كتاب Resistance Welding Manual
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Resistance Welding Manual

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كتاب Resistance Welding Manual  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Resistance Welding Manual    كتاب Resistance Welding Manual  Emptyالثلاثاء 01 يونيو 2021, 7:45 am

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Resistance Welding Manual
Revised Fourth Edition
RWMA

كتاب Resistance Welding Manual  R_w_m_10
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Contents
Section 1
PROCESSES
PREFACE iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V
Fundamentals Of ResistanceWelding 1-1
INTRODUCTION . 1.1
RESISTANCE WELDING PROCESSES . 1-1
RELATED PROCESSES . 1-3
FUNDAMENTALSOF THE RESISTANCEWELDING PROCESS . 1-3
APPLlCATiONS 1-8
ECONOMICS . 1-9
DESiGN PRINCIPLES 1-12
MATERIALS . 1-18
LIMITATIONS 1-18
Spot Welding 2-1
INTRODUCTlON . 2-1
FUNDAMENTALSOFTHE PROCESS 2-1
TYPESOFWELDS . 2-2
ELECTRODES 2-5
MATERIALS . 2-5
WELDQUALiTY . 2-7
IMPLEMENTATION . 2-8
ProjectionWeldlng 3-1
INTRODUCTION . 3-1
TYPESOF PROJECTIONS 3-3
GENERAL PRINCIPLES . 3-8
WELDQUALITY . 3-12
Seam Weldlng 4-1
INTRODUCTION . 4-1
FUNDAMENTALSOFTHE PROCESS 4-2
WELDQUALITY . 4-8
MATERIALS . 4-11
Flash And UpsetWelding 5-1
FUNDAMENTALSOFTHE PROCESS 5-1
APPLICATIONS 5-3
EQUIPMENT 5-3
WELDING PROCEDURES . 5-7
PROCESSVARIABLES . 5-11
WELDQUALITY . 5-13
TESTINGAND INSPECTION . 5-15
WELDINGOFSTEEL . 5-15
UPSETWELDiNG 5-18
vllContents
Addltlonal Reslstance Welding Processes 6-1
CROSS WIRE WELDING 6-1
RESISTANCEBRAZING . 6-4
HOT RIVETING AND UPSETTING . 6-10
PERCUSSION WELDING 6-12
BUTSEAMWELDING ............................................................. 6-14
RESISTANCECUTTING . 6-16
Section 2
MATERIALS
Low Carbon Steels 7-1
INTRODUCTION . 7-1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES . 7-1
SPOTWELDING . 7-3
PROJECTION WELDING 7-11
SEAMWELDING . 7-12
ROLLSPOTWELDS 7-13
MASHSEAMWELDS . 7-13
FLASHWELDING 7-13
UPSETWELDING 7-16
RESISTANCEWELDS IN SCALY STOCK . 7-17
Hlgh Carbon And Low Alloy Steels 8-1
INTRODUCTION . 8-1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES . 8-1
SPOTWELDING . 8-3
SEAMWELDING . 8-12
FLASHWELDING 8-12
HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY STEEL (HSLA) 8-14
9-1
INTRODUCTION . 9-1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES . 9-1
SPOTWELDING . 9-5
PROJECTION WELDING 9-8
ROLLSPOT AND SEAM WELDING 9-8
FLASHWELDING 9-8
STAINLESS-CLADSTEEL . 9-9
Stalnless And Hlgh Alloy Steels
Coated And Plated Steels 10-1
SPOTWELDING ................................................................... 10-1
PROJECTIONWELDING 10-5
SEAM WELDING . 10-5
FLASHWELDING 10-5
vlllContents
Alumlnum And Alumlnum Alloys 11-1
INTRODUCTION . 11-1
MATERIAL PREPARATION . 11-3
SPOTWELDING . 11-5
QUALITYCONTROL 11-24
ELECTRODES 11-29
SEAM AND ROLLSPOTWELDING 11-30
PROJECTION WELDING 11-33
UPSETWELDING 11-33
FLASHWELDING 11-34
Magneslum And Magnesium Alloys 12-1
INTRODUCTION . 12-1
SPOTWELDING . 12-2
FLASHWELDING 12-3
Copper And Copper Base Alloys 13-1
INTRODUCTION . 13-1
ALLOYINGAGENTS 13-1
COPPER BASE ALLOYS 13-3
GENERALPRINCIPLES . 13-5
SPOTWELDING . 13-7
PROJECTION WELDING 13-10
SEAMWELDING . 13-10
FLASHWELDING 13-11
Nlckel And Nickel-BaseAlloys 14-1
INTRODUCTION . 14-1
SPOTWELDING . 14-6
PROJECTIONWELDING 14-15
CROSS WIREWELDING 14-15
SEAMWELDING . 14-16
FLASHWELDING 14-18
MiscellaneousAnd Dissimilar Metals 15-1
TITANIUM 15-1
COBALT BASE ALLOYS . 15-2
REFRACTORY METALS . 15-4
ZINC ANDZINC DIECASTINGS 15-4
LEAD AND LEAD ALLOYS ........................................................... 15-5
DISSIMILARMETALS . 15-5
IxContents
Section 3
EQUIPMENT
Machlnes 16-1
~~~~~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~~~~
INTRODUCTION .
ROCKER ARM MACHINES
BENCH MOUNTED WELDING MACHINES
PRESS TYPE WELDING MACHINES
SEAM WELDING MACHINES .
FLASH AND UPSETWELDING MACHINES .
MULTIPLE SPOT WELDING MACHINES
PORTABLE GUN WELDING MACHINES
ROBOTSYSTEMS INTEGRATION
HIGH FREQUENCY WELDING .
MISCELLANEOUS MACHINES .
16-1
16-2
16-4
16-5
16-6
16-8
16-11
16-13
16-1 5
16-16
16-1 7
Jigs. Fixtures And Tooling 17-1
INTRODUCTION . 17-1
WORKHOLDINGDEVICES 17-10
JIGS AND FIXTURES FOR GUN WELDING MACHINES . 17-12
HOPPER AND MAGAZINE FEEDS 17-13
SEAM WELDING FIXTURES . 17-15
FLASH AND UPSET WELDING MACHINE CLAMPING FIXURES 17-15
TYPESOFOPERATION . 17-16
BACKUPSAND LOCATORS . 17-17
ResistanceWelding Electrodes 18-1
INTRODUCTION . 18-1
ELECTRODE FUNCTIONS 18-1
ELECTRODE MATERIALS . 18-2
FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF ELECTRODE MATERIALS . 18-1 1
SPOTWELDING ELECTRODES 18-12
PROJECTION WELDING ELECTRODES . 18-24
SEAM WELDING ELECTRODES 18-25
UPSET AND FLASH WELDING ELECTRODES 18-26
PROPER ELECTRODE COOLING . 18-27
Weidina Transformers And Power Conversion EauiDment 19-1
INTRODUCTION . 19-1
ELECTRICALSYSTEM . 19-1
SINGLE-PHASERESISTANCEWELDING TRANSFORMERS . 19-4
FREQUENCY CONVERTER SYSTEM . 19-9
HIGH FREQUENCY DIRECT CURRENT WELDING POWER SUPPLIES 19-11
DIRECT-CURRENTPOWER CONVERSION EQUIPMENT . 19-11
XContents
Welding Controls 20-1
INTRODUCTION . 20-1
CONTROL SYSTEMS . 20-1
CONTROLTECHNOLOGIES . 20-3
STANDARD NEMA CLASSIFICATIONS . 20-4
USERINTERFACE . 20-5
CONTACTORS 20-6
HEATCONTROL . 20-7
COMPENSATION AND FEEDBACK SYSTEMS 20-11
COOLING REQUIREMENTS . 20.14
Power Supply 21-I
INTRODUCTION . 21-1
OUT-PLANT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM 21-1
IN-PLANT POWERSUPPLY SYSTEM 21-7
Instrumentation 22-1
INTRODUCTION . 22-1
PROCESSVARIABLES . 22-2
EQUIPMENTAVAILABLE 22-5
Fluid Power Systems 23-1
INTRODUCTION . 23-1
FLUIDS 23-1
PRESSURE SUPPLY SYSTEMS 23-2
CYLINDERS 23-7
SYSTEMSELECTION 23-14
Quality Control 24-1
INTRODUCTION . 24-1
PERSONNEL . 24-1
FACTORS AND VARIABLES AFFECTING WELD QUALITY . 24-1
OPERATOR . 24-4
STANDARD METHODS FOR TESTING RESISTANCEWELDS 24-4
MECHANICALTESTING OF RESISTANCEWELDS . 24-27
Maintenance And Service 25-1
INTRODUCTION . 25-1
INSTALLATIONOF EQUIPMENT 25-1
SETUPOF EQUIPMENT 25-4
MACHINE AND EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE . 25-4
PERIODIC INSPECTION AND SERVICE. . 25-11
SPAREPARTS 25.14
APPLICATIONOF STANDARD METHODS FOR
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1-1
INDEX 11-
INDEX
Index Terms Links
A
Air Consumption
defined 23-4
Air Cylinders
See, Cylinders
Air Systems
accessories, lubricators defined 23-4
accessories, mufflers defined 23-5
accessories, regulators defined 23-4
accessories, types of 23-4
air consumption, calculation of 23-3 23-4
compressors 23-2
coolers 23-2
coolers, after-coolers 23-2
coolers, inter-coolers 23-2
general description 23-2
maintenance 25-9
reservoirs 23-2 23-4
typical installation 23-3
valves, types of 23-12
Alloy Steels
See, Aluminum; Copper; High Carbon,
Low Alloy Steels; Magnesium; Nickel;
Zinc
Alternating Current
See, Current; Electrical System
Aluminum
alloys 11-2
alloys, corrosion resistance 11-1 11-22
alloys, dissimilar 11-19
alloys, lithium 11-2
alloys, spot welding 11-5
alloys, weldability chart 11-15Index Terms Links
Aluminum (Cont.)
alloys, welding schedules 11-22 11-23 11-32
chemical composition 11-2
clad materials, applications 11-1
cleaning, abrasive 11-4
cleaning, chemical 11-4
cleaning, methods 11-4
composition 11-2
corrosion resistance 11-1
current-force diagram 11-20 11-21
electrical conductivity 11-8
electrode life 11-6
flash welding 11-34 11-35
flash welding, "flash time" 11-34
general description 11-1
impurities, chemical 11-3
impurities, mechanical 11-3
material preparation 11-3
mechanical properties 11-12
physical properties 11-1
projection welding 11-33
quality control 11-24 11-25
recycle 11-12
roll spot welding 11-30 11-31
roll spot welding, machines 11-30
safety 11-2
seam welding 11-30 11-31
seam welding 2014 alloy 11-31
seam welding, electrode cleaning 11-31
seam welding, machines 11-30
seam welding, welding schedules 11-32
spot weld, narrow plastic range 11-9
spot weld, surface finish 11-9
spot welding 11-5
spot welding 2024-T Alclad 11-5 11-11
spot welding 5052-H34 Alclad 11-10 11-11 11-31
spot welding, edge distance 11-20 11-22
spot welding, electrode cooling 11-30Index Terms Links
spot welding, electrode material 11-28
spot welding, equipment 11-5
spot welding, machines 11-5
spot welding, multiple thicknesses 11-11
spot welding, peel test 11-26
spot welding, porous weld 11-28
spot welding, radiography test 11-27
spot welding, setup procedure 11-22
spot welding, sheet separation 11-28
spot welding, shunting effect 11-19
spot welding, surface burning 11-27
spot welding, tensile-shear strength 11-26
spot welding, tip pickup 11-27
spot welding, unequal thicknesses 11-11
spot welding, unsymmetrical weld 11-28
spot welding, weld consistency 11-27
spot welding, weld cracks 11-27
spot welding, weld defects 11-27
spot welding, weld indentation 11-27
spot welding, weld metal expulsion 11-28
spot welding, weld quality 11-6 11-25
spot welding, weld tests 11-25
spot welding, welding current 11-9
surface preparation 11-3
temperature, effect of 11-2
tensile properties 11-1 11-13
thermal conductivity 11-8
upset welding 11-33
weld defects, causes—remedies 11-27
weld quality 11-6
weld quality, factors affecting 11-27
weldability chart 11-15
welding equipment 11-6
welding machines, polyphase direct
energy 11-7
welding machines, single-phase direct
energy 11-6
welding machines, stored energy type 11-6 11-7 Index Terms Links
welding schedules 11-24
welding schedules, electrostatic
stored-energy machines 11-23
welding schedules, single-phase direct
energy machines 11-23
welding schedules, three-phase direct
current rectifier machines 11-22
welding schedules, three-phase
frequency converter machines 11-22
welding techniqe 11-10
welding variables 11-27
American Iron & Steel Institute (AISI)
See, High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels
American National Standards Institute
(ANSI)
control standards 20-5
American Welding Society (AWS)
standard tests 24-4
Ammeter
calibration of 22-6 22-7
general description 22-8
Applications 1-8 1-9
B
Backups
applications 17-17
general principles 17-17
Bench Mounted Welding Machine
applications 16-5
large type 16-4
materials welded 16-4
options available 16-4
setup of 16-4 16-5
small type 16-4
Brasses
See, Copper
Bronzes
See, Copper Index Terms Links
Butt Joining
definition 1-2
Butt Seam Welding
applications 6-14
equipment 6-15 6-16
general description 6-14
process, examples of 6-14 6-16
C
Capital Investment 1-12
Caps
See, Electrodes
Carbon
See, High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels;
Low Carbon Steels
Circuits
See Also, Electrical System
secondary 19-1
welding 19-1
Coated Steels
flash welding 10-5
painted surfaces, welding of 10-4
projection welding 10-5
seam welding 10-5
spot welding 10-1
Cobalt Base Alloys
defined 15-2
physical properties 15-2 15-3
surface cleaning 15-2
variables 15-4
weldability 15-2
welding techniques 15-2 15-4
Contactors
defined 20-6 20-7
electromechanical type 20-6
ignitron tube 19-9 20-7
maintenance of 25-10 25-11Index Terms Links
Contactors (Cont.)
mechanical type 20-6
silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) 19-9 20-7
Controls
acoustic emission type 20-13
amortized stepper 20-10
basic systems 20-1
compensation systems, defined 20-11
computer based 20-4
contactors, defined 20-6 20-7
cooling, requirements defined 20-14
current compensation 20-11
data line input 20-6
delayed firing 20-10
dial input 20-5
discrete solid state devices 20-4
downslope, defined 20-10
downslope, illustrated 2-6
electronic timers 20-3 20-4
electrostatic principle 20-3
feedback systems, defined 20-11 20-12
heat control 20-7
history 20-1
"hold time", defined 20-4
ignitron tube, construction of 20-7
incremental switch 20-6
keypad input 20-6
line voltage compensation 20-11
maintenance 25-10 25-11
motor timing 20-3
multiple-phase 19-14
NEMA classifications & standards 20-4
"off time", defined 20-4
phase-shift heat control 20-8
pneumatic timing 20-3
power factor compensation 20-11 22-22
resistance monitoring 20-12Index Terms Links
Controls (Cont.)
RWMA standards 20-5
SCR's 20-4 20-7
silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's) 20-7
single-phase 19-11
slope control 20-10
stepper heat control 20-10
"squeeze time", defined 20-4
systems, defined 20-1 20-3
three-phase 19-14
thumbwheel input 20-5
timers, types of 20-2
tip voltage regulations 20-12
transistors 20-4
upslope, defined 20-10
upslope, illustrated 2-6
user interface, types of 20-5 20-6
voltage compensation 22-22
"weld interval" 20-5
"weld interval", illustrated 2-5
"weld time", defined 20-4
"weld time", illustrated 2-2
Cool
cool period 8-10
"cool time" 8-8 8-9 20-5
Coolers
See, Air Systems
Copper
alloy weldability, factors affecting 13-5
alloying agents, effect of 13-1 13-3
alloying agents, list of 13-1
alloys, aluminum 13-2
alloys, aluminum bronze 13-4
alloys, applications 13-3 13-5
alloys, arsenical 13-3
alloys, beryllium 13-2
alloys, beryllium-copper 13-4 Index Terms Links
Copper (Cont.)
alloys, brasses 13-3
alloys, bronzes 13-4
alloys, bronzes, special 13-4
alloys, cadmium 13-2
alloys, cadmium bronze 13-4
alloys, chromium 13-2
alloys, classification 13-3
alloys, copper-nickel 13-4
alloys, cupro-nickel 13-4
alloys, defined 13-1
alloys, electrical conductivities 13-2 13-6 13-7
alloys, electrode considerations 13-7
alloys, flash welding 13-11
alloys, lead 13-2
alloys, leaded 13-3
alloys, leaded phosphor bronze 13-4
alloys, nickel 13-2 13-4
alloys, nickel-silver 13-4
alloys, phosphor bronze 13-4
alloys, physical properties 13-1 13-6 13-7
alloys, projection welding 13-10
alloys, seam welding 13-10
alloys, silicon 13-2
alloys, silicon copper 13-4
alloys, silver bearing 13-3
alloys, spot welding 13-8
alloys, surface cleaning 13-5
alloys, thermal conductivities 13-2 13-7
alloys, tin 13-2 13-4
alloys, "weld time" 13-7
alloys, welding characteristics 13-7
alloys, welding forces 13-7
alloys, welding schedules 13-7 13-10
alloys, zinc 13-3
applications 13-1 13-3
brasses 13-3 Index Terms Links
Copper (Cont.)
bronzes 13-4
commercial bronze 13-3
deoxidizing agents 13-3
flash welding 13-11
general description 13-1
general principles 13-4
high brass 13-3
high copper , defined 13-3
leaded brasses 13-3
low brass 13-3
muntz metal 13-3
nickel alloys 13-4
physical properties 13-6
plain brasses, listing of 13-3
plain brasses, properties defined 13-3
projection welding 13-10
red brass 13-3
seam welding 13-10
spot welding 13-5
spot welding, cartridge brass 13-9
spot welding, copper alloys 13-8
spot welding, copper silicon 13-9
spot welding, high brass 13-8
spot welding, low brass 13-8
spot welding, muntz metal 13-8
spot welding, phosphor bronze 13-10
spot welding, red brass 13-9
spot welding, silicon brass 13-9
spot welding, silicon bronze 13-10
spot welding, yellow brass 13-8
surface cleaning, methods defined 13-5
surface preparation 13-5
tin alloys, listing of 13-4
weldability, factors affecting 13-5
yellow brass 13-3
zinc alloys, listing of 13-3 Index Terms Links
Corrosion
See, Aluminum
Costs 1-9
Cross Tension
See, Tests
Cross Wire Welding
applications 1-9 1-15 6-1
design considerations 1-14
electrode, setup of 6-3
equipment 6-1 6-3
general description 6-1
heat, determining factors 6-3
machines 6-2 6-3
materials 6-1
nickel 14-15
nickel, welding conditions 14-9
"percent setdown" 6-3
setup for 6-2
surface preparation 6-1
tests 6-4
variables 6-3
weld quality 6-3
weld strength 6-3
"weld time" 6-3
welding conditions, Inconel 14-9
welding conditions, Monel 14-9
welding conditions, nickel 14-9
welding current 6-3
welding force 6-3
welding technique 6-2
welds, examples of 6-4
Current
See Also, Electrical System
alternating 19-3
alternating-current (ac) circuits 19-2
bidirectional pulses 19-12
compensation 20-11Index Terms Links
Current (Cont.)
constant 22-22
control of 22-2
direct-current (dc) circuit 19-2
equivalent continuous ratings 21-6
nameplate ratings 21-6 21-7
secondary 19-2 19-3
short-circuit, measurement of 22-14
unidirectional pulses 19-12
welding current 2-5 19-3 19-12
welding current diagram 11-20 11-21
Cylinders
air-operated 23-12
double acting, adjustable-retractable
stroke 23-9
double acting, adjustable stroke 23-9
double acting, defined 23-9
double acting, fixed stroke 23-9
double acting, types of 23-9
fixed stroke, cable 23-10
fixed stroke, intensifying 23-10 23-11
fixed stroke, multipiston 23-10
fixed stroke, multiposition 23-10
fixed stroke, rodless 23-10
general description 23-8
hammer blow 23-12
maintenance 25-9
mounting options, types of 23-10 23-11
mounts, centerline 23-11
mounts, foot 23-11
mounts, pivot 23-11
one-piece type 23-11
pressure regulator 23-4
single acting, diaphragm style 23-8
single acting, ram style 23-8
single acting, spring-return style 23-8
single acting, standard configuration 23-8 Index Terms Links
Cylinders (Cont.)
single acting, types of styles 23-8
speed conrol valves 23-12
threaded-head type 23-10
tie-rod type 23-10
types, determination of 23-10 23-11
valves, types of 23-12
D
Defects
See, Quality Control; Weld
Design Considerations 1-12
Dies
See Also, Flash Welding; Projection
Welding
locator type 17-2
projection welding, die set 17-7
Direct Current
See, Current; Electrical System
Direct Energy
machine, defined 16-1
polyphase welding machine 11-7
single-phase current-forcce diagram 11-21
single-phase welding machines 11-6
single-phase welding schedules 11-23
three-phase current-force diagram 11-20
Direct Welding
defined 2-3
Dissimilar Metals
applications 15-6 15-7
flash welding, applications 15-9
flash welding, welding technique 15-9
spot welding 2-5 15-5
spot welding, electrode material 15-7
spot welding, heat balance 15-7
spot welding, weldiing schedules 15-8
upset welding, welding technique 15-9
welding conditions 15-7 Index Terms Links
Downslope
See, Controls
Dressing
See, Electrodes
Duty Cycle
defined 19-3
equation 19-3
E
Economics 1-9
Eddy Current
See, Tests
Electrical System
alternating current 19-2
alternating-current circuits 19-2
alternating current, definition 19-2
alternating current, impedance 19-2
characteristics 19-1
direct current 19-2
direct-current circuits 19-2
electrical circuit 19-2
electrical law 19-2
impedance 19-3 19-11 19-12
Ohm's law 19-2
power conversion equipment 19-3
reactance 19-2 19-3
requirements 19-1
resistance 1-4 19-2 19-3
secondary circuit, reactance 19-2
secondary circuit, resistance 1-4 19-2 19-3
secondary welding circuit 19-1
welding controls 19-1 19-2
welding current 19-2
Electricity
See, Power Supply
Electrodes
adapter shanks, female 18-17Index Terms Links
Electrodes (Cont.)
adapter shanks, male 18-16
cap tips, female 18-17
cap tips, male 18-16
cleaning 11-31
cooling of 11-29 11-31 18-27 18-28
definition 18-1
deformation of 18-11
dissimilar metals 18-2
dressing 11-31
electrode life 18-28
flash welding 18-26 18-27
flash welding, application 18-26
flash welding, clamping 18-27
flash welding , designs 18-27
flash welding, materials 18-26
force 2-5
functions of 18-1
heat generation 1-5
holders 18-20
holders, special 18-23
holders, standard offset 18-22
holders, straight ejector 18-21
holders, straight nonejector 18-21
holders, water-cooled low inertia 18-24
irregular 18-19
maintenance 11-29 18-2 25-6 25-7
materials 11-28 18-2
materials, choice of 18-12
materials, copper base 18-11
materials, electrical resistivity 18-12 18-28
materials, group classifications 18-12
materials, mechanical properties 18-3
materials, physical properties 18-3
materials, refractory metals 18-11
materials, RWMA Class 1 to 20 18-4 18-11 18-12
materials, RWMA classifications 18-11Index Terms Links
Electrodes (Cont.)
materials, specialty 18-12
materials, weldability 18-8
mushrooming 18-12
offset 18-19
projection welding, designs 18-24
projection welding, deterioration of 18-24
projection welding, die sets 18-24
projection welding, factors effecting 18-25
projection welding, materials 18-24
projection welding, selection of 18-25
projection welding, setup 18-25
redressing 12-2 25-6
seam welding, applications 18-26
seam welding, wheel contours 18-26
seam welding, wheel designs 18-26
spot welding, adapter shanks 18-15
spot welding, applications 18-12
spot welding, caps 18-15
spot welding, cap-shank assemblies 18-15
spot welding, cooling of 18-27
spot welding, designs 18-15
spot welding, electrode size 18-15
spot welding, flat-faced design 18-20
spot welding, holder, applications 18-24
spot welding, holder, design of 18-20
spot welding, holder tapers 18-20
spot welding, holder, types of 18-20
spot welding, material selection 18-12
spot welding, nose designs 18-15
spot welding, offset designs 18-20
spot welding, shank assemblies 18-15
spot welding, special 18-19 18-20
surface cleaning 11-29
tapers 18-13 18-18
tip-dressing tool 11-29
water-inlet tube 18-28Index Terms Links
Electro-forging
definition 1-3
Equipment
See Also, Machines;
Section 3-(Chapters 16-25)
ac to dc equipment 19-11
direct-current equipment 19-11
selection of 1-9
single-phase rectifier equipment 19-11
three-phase rectifier equipment 19-14
two-phase rectifier equipment 19-13 19-14
F
Fatigue
See, Tests
Feedback
See, Controls
Feeders
See, Hopper Feeds; Magazine Feeds
Filters 23-4
Fixtures
See Also, Jigs
applications 17-1
conveyor type 17-12
design considerations 17-5
design principles 17-5 17-6
flash welding, alligator type 17-16
flash welding, general description 17-15
flash welding, horizontal type 17-16
flash welding, slide type 17-16
flash welding, vertical type 17-16
function defined 17-1 17-2
general description 17-1
gun welding machines 17-12
interchangeable, examples of 17-7
Iron-Man type 17-15
materials 17-3 Index Terms Links
Fixtures (Cont.)
press welding 17-10
sandwich type 17-7
seam welding, general description 17-15
selection of 17-2
shuttle type 17-2 17-12
upset welding, general description 17-15 17-16
use of 17-1
workholding devices, types defined 17-10
Flash Welding
See Also, Aluminum; Coated Steels;
Copper; Dissimilar Metals; Electrodes;
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels; Low
Carbon Steels; Machines; Magnesium;
Nickel; Stainless Steel; Titanium
advantages 5-2 5-3
aligned joints 5-9
aluminum 11-34
applications 1-8 1-16 1-17 5-3
backups 5-5
base metal structure 5-13
bend tests 5-15
clad steel, welding of 10-5
clamping pressure 5-5
coated steels, welding of 10-5
controls 5-4
copper 13-11
costs 1-10
cracking 5-13
current 5-7
definition 1-2 5-1
design considerations 1-16
die burns 5-5 5-13
die material 5-4
die opening 5-10
die wear 5-5
dies 5-4 5-10Index Terms Links
Flash Welding (Cont.)
dimensional variables 5-7
discontinuities 5-13
discontinuities, mechanical 5-13
discontinuities, metallurigcal 5-13
dissimilar metals, applications 15-9
dissimilar metals , welding technique 15-9
electrodes 18-26
end preparation 5-7 5-9
equipment 5-3
equipment, costs 1-10
equipment, selection 1-10
fixture, design considerations 5-5
fixtures 5-5 17-15 17-16
flash removal 5-11
"flash time" 5-7 5-15
flash welding cycle 5-7
flashing 5-2 5-11
flashing, parabolic 5-2
flashing pattern 5-2
flashing voltage 5-1 5-11
flashing voltage cutoff 5-12
flat spots 5-13
force 5-7
gas shielding 5-10
general principles 1-17 5-1
heat balance 5-9
heat generation 1-7
high carbon, low alloy steels 8-12 8-13
hot spots 5-5
initial die opening 5-10
joint, bevel type 1-17
joint design 5-7
joint geometry 5-10
joint lengths, maximum 5-9
joint, miter 1-17
limitations 5-2 5-3 Index Terms Links
Flash Welding (Cont.)
low carbon steels 7-13 7-16 7-17
machines 5-3 5-11 16-8
magnesium 12-3
material certification 5-15
materials 5-3
metal loss 5-2 5-10
metals welded 5-3 5-15
miter joints 5-3 5-9
nickel 14-18
nickel, fixturing 14-18
nickel, flashing distance 14-18
nickel, jaw spacing 14-18
nickel, surface preparation 14-18
nickel, weld quality 14-20
nickel, weld tests 14-20
nickel, welding conditions 14-17
nickel, welding current 14-19
operation, sequence of 5-1
oxides 5-13
part alignment 5-10
part design 1-17 5-7 5-9
part, random samples 5-15
plated steels 10-5
platen motion 5-6 5-7 5-10
postheat cycle 5-4
postheating 5-7 5-11
preheat cycle 5-4
preheating 5-7 5-10
principles 5-1 5-2
procedure qualification 5-15
procedures 5-7
products welded, examples of 5-3
rings 5-9
samples, random testing 5-15
setup for 5-2 5-4
shapes welded 5-3 Index Terms Links
Flash Welding (Cont.)
stainless steels 9-8
steel, flat sheets 5-5
steel, tubing 5-5
steel, welding of 5-15
surface preparation 5-10
temperature distribution 5-2 5-9
tests 5-15
tests, destructive 5-15
time, welding variables 5-7
titanium 15-2
tubing diameters, maximum 5-9
upset distance 5-12
upset, requirements of 5-12
upsetting 5-2 5-12
upsetting current 5-2 5-7 5-12
upsetting force 5-18
upsetting pressure 5-12 5-18
upsetting rate 5-12
upsetting variables 5-12
variables 5-6 5-7 5-11 5-13
visual inspection 5-15
voids 5-13
weld quality 1-11 5-13
"weld time" 5-7
welding schedule 5-11 5-15
welds, common types 5-8
Flash Welding Machine
clamping 16-10
controls 16-9
electro-hydraulic servo 16-10
fixturing 16-10
flashing mechanism 16-9
horizontal clamping 16-10
hydraulic 16-9
hydraulic system 16-9
motor-operated 16-9 Index Terms Links
Flash Welding Machine (Cont.)
servo system 16-10
setup of 16-8 16-9
transformer 16-9
upsetting mechanism 16-9
vertical clamping 16-10
Flicker
cause and effect 21-3
cyclic 21-3
noncyclic 21-3
objectionable limits 21-4
Fluid Power
air fluid, general description 23-1
general description 23-1
hydraulic fluids, general description 23-1
hydraulic fluids, mixtures 23-1
hydraulic fluids, petroleum-based oils 23-1
hydraulic fluids, synthetics 23-2
system, selection of 23-14
Fluids
See, Fluid Power
Force
control of 22-3
electrode force 2-5
forging force 8-9 8-10
welding force 1-6 11-20 11-21
Forge
"forge delay time" 2-5
forging force 8-9 8-10
Frequency Changer Machine
defined 16-17
Frequency Converter System
conventional type 19-9
defined 19-9
full wave type 19-9
general principles 19-9
Full Wave
See, Rectifier Systems Index Terms Links
Fusion
See, Weld
G
Gage
force type 22-20
hydraulic force type 22-20
strain type 22-21
Grain
refinement 8-9 8-10
Guards
See, Installation; Machines
Gun Welding Machine
jigs & fixtures 17-12 17-13
portable type 16-13 16-14
Guns (Welding)
general description 16-14
scissor 16-14
self-equalizing 16-14
straight acting 16-14
H
Half Wave
See, Rectifier Systems
Heat
See Also, Flash Welding, preheat &
postheat; Heat Generation; Postheat;
Preheat
"heat time" 2-5
"preheat time" 2-5
treatment 8-1 8-9
Heat Control
circuit diagram 20-10
defined 20-7
electronic method 20-7 20-9
mechanical method 20-7
monitoring 20-10Index Terms Links
Heat Control (Cont.)
phase-shift 20-8
stepper 20-10
Heat Generation
contacting surfaces, considerations of 1-5
defined 1-3
effects of 1-5
electrodes, considerations of 1-5
flash welding 1-7
heat energy, equation 1-4
projection welding 1-7
shunting effect, considerations of 1-6
time, considerations of 1-6
upset welding 1-7
welding force, considerations of 1-6
work materials, considerations of 1-6
High Alloy Steels
defined 9-1
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels
alloys, carbon 8-2
alloys, chromium 8-2
alloys, cobalt 8-3
alloys, composition of 8-2
alloys, effects of 8-2
alloys, manganese 8-2
alloys, molybdenum 8-2
alloys, nickel 8-2
alloys, silicon 8-2
alloys, sulfur 8-2
alloys, tungsten 8-2
alloys, vanadium 8-2
chemical composition 8-1
classification, numbering of 8-2
definition 8-1
flash welding 8-12
flash welding, considerations 8-12
flash welding, equipment 8-13Index Terms Links
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels (Cont.)
flash welding, postheating 8-13
flash welding, preheating 8-13
general description 8-1
heat treatment 8-1 8-9
high strength–low alloy, HSLA 8-14 8-15
HSLA, weldability of 8-14 8-15
machine setup, AISI 4130 8-5 8-6
postweld heat treatment 8-1
principles 8-1
seam welding 8-12
seam welding, welding schedules 8-12
spot welding 8-3
spot welding, automatic tempering 8-4
spot welding, comparison to low carbon
steel 8-3
spot welding, electrode pressure 8-4
spot welding, electrode tip size 8-4
spot welding, forging 8-8 8-10
spot welding, grain refinement 8-8 8-10
spot welding, low alloy steels 8-11
spot welding, multiple-impulse 8-4
spot welding, postweld heat treatment
cycle 8-4
spot welding, preheating 8-8
spot welding, "quench time" 8-4 8-7
spot welding, single-impulse 8-4
spot welding, temper current 8-5 8-7
spot welding, "temper time" 8-5
spot welding, temperature, critical
factors 8-3 8-4
spot welding, tempering 8-8
spot welding , tensile-shear strength 8-4 8-7
spot welding, time-temperature curve 8-4
spot welding, weld structure 8-4
spot welding, "weld time" 8-3 8-4 8-7
spot welding, welding current 8-3 8-7 Index Terms Links
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels (Cont.)
spot welding, welding pressure 8-3
spot welding, welding schedules 8-3 8-7 8-8 8-11
steel, AISI 4130 8-5 8-7
steel, AISI 4340 8-6 8-8
steels, AISI 1020, 1035, 1045 8-6 8-7
steels, types of 8-1
surface preparation 8-3
welding variables, effects of 8-4
High Frequency Welding
application 16-16
defined 16-16
direct current, defined 19-11
welding schedules 16-17
High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA)
defined 8-14
welding practices 8-15
Hold
"hold time" 2-5 20-4
Holders
See, Electrodes
Hopper Feeds
applications 17-13 17-14
defined, types of 17-14
general description 17-13
knife type 17-14
rotary type 17-14
vibrating type 17-14
Hot Riveting
advantages 6-11
applications 6-9 6-11
defined 6-10
equipment 6-11
Hydraulic Systems
components 23-5
general description 23-5
maintenance 25-8 25-9 Index Terms Links
Hydraulic Systems (Cont.)
pumps, types of 23-6 23-7
reservoirs, defined 23-7
I
Ignitron Tube 20-6
See Also, Installation
Impedance 19-3 19-11 19-12
Indirect Welding
advantages 2-4
circuit 2-4
defined 2-4
fixtures 17-8 17-9
tooling 17-8
Inspection
air system 25-11
annually 25-13
cooling system 25-11
dies 25-11
electrical system 25-11
electrodes 25-11
hydraulic system 25-11
mechanical 25-11
monthly 25-12
periodic 25-11
quarterly 25-13
visual 8-10 14-14
weekly 25-12
x-ray 22-29 24-12
Installation
air service 25-2
cylinders 25-4
electrical power 25-4
electrical service 25-2
equipment setup 25-4
flow switches 25-3
general description 25-1 Index Terms Links
Installation (Cont.)
guards 25-3 25-4
hydraulic service 25-3
ignitron tube 25-3
lighting 25-4
lubrication 25-4
machine settings 25-1 25-2
motor 25-2 25-4
preparation, steps for setup 25-1
thermal considerations 21-14
transformer 25-2 25-3
valves 25-4
water service 25-3
weld control 25-4
Instrumentation
ammeter 22-7
comparative meters 22-21
current meter 22-25
cycle counter 22-25
digital meter 22-11 22-12
effective power meters 22-28
equipment 22-5
feedback methods 22-21
force, measurement of 22-12
gages 22-20 22-21
general description 22-1
megger 22-17 22-18
microhm meter 22-16
millivolt-second monitor 22-27
ohmmeter 22-16
oscilloscopes 22-18
personnel safety 22-2
potentiometer 22-5
power factor, measurement of 22-15
pressure, measurement of 22-12
process control 22-21
process monitoring 22-18Index Terms Links
Instrumentation (Cont.)
process verification 22-27
recorders 22-18
resistivity probe 22-28
safety procedures 22-1 22-2
short-circuit, measurement of 22-15
standard cell 22-5
temperature devices 22-13
thermocouple 22-13
thermometer 22-13
transducers 22-20 22-21
ultrasonics 22-27
variables, considering factors 22-4 22-5
voltmeter 22-6 22-10 22-11
watt-second monitor 22-25 22-26
weldscopes 22-18
Insulation
construction 17-4 17-5
general description 17-5
materials 17-3
Interval
See, Weld
J
Jigs
See Also, Fixtures
applications 17-1 17-2
design considerations 17-5
design principles 17-5
function defined 17-1 17-2
general description 17-1
gun welding machines 17-12
materials 17-3
selection of 17-2 Index Terms Links
K
kVA
See Also, Transformers
demand, defined 19-3
rating, defined 19-3
L
Lap Joining
definition 1-2
Lap Seam Welding
See, Seam Welding
Lead
alloys 15-5
welding technique 15-5
Lighting
See, Installation
Limitations 1-18
Load Factor 21-5
Locators
applications 17-17
calibration 17-3
design considerations 17-3
examples of 17-2
general description 17-2 17-17
guidebars 17-17
maintenance 17-3
materials 17-3
nonconductive 17-3
setup of 17-2 17-3
stops 17-17
workpiece contact 17-3
Low Carbon Steels
alloys, carbon 7-2
alloys, composition of 7-2
alloys, effects of 7-1
alloys, manganese 7-2 Index Terms Links
Low Carbon Steels (Cont.)
alloys, phosphorus 7-2
alloys, silicon 7-2
alloys, sulfur 7-2
definition 7-1
flash welding 7-13 17-15 17-16
flash welding, dimensional variables 5-16 5-17 7-13 7-14
flash welding, scaly stock 7-17 7-18
flash welding, upsetting forces 5-12 5-18 7-16
general description 7-1
mash seam welding 7-13
projection welding 7-11
projection welding, scaly stock 7-18
projection welding, variables 7-11
projection welding, weld shape 7-11
projection welding, weld size 7-11
projection welding, "weld time" 7-12
projection welding, welding schedules 3-13 7-11
roll spot welding 7-13
scaly stock, considering factors 7-17
seam welding 7-12 7-13
seam welding, continuous timing 7-12
seam welding, interrupted timing 7-12
seam welding, materials 7-12
seam welding, scaly stock 7-17
seam welding, timing 7-12
seam welding, welding current 7-12
seam welding, welding force 7-12
seam welding, welding schedules 7-12 7-17
seam welding, welding speeds 7-12
spot welding 7-3
spot welding, automotive grade mild
steel 7-5 7-6
spot welding, destructive tests 7-10
spot welding, electrode selection 7-5 7-6 7-7
spot welding, heat effect 7-9 7-10
spot welding, multiple-impulse weld 7-11
spot welding, peel test 7-10Index Terms Links
spot welding, quality control 7-10
spot welding, scaly stock 7-17
spot welding, setup 7-5
spot welding, single-impulse weld 7-6 7-11
spot welding, stock weldability 7-10
spot welding, tensile-shear strength 7-4
spot welding, tension-shear test 7-10
spot welding, variables 7-5 7-6
spot welding, visual test 7-10
spot welding, weld quality 7-3 7-10
spot welding, weld strength 7-3
spot welding, weld tests 7-10
spot welding, "weld time" 7-5 7-10
spot welding, welding current 7-5
spot welding, welding force 7-5
spot welding, welding schedules 7-6 7-14 7-15
surface cleaning 7-3
surface preparation 7-2
upset welding 7-16
Lubrication
See, Maintenace
Lubricators 23-3 23-4
M
Machines
See Also, Equipment; Flash Welding
Machine; Seam Welding Machine;
Spot Welding Machine
aluminum welding 11-6 11-8 11-29
battery-operated 11-7
bench mounted 16-4 16-5
capital investment 1-11
control equipment 16-1
controls, SCR's 16-14
costs 1-9 16-1
design considerations 1-12
design of 16-1 Index Terms Links
Machines (Cont.)
dial tables 17-11
direct energy type 16-1
electrical circuit 16-1
fixture, configurations 16-12
flash welding 16-8
frequency changer 16-17
frequency converter type 11-7
general principles 16-1
guards 25-3 25-4
gun welding 16-13 16-14
mechanical systems 16-1
miscellaneous types 16-2
multiple electrode 17-7
multiple spot type 16-11
multiple spot welding, hydraulic 17-12
multipoint welding 1-10
operating costs 1-9
polyphase direct energy type 11-7
press welding 16-5 17-10
projection welding 1-10
rectifier type 11-7 16-17
rocker arm 16-2 16-3
roll spot welding 11-30
safety 25-3
seam welding 1-10 11-30 16-6
single-phase direct energy type 16-1
single-phase type 16-1
special types 16-2
spike welding 16-17
spot welding 1-9 16-11
standard type 16-2
stored energy type 11-6 11-7 16-1 16-2
three-phase type 16-1
types of 1-8 16-2
upset welding 16-8 16-10
Macroetch
See, Tests Index Terms Links
Magazine Feeds
general description 17-13
setup 17-14 17-15
Magnesium
alloys 12-1
alloys, chrome-pickle coating 12-1
alloys, electrode cooling 12-3
alloys, electrode maintenance 12-2 12-3
alloys, oil coating 12-2
alloys, spot welding 12-2
alloys, surface cleaning 12-2
alloys, surface preparation 12-1
alloys, welding schedules 12-2
chrome-pickle coating, removal of 12-1
cleaning solutions 12-5
electrode life 12-2 12-5
electrode material 12-2 12-5
flash welding 12-3
general description 12-1
material preparation 12-1
oil coating, removal of 12-2
physical properties 12-1 12-4
seam welding 12-2
spot welding 12-2 12-3
spot welding, dissimilar metals 12-3
spot welding, equipment 12-2
surface cleaning 12-2
variables 12-6
weldability of 12-1
welding schedules 12-2 12-6
welding schedules, electrostatic stored
energy machines 12-8
welding schedules , single-phase
alternating current machines 12-7
welding schedules , three-phase dry disc
rectifier machines 12-7
welding schedules , three-phase
frequency converter machines 12-6 Index Terms Links
Maintenance
See Also, Electrodes
air system 25-9
controls 25-10
cylinders 25-9
electrodes, care of 25-6 25-7
electronic contactors 25-10
general description 25-5
good housekeeping 25-4 25-5
hydraulic system 25-8 25-9
ignition contactors 25-8
lubrication 25-6 25-9
preventive 25-4
primary disconnect 25-8
routine 25-4
secondary circuit 25-7 25-8
spare parts 25-4 25-14
switching devices 25-10 25-11
tooling 25-6 25-7
transformer 25-6 25-8
welding contactors 25-10 25-11
Mash Seam Welding
applications 4-2
low carbon steels 7-13
materials 4-2
weld quality 4-2
welding technique 4-2
Materials
See Also, Section 2-(Chapters 7-15)
copper-cadmium alloy, RWMA Class 1 11-29
copper, hardness-temperature curves 18-2
dissimilar 2-5
electrode 18-2
ferrous 2-5
fixtures 17-3
jigs 17-3
locators 17-2 Index Terms Links
Materials (Cont.)
magnetic 17-3
nonferrous 2-5
nonmagnetic 17-3
savings 1-11
synthetic 17-3
thickness 2-5 2-6
tooling 17-2
Megger 22-17 22-18
Metal Gathering
general description 6-12
limitations 6-12
process, defined 6-12
Metals
See Also, Dissimilar Metals;
Refractory Metals
dissimilar, applications 15-7
dissimilar, upset welding 15-9
dissimilar, welding conditions 15-8
dissimilar, welding technique 15-5
similar, weding technique 15-5
Microhm meter 22-16
Millivolt-second monitor 22-25
Molybdenum
See, Refractory Metals
Mufflers 23-5
Multiple Welding
fixtures 17-9 17-10
tooling 17-9
N
Nameplate Rating
defined 19-4
National Electrical Code (NEC®)
See, Power Supply
National Electrical Manufacturers'
Association (NEMA)
classifications & standards 20-4 20-5 Index Terms Links
Nickel
alloys, chemical composition 14-1 14-3
alloys, coring 14-13
alloys, defined 14-1
alloys, distortion 14-13
alloys, Duranickel 14-3
alloys, expulsion 14-12
alloys, Inconel 14-3 14-11 14-18
alloys, Inconel 'X' 14-7 14-10
alloys, indentation 14-12 14-13
alloys, low strength 14-14
alloys, mechanical properties 14-1 14-3
alloys, Monel 14-3 14-11 14-13 14-18
14-19
alloys, nickel 14-3 14-11
alloys, nugget misplaced 14-14
alloys, nugget misshaped 14-14
alloys, physical properties 14-4
alloys, porosity 14-13
alloys, spot welding defects 14-12
alloys, surface burning 14-12
alloys, surface preparation 14-2
alloys, weld cracking 14-13
alloys, welding technique 14-8
chemical cleaning 14-2
chemical composition 14-3
coring 14-11 14-13
corrosion resistance 14-1
cross tension 14-10
cross wire welding 14-9 14-15
die burns 14-2 14-18
distortion, factors affecting 14-12
flash welding 14-18
flash welding, alloy rods 14-17
flash welding, fixturing 14-18
flash welding, flashing distance 14-18
flash welding, jaw spacing 14-18Index Terms Links
Nickel (Cont.)
flash welding, surface preparation 14-18
flash welding, upset requirements 14-18
flash welding, weld quality 14-20
flash welding , weld tests 14-20
flash welding , welding current 14-19
general description 14-1
hot spots 14-2
indentation, factors affecting 14-12
macroetch test 14-15
mechanical cleaning 14-2
mechanical properties 14-3
peel test 14-14
physical properties 14-1 14-4
pickling 14-2
porosity 14-10
projection welding 14-15
projection welding, weld tests 14-15
radiographic test 14-14
seam welding 14-16 14-17
seam welding, electrode suggestions 14-16
seam welding, Monel 14-17
seam welding, weld quality 14-16
seam welding, weld tests 14-16
spot welding 14-6
spot welding, dissimilar metals 14-9
spot welding, electrode maintenance 14-8
spot welding , electrode suggestions 14-6
spot welding, variables 14-6
spot welding, weld defects 14-12
spot welding, weld quality 14-8
spot welding, weld tests 14-14
spot welding, welding schedules 14-4 14-5 14-9
surface burning 14-11
surface preparation 14-2
tensile-shear strength 14-10
tension-shear test 14-14Index Terms Links
Nickel (Cont.)
twist test 14-14
visual inspection 14-14
weld defects 14-12
weld distortion 14-11 14-12
weld size 14-10
"weld time" 14-6
welding current 14-6
welding force 14-6
welding specifications 14-8
O
Ohmmeter 22-16
Ohm's Law
equation 19-2
Operator
machine set up 24-4
safety equipment 25-5
Oscilloscopes 22-18
P
Panels
placement of 16-14
valve accessory 16-14
Parallel Welding
advantages 2-3
defined 2-3
Part
See Also, Workpiece
moving part 16-12
spare parts 25-14
Peel
See, Tests
Percent Setdown
See, Cross Wire Welding
Percussion Welding
applications 6-13 6-14Index Terms Links
Percussion Welding (Cont.)
definition 1-2
general description 6-12
joints, butt welded 6-14
limitations 6-14
materials 6-13 6-14
principles of operation 6-12
process, diagram of 6-13
Personnel
equipment setup 25-4
safety 22-2 25-3
Pillow
See, Tests
Plated Steels
See, Coated Steels; Steels
Pneumatic Systems
See, Air Systems
Polyphase
See, Direct Energy; Machines; Power
Supply
Portable Gun Welding Machine
controls 16-14
guns 16-14
panel 16-14
secondary cables 16-14
setup of 16-13
system configuration 16-13
transformer configurations 16-13
transformer sizes 16-13
Postheat
See Also, Flash Welding; High Carbon,
Low Alloy Steels
defined 8-12 8-13
Postweld
heat treatment 8-1 8-4
"postweld interval" 2-5
Potentiometer 22-5 Index Terms Links
Power Conversion
ac to ac conversion 19-3
ac to dc conversion 19-3
frequency, defined 19-3
high frequency direct current, defined 19-11
kVA demand, defined 19-3
kVA rating, defined 19-3
Power Factor
See Also, Power Supply
compension 20-11 22-22
defined 21-3 21-5
factors affecting 21-3
improvement of 21-3
measurement of 22-14
Power Rates
defined 21-5
determining factors 21-5
Power Supply
cables, conduit sizes 21-6 21-7
composite curves 21-4
connected load 21-5
diversity factor, defined 21-13
electricity, source of 21-1
equivalent continuous current ratings 21-6
feeder size, calculation of 21-7
in-plant system, description of 21-7
in-plant system, determining factors 21-7
lamp flicker 21-3 21-4
load factor 21-5
nameplate current ratings 21-6 21-7
NEC® carrying capacities,
for wires & cables 21-6 21-7
out-plant system, description of 21-1
power factor 21-3 21-5
protective devices 21-15
service solutions for 21-2
single-phase load 21-1 21-2 Index Terms Links
Power Supply (Cont.)
thermal loading, equivalent continuous 21-14
thermal rating 21-7
utilities, metering methods 21-5 21-7
voltage drop 21-9
Preheat
See Also, Flash Welding; High Carbon,
Low Alloy Steels
defined 8-13
"preheat time" 2-5 8-8 8-9
Press Welding Machine
defined, type of 16-5
jigs & fixtures 17-10
projection welding 16-5
RWMA Size 1 17-8 17-11
RWMA Size 3 17-11
RWMA Size 4 17-7 17-10
spot welding 16-5
Pressure
control of 22-3
regulator 23-4
Preweld
"preweld interval" 2-5
Primary
coils 19-7
transformer 19-6
voltage 19-3
Primary Windings 19-4
Principles 1-3
Process
calibration 22-5
control 22-21
monitoring 22-18
variables 22-2
variables, measurement of 22-8
verification 22-27Index Terms Links
Processes (Welding)
See Also, Section 1-(Chapters 1-6)
additional 6-1
defined 1-1
Production Rate
defined 19-3
Projection Welding
See Also, Aluminum ; Coated Steels;
Copper; Electrodes; Low Carbon
Steels; Machines; Nickel; Stainless
Steels
advantages 1-14 3-1
advantages, circular shape 3-3
aluminum 11-33
applications 3-3 3-4 17-10
coated steels 10-4
conical punch 3-3
copper 13-10
costs 1-10
definition 1-2 3-1
design considerations 1-14 3-3
die set 17-7
dies 3-11
electrode design 3-12
electrode force, principal functions 3-8 3-10
electrode material 3-12
electrodes 3-11 18-24
electrodes, flat 3-11
general description 3-1
heat balance 3-17
heat balance, factors affecting 3-17
heat dissipations 3-17
heat generation 1-7
low carbon steels 7-11 7-12 7-17
machines, press type 16-5 17-10
materials 3-3 3-17
multiple projections 3-11Index Terms Links
Projection Welding (Cont.)
nickel 14-15
nickel, dissimilar alloys 14-15
nickel, weld tests 14-15
part preparation 3-12
part tolerance, effect of 3-12
plated steels 10-5
principal uses 3-2
principles 3-8
projection design 3-3
projection shape 3-12
projection size 3-12
projections, annular 3-5
projections, bubble type 3-3
projections, elongated 3-6
projections, type of 1-14 3-3
quality control 24-32
ring welds, formation of 3-10
spherical punch 3-3
spherical radius 3-3
stainless steels 9-8
surface cleaning 3-12
surface marking 3-12
truncated punch 3-3
weld, factors affecting 3-8
weld formation 3-8
weld nut, applications 3-7
weld nut, types of 3-7
weld quality 3-12
"weld time" 3-8 3-11
welding current 3-8
welding force 3-17
welding technique 3-17
welds, types of 1-14
Projection Welding Machine
See Also, Press Welding Machine
defined 1-10 16-5
press type 17-10 17-11Index Terms Links
Pulsation Welding
definition 1-2
Pumps
classificatins 23-6
gear type 23-7
non-positive displacement 23-6
piston type 23-7
positive displacement 23-6
radial piston 23-7
reciprocating 23-5
screw type 23-7
vane types 23-6
Push-Pull Welding
defined 2-4
Q
Quality Control
See Also, Tests
control charts 24-20
electrode force, effects of 24-1 24-2
general description 24-1
nondestructive tests 24-4
standard test data forms 24-4
statistical control, determination of
factors 24-20
statistical control, installation of 24-19
statistical methods 24-19
surface resistance analyzer 24-17 24-18
tensile-shear strength 24-5
(Note 2)
test, torsional-shear 24-13
testing, general description 24-4
testing, methods defined 24-4
tests, data sheets 24-24
tests, flash welds 24-6
tests, preparatio n for 24-6
tests, roll spot welds 24-5 Index Terms Links
Quality Control (Cont.)
tests, seam welds 24-5
tests, spot welds 24-5
tests, types of 24-5 24-6
tests, various types 24-5
weld quality, factors affecting 24-1
weld quality, variable factors 24-1 24-2
weld tests, AWS standards 24-4
Quench
"quench time" 2-5 8-5 8-7
R
Radiographic
See, Tests
Reactance 19-2 19-3
Recorders 22-18
Rectifier
See Also, Transformers
circuit, six-phase star 19-14 19-15
leg 19-12
transformer 19-12 19-13
Rectifier Machine
See Also, Equipment; Magnesium,
welding schedules
defined 11-7 11-8 16-17
dry-disc type 16-2
Rectifier Systems
single-phase, advantages 19-13
single-phase, defined 19-12
three-phase, defined 19-14
three-phase, full wave 19-14
three-phase, half wave 19-14
two-phase, advantages 19-14
two-phase, defined 19-13
two-phase, disadvantages 19-14
Redressing
See, Electrodes Index Terms Links
Refractory Metals
defined 15-4
general description 15-4
molybdenum, welding technique 15-4
nickel, use of 15-4
oxidation 15-4
spot welding 15-4
tantalum, welding technique 15-4
tungsten, welding technique 15-4
upset welding 15-4
"weld time" 15-4
welding conditions 15-4
Regulators 23-4
Reservoirs
See, Air Systems; Hydraulic Systems
Resistance 19-2 19-3
Resistance Brazing
advantages 6-10
cables 6-8
"cool time" 6-6
definition 1-3 6-4
electrode assembly, example of 6-7
electrode, materials 6-7
electrodes, cooling of 6-6 6-8
electrodes, grades of carbon 6-7
equipment 6-6
equipment, portable 6-8
facing material 6-6 6-8
filler metal 6-6 6-9 6-10
fluxes, types of 6-8
fluxing 6-8
general description 6-4
heat generation 6-6
"heat time" 6-6
incandescent 1-3
joints, butt 6-9
joints, lap 6-9 Index Terms Links
Resistance Brazing (Cont.)
joints, scarfed butt 6-9
joints, solidified 6-9
joints, straight or square butt 6-9
joints, types of 6-9
machine 6-6
materials 6-6
pickling 6-8
procedure, defined 6-4
setup, typical 6-7
surface preparation 6-6 6-8
timing range 6-7
tongs 6-8
"weld time" 6-6
Resistance Cutting
applications 6-16
cables, examples of 6-17
equipment 6-16 6-18
process, defined 6-16
Resistance Parting
process, defined 1-3 6-16
Resistance Welder Manufacturers'
Association (RWMA)
See Also, Electrodes, materials
control standards 20-5
Resistivity Probe 22-28
Robots
anthropoid style 16-15
applications 16-15 16-16
electric 16-15
force systems 16-15
gantry style 16-16
general description 16-14
hydraulic 16-15
implementation, considerations 16-16
integration 16-14
pneumatic 16-12Index Terms Links
Robots (Cont.)
Robot Industries Association (RIA) 16-16
selection of 16-16
styles, defined 16-15
turret style 16-14 16-15
use of 16-12
Rocker Arm Welding Machine
air operated 16-3
electrode force 16-3
electrode settings 16-3
foot operated 16-3
hopper applications 17-14
principles 16-3
Roll Spot Welding
See Also, Low Carbon Steels; Seam
Welding; Stainless Steels
aluminum 11-30 11-31
applications 1-8
definition 1-2
quality control 24-31
S
Safety
devices 25-4
hazards 25-3
machine guarding 25-3
operator 25-5
personnel 25-3
procedures 22-2
Schedules (Welding)
See, Aluminum; Copper; Flash Welding;
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels; Low
Carbon Steels; Magnesium; Nickel;
Seam Welding; Spot Welding
Seam Welding
See Also, Aluminum; Coated Steels;
Copper; Electrodes; High Carbon , Index Terms Links
Seam Welding (Cont.)
Low Alloy Steels; Low Carbon Steels;
Machines; Magnesium; Nickel;
Stainless Steels; Titanium; Zinc
aluminum 11-30 11-31
aluminum, electrode cleaning 11-31
aluminum, electrode cooling 11-31
angle joint 4-1
applications 1-15 1-16 4-2 4-4
applications, lap seam 4-8
butt seam 4-1
chrome plated steels 10-5
coated steels 10-4
"cool time" 4-6
cooling 4-9 4-10
copper 13-10
costs 1-10
current, continuous 4-4
current, interrupted 4-4
definition 1-2 4-1
design considerations 1-15 4-2
direct current 4-5
electrodes 18-25
equipment, selection of 1-10
fixtures 17-15
flange joint 4-1
foil butt 4-4
gaging fixture, 'Z' Bar 4-7 4-8
galvanized iron 10-5
general description 4-1
"heat time" 4-6
high carbon, low alloy steels 8-12
lap joint 4-1
lap seam 4-1
lap weld 4-1
lead plated steels 10-5
leak test 4-10Index Terms Links
Seam Welding (Cont.)
low carbon steels 7-12 7-13
machines 11-30 16-6 18-26
machines, circular type 4-1
machines, longitudinal type 4-1
macroetch test 24-29
magnesium, equipment 12-2
mash seam 4-2
materials 4-2 4-7 4-11
nickel 14-16 14-17
nickel, electrode suggestions 14-16
nickel plated steels 10-3
nickel, weld quality 14-16
nickel, weld tests 14-16
nickel, welding conditions 14-17
peel test 4-9
pillow test 4-9
plated steels 10-4
production factors 4-5
quality control 4-8 24-31 24-32
roll spot weld 4-7
spot tack welding 4-7
stainless steels 9-4 9-8
surface cleaning 4-8
tension-shear test 4-9
terne plated steels 10-2 10-4
terne plated steels, welding schedules 10-4
tests 4-9 4-10
tin plated steels 10-2 10-4
titanium 15-2
unweldable stock 4-7
warpage, prevention of 4-10
weld appearance 4-10 4-11
"weld interval" 4-6
weld quality 1-11 4-8 4-9
weld strength 4-9
weldable stock 4-7 Index Terms Links
Seam Welding (Cont.)
welding current 4-4
welding schedules 4-5 4-6
welding schedules, low carbon steel 7-16 7-17
welding speeds 4-5 4-6
welding variables 4-4
welds, continuous 4-4
welds, roll spot 4-1
welds, seam 4-1 4-3
welds, types of 4-1 4-2
wheel depressions 4-9
zinc plated steels 10-5
zinc, welding conditions 15-5
Seam Welding Machine
applications 16-8
drive arrangements 16-7
electrode arrangements 16-7
general principles 16-6
materials welded 16-8
setup of 16-6
types of 16-6 18-26
Secondary Circuit
See, Electrical System
Secondary Coil 19-7
Secondary Current
See, Current
Secondary Windings
See, Windings
Series Welding
advantages 17-8
applications 17-7
circuits 2-3
defined 2-3 2-4
general description 17-7 17-8
tooling 17-7
Service
air installation 25-2 Index Terms Links
Service (Cont.)
hydraulic installation 25-3
removing equipment 25-13
water installation 25-3
Shunting
See, Heat Generation
Shuttle Devices
applications 17-12
general description 17-11 17-12
Single-Phase
See Also, Aluminum, welding schedules;
Controls; Direct Energy; Equipment;
Machines; Magnesium, welding
schedules; Rectifier Systems;
Transformers
direct energy, current–force illus. 11-21
Slope Control
See, Controls
Spike Welding Machine
defined 16-17
Spot Welding
See Also, Aluminum; Coated Steels;
Copper; Dissimilar Metals; Electrodes;
High Carbon, Low Alloy Steels; Low
Carbon Steels; Machines; Magnesium;
Nickel; Stainless Steels; Titanium; Zinc
aluminum 11-5
aluminum alloys 2024-T Alclad 11-5
aluminum, electrode cooling 11-29
aluminum, electrode maintenance 11-29
aluminum, peel test 11-26
aluminum, radiography test 11-26
aluminum, visual inspection test 11-26
aluminum, weld consistency 11-27
aluminized steel 10-3
bonderized steel 10-3
cadmium plated steel 10-4 Index Terms Links
Spot Welding (Cont.)
cartridge brass 13-9
chromium plated steel 10-3
coated steels 10-1
consistency test 24-31
contacting overlap 1-13
copper 13-5
copper alloys, physical properties 13-6
copper alloys, welding schedules 13-9
copper alloys, welding technique 13-7
copper, electrode configuration 13-7
copper silicon 13-10
costs 1-9
definition 1-2 2-1
design considerations 1-12
direct welds 2-3
dissimilar metals 15-5
dissimilar metals, electrode material 15-7
dissimilar metals, heat balance 15-7
dissimilar metals, welding schedules 15-8
downslope 2-6
edge distance 11-22
electrode force 2-8
electrode holders 18-20
electrode materials 18-8
electrode space 1-13
electrodes 18-12
electrodes, choice of 2-5
electrodes, effects of 2-7
equipment, costs 1-9
equipment, selection of 1-9 1-13 2-8
fatigue test 24-29
forging 8-8
galvanneal plated steel 10-2
general principles 2-1
grain refinement 8-8
hardness test 24-31Index Terms Links
Spot Welding (Cont.)
heat balance 2-2
high brass 13-8
high carbon and low alloy steels 8-3
high carbon and low alloy, welding
cycle 8-9 8-10
indirect welds 2-4
internal discontinuities, causes of 2-8
impact test 24-29
implementation of 2-8
lead 15-5
low brass 13-9
low carbon steels 7-3
machines 16-11
machine setup, AISI 4130 8-5
machines, multiple spot 16-11
machines, press type 16-5
macroetch test 24-29
magnesium 12-1
magnesium, chrome-pickle coating 12-1
magnesium, dissimilar metals 12-3
magnesium, equipment 12-2
magnesium, physical properties 12-4
materials, dissimilar 2-5
materials, ferrous 2-5
materials, nonferrous 2-5
materials, selection of 1-18 2-5
materials, thickness considerations 2-5
microetch examination 24-31
Monel, welding conditions 14-17
muntz metal 13-8
nickel 14-6
nickel alloys, weld defects 14-12
nickel alloys, welding technique 14-8
nickel, electrode maintenance 14-8
nickel, electrode suggestions 14-6
nickel plated steel 10-3 Index Terms Links
Spot Welding (Cont.)
nickel, variables 14-6
nickel, weld defects 14-12
nickel, weld quality 14-8 14-11
nickel, weld size 14-11
nickel, weld tests 14-14
nickel, welding schedules 14-4 14-5 14-9
painted surfaces 10-4
parallel welds 2-3
parkerized steel 10-3
phosphor bronze 13-10
plated steels 10-1
preheating 8-8
principles, general 2-1
process, selection of 2-8
quality control 24-28
radiographic test 2-7 24-30
red brass 13-9
secondary circuit 2-2
series welds 2-3 2-4
sheet separation 2-8
sherardized steel 10-3
shunting effect 11-19
silicon brass 13-9
silicon bronze 13-10
similar metals 15-5
stages, defined 8-8
stainless steels 9-5
steel, AISI 4130 8-5 8-6
steel, AISI 4340 8-6
steels, AISI 1020, 1035, 1045 8-6 8-7
surface cleaning 2-7
surface condition 1-14 2-6
surface contaminants, effects of 2-6
tensile-shear strength 2-7
tension-shear test 2-7 24-27 24-28
terne plate 10-2 Index Terms Links
Spot Welding (Cont.)
tests, types of 2-7
throat depth, provision for 1-13
tin plate 10-2
titanium 15-1
titanium, electrode suggestions 15-2
titanium, welding conditions 15-2 15-3
twist test 24-29 24-30
upslope 2-6
weld cycle 2-5
weld, development 11-8
weld, structure 11-8
weld quality, determination of 2-7
weld quality, improvement of 1-11
weld strength 1-13 2-7
"weld time" 2-1
welding current 2-1
welding schedules 2-7
welding schedules, aluminum 11-24
welding schedules, low carbon steel 7-6
welds, types of 1-12 2-2
work surface, appearance of 2-7
work surface, evaluation of 2-7
workpiece, design considerations 1-12
workpiece, surface condition 2-6
workpiece, thickness 2-5
yellow brass 13-8
zinc plated steel 10-2
zinc, welding conditions 15-4
Spot Welding Machine
controls 16-13
general description 1-9 16-11
moving part 16-12
multiple 16-11
portable 1-10
setup of 16-11 16-12
stationary 16-11
system configurations 16-12Index Terms Links
Squeeze
"squeeze time" 2-5 20-4
Stainless Steels
applications 9-3
austenitic 9-1 9-3
carbide precipitation 9-3
carbide precipitation zones 9-4
clad steel, definition 9-9
clad steel, welding technique 9-8 9-11
classification 9-1
corrosion, intergranular 9-3
definition 9-1
ferritic 9-1 9-2
flash welding 9-8
general principles 9-1
intergranular corrosion 9-3
martensitic 9-1 9-2
martensitic, applications 9-3
mash seam welding 4-2
oxidation, resistance to 9-1
physical properties 9-4
pickling 9-5
projection welding 9-7
projection welding, welding schedules 9-10
properties, consideration of 9-4
roll spot welding 9-8
seam welding 9-4 9-8
seam welding, equipment 9-8
seam welding, heat distortion 9-8
seam welding, machines 9-8
seam welding, warping 9-8
seam welding, weld shrinkage 9-8
seam welding, weld structure 9-8
seam welding, welding schedules 9-11
spot welding 9-5
spot welding, electrodes 9-5
spot welding, heat distortion 9-6 Index Terms Links
Stainless Steels (Cont.)
spot welding, multiple-impulse 9-7
spot welding, spot spacing 9-5
spot welding, variables 9-5
spot welding, weld shrinkage 9-7
spot welding, weld structure 9-6 9-7
spot welding, "weld time" 9-5
spot welding, welding controls 9-6
spot welding, welding current 9-5
spot welding, welding force 9-5
spot welding, welding schedules 9-9 9-10
stabilized alloys 9-4
surface cleaning 9-5
types of, groups defined 9-1
variables 9-6
weld quality 9-6
weld structure 9-6 9-7
Statistical Process Control (S.P.C.)
See, Quality Control
Steels
See Also, Coated Steels; High Carbon,
Low Alloy Steels; Stainless Steels
coated steels, types of 10-1
coated steels, welding technique 10-1
Stored Energy
electrochemical welding machine 11-7
electromagnetic welding machine 11-7
electrostatic current–force diagram 11-21
electrostatic welding machine 11-7
homo-polar welding machine 11-7
welding machine, types defined 11-6 11-7 16-1 16-2
T
Tables
dial 17-11
dial, Geneva 17-11
dial table machine 17-11Index Terms Links
Tables (Cont.)
eight station 17-11
rotary index table 16-12
Tantalum
See, Refractory Metals
Tapers
See, Electrodes
Temper
"temper time" 2-5 8-5
Temperature
measurement of 22-13
sensing devices 22-14
Tensile-shear Strength
See Also, Aluminum; High Carbon, Low
Alloy Steels; Low Carbon; Nickel
defined 24-5
(Note 2)
Tensile Strength
defined 24-5
(Note 2)
Tension-shear
See, Tests
Tests
See Also, Qualit y Control
AWS standards 24-4
bend 24-15
cross-tension 24-7 24-8
drop-impact 24-9
eddy current 22-29 24-16
fatigue 24-11
flash welds 24-6
hardness 24-14
impact 24-8
leak 4-10
macroetch 14-15 24-11
pattern signals 22-26 22-27
peel 4-9 14-14 24-15Index Terms Links
Tests (Cont.)
pillow 4-9 4-10 24-12
projection welds 24-5
radiographic 2-7 14-14 22-29 24-12
roll spot welds 24-5
seam welds 24-5
shear-impact 24-8
shear-impact loading 24-10 24-11
spot welds 24-5
tension 24-7
tension-impact loading 24-11
tension-shear 14-14 24-6
tension-shear, fatigue 24-11
torsional 24-13
torsional-shear 24-13 24-14
torsional, straight-shear strength
equation 24-14
twist 14-14 24-13
u-tension 24-7 24-8
water flow 25-8
water leaks 25-8
Thermocouple 22-13
Thermometer 22-13
Three-Phase
See Also, Aluminum, welding schedules;
Controls; Direct Energy; Equipment;
Machines; Rectifier Systems;
Transformers
three-phase direct energy,
current-force diagram 11-20
Time
See Also, Cool; Flash Welding; Heat;
Postheat; Preheat; Squeeze; Temper;
Weld
control of 22-4
defined 1-6
diagram, weld cycle 2-5
welding current time 22-2 Index Terms Links
Timers
absolute 20-2
electronic timers 20-3 20-4
nonsynchronous 20-2 20-3
synchronous 20-2 20-3
synchronous precision 20-2
transistorized 20-3
Timing
motor timing 20-3
pneumatic timing 20-3
Tin
See, Copper
Tips
See, Electrodes
Titanium
alloys 15-1 15-3
flash welding 15-2
general description 15-1
physical properties 15-1
seam welding 15-2
spot welding 15-1
spot welding, electrode suggestions 15-2
spot welding, welding conditions 15-2
surface preparation 15-1
welding technique 15-1
Tooling
configurations 16-12
general description 17-2
indirect welding 17-8
location type 17-2
maintenance 25-6 25-7
materials, types & use of 17-3
multiple welding 17-9
parallel welding 17-9
perishable 17-2
quick change 16-12
series welding 17-7 Index Terms Links
Torsional-shear
See, Tests
Transducers 22-20 22-21
Transfer Lines
transfers, mechanical 16-12 16-13
Transformers
center tap 19-13 19-14
configuration 19-5 19-6
defined 19-2
design 19-6
diodes 19-13
excitation current test 25-8
fixture type 17-9 19-5 19-8
frequency converter type 19-3 19-9 19-10
general principles 19-4
high frequency type 19-11
Hipersil 19-6 20-10
Hipot test 25-7
kVA demand 19-8
kVA rating 19-7 19-8
machine type 19-7 19-14
main 19-14
maintenance 25-7 25-8
multiple spot 19-5 19-7 19-8
nonrectified 19-14
package type 17-9
portable gun 19-6
power supply transformer, rating of 21-14
power transformer, selection of


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