كتاب The Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering
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 كتاب The Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering

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The Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering
Second Edition
Assembly Processes Finishing, Packaging, and Automation
Edited by
Richard Crowson

كتاب The Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering  A_p_p_10
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Contents
Chapter 1 Manual Assembly 1
John P. Tanner and Jack M. Walker
1.0 Introduction to Manual Assembly 1
1.1 Assembly Work Instructions 4
1.2 Assembly Operation Sequences 5
1.3 Workstation and Line Layout 11
1.4 Manufacturing Methods Analysis 12
1.5 Principles of Motion Economy 20
1.6 Standard Manufacturing Processes 26
1.7 Special Manufacturing Instructions 28
References 29
Chapter 2 Assembly Automation 31
Jack M. Walker and Vijay Sheth
2.1 Introduction to Assembly Automation 31
2.2 Assembly Machines in the Factory 32
2.3 Basic Automation Concepts 32
2.4 Types of Automated Assembly Machines 33
2.5 Motion Systems 38
2.6 Justifying Automation 44
2.7 Software Interfaces to Assembly Automation 48
2.8 Design for Automated Production 49
2.9 Automated Material Handling 57
References 72
Chapter 3 Electronics Assembly 73
Michael Pecht, Denise Burkus Harris and Shrikar Bhagath
3.1 Introduction to Electronics Assembly 73
3.2 Typical Package Architecture 74
3.3 Elementary Subassemblies 74
3.4 Chip Carrier Assemblies 91
3.5 Hybrid Microelectronics Assemblies 95
3.6 Printed Wiring Board Assemblies 122
3.7 System Integration 142
References 144
Suggested Readings 144
Index 147
Index
A
Adhesives
component mounting, 100
electronic package customization, 122
organic PWB assemblies, 99
printed wiring board assemblies, 126
Advantages and disadvantages, see also
Benefits
automation, material handling, 58
ceramic packaging, 120–121
continuous-motion machines, 36
dial indexing machines, 34
die assemblies, 74
floating work platform machines, 35
hybrid microelectronics assemblies, 97
in-line machines, 34
surface mounting, 129
tape automated bonding, 104, 106
Aerospace industry, 31–32
Alignment, 54
Aluminum, 124
AMRF, see Automated Manufacturing
Research Facilities (AMRF)
Applications, see also specifi c type of
application
die assemblies, 84–86
high-voltage, 89
Approaches, material handling, 58–60
Arcing potentials, 89
Arms, motion economy, 20–22
AS/RS, see Automated storage and retrieval
systems (AS/RS)
Assembly automation
advantages and disadvantages, 58
automation concepts, 32–33
basics, 31–32
benefits, 45–47, 47
factory, assembly machines, 32
inspection, 42–43
justification, 44–47
machine/operator relationships, 44, 54–57
material handling, 57–72
motion systems, 38–44, 39–42
production design, 49–57, 50–53
robots, 37–38
software interfaces, 48
standard machine bases, 33–37
storage equipment, 60–64
testing, 42–43
transportation equipment, 66–72
Assembly methods, 4
Assembly process, 4, 8–9
Automated assembly machines
continuous-motion machines, 36–37, 37
dial indexing machines, 34, 35
floating work platform machines, 35–36
in-line machine, 34–35, 36
robots, 37–38
standard machine bases, 33–37
Automated factory, 32
Automated guide vehicle system (AVGS),
69, 70
Automated Manufacturing Research
Facilities (AMRF), 48
Automated retrieval systems, see
Automated storage and retrieval systems
(AS/RS)
Automated storage and retrieval systems
(AS/RS), 61, 61–63, see also Storage
systems
Automation concepts, 32–33
Avallone and Baumeister studies,
110–111, 115
AVGS, see Automated guide vehicle system
(AVGS)
Axes of motion, 38
Axis of symmetry, 54148 Index
B
Ball bond, 85, 102–103
Balling and bridging, 133–134
Ballistic motions, 22–23
Ball-limiting metallurgy (BLM), 106
Baumeister, Avallone and, studies,
110–111, 115
Benefits, see also Advantages and
disadvantages
assembly automation, 45–47, 47
automated storage and retrieval
systems, 62
power and free conveyors, 71
Bhagath studies, 73–144
Biomedical hybrids, 109–110
BLM, see Ball-limiting metallurgy (BLM)
Bloom, H., 48
Board components, 133
Body positions, changes, 26
Body strength, automation, 33
Boothroyd studies, 3
Bottlenecks, 15
Bowl driving forces, 33, 49
Broken parts, 33
Bugs, see Debugging
C
Capacitance calculations, capacitor
banks, 87
Capacitor banks, 86–88
Capec studies, 38
Capp and Luther studies, 119
Carousel storage and retrieval system
(CS/RS), 63–64, 64–67
Cash flow, 46, 47, see also Costs; Financial
benefits
Cavity-up/cavity-down packages, 93
Ceramic assemblies
basics, 139, 139–140
heat sink attachment, 140
surface mounting, 141
Ceramic chip carriers, 92–94, 93–95
Ceramic feedthroughs, 117, 118–120
Ceramic packaging, 74, 120–121, 121
Ceramic PWB assemblies, 139–141
Ceramic tabs, die assembly materials, 78
Cerpacks, 131, see also Ceramic
packaging
Chairs, 25
Chip carrier assemblies
basics, 91
ceramic chip carriers, 92–94, 93–95
injection molding process, 92
pin-grid array packaging, 94–95
plastic chip carriers, 91–92
reaction injection molding process, 92
transfer molding process, 91
CIM, see Computer-integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
Cincinnati Milicron T3 material, 41
Climbing/clinging parts, 51, 53
CNC, see Computer numerical control
(CNC) system
Coast Guard radio receiver example, 6, 6
Coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE)
ceramic PWB assemblies, 140
cored boards, 132–133
die assembly materials, 78
electronic package customization, 122
heat sink attachment, 124
printed wiring board assemblies,
122, 126
solder reflow, 138
surface-mounted LCCCs, 132
Commercial applications
connector attachment, 141
die assemblies, 85–86
heat sink attachment, 123
thermal stress, biomedical hybrids, 110
Component mounting, 99–101, see also
Mounting
Component placement, 126, 127
Computer-aided process planning
(CAPP), 7
Computer hardware requirements, 62
Computer-integrated manufacturing
(CIM), 48
Computer numerical control (CNC) system,
39, 59
Conductivity, component mounting,
99–100
Connector attachment, PWBs, 141–142
Contingency plans, 62
Continuous-motion machines, 36–37, 37
Controlled movements, 22Index 149
Controls, motion economy, 23
Conveyors, material handling, 69–72,
71–72
Cored boards, 132–133
Costs, see also Financial benefits;
Justification
decisions, 1
justification, saving vs. making money, 31
work simplification, 15
Critical tolerances, 51
Cross-talk, 89
CS/RS, see Carousel storage and retrieval
system (CS/RS)
D
Debugging, 56
Decision process, 52–54
Default settings, 56
Delay, flowchart symbols, 17
Design
hybrid microelectronics assemblies,
96, 96–99
parts, 54
production, 49–57, 50–53
Dial indexing machines, 34, 35
Die assemblies
applications, 84–86
basics, 74, 77, 78–86
interconnection, 80, 83–84, 83–86
materials, 78
processing, 78–80, 79, 81–83
Dimensioning, parts, 54
DIPs, see Dual in-line packages (DIPs)
Direct-bond copper, 122
Direction, changes in, 22
Distortion, 33, 49
“Do,” work simplification, 15–16
Documentation, 7, 28, see also Work
instructions
Double reflow, 137
Double-sided mounting, 139
Dragon rocket components, 31–33, 57
Drawbacks, AS/RS, 62
Drawings, responsibility, 7
Drop deliveries, 23
Dual in-line packages (DIPs), 91,
126, 131
E
ECA, see Electrical circuit assembly (ECA)
Efficiency, 33, 49
Electrical circuit assembly (ECA), 144
Electromagnetic interference (EMI), 89, 97
Electronic packaging, 113–114, 121–122
Electronics assembly
basics, 73
capacitor banks, 86–88
ceramic chip carrier package, 92–94,
93–95
ceramic PWB assemblies, 139–141
chip carrier assemblies, 91–95
connector attachment, 141–142
die assemblies, 74, 77, 78–86
elementary subassemblies, 74–89
hybrid microelectronics assemblies,
95–122
microwave frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
organic PWB assemblies, 123–139
package architecture, 74, 76–77
packaging, hybrid, 115–122
pin-grid array packaging, 94–95
plastic chip carrier package, 91–92
printed wiring board assemblies,
122–142
radio-frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
subassemblies, 74–89
system breakdown, 73–74, 75
system integration, 142–143, 142–144
Electrostatic discharge (ESD), 97–98
Elementary subassemblies
applications, 84–86
basics, 89
capacitor banks, 86–88
die assemblies, 74, 77, 78–86
interconnection, 80, 83–84, 83–86
microwave frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
radio-frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
EMI, see Electromagnetic interference
(EMI)
Encapsulated hybrid assembly, 96, 96
Engelmaier studies, 138
Engineering drawings, responsibility, 7150 Index
Engineering tree chart, 5
Epoxy mounting, interconnection, 107
Equipment
motion economy, 25–26
storage, 60–64
transportation, 66–72
ESD, see Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
Eutectic mounting, 79, 79–80
Extended-work-area robots, 38
Eye fixations, 23
F
Factory, assembly machines, 32
Factory Automation Systems Division, 48
Fatigue, 15, 44
Feeder, vibrating action, 49
Feedthroughs, 117–118, 118–120
Field effect transistors (FET)
die assemblies, 74, 78, 85–86
interconnection, 101–102
Financial benefits, 44–47, see also Costs;
Justification
Finger motions, 22, 26
Five-axis motion system, 38, 40
Flip-chip bonding, 106, 106
Floating work platform machines, 35–36
Flow diagram, 17, 19
Flow process charts, 16–17, 18, 21
Fluxless solder reflow, 80
Ford, Henry, 3
Forearm, motion economy, 22
Four-axis motion system, 38, 40
Free conveyors, see Power and free
conveyors
Frenchtown ceramic-metal brazed
assemblies, 113–114
Furnace mounting, 80
Furnaces, reflow, 136–137
G
GE, see General Electric (GE)
General Electric (GE), 46
General Motors (GM), 60
Glass seals, metal packaging, 116–118,
117–118
Glove box, substrate mounting, 108
Gold, glass chip-outs, 118
Gold paste, 108
Gold wirebonds, 80, 83, 103
Graphite fiber composites, 124
Gravity-feed bins and containers, 23
Guide vehicle system, automated, 69, 70
Gull-winged chip carriers, 95, 97
H
Hand motion classes, 22–25
Hands, motion economy, 20–22, 25
Hardware requirements, 62
Harper studies, 92, 102
Harris studies, 73–144
Heat sink attachment, 123–124, 125, 140
Height, workplace, 25
High-density storage, 63
High-voltage applications, 89
Horizontal carousels, 63, 64, 67
Hybrid microelectronics assemblies
basics, 95
component mounting, 99–101, 102
design, 96, 96–99
interconnection, 101–104, 104–110
metal packaging, 113–114, 116–122,
117–118, 121
package sealing, 110–111, 111–114, 115
packaging, hybrid, 115–122
processing, 99–115
sealing packages, 110–111, 111–114,
115
Hybrid packaging, 115–122
I
IBM corporation
software interfaces, 48
testing products, 43
total system installation, 60
ICs, see Integrated circuits (ICs)
IMAs, see Integrated microwave assemblies
(IMAs)
IMDAS, see Integrated Manufacturing
Database Administration System
(IMDAS)Index 151
Incompletely molded parts, 33
Indented parts list, 5
Infrared (IR) reflow and furnaces, 135,
137, 141
Injection molding process, 92
In-line indexing machine, 34–35, 36
Insertion mounting, 126–127, 127–130
Inspection, 17, 42–43
Installation, 59–60, 63
Integrated circuits (ICs), 97
Integrated Manufacturing Database
Administration System (IMDAS), 49
Integrated microwave assemblies
(IMAs), 95
Interconnection
die assemblies, 80, 83–84, 83–86
hybrid processing, 101–104
Interfaces, 48, 97
Interpolation, simultaneous, 39
Islands of automation, 59, 60
Item placement planning, 62
J
J-leaded chip carriers, 91, 97
Joint defects, solder, 133, 133
Justification, see also Costs; Financial
benefits
automation, 3, 44–47
documentation, 5
injection molding cost, 92
L
LAG, see Laser artwork generator (LAG)
Large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits, 131
Laser artwork generator (LAG), 98
LCCC, see Leadless ceramic chip carriers
(LCCCs)
Lead forming, 126, 128
Leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCCs)
ceramic PWB assemblies, 140
heat sink attachment, 124
organic PWB assemblies, 132
soldering, 133–134, 136–138
Leadless chip carriers (LCCs)
ceramic PWB assemblies, 140
fabrication and design, 93–94, 94
surface mounting, 128, 131
Leahy studies, 120
Lid deflection, 110–111, 111–114, 115
Line layouts, 11, 14
Load-testing, 62
Locomotive Products Division (GE), 46
LSI, see Large-scale integrated (LSI)
circuits
Luther, Capp and, studies, 119
M
Machine/operator relationships, 44, 54–57
Magnetism sensitivity, 33, 49
“Make ready,” work simplification, 15–16
Making vs. saving money, 31
Manual assembly
basics, 1–3, 2
equipment, 25–26
hand motion classes, 22–25
line layouts, 11, 14
methods analysis, 12, 15–20
motion economy, 20–26
operation sequences, 5–6, 5–11
operator tasks, 20–22
repairs, standard, 27–28
routings, 7
special instructions, 28
standard processes, 26–28
tools, 25–26
visual aids, 10–11, 10–13
work instructions, 4–5, 7–99, 8–9
workmanship standards, 26, 27
workplace environment, 23–25, 24–25
work simplification, 15–17, 18–19,
19–20, 21
workstation layouts, 11, 13–14
Manzione studies, 91
Material handling
advantages and disadvantages,
automation, 58
approaches, 58–60
automated storage systems, 61, 61–63
basics, 57
carousel storage and retrieval system,
63–64, 64–67
characteristics, 57–58152 Index
conveyors, 69–72, 71–72
free conveyors, 69–72, 71–72
guide vehicle system, automated,
69, 70
islands of automation, 59, 60
motion economy, 23
power and free conveyors, 69–72,
71–72
retrieval systems, 61, 61–63
storage equipment and systems,
60–64
total system installation, 59–60
transportation equipment, 66–72
transporters, 66–69, 68
Materials, 54, 78
McDonnell Douglas company
assembly automation, 32
automation justification, 45
start-up problems, 57
testing products, 43
MCPs, see Multichip packages (MCPs)
Mechanical mounting, 107
Messy materials, 54
Metal packaging, 74, 116–122
Methods analysis, manual assembly,
12, 15–20
MHPs, see Multicircuit hybrid packages
(MHPs)
Microwave frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
MIL-H-38534 (standard), 119
Military applications
connector attachment, 141
die assemblies, 84
heat sink attachment, 123
hybrid microelectronics assemblies, 99
interconnections, 83
package sealing, 110
printed wiring board assemblies, 126
thermal stress, biomedical hybrids, 110
Moisture sensitivity, 33, 49
Momentum, motion economy, 22
Motion economy
basics, 20
hand motion classes, 22–23
operator tasks, 20–22
tools and equipment, 25–26
workplace environment, 23–25
Motion systems, 38–44, 39–42
Mounting, 78–80, 79, 81–83, see also
Component mounting; Surface
mounting
Multichip packages (MCPs), 95
Multicircuit hybrid packages (MHPs), 95
Multilayered ceramic chip carriers,
92–93, 93
Multiple zone furnaces, reflow, 136
N
National Association of Electrical
Manufacturers (NEMA), 44
National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 48
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), 41
NBS, see National Bureau of Standards
(NBS)
NEMA, see National Association of
Electrical Manufacturers (NEMA)
Nested parts, 51, 53
NIST, see National Institute of Standards
and Technology (NIST)
Nonproductive time, 16
O
One-person factory analogy, 1–3
Operations
flowchart symbols, 17
instruction procedures, 26
parts list, 10
sequences, 5–6, 5–11
Operator tasks, motion economy, 20–22
Organic PWB assemblies
adhesives, 99
basics, 123–124, 126–127
board components, 133
cored boards, 132–133
deposition, 133, 133–135
heat sink attachment, 123–124, 125
hybrid microelectronics assemblies, 97
insertion mounting, 126–127, 127–130
interconnection, 133
leadless ceramic chip carriers, 132
reflow, 135–138
soldering, 133, 133–138Index 153
special mounting techniques, 138–139
surface mounting, 128–129, 130,
131–139, 132
Orientation, automated production design,
49–50, 52, 53
Overanalysis, 56
P
Packaging
architecture, electronics assembly, 74,
76–77
hierarchy, electronic system, 143,
143–144
hybrid microelectronics assemblies,
115–122
materials, 76
sealing, 110–111, 115
Part geometry, 33, 49
Particle impact noise detection (PIND), 115
Parting line flash, 33, 49
Parts
assembly, easy, 51, 53
balancing, 54
broken, 33
incompletely molded, 33
list, 9, 10, 62, 75
nested, shingle/climbing, clinging, 51, 53
problems, 53–54
replenishing supply, 55
tangled, 50–51, 52
Payback/payoffs, financial, 44–47, see also
Costs; Justification
Pecht studies, 73–144
Performance needs, AS/RS, 62
Personnel, number assigned, 15
PGA, see Pin-grid array (PGA) packaging
PHPs, see Power hybrid packages (PHPs)
PIND, see Particle impact noise detection
(PIND)
Pin-grid array (PGA) packaging, 94–95
Planning, AS/RS, 62
Plastic chip carrier packages, 91–92
Plastic packaging, 74
Polar properties, automated production
design, 49
Power and free conveyors, 69–72, 71–72
Power hybrid packages (PHPs), 95
Prepositioning, tools and equipment, 25
Printed wiring board (PWB) assemblies
basics, 122
ceramic assemblies, 139–141
connector attachment, 141–142
organic assemblies, 123–139
surface mounting, 128–129,
131–139, 141
system integration, 142–143, 142–144
Processes, 4–7
Processing
die assemblies, 78–80, 79, 81–83
hybrid microelectronics assemblies,
99–115
Production design, 49–57, 50–53
Progressive automation technique, 59
Psychological problems, 55–57
“Put away,” work simplification, 15–16
PWB, see Printed wiring board (PWB)
assemblies
Q
Question-and-answer approach, 19–20
R
Radio-frequency subassemblies,
88–89, 90
Raychem’s Solder Kwik product, 142
Reaction injection molding process, 92
Repairs, 27–28, 118
Residual magnetism sensitivity, 33, 49
Restricted movements, motion
economy, 22
Retrieval systems, material handling, 61,
61–63
Revisions, responsibility, 7
Rhythm, motion economy, 23
Ribbon bonding, 89, 103–104
Ripple effects, automation, 45, 47
RMA, see Rosin mildly active (RMA)
Robots, 38–44, 39–42
Rosin mildly active (RMA), 133
“Rossum’s Universal Robots,” 36
Rotary indexing machine, 34, 35
Routings, operation sequences, 7154 Index
S
Saturn (GM), 60
Saving vs. making money, 31
Schafft studies, 103
Schedules, work simplification, 15
Sealing packages, 110–111, 115
Self-alignment, solder deposition, 134
Self-inspection, 56
SEM, see Standard electronic
module (SEM)
Semiautomated operations, parts, 54
Shaped region, parts, 54
Sheth, 31–72
Shingle/climbing parts, 51, 53
Shut-down instructions, 26
Silver-filled epoxies, 99
Simultaneous interpolation, 39
Single-chip packages, 74
Single reflow, 137
Software, 48, 62
Soldering
alloys, 81–82
component mounting, 100–101, 102
deposition, 133, 133–135
interconnection, 133
mounting, 107–109, 108
paste, excessive, 134
reflow, 135–138
Solder Kwik product, 142
Sorting parts, 54
Space applications, 83–84
Special instructions, manual assembly, 28
Special mounting techniques, 138–139
Springs, 50–51
Stamps studies, 116, 119
Standard electronic module (SEM)
ceramic PWB assemblies, 140
connector attachment, 142
heat sink attachment, 124
printed wiring board assemblies, 122,
124, 126
system integration, 143
Standard machine bases, 33–37
Standard processes, 26–28
Standard repairs, 27–28
Standoff posts, 115
Start-up process, 26, 63
Static electricity sensitivity, 33, 49
Statistics, manufacturing, 1, 2
Stitch bond, 102
Storage systems, see also Automated
storage and retrieval systems (AS/RS)
automated, 61, 61–63
component mounting, 99
equipment, 60–64
flowchart symbols, 17
Subassemblies, 74–89
Substrate mounting, interconnection, 107
Surface-mounted LCCCs, 132
Surface mounting, see also Component
mounting; Mounting
ceramic PWB assemblies, 141
organic PWB assemblies, 128–129, 130,
131–139, 132
Symmetry, axis, 54
System breakdown, electronics assembly,
73–74, 75
System installation, total, 59–60
System integration, 142–143, 142–144
T
TAB, see Tape automated bonding (TAB)
Tabs, die assembly materials, 78
Tangled parts, 50–51, 52
Tanner studies, 1–28
Tape automated bonding (TAB), 104–106,
104–106
Taping iron-core transformers example,
26, 27
Temporary mask, 134–135
Testing, 42–43
Thermal bonding methods, 83
Thermal interfaces, 97
Thermal paths, 124, 125
Thermal stress, biomedical hybrid, 110
Thin-film polyamide boards, 122
Three-axis motion system, 38, 39
Throughput, 62
Tolerances, critical, 51
Tools, motion economy, 23, 25–26
Total system installation, 59–60
Transfer molding process, 91
Transportation, 17, 66–72
Transporters, material handling,
66–69, 68Index 155
Troyk studies, 109
Two-axis motion system, 38, 39
U
Ultrasonic/thermocompression
wirebonding, 103
Ultrasonic wirebonding, 103
Underanalysis, 56
Unsatisfactory work conditions and
practices, 15
V
Vapor-phase reflow, 102, 135, 137, 141
Vertical carousels, 64, 66, 71
Vibrating action, feeder, 49
Visual aids, 4, 10–11, 10–13
W
Walker studies, 1–28, 31–72
Walking, work simplification, 15
Waste, excessive, 15
Wedge bond, 85, 102
Welding, package sealing, 110, 111
Wirebonds
fusing currents, 83
gold wirebonds, 80, 83, 103
interconnection, 101–104
pull test, 86
Wiring harness example, 8, 9
Work conditions and practices, 15
Work instructions, 4–5, 7–10, 8–9
Workload, work simplification, 15
Workmanship standards, 26, 27
Workplace environment, 23–25,
24–25
Work simplification, 15–17, 18–19,
19–20, 21
Workstation layouts, 11, 13–14
X
X-Y-Z rotary model, 38
Y
Young modulus, 110


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