). See also High-speed
machining (HSM)
applications, 297 - 298
technology, 293 - 296
High-speed machining (HSM), 24 - 25, 28f,
285 - 301
application fields of, 297t
cutting fluid application, 316f
features, 285 - 288
optimum speed, 298f
physical aspects, 288 - 292
practical criteria, 293
High-speed scanning probe, 497f
High-speed steels (HSSs), 38 - 39. See also
Materials; Steels
HM. See Hard machining (HM)
HMC. See Horizontal machining centres (HMC)
HMPs. See Hybrid machining processes (HMPs)
Hole-making operations, 11 - 12. See also Drilling
high performance machining, 355, 356f,
357 - 360
multitasking machining, 377 - 378, 380
nanomachining, 452 - 453
Hommel-Etamic T8000, 551f
Horizontal machining centres (HMC), 347 - 348
Hot machining, 388, 393, 394f
Hot model: residual stresses, 555
HPC supply systems. See High-pressure coolant
(HPC) supply systems
HPC. See High-performance cutting (HPC)
HPM. See High performance machining (HPM)
HPPA. See High-precision pull-down arms
(HPPA)
HPRA. See High-precision removable arms
(HPRA)
HRSAs. See Heat-resistant superalloys (HRSAs)
HSC. See High-speed cutting (HSC)
HSM. See High-speed machining (HSM)
HSSs. See High-speed steels (HSSs)
HT. See Hard turning (HT)
HV. See Vickers hardness (HV)
Hybrid assisted processes, 382
Hybrid machining processes (HMPs), 9, 29 - 30
classification, 9t
Hybrid processes, 9, 28 - 30, 29t, 344, 368, 392
I
ICM. See Iterative convergence method (ICM)
Image analysis, 497 - 498
IMM. See Intelligent machining module (IMM)
IMS. See Intelligent manufacturing system (IMS)
Intelligent monitoring system (IMS)
Indexable drilling/boring, 89f, 353 - 355, 354f
Inductive transmission, 492 - 493
Inductor-resistant (LR) circuit, 161
Infrared, 175 - 180, 493
Instrumentation manufacture, 461t
Integrated processes, 344 - 345, 508
Intelligent machining, 475 - 476
Intelligent machining module (IMM), 486
Intelligent manufacturing, 21, 484 - 486, 529 - 530
Intelligent manufacturing system (IMS), 1 - 2,
529 - 530
Intelligent monitoring system (IMS), 475 - 477,
477f
Intelligent Tool Measurement system, 409 - 411
Intelligent tools, 477, 499 - 502
Interferometry
coherence correlation, 553 - 554, 553f
laser, 463
white light, 233 - 236, 553, 553f
Internet, 506, 521 - 530
Ion beams, 424
Irons, 246, 248f, 253 - 254, 304t, 305. See also
Materials
ISO classification
chip forms, 114f
materials, 37f, 245f
Index 569ISO classification (Continued)
surface texture lays, 536 - 537
tool geometries, 17
Iterative convergence method (ICM), 74 - 75
J
Johnson - Cook (JC) model, 82t, 85
K
KERN Pyramid Nano five-axis machining centre,
447
Kinematics, 13 - 17, 93 - 95
KM Micro Quick-Change Tooling, 428f
KomTronic-Electronic Compensating System, 501
Kurtosis, 541 - 542, 546 - 548. See also Surface
roughness
L
Lagrangian techniques, 73 - 75
LAM. See Laser-aided machining (LAM)
Lamination, 406
Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine
(LODTM), 448
Laser flash method (LFM), 86
Laser technology, 33
Laser triangulation, 553
Laser-aided machining (LAM), 388 - 389, 389f,
390f, 391
Lasers
ablation, 422 - 423
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, 236
interferometry, 463
machining, 375 - 376, 388 - 392, 405, 413 - 414
measuring systems, 86 - 87, 87f, 236, 494 - 496,
495f, 553
Lathes: ultra-precision, 443 - 444, 444f, 448
Lay, 536 - 537
Lead time, 267 - 268
Lean manufacturing, 31
LFM. See Laser flash method (LFM)
Life, 223 - 229. See also Wear, tools
Life cycle concept, 510
LIGA technique, 423f
Lightweight materials, 260 - 261
Linear drives, 293 - 294, 296f
Linear programming, 275 - 277
Linear-turn broaching, 365
Liquid nitrogen, 191
Load amperage, 469
LODTM. See Large Optics Diamond Turning
Machine (LODTM)
LR circuit. See Inductor-resistant (LR) circuit
Lubrication, 183 - 184, 188 - 192. See also Cutting
fluids (CFs); Tribology
costs, 24 - 25
cutting force, 99 - 100
minimum quantity lubrication, 302 - 304,
313 - 322
self-lubricating coatings, 312 - 313
M
Machinability, 241
Machine tool chatter, 149
Machine vision, 497 - 498
Machining
scope of term, 7
strategies, 27t
structural block scheme, 71f
Maekawa et al. model, 82t, 85f
Magnesium alloys, 261
Makino iQ300 precision micromilling machine,
446
Manufacturing: evolution, 21 - 24, 32 - 33,
505 - 510
Martensite, 339 - 341, 392
Marusich model, 82t
Mass-removal processes. See Material removal
Material Database for Machining Simulation, 81
Material removal, 3f
micro-machining, 404 - 405
process classification, 7 - 8
ultrasonically assisted machining, 382
Material removal rate (MRR), 28, 29f, 154, 156,
160f, 270 - 271, 280 - 281, 286 - 287, 393
Material side flow, 329
Materials. See also Chips; Coatings: cutting tools;
Machinability
alloys, 251 - 263, 299 - 300
aluminium and alloys, 260 - 261, 304, 304t, 307
carbides, 39 - 43
cast irons, 246, 253 - 254, 304t, 305
ceramics, 44 - 46, 48t
classifications, 35 - 38, 245f
570 Indexcoatings, 50 - 60, 235f, 236
composites, 261 - 263
cutting speed, 286f
diamond, 49 - 50, 418 - 419, 443, 460
hardness membership, 280 - 281
hard/superhard, 36 - 38, 46 - 50, 382 - 383
high-speed machining, 285 - 289
interface temperature, 170
lightweight, 260 - 261
machinability, 241
magnesium alloys, 261
nanomaterials, 460
nickel-based alloys, 257 - 260
oxidation, 36 - 38, 223, 535
polycrystalline, 49 - 50
poly-crystalline, 331 - 332, 331f
properties, 36 - 38, 81, 106t
refractory metals, 263
steels, 38 - 39, 250 - 251, 304t, 305, 393, 555
stress values, 203t
thermal stability, 36 - 38, 49 - 50
titanium and alloys, 255 - 257, 291 - 292
tools, 35, 418 - 419
MAZ. See Mechanically affected zone (MAZ)
Measurement
contact stresses, 210 - 213
laser-based systems, 494 - 496
micro-machining, 430 - 435
probing systems, 489 - 490
surface roughness, 550 - 554
tool wear, 233 - 239
Mechanical force-based process: micro-machining,
404 - 405
Mechanical force-based processes, 404 - 405
Mechanical model: residual stresses, 556
Mechanical properties: materials, 36 - 38, 41f,
106t
Mechanically affected zone (MAZ), 554 - 555
Mechanics: nano-scale cutting, 124f
Mechanisms: chip formation, 117 - 125
Mechanistic modelling methods, 68 - 69
Medical industry, 401, 424, 461t
Membership functions, 279 - 281, 279f, 281f
MEMS. See Micro-electromechanical systems
(MEMS)
Merchant’s theory, 207 - 208
Meso-scale machining, 402
Metal matrix composites (MMCs), 262 - 263
Metal-machining machine tools, investments in,
2 - 3
Metalworking fluids (MWFs), 183, 194
on-line closed-loop control of, 195f
Metrology, 430 - 435, 463, 490
Micro-adjustable boring systems, 501 - 502
Microcrack theory, 120 - 121
Micro-diamond machining, 418 - 419
Micro-EDM lathe, 408f
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS),
399 - 401, 458 - 460
Micro-emulsions, 184 - 185
Microhardness distribution in hard-turned surface,
339f
Micro-machining, 399
definition, 399 - 403
equipment, 407 - 418
fixturing, 429
metrology, 430 - 435
micro-factories, 418
processes, 403 - 407
product examples, 418 - 424
tooling, 424 - 430
Micro-machining products, 421f
Micro-manufacturing, 399 - 401
Micro-/meso-scale machine tools (mMT),
412 - 413
typical applications of, 413t
Micro-milling, 409
Microscopy
atomic force microscopy, 451 - 452, 462f, 463
Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, 236
scanning electron microscopy, 233 - 234, 552
scanning probe microscopy, 451
surface roughness measurement, 552
Microstructure, 338 - 339, 339f, 392f, 536 - 537
Micro-tools for HSM, 427f
Micro-turning, 413
Milling operations, 11 - 15, 12f
coolants, 187f, 188 - 190
forced vibrations, 149 - 151
hard machining, 333
high-speed, 297
hole-making operations, 355, 356f, 357 - 360
micro-machining, 409
nanotechnology, 443, 445 - 446
thread milling, 361 - 364, 362f, 363f
titanium and alloys, 255 - 256
Index 571Milling operations (Continued)
turn milling, 360, 361f
vibration reduction, 159
Mineral-soluble oils, 183 - 184
Miniaturization, 399 - 403
Minimal quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL),
313 - 314
Minimal/minimum quantity lubrication (MQL),
24 - 25, 303t, 304, 304t, 306f, 313 - 322,
469 - 470
Mist, 188, 189f. See also Cooling
MMCs. See Metal matrix composites (MMCs)
mMT. See Micro-/meso-scale machine tools
(mMT)
Mode coupling, 152 - 153, 152f
Modelling, 68 - 72
chip formation, 126 - 134, 142 - 144
digital manufacturing, 48t
empirical, 67, 67f, 69, 71 - 72
machinability, 248 - 250, 249f
machining processes, 65
nano-scale cutting, 124 - 125, 126f
optimization, 275 - 283
performance, 32
purposes, 66
residual stresses, 555 - 559, 556f, 557f, 558f,
559f
shear zone, 108 - 111, 108f, 110f
stress distribution, 201 - 202, 213
superficial layer, 534 - 535
surface roughness, 544 - 546
techniques, 72 - 81
temperatures, 169 - 175
tool wear, 229 - 233
virtual machine tools, 510
Monitoring methods in manufacturing,
470f
Monitoring systems, 467 - 470, 473 - 489, 476f
Monolithic parts, 298 - 301
MQCL. See Minimal quantity cooling lubrication
(MQCL)
MQL. See Minimal/minimum quantity lubrication
(MQL)
MRR. See Material removal rate (MRR)
Multi-axis machines, 347, 349f, 351 - 352,
514 - 515
Multi-stage operations, 282 - 283
Multi-step boring tools, 380f
Multitasking machining, 368 - 381
background of, 368 - 370
communications, 525
exemplary applications of, 373f
high performance, 347
simulation, 514
tools and tooling, 371 - 377
MVL (minimum volume lubrication).
See Minimal/minimum quantity lubrication
(MQL)
MWFs. See Metalworking fluids (MWFs)
N
Nanometrology, 463 - 464
Nanomilling, 452, 452f
Nanoproducts, 459f
Nanotechnology, 402, 437
definitions, 437 - 442
future development, 460
metrology, 463
nanometre interpolation, 443
processes, 453 - 454
product examples, 457f, 459f
simulation, 124 - 125, 126f
Natural thermocouple, 175 - 177
Natural vibrations, 147
NbC (niobium carbide), 39 - 40
NDM. See Near-dry machining (NDM)
Near-dry machining (NDM), 302 - 305, 319, 322f
machine tools for performing, 318 - 322
Near-dry processes, 314f
Near-shape technology, 25 - 26
NEMS (Nano-Electro-Mechanical-Systems),
458
Neural networks, 474 - 475
Next-generation manufacturing, 21, 527
Nickel-based alloys, 257 - 260
Niobium carbide (NbC), 39 - 40
Nitrogen: liquid, 191
Noncontact measurement systems, 552 - 553, 552f
Nonlinear programming methods, 275 - 276,
280 - 281
Non-productive time (NPT), 343
Non-viscoelastic materials, 197
Non-water-miscible CFs, 183
Nose radius tools, 135
Nose wear, 218
572 IndexNotch wear, 217 - 218
NPT. See Non-productive time (NPT)
Numerical methods, 73 - 74
O
OACS. See Open-architecture control systems
(OACS)
Oblique cutting
grooved chip breakers, 136f
mechanics, 93
modelling, 127f, 128, 133f
OD (outside diameter) reaming, 379
Oil-based cutting fluids, 183, 185
Olympus LEXT OLS4000, 236
OMM. See Optical machine module (OMM)
One-pass machining, 377 - 381
Open-architecture control systems (OACS),
506 - 507
Open-architecture manufacturing, 505 - 506
Optical components, 448 - 451
sensors, 433 - 434
signal transmission, 493
Optical machine module (OMM), 493
Optical microscopy, 233 - 234
Optical quality surfaces, 454 - 455
Optimization
cycle time, 344 - 345
machining, 269 - 275
multitasking machining, 368
procedure based on energy efficiency criterion,
272 - 275
Orthogonal cutting, 93, 127f, 128 - 129
Outside diameter reaming, 379
Oxidation, 36 - 38, 223, 535
Oxley model, 82t, 85 - 86
P
PAM. See Plasma-assisted machining (PAM)
Parallel kinematic machines (PKM), 347,
351 - 353, 351f, 352f
Parameters
surface roughness, 539 - 540
vibration reduction, 159
PCBN. See Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride
(PCBN)
PCBs. See Printed circuit boards (PCBs)
PCD. See Polycrystalline diamond (PCD)
PDZ. See Primary deformation zone (PDZ)
Performance
coatings, 50 - 52, 51f
cutting speed, 288 - 289
cutting technologies, 32
engineered surfaces, 559 - 560
near-dry machining, 321
remote assessment, 526
sensors, 467 - 469
Physical vapour deposition (PVD), 52 - 55
Piezo drive system, 553
Piezoelectric actuators, 161
Piezoelectric devices, 100 - 102, 101f, 470 - 471,
480 - 481
Pin-on-disc tribometer, 211 - 213
PKM. See Parallel kinematic machines (PKM)
Planetary milling, 366 - 367
Planning, 13f, 14
Plasma-assisted machining (PAM), 393, 395 - 396,
395f
Plastic deformation, 197 - 198
cutting zone, 106 - 111
hard turning, 329
heat generation, 163, 169 - 170
micro-machining, 406
superficial layer, 554 - 556
tribology, 197 - 201
Plastic flow, 73f, 74 - 75, 120 - 121, 120f
PLM environment. See Product lifecycle
management (PLM) environment
Ploughing action, 197
Plunge milling, 360
Polishing, 382, 383f
Pollutants, 193
Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN),
46 - 50, 331 - 332, 331f
Polycrystalline diamond (PCD),
49 - 50
Polynomial model, 275 - 276
Precision, 10f. See also Accuracy; Ultra-precision
hard machining, 341
hexapods, 352
high-speed machining, 285
micro-machining, 402
sensor types, 471f
Predictive models, 69, 70f
contact stresses, 210 - 213
temperatures, 169 - 175
Index 573Pre-tuned bars, 160
Primary deformation zone (PDZ), 106, 109 - 110,
163, 169 - 170
Primary motion, 14
Printed circuit boards (PCBs), 416 - 417, 425
Probabilistic approaches, 275 - 276
Probes
micro-machining, 430 - 431, 433 - 434
nanometrology, 463 - 464
sensor-assisted machining, 489 - 498
Product lifecycle management (PLM)
environment, 508 - 509
Production
costs, 265 - 269
development trends, 66f, 344 - 345
time, 266 - 267, 266f, 269 - 271, 298
Productivity
machining methods, 24
near-dry machining, 321
optimization, 269 - 272, 270f, 271f
ultrasonically assisted machining, 383 - 385
Profilometers, 450 - 451, 550 - 551
Profit rate, 268 - 269
Protective coatings, possible concepts for, 57f
Prototyping, 406, 409, 411 - 412, 416 - 417, 429,
519
PVD. See Physical vapour deposition (PVD)
Pyrometry, 178 - 180
Q
Quasi-dry machining: equipment, 305 - 309
R
Radiation techniques, 178 - 181
Radio machine interface (RMI), 492 - 493
Radio transmission, 492 - 493
Rake angle
chip flow, 134
cutting force influence, 99 - 100
hard machining, 325
stress influence, 104 - 105
Rake face, 93 - 94, 94f, 204f
Rapid prototyping (RP), 422, 422f
RCF. See Resultant cutting force (RCF)
RCT. See Restricted-contact tools (RCT)
Real and informational system (RIS), 510
Real and physical system (RPS), 510
Reaming, 12, 310 - 311, 334 - 335, 379
Recomposition, 406
Reference materials, 245 - 246
Reference planes, 17, 18f
Refractory metals, 263
Regenerative effect, 152 - 153, 159 - 160
Remote Notification System, 409 - 411
Repair services, 523 - 524
Residual stresses, 555 - 559, 556f, 557f, 558f, 559f
Resonance, 148 - 151
Restricted-contact tools (RCT), 205
Resultant cutting force (RCF), 95 - 102, 99f, 100f
RIS. See Real and informational system (RIS)
RMI. See Radio machine interface (RMI)
Robotized processes, 517 - 518
RP. See Rapid prototyping (RP)
RPS. See Real and physical system (RPS)
S
Sandwiching, 430
Sawing, 13f, 89f
Saw-tooth chips, 113 - 117, 121 - 122, 326 - 328
Scanning electron microscope (SEM), 233 - 234,
550, 552
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM), 451, 463
Scanning probes, 492, 496 - 497
Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), 451
SCE. See Specific cutting energy (SCE)
SCL. See Spiral cutting length (SCL)
Sculptured surfaces, 445 - 446
SDZ. See Secondary deformation zone (SDZ)
Secondary deformation zone (SDZ), 106,
109 - 110, 163, 170, 199 - 200, 200f
Segmented chips, 113 - 117, 121 - 122, 133 - 134,
325
Self-excited vibrations, 147, 149, 151 - 154
Self-lubricating coatings, 312 - 313
SEM. See Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
Semi-dry machining, 302 - 305
Semi-synthetic cutting fluids, 184
Sensor-assisted machining, 467
adaptive control systems, 488 - 489
intelligent manufacturing, 484 - 486
laser measuring systems, 494 - 496
sensor-guided tools, 499 - 502
system architecture, 473 - 476
tool condition monitoring, 478 - 479, 486
touch-trigger probing, 489 - 498
574 IndexSensor-based intelligent manufacturing, 484 - 485
Sensors
micro-machining, 432
nanoproducts, 459f
thin film thermocouple, 177 - 178
types, 469 - 471
vibrations, 161
Setting: tools, 493 - 494
Shape
chips, 113
heat distribution factor, 165 - 166
Shear. See also Stresses
adiabatic, 121 - 122
angle, 126 - 130, 127f, 129f
chip formation, 117 - 125
forces, 97
friction factor, 208
modelling, 108 - 111, 108f, 110f
strains, 121f, 122
SHPB. See Split-Hopkinson’s Pressure Bar (SHPB)
Side-curling, 113, 114f, 133, 138
Signals, 474 - 475, 481 - 482, 493
Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer, 458
Simplification and improvement: machining
operations, 353 - 367
Simulation. See also Modelling
contact stresses, 210 - 213
definition, 68
Single-point diamond turning (SPDT),
454
Sintered high-speed steels, 393 - 395
Skew, 541 - 542, 546 - 548. See also Surface
roughness
SL. See Stereolithography (SL)
SLD. See Stability lobe diagram (SLD)
Sliding region
sticking region distinction, 234 - 235, 235f
tribology, 197, 198f, 202, 207
Slip-line modelling, 127 - 129, 127f
SMART. See Smart Assistant to Machinists
(SMART)
Smart Assistant to Machinists (SMART),
280 - 281
‘Smart machine’ modules, 409 - 411
Smart manufacturing systems, 1 - 2
Smart tools, 499 - 502
Smart Watchdog Agent, 525, 525f
Soft coatings, characteristics of, 58t
SOI wafer. See Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer
Solidification, 406
Solution wear, 221
SPDT. See Single-point diamond turning (SPDT)
Specific cutting energy (SCE), 102 - 103
Speed. See Cutting speedHigh-speed machining
(HSM)Spindles: speed
Spindles
bearings, 295
configurations, 347 - 348, 350 - 351
micro-tools, 426 - 427
power, 346
speed, 154 - 158, 156f, 158f, 288, 293, 443
Spiral cutting length (SCL), 243
Spiral-turn broaching, 365
Split tool, 203 - 205, 211f, 213
Split-Hopkinson’s Pressure Bar (SHPB), 81 - 84
SPM. See Scanning probe microscopy (SPM)
Springback effect, 122
Stability
high-speed machining, 285 - 288, 294
machine tools, 154 - 161
thermal, 36 - 38, 45, 49 - 50
Stability lobe diagram (SLD), 154, 155f, 287f,
288
Stabler’s chip flow rule, 134
State-of-the-art machining theory and practice, 1
Steels, 38 - 39, 250 - 251, 304t, 393 - 395, 555.
See also Materials
Step drilling, 12
Stereolithography (SL), 399 - 401
Sticking region
sliding region distinction, 234 - 235, 235f
tribology, 199 - 201, 207
Stiffness, 158, 160 - 161, 351 - 352, 450
STM. See Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM)
Straight oils, 183, 193 - 194
Strain hardening, 555
Strain - gauge dynamometers, 100 - 102
Stresses
chip formation, 117 - 120, 119f, 120f
distribution, 104 - 105, 105f, 201 - 206, 213,
328f
measurement and predictions, 210 - 213
models, 81, 82t, 201 - 202, 213
residual, 555 - 559, 556f, 557f, 558f, 559f
shear plane, 104 - 106
surface layer, hard machining, 340
Index 575Stuart platform, 351 - 352
Subsurface layer, 10 - 11, 10t, 534 - 535, 554 - 560
hard machining, 324 - 325, 335
laser assisted machining, 391
stress distributions, 105f
Subtractive operations, 8
Superalloys, 257 - 260
Superficial layers, 534 - 535. See also Subsurface layer
Superhard materials, 46 - 50
Super-processes, 29 - 30
Supply systems: MQL media, 287f, 315, 315t,
318 - 319
Surface engineering, 533
Surface finish, 536 - 537. See also Topography
dry machining, 310 - 311, 312f
hard machining, 323 - 324, 335 - 341
high-speed cutting, 298
nanotechnology, 444, 446 - 447
process substitution, 379
vibration effect, 150 - 151
Surface form, 537
Surface integrity, 533
concept, 533 - 538
defined, 535
definition, 535
evaluation, 539 - 549
form, 537
hard machining, 335
roughness, 335, 455f, 539 - 554
subsurface layer, 554 - 560
waviness, 153, 153f, 537, 537f
Surface roughness, 537
Surface texture, 536 - 537
analysis, 526
chips, 118f
digitizing, 492
measurement, 463, 550 - 554
Surface waviness, 537
Sustainable industrial production, 509 - 510
Swarf. See Chips
Swiss-type machining centres, 407 - 408, 418,
419f, 431 - 432
Synthetic cutting fluids


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