كتاب Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
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وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
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 كتاب Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Practical Machinery Management for Process Plants
Volume 3, Second Edition
Heinz P. Bloch and Fred K. Geitner

كتاب Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair  M_c_m_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword . viii
Acknowledgments ix
Part I: Background to Process Machinery Maintenance
Programming 1
1 Machinery Maintenance: An Ovaview .3
2 Maintenance Organization and Control for Multi-Plant
Corporations 12
Type of Operation. Manager’s Role. Central Control System. Planning Turbomachinery Overhauls. Assignment of Qualified Personnel. Specific Preparation and Planning. Inspection. Cleaning. Reassembly. Documenting What
You’ve Done.
3 Machinery Foundations and Grouting .65
What’s An Epoxy? Epoxy Grouts. Proper Grout Mixing is Important. Job Planning. Conventional Grouting. Methods of Installing Machinery. Pressure-Injection Regrouting. Foundation Repairs. Pump Baseplate Installation and Epoxy Grouting. Baseplate Leveling Procedures. Baseplate Preparation. New
Concrete Preparation. Old Concrete Preparation. Anchor Bolts. Grout Forms.
Epoxy Grout Placement. Appendix 3-A-Detailed Checklist for Rotating
Equipment: Horizontal Pump Baseplate Checklist. Appendix 3-B-Specification for Portland Cement Grouting of Rotating Equipment. Appendix 3-C-Detailed Checklist for Rotating Equipment: Baseplate Grouting. Appendix 3-DSpecifications for Epoxy Grouting of Rotating Equipment.
4 Process Machinery Piming . 142
Fundamentals of Piping Design Criteria. Piping Design Procedure. Flange
Jointing Practices. Primary Causes of Flange Leakage. Proper Gasket SelecVtion. Controlled Torque Bolt-Up of Flanged Connections. Recommendations
for the Installation, Fabrication, Testing, and Cleaning of Air, Gas, or Steam
Piping. Appendix 4-A-Checklist for Rotating Equipment: Machinery Piping.
Appendix 4-B-Specifications for Cleaning Mechanical Seal Pots and Piping
for Centrifugal Pumps. Appendix 4-C-Detailed Checklist for Rotating Equipment: Pump Piping.
Part II: Aliflnment and Balancing . 16s
5 Machinery Alignment . 171
Prealignment Requirements. Choosing an Alignment Measurement Setup.
Checking for Bracket Sag. Face Sag Effect-Examples. Interpretation and Data
Recording. Graphical Techniques. Reverse Indicator Method Using Crossover
Brackets. Horizontal Movement by Vertical Adjustment. Thermal GrowthEleven Ways to Correct for it. Thermal Growth Estimation by Rules of Thumb.
6 Balancing of Machinery Components .238
Definition of Terms. Purpose of Balancing. Units of Unbalance. Types of Unbalance. Motions of Unbalanced Rotors. Balancing Machines. Centrifugal Balancing Machines. Measurement of Amount and Angle of Unbalance. Classification of Centrifugal Balancing Machines. Maintenance and Production
Balancing Machines. Supporting the Rotor. Balancing Keyed End-Drive
Adapters. Balancing Arbors. Testing Balancing Machines. Test Procedures.
Balance Tolerances. Balance Errors Due to Rotor Support Elements. Computer-Aided Balancing. Field Balancing Overview. The Vector Diagram. Appendix 6-A-Balancing Terminology. Appendix 6-B-Balancing Machine Nomenclature. Appendix 6-C-Balancing and Vibration Standards. Appendix
6-D-Critical Speeds of Solid and Hollow Shafts.
Part 111: Maintenance and Repair of Machinery Components 349
7 Ball Bearing Maintenance and Replacement .351
Engineering and Interchangeability Data. Cleanliness and Working Conditions
in Assembly Area. Removal of Shaft and Bearings from Housing. Cleaning the
Bearing. Shaft and Housing Preparation. Checking Shaft and Housing Measurements. Basic Mounting Methods. Hints on Mounting Duplex Bearings.
Preloading of Duplex Bearings. Importance of the Correct Amount of Preload.
Assembly of Bearings on Shaft. Cautions to Observe During Assembly of Bearings into Units. Mounting with Heat. Checking Bearings and Shaft After Installation. Testing of Finished Spindle. Maintain Service Records on All Spindles.
vi8 Repair and Maintenance of Mechanical Seals and Rotating
Equipment Components .430
Mechanical Seal Installation, Repair, and Maintenance. Lapping and Seal Face
Flatness. Installation of Stuffing Box Packing. Welded Repairs to Pump Shafts
and Other Rotating Equipment Components. How to Decide if Welded Repairs
are Feasible. Case Histories. High Speed Shaft Repair. Shaft Straightening.
Straightening Carbon Steel Shafts. Casting Salvaging Methods.
9 Centrifugal Compressor Rotor Repair 487
Compressor Rotor Repairs. Impeller Manufacture. Compressor Impeller Design Problems. Impeller Balancing Procedure. Rotor Bows in Compressor and
Steam Turbines. Clean Up and Inspection of Rotor. Disassembly of Rotor for
Shaft Repair. Shaft Design. Rotor Assembly. Shaft Balancing. Rotor Thrust in
Centrifugal Compressors. Managing Rotor Repairs at Outside Shops. Mounting of Hydraulically Fitted Hubs. Dismounting of Hydraulically Fitted Hubs.
10 Protecting Machinery Parts Against loss of Surface 518
Basic Wear Mechanisms. Hard Surfacing Techniques. Special Purpose Materials. The Detonation Gun Process. Selection and Application of 0-Rings. Casing Joint Compounds. Sealing Compounds.
Index 586
Index
ABEC, Sec Annular Bearing Engineers
Committee.
Abrasion resistance of chromium, 548-549
Abrasive blasting preparation for hard
surfacing, 523
Abrasive wear, definition, 521
Access holes for grouting, 81
Acid
cleaning, 156-158
washing, 90
Acid resistance of diffusion alloys, 559
Adapters, for balancing machine end drives,
277-279
Adaptive type bearing, 358
Adhesive bonding, of O-rings, 567-568
Adhesive wear
definition, 520
a.w. tests, 531
Advance, of coupling hubs, 514, 516
AFBMA standards, See Antifriction Bearing
Manufacturers standards.
Aggregate
kiln drying criteria , 72-73
Aging and stress relieving, effects on balance,
Alignment bracket sag, 185-186
Alignment corrections, calculating of a.c.,
194-204
Alignment measurement setup, 177-182
Alloys
copper-base a., 527
diffusion a., 557-562
Alloy compositions for hard surfacing
purposes, 524-531
Aluminum alloys
hard coating treatment of a.a., 566
used for turbo-charger impellers, 489
Aluminum oxide
application of a.o. in anodizing process, 566
American Welding Society (AWS), 523
Amount of unbalance, measurement, 261-274
Anchor bolts, 85-86, 92, 116-117
Angle of lag, in balancing, 249
Angle of unbalance, measurement, 261-264
Angular-contact ball-bearing, 375-376
Annealed copper, use of a.c. for rotor
support, 497
Annular Bearing Engineers Committee
(ABEC) grade of bearings in balancing
machines, 270
Anodizing, 266
Antifriction bearings/rolling element bearings
contact angles, 389
effects of contaminants on a . b., 358-359,
422-423
salvage considerations, 406-407
shaft and shoulder dimensions, 382-383
Antifriction bearing manufacturers (AFBMA)
standards, 389, 397
313
Alignment
calculators, 194
diagram, 64
eddy current probes, 57
face-and-rim a. method, 178-179, 182-184
formula a. methods, 198
graphical a. methods, 195, 204-215
jigs, 177-184
jig posts, 191-194
laser-based, 184-185, 231, 233-234
of close-coupled machinery, 215-216
of cooling tower drives, 184
of machinery, 44, 171-237
optical a. method 57, 233
plotting board, 204-205
tolerances, 175-177
Arbors
balancing arbors, definition, 279
balancing arbors, design, application,
280-289
used for balancing fans, 454-455
Arbor press, use in bearing removal, 363, 417
Armature, balancing, 254
586Index 587
Assembly
of rotors, 502-503
of O-rings, 61
Assembly area, for antifriction bearings,
359-360
Assembly practices
of antifriction bearings, 406-409
of thrust collars, 507-508
ASTM-157-80 Concrete Shrinkage Test, 113
Atmospheric corrosion, 546
Automatic balancing machines, 268-269
Availability/service factor, 4
Axial clearance, between impellers, 503
Axial flow-type rotors, 488
Axial gap, between rotor components, 496
Axis of rotation , 239
Ball , antifriction bearings , 351
Bar chart , 45, 49
Baseplate
leveling procedure, 105-111
preparation of b., 111-113
ready lor grouting. 121
significance for alignment, 173
specifications, 111
vent holes in, 111-112
Basic machine data. 63
Bearings
angular-contact ball b. 375-376
back-to-back mounted af b. 366, 391
checking of turbomachinery b., 62
face-to-face mounted af b. , 391-401
packaging of b., 390-392
preloaded with different contact angles, 405
special purpose b., 353
super-precision b. , 409
tandem b., 390-391 , 392-394
Bearing journals
grinding of b.j., 539
Bearing maintenance
checklist, 426-429
practices, 351-429
Bearing puller, use of 363-369
Bearing removal from shaft, 361-369
Bearing runout, 254
Bearing seats
check for out-of-round. 384 -386
general , 375-376
Bearing symbols, 354-357
Bearing wear, 61
Belt drive, for balancing machines, 271
Biasing, balancing arbors, 285
Blower, field balancing, 319-321
Boiled linseed oil, scaling compound.
581-584
Bolt stresses, 146, 152-153
Bolts, anchor, 116-117
Bond , of hard-surfacing materials, 524
Boring, worn cylinders for chromium plating.
Babbitt fatigue, 60
Back-to-back mounted bearings, 366, 391
Back-up rings, for protection of O-rings,
579-580
Balance
error, 252, 309-310
tolerances, 300-301
quality, 255, 270, 302-310
Balance piston
dynamic balancing of b.p., 494
labyrinth seal clearancc/leakage, 506-507
Balancing
arbors, 279-289
armatures, 254
compressor rotors, 496-497
diesel crankshafts, 276
fans, 454-455
gas turbine compressor assembly, 276, 300
machinery components, 238-350
static b., 251
turbine rotor, 276
twisting and stranding machines, 325-329
Balancing and vibration standards, 344-346
Balancing machines
hard-bearing b.m., 259-260
purpose, 239, 255, 300
soft-bearing b. m., 258-259
Balancing problems, minimizing, 240
Balancing speed, determination, 294-295
Balancing terminology, 332-343
Ball bearings
cartridge type b.b. , 358
conrad type, 358, 366
conveyor roll type, 358
interchangeability, 355-357
Ball cages, antifriction bearings, 352
348
Boundary layer lubrication, 547
Bracket sag effect, machinery alignment ,
187-189
Braze repair, of pump impellers, 470-471
Brine injection pump, shaft repair, 459
Brinelling, of antifriction bearings
definition, 361-362
preventing b. during bearing assembly. 415
Brush electroplating, 552-554
Built-up rotors
definition , 488
transient bows in b.r. , 496
Bulk welding, definition, 523
Burnish marks, in duplexed bearings, 410588 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Bushings
nitriding of b., 557
wear of b. through vibration, 239
Business loss, 6
Butyl, use for O-ring materials, 567, 576
Chemical plating , of high speed shaft journals,
464
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 558
Chill rings, 155
Chlorosulfonated polyethylene, for O-rings,
565, 577
Chloroprcne, for O-rings, 572-573
Chocks, 83-85
Chrome-plating
industrial c., 543-552
economy of c, 552
Chromium, in hard surfacing, 542-552
Chromium carbide, in hard surfacing, 542
Cleaning
acid c., 156-158
air, gas or steam piping, 155-156
of af brg. equipped assembly parts,
369-373
procedures, 156- 167
turbomachinery components, 60-61
Clearances
bearing, 62
labyrinth, 62
tabulation, 56
thrust, 62
Close-coupled machinery
alignment, 215-216
Coating of machinery components
anodizing, 566
electro-spark deposition, 562-563
high-velocity thermal spray, 563-565
iron-manganese-phosphate, 566
Teflon*, 566
Cobalt-base alloys, 526-527, 541-542
Coefficient of friction
of chromium, 544-545
Cold clearances, in compressor rotor
assembly, 504
Cold setting, of spring hangers, 145
Cold straightening, of pump shafts repaired by
welding, 457
Compensation balancing machines, 266
Compensator, 286
Component life
deterministic/predictable, 4-5
indeterminate/probabilistic , 4-5
Composite vibration, in balancing machines,
Calculators, programmable for alignment 194
Calibrating mass, used in field balancing, 323
Calibratable balancing machines, 266
Calipers, 177
Cams
hardening by nitriding, 557
Camshafts
hardening by nitriding, 557
Carbide coatings, wear resistance, 538-539
Carbon electrodes, use in hard surfacing, 523
Carburizing, 555
Cartridge type ball brg., 358
Case histories of welded repairs of pump
parts, 457-462
Casing joint compounds, 582-585
Casting salvaging methods, 470-486
Cement
grouting, 133-137
Center of gravity
correlating c.o.g. displacement with
unbalance, 249-255
c.o.g . displacement, significance for
balancing, 252
Central parts depot/location, 33-34, 39
Central PM control, 16
Centralized engineering, responsibilities of,
34-35
Centralized technical services, 14-15
Centralized maintenance. 13-24
Centrifugal balancing machines
hard-bearing machines 260
purpose, 255
soft-bearing machines,258-259
Centrifugal compressor rotor repairs, 508-513
Centrifugal force in balancing, 239
related to speed, 241
Centrifuges, correction of unbalance
condition. 321-325
Ceramics, in hard surfacing, 527-528, 537
CG/C.G., See Center of gravity.
Checking
contact of coupling hubs, 514
bore of impellers, 503
dimensional c. of spare parts, 45
off-square condition, 386
out-of-round condition, 384-386
procedures during compressor rotor
assembly, 503
Checkpoints, for seals, 435-439
Chemical compatibility, of O-ring materials,
567-569
262
Composites, in hard surfacing, 527
Compositions of hard facing alloys, 529
Compounds
lapping c., 442
used for casing joint sealing, 581 584
Compressor
centrifugal process c., 4
cylinder cleaning. 155
efficiency, 36Index 589
performance monitoring, 35
pipe cleaning, 156-160
piston rod hardfacing, 537
reciprocating c., 8
rotor repairs, 488-513
Computer-aided balancing, 313-316
Computer-based PM, 16-21
Computer justification
faith, hope & charity type, 24
Computer systems, 17-35
Concrete
ASTM-157-80 C. Shrinkage Test, 113
characteristics, 75, 89
preparation of new c. for foundation ,
113- 115
preparation of old c. for foundation,
115-116
prestressing, 102
shrinkage, 98
Condition-based maintenance, 8
Condition monitoring, 6-7, 10
Connecting rods, hardening by nitriding, 557
Conrad type ball brg. , 358, 366
Contact angle, in af brgs., 389
Contaminants
effect of c. on af brgs., 258-359
protecting brg. and shaft assemblies from
c 422
Contractors, for maintenance, 32
Control system, for PM, 16
Convection current chamber, 69
Conveyor roll type ball brg., 358
Cooling tower drives
alignment of c.t.d., 184
Copaitite, 583
Copper-base alloys, 527
Corner radius, definition, 378
Correction planes, in balancing, 255, 262
Corrosion
atmospheric c 546
pitting c\ , 456
stress c. through high shrink stresses. 495
Corrosion resistance of chromium, 545
Cost
Cracking tendencies, of hard surfacing
materials, 524, 531
Cradle, for balancing machines, 270
Crankcases
repair of c. by electrochemical metallizing.
553
Crankshafts
balancing, 276
hardening by nitriding, 557
repair of c. by electrochemical metallizing ,
553
Critical dimensions
diagram, 52-53
post T/ A data, 63
tabulation, 54-56
Critical path method (CPM), 20
Cross effect, in balancing plane separation,
261-262
Crossover brackets (alignment), 217-220
Curing agent, 67
Curing agent temperatures, 75
Curvature effect on misaligned components.
190
Cylinder liners
chrome plating of c.l., 544
hardening by nitriding, 557
Cylinder heads
repair by electrochemical metallizing, 553
D~gun process
description, 523, 532-535
physical properties of D-gun coatings, 534
selection of D-gun coating materials,
537-539
Data processing system, for PM, 16-21
Deflection curves, for duplex ball brgs. ,
398-400
Degaussing, 51, 499
Degrading concrete, 89-91
Deposits/fouling, 59
Deterioration of O-rings in storage, 567-568
Deterministic life problems, 4
Detonation gun process. See D-gun process.
Dial indicator conventional American. 192
Dial indicator fixture sag, 185- 189
Die-molded packing rings, 450
Diesel crankshaft, balancing, 276
Diesel engine fuel injector pump parts
hardening by nitriding, 557
Diffusion alloys, 557-562
characteristics and applications of (table ),
561-562
Dimensional checking spare parts, 45
Disassembly of rotors for shaft repair,
499-500
Dismounting of hydraulically fitted coupling
hubs. 517-518
of maintenance, 22
of motor rewinds, 485
Cost savings, 4
Costing, of work orders, 17, 19
Couple unbalance, definition, 243, 245
Coupling
checks, 57-58
eccentricity, 180
installation, 62, 174-175
lubricant, 175
Coupling hubs
mounting of c.h., 513-517
CPM techniques. See Critical path method .590 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Displacement, of shafts, 252 Embedment, of foreign particles in O-rings,
Distortion 569
of welded repairs, 452 Embedment method of machinery installation.
Documenting
turbomachinery overhaul results, 37-64
Double compensator, use in balancing tooling.
83
End-drive adapters, in balancing machines,
310
286 42-44
Double-row ball bearings
interchangeability data, 357
Downtime tasks, scheduling of, 28-30
Drum type rotors
description, 488
Dry ice, use for bearing mounting, 415
Duplex bearings
dismounting, 396
identification and handling, 367
mounting of d.b., 387-390
packaging, 390-391
preloading, 396-402
remounting, 396
separating spacers, use of s.s., 392-395
principles of operation, 389-390
Dye penetrant checks, 60, 498-499
Dynamic balancing
of compressor rotor assemblies, 493-495
of centrifugal compressor impellers, 493
Dynamic corrections, while balancing shafts,
Epichlorohydrin, use as O-ring material, 567,
577
Epoxy
coefficient of expansion, 73
grouts, 66-131
forms for, 117-121
mixing of, 121-123
placement of, 121-130
properties of, 70-71, 121
temperature, effect on, 121
primers, 81
strength, 71
testing methods, 68-71
vendor qualifications, 71
Equipment records system, 17-18
Error analysis, of balancing arbors, 281-284
Ethylene-propylene, use as O-ring material,
567, 573
Expansion joints, machinery foundations,
87-88
505
Dynamic unbalance, definition, 247
Face-and-rim alignment method. 178-179,
182-184
Face-to-face bearings
mounting of f.t.f.b. , 391
preloading of f.t.f.b., 401
Face sag effect, in alignment, 187-189
Failure
of O-rings, 567
Failure analysis, 4, 8
Failure modes, 7-8
Fans
balancing of fans, 240
Fatigue failures
babbitt, f. f., 60
in centrifugal compressor impellers, 492
by marking impellers, 494
Feather keys, use of f.k., 492
Feedback cards, 18, 29
Felt seal ball bearing type, 358
Fiber-impregnated tape, use in rotor
balancing, 505
Field balancing, 317-329
Field balancing equipment, 252-256, 317-318
Filler piece, tapered for flange alignment,
173-174
Fillets, in shafts for bearing mounting,
377-379
Filters, for compressor piping 156, 160-161
Eccentricity
in balancing, 254
high point of c. in super-precision bearings,
409-410
Economy, of chrome-plating, 552
Eddy current shaft proximity probes
e.c.s.p.p. used in alignment,
54, 230
Efficiency
compressors, 36
Electric discharge machining (EDM), 489
Electric motors
balancing e.m., 300
design of e.m. shafts, 361
Electrical rtinout, 51
Electrochemical metallizing
of crankcases, 553
of crankshafts, 553
of cylinder heads, 553
of engine blocks, 553
of machinery castings, 553
of manifolds, 553
of saddle caps,553
Electroplating
on-site techniques, 552-554
processes, 543-553
Electro-spark deposition coatings, 562-563Index 591
Fits epoxy resins, 65-71, 104-131
forms, 117-120
non-foaming type, 70
non-metallic type, 131
placement of , 121-130
Grouting
access holes, 81
baseplates, 104-113, 136-137
checklists, 121-141
job planning for g., 74-75
need for good g. , 67
pressure g., 96-98
of rotating equipment, 138-141
Guides, nitriding of g 557
of feather keys in centrif. comp , rotors, 491
push fits in bearings, 411
Fixed equipment inspection system, 19-20, 23
Flame hardening, 554
Flame spraying , 464-465
Flange joint
bolting practices, 144-145
face acceptability criteria, 151
leakage, 146-147
parallelism, 146
Flatness readings, of seal face, 447-449
Flexible-bearing balancing machine, 258
Flexibility analysis, 143-144
Flexibility test, for rotor balancing, 276-277
Fluorocarbon, use as O-ring material, 567,
574-575. 573-574
Fluorosilicone, use as O-ring material. 567
Forms, for epoxy grout. 117-121
Flywheel, 292
Forced outage, 47
Formula alignment methods, 198
Fouling/deposits, 59
Foundation
causes of failures, 99-100
cracking, 86-89, 98-103
design to reduce stress risers, 86-87
size and condition for alignment, 173
machinery, 67
repairs, 98-103
specifications, 105, 121-141
turbotrain. 47
Frequency distribution, 4
Hard-bearing balancing machines. 259-260
Hardening, of machinery components.
554-557
Hardfacing/hard surfacing
alloys, 519, 524-531
definition, 519
materials , 527-529, 537, 542-552
of fan wheels, 472, 481, 482
of wear rings/impellers, 457
selection guide, 533
techniques, 522-524
Hardness
of chromium, 545
diffusion alloys, 558
required to avoid sulfide stress cracking.
501
Hard coating
of aluminum alloys (anodizing), 566
Hard surfacing. See Hardfacing
Health/safety. 4
Heat
use of h. for removal of bearings, 369
use of h. for mounting bearings, 412-415
Heat-affected zone in weld repairs, 462
Heat checking, use of dye penetrants, 498
Heat treatment
to counter brittleness or fatigue in shafts.
Gas ring, used in heating of impellers, 502
Gas tungsten-arc welding, 523
Gas turbine compressor assembly, balancing,
276. 300
Gasket, spiral wound, 174
Gasket, installation, 146-147
Gear couplings, sliding velocity of g.c., 177
Gears, 239
nitriding of g.s., 557
Gland dimensions, for O-ring sizing, 580-581
Go/No-Go gauge, use in rotor assembly, 502
Graphical alignment methods, 195, 204-213
Graphite, use as joint sealant. 584
Gravity balancing machines, 256-257
Grout
aggregate. 72
cement-type, 133-137
coefficient of expansion, 73
condition of g. for good machinery
alignment, 173
conventional g , 67
definition, 66
dimensional stability, 70
543
High points of eccentricity, in precision
bearings, 523
High speed pencil grinder, use for impeller
markings, 494
High speed shafts
repairs of h.s.s. , 463-466
High temperature antiseize compound, 503
High-velocity thermal spray coatings, 565
characteristics and applications (table) ,
564-565
History charts, for components, 59
Honeycomb labyrinths, in centrifugal comp
507592 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Horizontal furnace, used for heating impellers, Laitance
definition,67
removed from concrete foundations, 114
tensile strength due to I 89
Lapping
checklist for I. after hardfacing, 540
hand 1. and polishing seal faces, 443-445
of mechanical seal faces, 441-449
Laser-optic alignment, 184-185, 231,
233-234
Lateral vibration, failure of rotors caused by
1.v., 501
502
Hot alignment checking, 57
Hot bolting, 154- 155
Hot bonding, of O-rings, 567
Housing bore dimensions, checking, 386
Housing shoulder dimensions, 382-383
HTRC®, fluororubber, used as O-ring
material, 577
Hub draw (advance), 514
Hydraulic wrenches, 151
Hysteresis whirl, 501
Leakage
control, 153-155, 440, 451
1. flow in packing installation, 451
Lightband readings, of seal face flatness,
448-449
Line boring, bearing saddles, 482
Line strainers, 161-162
Load values, for machinery installations, 82
Locking rings, 492
Locknut, installing method of 1. in cent ,
comp, rotors, 504
Lubricant, for antifriction bearings, 352
Identification, of obsolete parts. 23
In situ repair of machinery. See On-site
electroplating, etc.
Induction heaters, 412-415
Inspection
of O-rings, 518
system for fixed equipment, 19-20, 23
Installation
of gaskets, 146-147
outdoor i. of machinery, 86-87
Interchangeability, of ball bearings, 355-357
lron-manganese-phosphate coatings, 566
Jack screws, 106-109, 128, 130, Also see
Pump baseplates.
Jet gun process, 464
Jig posts, for alignment, 191 - 194
Jiffy mixer, 122, 124
Jigs, for machinery alignment, 177-181
Job plan, for T/As, 48
Joint compounds, for machinery, 581-584
Joints, in piping, 145-147
Journal
of shafts, 276
supports, for balancing machines, 269-271
treatment of j. diameters in rotor inspection,
498
Machinability, of hardfaced machinery parts,
533
Machinery
alignment, 44, 57, 64, 171-237
commissioning, 39
erection, 39
failure, 172
installation, 81-91
operation, 39
repair, 39
specialist, 39
testing, 39
troubleshooting, 39
Machinery monitoring, prior to T/As, 47
Magnaflux/magnaglow, in checking for
forging defects, 499
Magnetic particle check, 60
Maintainability, 7
bearing m., 351-429
computer, 17-35
contractors, 32
cost, 22
manuals, 28-29
organization, 8, 12-32
philosophy, 3
records, 18
responsibilities, 31-32
scheduling, 20
work orders, 21
Maintenance and engineering services, 12-35
Kalrez®, use as O-Ring material, 579
Keyways, in balancing madrels, 493
King pins, hardening by nitriding, 557
Knife-edge, supports for balancing machines,
263
Knuckle pins, hardening by nitriding, 557
Knurling, preparation for hardfacing, 523
Lantern rings, in stuffing boxes, 450
Labyrinth
compounding of thrust error in 1. design,506
leakage, across balance drum, 507
seal, 4, 60
wear, 60Index 593
prior lo T/As, 47
post T/As, 63
process performance, 34
Monochromatic light, 447
Motor repair shop, selection, 289
Mounting procedures
antifriction bearings using heat, 412-415
basic m.p.s for antifriction bearings, 390
for duplex bearings, 395-397
of hydraulically fitted coupling hubs,
513-517
of impellers on balancing mandrels, 493
of sleeves and thrust collars, 503
Multi-plane balancing, 255, 313-316
National Association of Corrosion Engineers
(NACE), 542
Neoprene rubber, use as O-ring material , 567 ,
571-572
Nickel-chromiunvboron alloys, used in
hardfacing, 527
Nitriding
application to typical machinery parts, 557
definition, 555
Nitrile rubber, use as O-ring material, 567,
571-572
Nomogram, of balance tolerances, 303-305
Maintenance strategies
bad actor/wcak spot management, 3-5
breakdown/demand-based. 3-5, 15
overall, 12-31
preventive, 3-5, 7, 15
predictivc/condition-based , 3-5
Manager’s role, 13
Manuals, for maintenance, 26-31
Manufacturing techniques, impellers, 489
Mass centering, in balancing, 288-289
Material quality, of rotor shaft forgings, 501
Materials
used for hardsurfacing, 523-525, 528-531
used for O-Rings, 566-581
used for overlay, 455, 460-462
used for plating, 543
Materials checklist
for cement grouting
for epoxy grouting, 76-77
for machinery T/ As, 43
Materials coordinator, 38, 45
Mathematical methods, for alignment,
196-204
Measurement
of amount of unbalance, 261-263
of angle of unbalance, 261-264
of seal face flatness, 445-449
Mechanical seals
faces, 440-451
lapping and polishing of s. faces, 441-449
installation checklist, 436-439
installation, repair, and maintenance,
430-486
measurement of flatness, 445-449
monochromatic light , 447
optical flat, 446-447
readings, 447-449
parts, replacing, 440
removal of, 440
trouble spots, checklist, 430-435
Mechanical seal fluid containers, cleaning of,
163-165
Mechanical supervisor, 38, 44, 171
Metal stitching, description, 470-472,
475-480
Metallizing
definition 523
electrochemical m. processes, 552-554
Micropeening, 51
Misalignment tolerances, 176
Molecular metals, 470
Molybdenum disulfide, application to fits, 493
Moment of inertia , 253
Moment unbalance, 243-246
Monitoring of machinery
condition. 10
performance, 34-35
O-Rings
assembly precautions, 61
back-up rings for, 579-581
compatibility with chemicals, 569
failure from overheating, 569
inspection of, 518
mechanical damage of, 569
selection and application, 567-581
use in modern coupling hubs, 514-516
Obsolete parts, identification of, 23
OEM, See Original equipment manufacturer.
Off-square, checking shoulders for during
bearing assembly, 386
On-site electroplating, 552
Opening, of machinery, 58
Operating costs. 4
Operators, process, 171
OPTALIGN® system, 184-185
Optical alignment, 109- 110, 233
Optical flat, used in seal repairs, 446
Organization, types of. 12
Organizational control, 12
Organizational structure, 6-7
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM), 487
Outdoor installation, of machinery, 86-87
Outside repair shops, available services,
472-486
Out-of-round, checking for o.o. r. of bearing
seats, 384-386594 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Overlay materials, in surface repairs, 455,
460-462
Overlaying, of seal flanges, 463
Overhaul
definition, 6-7, 18
documentation, 63-64
of turbomachinery, 37-64
personnel assigned to o., 37-42
Overheating
O-ring failure from o., 568
Overspeed testing
of impellers, 490
of turbotrain components, 61
Oxyacetylene flame spraying, 483
Oxyacetylene welding, 523
Plane separation, in balancing, 261-265
Planners, duties of p. during machinery T/A,
44-50
Planning
machinery grouting jobs, 74-75
turbomachinery overhauls, 37-64
Planning and scheduling
preventive maintenance, (PM), 18-20
major maintenance projects, 20
maintenance work orders, 21
Plant engineering, 34-35
Plant manager, PM responsibility of, 15
Plant senior machinery specialist, 38
Plasma spray, definition, 523
Plasti-gage, 59, 62
Plating
industrial chrome-plating, 543-552
materials used, 543
surface preparation, 543
Plotting board, for alignment, 204-205
PM records system, 18
Pocket calculator, used in field balancing,
323-324
Polar moment of inertia, in balancing, 253,
272, 289
Polishing
of shaft journals, 464
of seal faces, 441-445
Polyacrylate, used for O-ring materials, 535,
Packaging, of bearings, 390-392
Parallel wedges, 106
Parasitic mass, in balancing, 264
Parts depots, 32
Parts, non-standard, 64
Peening
applied for shaft straightening, 468-469
shop peening, to increase fatigue strength.
543
Perfluoroelastomer. See Kalrez®.
Performance, of compressors, 35
Performance reports, PM, 26-28
PERMALIGN® system, 233
Phosphonitrilic fluoroelastomer, used as
O-ring material, 567, 578
Photorecording, of overhaul, 57, 64
Pictorial records, 57, 64
Pick-ups, used in balancing machines, 260
Pickling, of piping, 156-167
Pin micrometer, used in rotor assembly, 504
Pinions, nitriding of p.s, 557
Pinning procedure, in repair of machinery
castings, 472
Pipe strainers, 161-162
Piping
cleaning, 155, 166-167
design criteria, 101
design procedure, 142-144
fabrication, 155-156
installation, 142-156
joints, 145-147
neutralization, 158
passivation, 158
testing, 155-156
Piping flexibility, 143-144
Piping, significance in machinery alignment,
173-174
Pistons, nitriding of p., 557
resurfacing by D-gun process, 537
Pitting corrosion, 456
Pitting corrosion, 456
575
Polyethylene compressor piston rods,
resurfacing, 537
Polysulfide rubber, used for O-ring materials,
567, 576-577
Polyurethane, use for O-ring materials, 567,
576
Porous chrome, load capacity of p.c., 547
Post mortem failure analysis, 8
Prealignment requirements, 172-175
Precision balancing mandrel, for impellers,
493
Predictive component life, 4
Predictive maintenance, factors in, 8
Predictive maintenance, logic diagram. 9
Preload bearings, 395
Preload offset, 402
Preloading
of duplex bearings, 396-397
need for prcloading bearings, 400
Pressure grouting, of sole plates, 96-98
Pressure-injection regrouting, 91-99
Preventive maintenance, (PM), 7
Preventive plating, 543
Procedures, for maintenance (purpose, etc.).
26
Process operators, 171
Profitability, of plant, 4, 15Index 595
shops, 472-486, 508-513
welded r. to pump shafts and other
components, 451-463
Repair specifications, for mechanical seals.
430-435
Replacement
definition , 7
r. considerations for rolling element
bearings, 405
maintenance, 7
value, 22
Report formal, development of, 25
Residual unbalance, 242, 270, 298, 301
Resins (epoxies), 65- 101
Resistance
Programmable calculators, for alignment, 194
Protective coating, 88
Pump baseplates
grouting, 104-132
specifications for, 121
leveling, 105-111
support , 105-111
jack screws, 106-109
parallel wedges, 106
shim pack with chock, 106- 107
single wedge, 106
Pump impellers
repair by braze method, 470-471
repair by diffusion alloy application, 560
Pump plungers, resurfacing by D-gun process.
of chromium, 548-549
of diffusion alloys, 559
Resonance speed , of rotors in balancing, 241,
537
Pumps, shaft repair by welding, 455-456
Push fit, for mounting bearings, 411
Push rods, hardening by nitriding, 557
PVMQ*. See Silicone.
258
Retaining rings, hardening by nitriding, 557
Restorative plating, 543
Reverse-indicator alignment, 178-182
Rigid rotors, in balancing , 241-242
Rim measurements (alignment ), 181
Rings, of antifriction bearings, 351
Rolls, balancing of r.s. , 292
Rolling element bearings, 270
Rosebud-tip torch, used for heating impeller
hubs, 493, 502
Rotating balancing machine, See Centrifugal
balancing machine.
Quasi-static unbalance. 246-247
Radial deflections, of rolling element
bearings, 398-400
Radial runout
checking of r.r. during balancing operation.
505
determining r.r. in rolling element bearings,
410
of rotor shaft ends, 504
Radius of gyration, in balancing, 272
Reassembly procedure, general, 61-63
Reboring , of cylinders, 482
Reciprocating compressor
foundation, 95-98
pickling of suction piping, 156- 165
Reconditioning of mechanical seal
components, 430-435
Records, for flanged joints, 149
Records system, for equipment , 18
Refresher training , 42
Regrouting, 91-98
Reinforcing steel , in foundation reliability, 4
Remachining, of seal faces, 482
Remounting, of duplex bearings, 396
Repair
definition , 7
hard surfacing r , 522-552
of machinery foundations, 98-103
of castings, 470-471
of crankshafts, 553
of cylinder heads, 553
of high speed shafts, 463-466
of mechanical seals, 430-451
of turbomachinery rotors, 487-518
on-site machinery r. techniques. 522-554
Rotor
balancing reporting, 64
behavior during balancing, 239
bows in compressors and steam turbines,
495-496
history charts, 59
inspection, disassembly, stacking, and
balance of cent . comp , r., 508-513
locknut, results from overtightening, 504
repairs at outside shops, 508-513
run-out diagram, 64
thrust in centrifugal compressors, 506
Rotor checks, 61-63
Runout
of balancing arbors, 285-286
radial runout of rotor shaft ends, 504
Saddle caps, repair by electrochemical
metallizing, 553
Safety during T/As, 47
Safety/health, 4
Sag, of alignment brackets, 185- 189
Sag compensator device. 186
Salvage
considerations for rolling element bearings.
406-407596 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Silicone sealant, use of, 88
Single plane balancing, 255, 306
Single wedge, 106
Sizing of balance piston line, 507
Skilled specialists, 13
Sliding velocity of gear couplings, 177
Soft-bearing balancing machines, 258-259
Sole plates, 81-83, 96-98
Sonic velciiy, 489
Spacers, for duplex bearings, 392-395
Spare parts, centralized, 32-33
Spare parts
checking of, 41, 45. 50-51
consumption records, 63
storage of, 50-52
Spare parts and materials, 50-51
coordinator, 38
tabluation, 41
Spare rotors, 51-52
Special purpose bearings, 353
Specialist teams, 13, 32
Specification, for surfacing materials,
523-524
Spin pits, 490
Spindle servicing checklist, 406
Spindles, 239
Splines, hardening by nitriding, 557
Split-collar puller, used in bearing removal,
Salvage (continued)
methods for machinery castings, 469-472
of worn or mismatched machinery parts,
552
Sampling, of deposits, 59
Sandblasting
of baseplate underside, 111
of rotor parts, 498
SBR , See Styrene-butadiene.
Scanning head, used to obtain phase
references, 261
Scheduling, of maintenance, 20
Seals
checkpoints for, 435-439
face flatness of, 440-449
labyrinth s. 4 , 60, 506
mechanical, installation, repair, and
maintenance of, 430 451
repair of s. flanges, 462
removal of, 440
trouble spots, 430-435
Sealants, 88
Sealing, of grout, 79-80
Sealing compounds, for machinery joints
boiled linseed oil, 582
Copaltite. 583-584
graphite and boiled linseed oil, 584
Rermatex, 584
silicone rubber, 582-583
Usudurian , 584
Seawater lift pumps, welded shaft repair. 457
Seizing, of rubbing parts, 559
Service factor/availability, 4
Serviceperson, 45, 56-57
Senior machinery specialist, 38
Shaft and housing shoulder dimensions, for af
bearings, 382-383
Shaft design, centrifugal compressors,
500-501
Shaft end design, 501
Shaft fillets, significance for rolling element
bearings. 377-379
Shaft shoulders, significance for rolling
element bearings, 376-377
Shaft straightening, 466-470
Shielded metal-arc welding, used for
hardfacing, 522
Shim pack, 106
Shim stock, used to locate impellers 503
Shot peening, to increase shaft fatigue
strength, 543
Shoulder removal method, of pressure
regrouting, 91-94
Shrink fits, in rotor assembly, 495
Shrinkage, of concrete, 98
Silicone (PVMQ), used for O-ring material,
368
Split bushings, 450
Spring hangers, 143-145
Spray lubed thrust bearings, 507
Stacked rotors, 488
Standard undersize dimensions for shafts, 466
Standardization, of rolling element bearings,
352-358
Standards
ABEC, 352
AFBMA, 352, 389
API , 617, centrifugal compressors, 506
balancing and vibration s., 344-346
for testing balancing machines, 292
ISO 1940, 302
ISO 2953, 292, 295, 299
operating s., 4
Static balancing, 251
Static unbalance, 242-244, 251
Steam turbines
overspeed , 49
Stock catalog system, 17
Stoning, of shaft journals, 465
Straightening of shafts, 466-470
Strainers, 161-162
Strapping, of shaft journals, 465
Strategy, of maintenance, 3
Stress corrosion, through high shrink stresses.
574 495Index 597
Stress relieving, of machinery components. Thermal growth
correction for t.g. in alignment, 228,
230-236
313
Stress risers
in foundations, 86-88
through marking of impellers, 494
Stroboscopic lamp, used in balancing, 261
Styrene-butadiene, used as O-ring material,
567, 575
Squirrel cage induction motor, 272
Submerged metal arc welding, used in pump
shaft repair, 459
Super-precision bearings, 409
Surface tension , of oil on chromium surfaces.
Thermal offset, in alignment, 228, 233
Through-the-case method, of pressure
regrouting, 94-96
Thrust
in angular contact bearings, 410-411
Thrust bearing load, in centrifugal
compressors, 507
Thrust collars
assembly standards, 498
mounting design, 506
warping risk from heat applications, 503
Thrust disc, See Thrust collars.
546
Surface fatigue, definition, 521-522
Surface foam, removal of, 96 Thrust load, in rolling element bearings, 377
Thrust washers, hardening by nitriding, 557
Timing gears, hardening by nitriding, 557
Tip speed ,of centrifugal compressor impellers.
Surfacing materials
composition, 524-525
selection of s.m.s., 531
special purpose s.m.s., 528-531
Surging of centrifugal compressors, effects,
489
T1R or T.I.R. See Total indicator runout.
506 Titanium carbide
Symbols, for bearings, 354-357
Symmetric rotors, 253
applied in D-gun process, 537
Titanium dioxide applied in D-gun process.
537
T/A, See Turnaround
Tandem bearings
basic mounting , 390
packaging, 390-391
separating methods, 392-394
Technical specialists, 13-15
Teflon®
application of thin films to metals, 566
infusion process, 566
Temperature(s)
effect on baseplate leveling , 110, 111
for grout curing, 75, 121
Tempering, of nitriding steels, 556
Tempil stick, used for indicating temperature
when heating impellers, 493
Terminology
balancing t., 332-339
balancing machine t. , 340-343
Test masses, used in balancing, 294-295
Test procedures, in balancing, 295-299
Testing
of balancing machines, 289-300
of impellers, 61
of rotor shafts, 501
overspeed t., 61. 490
Thermal conductivity
of chromium. 547
Thermal expansion
of equipment , 144
of piping, 144
Thermal expansion coefficient
of grouts. 70
Tolerances
alignment t., 175-177
determination of balancing t.s., 308-309
Torque
controlled torque bolt-up of flanges,
150-152
Torsional vibration, cause for compressor shaft
failures, 501
Total indicator runout (TIR ), 252, 254 , 499
Training, for machinery T/As, 42
Transient bow condition , in built-up rotors.
496
Transverse moment of inertia, 253
Traverse test, in balancing, 291, 295
Tribaloy® 700, 563
Trip and throttle valve, 49
Tungsten alloy, used in electrochemical
metallizing, 553
Tungsten carbide
applied in D-gun process. 537, 541
applied in diffusion alloying, 558-559
Turbine rotor, balancing, 276
Turbocharged engines, benefits of chrome
liners on t.c.e., 550
Turbocompressors, 8
Turbomachinery rotor repairs, 487-507
Turbotrain T/A engineer, 38. 42-44
Turnaround (T/A)
bar chart, 49
coordinator. 38
definition, 37
information package. 43598 Machinery Component Maintenance and Repair
Vibration
analyzer, used in balancing, 320
composite v. in balancing machines, 262
effect of v., 239
monitoring, 63
standards, 344-346
torsional, 501
Turnaround (T/A) (continued)
job plan, 48
major machinery, 37-64
management, 37-64
manning, 37-42
planning, 46-56
responsibilities during T/A, 38
specialists, 38
timing, 39
training, 42
Turnaround packages
contents, 43
preparation, 46
Twisting and stranding machine, balancing of
t.a.s.m., 325-329
Two-plane balancing, principles, 255
Two-plane rotor balancing tolerance, 306
Wkrpage of shafts after welding, 452
Washing, with acid, 90
Afater injection pump, shaft repair, 457
Atater pump shafts, hardening by nitriding,
557
Wear
abrasive wear, definition, 521
adhesive wear, definition, 520
corrosive wear, definition, 521
prevention by diffusion alloying, 559
surface fatigue, 521-522
Wfear plates, hardening by nitriding, 557
Wear resistance
criteria for w.r., 533
obtained by electroplating 552-554
of carbide-cobalt coatings, 542
Wrt> deflection, 98
Weldability, of materials, 454
Abiding
distortion, 453
procedure, 456
repairs by w., 452-463
Wettability, of chromium surfaces, 546
Windage loss, of impellers while being
balanced, 490
Wire drawing, 59
Work lists, 39, 40
Work orders, 19, 21
W)rk zones, 39, 45
Wrenches, hardening by nitriding, 557
Unbalance
correction methods, 287-288
definition, cause and effect, 238-239,
247-248
reduction ratio, 290-291
test, 291, 299-300
Unbalanced rotor, effects, 238
Universal joint drive, for balancing machines.
272
Usudurian®, used as machinery joint sealing
compound, 584
\fector diagram, used in field balancing,
320-322, 328-329
Vector meters, 261
\felocity-type pick-ups, used in balancing
machines, 260
\fendor
assistance, during T/As, 45, 56-57
qualification, for epoxy manufacture, 71
specifications supplied to repair facility,
512-513
Vfendor serviceperson, 54-55
\fent holes
in pump baseplates, 111-112
in grout forms, 123-125
Yield strength, of coupling end of compressor
shafts, 500
Zyglo method, used for crack detection in
shafts, 499


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