كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza

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عدد المساهمات : 17019
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza    كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza  Emptyالأحد 23 مايو 2021, 2:20 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Robot Builder’s Bonanza
Gordon Mccomb
Fourth Edition

كتاب Robot Builder’s Bonanza  R_b_b_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Acknowledgments xxi
Photo and Illustration Credits xxiii
Introduction xxv
Part 1-The Art and Science of Robot Building
Chapter 1-Welcome to the Wonderful World of Robotics! 3
What the Adventure Holds 3
Why Build Robots? 4
The Building-Block Approach 6
Lower Costs, Better Bots 6
Skills You Need 7
Do It Yourself, Kits, or Ready-Made? 9
Thinking Like a Robot Builder 12
Chapter 2-Anatomy of a Robot 13
Stationary versus Mobile Robots 13
Autonomous versus Teleoperated Robots 14
Tethered versus Self-Contained Robots 15
So, What’s a Robot, Anyway? 16
The Body of the Robot 17
Locomotion Systems 22
Power Systems 24
Sensing Devices 25
Output Devices 27
Where the Word “Robot” Comes From 27
Chapter 3-Getting Parts 29
Local Electronics Stores 30
Online Electronics Outlets 30
Using FindChips.com to Locate Parts 30
CONTENTSviii CONTENTS
Specialty Online Robotics Retailers 31
Hobby and Model Stores 31
Craft Stores 32
Hardware and Home Improvement Stores 33
Samples from Electronics Manufacturers 33
Finding What You Need on the Internet 33
Shop Once, Shop Smart 34
Haunting the Surplus Store 34
Getting Parts from Specialty Stores 35
Scavenging: Making Do with What You Already Have 36
Getting Organized 37
Part 2-Robot Construction
Chapter 4-Safety First (and Always) 43
Project Safety 43
Battery Safety 44
Soldering Safety 44
Fire Safety 44
Avoiding Damage by Static Discharge 45
Working with House Current 47
First Aid 47
Use Common Sense-and Enjoy Your Robot Hobby 48
Chapter 5-Building Robot Bodies-the Basics 49
Picking the Right Construction Material 49
In Review: Selecting the Right Material 52
Robots from “Found” Parts 53
Basic Tools for Constructing Robots 54
Optional Tools 57
Hardware Supplies 57
Setting Up Shop 58
Chapter 6-Mechanical Construction Techniques 59
First Things First: Eye and Ear Protection 59
Plan, Sketch, Measure, Mark 60
Drilling Holes in Things 60
Cutting Things to Size 64
Using Portable Power Tools 67
Getting Work Done Fast with Air Tools 68CONTENTS ix
Chapter 7-Working with Wood 69
Hardwood versus Softwood 69
Planks or Ply 69
The Woodcutter’s Art 72
Chapter 8-Build a Motorized Wooden Platform 80
Making the Base 80
Building and Attaching the Motors 83
Building and Mounting the Wheels 84
Attaching the Ball Caster 84
Using the PlyBot 85
Variations on a Theme 85
Chapter 9-Working with Plastic 87
Main Kinds of Plastics for Bots 87
Best Plastics for Robotics 89
Where to Buy Plastic 89
The Ins and Outs of Rigid Expanded PVC 90
How to Cut Plastic 91
How to Drill Plastic 93
Making Plastic Bases 93
Making Plastic Frames 95
How to Bend and Form Plastic 96
How to Smooth the Edges of Plastic 96
How to Glue Plastic 96
Using Hot Glue with Plastics 98
How to Paint Plastics 98
Household Plastics for Bot Constructions 98
Chapter 10-Build a Motorized Plastic Platform 100
Making the Base 100
Attaching the Motors 102
Fitting the Wheels 104
Attaching the Ball Caster 104
Using the PlastoBot 104
Altering the PlastoBot Design 105
Chapter 11-Working with Metal 107
All About Metal for Robots 107
Measuring the Thickness of Metal 109x CONTENTS
What’s This about Heat Treatments? 110
Where to Get Metal for Robots 110
Recap of Metals for Robotics 110
Metal from Your Home Improvement Store 111
Metal from Craft and Hobby Stores 113
The Metalsmith’s Art 114
Chapter 12-Build a Motorized Metal Platform 122
Making the Base 122
Using the TinBot 127
Chapter 13-Assembly Techniques 129
Screws, Nuts, and Other Fasteners 129
Brackets 135
Selecting and Using Adhesives 136
Chapter 14-Rapid Prototyping Methods 144
Selecting Lightweight Robot Materials 144
Cutting and Drilling Substrate Sheets 146
Rapid Construction with Semipermanent Fasteners 147
Chapter 15-Drafting Bots with Computer-Aided Design 152
Making Drilling and Cutting Layouts 152
File Formats for Vector Graphics 158
Using Laser-Cutting Services 158
Producing “Quick-Turn” Metal and Plastic Prototypes 159
Chapter 16-Constructing High-Tech Robots from Toys 160
Erector Sets 160
Fischertechnik 161
K’NEX 162
Other Construction Sets to Try 162
Construction with Snap-Together Components 163
Specialty Toys for Robot Hacking 165
Making Robots from Converted Toy Vehicles 166
Chapter 17-Building Bots from Found Parts 170
A Dozen Ideas to Get You Started 170
Experimenting with “No-Cut” Metal Platform Designs 171
Using Wood and Plastic Samples 175
Keep Your Eyes Peeled and Your Tape Measure Out 176CONTENTS xi
Part 3-Power, Motors, and Locomotion
Chapter 18-All about Batteries 179
An Overview of Power Sources 179
Batteries for Your Robots 180
Understanding Battery Ratings 183
Recharging Batteries 187
Robot Batteries at a Glance 187
Common Battery Sizes 187
Increasing Battery Ratings 189
Chapter 19-Robot Power Systems 190
Power and Battery Circuit Symbols 190
Using a Premade Battery Pack 191
Making Your Own Rechargeable Battery Pack 192
Using Battery Cells in a Battery Holder 193
Best Battery Placement Practices 195
Wiring Batteries to Your Robot 196
Preventing Reverse Battery Polarity 197
On the Web: How to Solder a Barrel Plug onto a Battery Holder
or DC Wall Transformer 198
Adding Fuse Protection 198
Providing Multiple Voltages 199
Regulating Voltage 201
Dealing with Power Brownouts 207
Battery Voltage Monitors 208
Chapter 20-Moving Your Robot 209
Choosing a Locomotion System 209
Locomotion Using Wheels 211
Locomotion Using Tracks 215
Locomotion Using Legs 216
Locomotion Using Other Methods 217
On the Web: Managing the Weight of Your Robot 218
Chapter 21-Choosing the Right Motor 219
AC or DC Motor? 219
Continuous or Stepping Motor? 220
Servo Motors 220
Motor Specs 221xii CONTENTS
Testing Current Draw of a Motor 224
Dealing with Voltage Drops 228
Avoiding Electrical Noise 229
Chapter 22-Using DC Motors 230
The Fundamentals of DC Motors 230
Reviewing DC Motor Ratings 232
Controlling a DC Motor 232
Motor Control by Switch 232
Motor Control by Relay 234
Motor Control by Bipolar Transistor 239
Motor Control by Power MOSFET Transistor 241
Motor Control by Bridge Module 244
Controlling the Speed of a DC Motor 247
Bonus Projects: Interfacing to Motor Bridge Modules 248
Chapter 23-Using Servo Motors 249
How R/C Servos Work 249
Control Signals for R/C Servos 251
The Role of the Potentiometer 253
Special-Purpose Servo Types and Sizes 253
Gear Trains and Power Drives 254
Output Shaft Bushings and Bearings 254
Typical Servo Specs 255
Connector Styles and Wiring 256
Analog Versus Digital Servos 257
Electronics for Controlling a Servo 258
Using Continuously Rotating Servos 260
Modifying a Standard Servo for Continuous Rotation 261
Using Servo Motors for Sensor Turrets 265
Chapter 24-Mounting Motors and Wheels 266
Mounting DC Motors 266
Mounting and Aligning Motors with Aluminum Channel 269
Mounting R/C Servos 270
Mounting Drivetrain Components to Shafts 272
Mounting Wheels to DC Gear Motors 273
Mounting Wheels to R/C Servos 274CONTENTS xiii
Attaching Mechanical Linkages to Servos 276
Drivetrain Components for Robotics 277
Using Rigid Flexible Couplers 278
Working with Different Shaft Types 282
Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Gears 283
Chapter 25-Robot Movement with Shape Memory Alloy 287
Shape Memory Alloy Comes to Robotics 287
Basics of Shape Memory Alloy 287
Using Shape Memory Alloy 288
Operating SMA Using a Microcontroller 290
Experimenting with SMA Mechanisms 291
Using Ready-Made SMA Mechanisms 292
Part 4-Hands-on Robotic Projects
Chapter 26-Build Robots with Wheels and Tracks 297
Basic Design Principles of Rolling Robots 297
Two-Motor BasicBot 304
Bonus Project: Double-Decker RoverBot 306
Building 4WD Robots 306
Building Tank-Style Robots 309
Chapter 27-Build Robots with Legs 318
An Overview of Leggy Robots 318
Selecting the Best Construction Material 321
Scratch Build or Parts Kits 322
Leg Power 324
Walking Gaits for Legged Robots 327
Build a 3-Servo Hexapod 328
Creating X-Y Servo Joints 335
Bonus Project: Build a 12-Servo Hexapod 338
Chapter 28-Experimenting with Robotic Arms 339
The Human Arm 339
Degrees of Freedom in a Typical Robotic Arm 340
Arm Types 340
Actuation Techniques 343
Build a Robotic Wrist 344xiv CONTENTS
Build a Functional Revolute Coordinate Arm 345
Build a Robotic Arm from a Kit 350
Chapter 29-Experimenting with Robotic Grippers 352
Concept of the Basic Gripper 352
Two-Pincher Gripper 353
Tool Clamp Gripper 355
On the Web: More Gripper Plans 359
Part 5-Robot Electronics
Chapter 30-Building Robot Electronics-the Basics 363
Tools for Electronics You Should Have 363
Making Electronic Circuits-the Basics 370
Understanding Wires and Wiring 370
How to Solder 371
Using Headers and Connectors 375
Using Clip-on Jumpers 377
Good Design Principles 377
RoHS Demystified 379
Chapter 31-Common Electronic Components for Robotics 381
But First, a Word about Electronics Symbols 381
Fixed Resistors 382
Potentiometers 388
Capacitors 390
Diodes 394
Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) 396
Transistors 399
Integrated Circuits 400
Switches 402
Relays 404
. . . And the Rest 405
On the Web: Stocking Up on Parts 406
Chapter 32-Using Solderless Breadboards 407
Anatomy of a Solderless Breadboard 407
Steps in Constructing a Solderless Breadboard Circuit 411CONTENTS xv
Making Long-Lasting Solderless Circuits 411
Mounting the Breadboard to Your Robot 412
Tips for Using a Solderless Breadboard 413
Chapter 33-Making Circuit Boards 414
Overview of Your Primary Circuit Board Options 414
Clean It First! 415
Making Permanent Circuits on Solder Breadboards 415
Using Point-to-Point Perforated Board Construction 416
Using Predrilled Stripboards 417
Creating Electronic Circuit Boards with PCB CAD 418
Producing Arduino-Specific Boards with Fritzing 420
On the Web: Etching Your Own Printed Circuit Board 421
Using Custom Prototyping Boards 422
Making Semipermanent Circuits with Wire Wrapping 422
Effective Use of Plug-in Headers 424
Part 6-Computers and Electronic Control
Chapter 34-An Overview of Robot “Brains” 425
Brains for the Brawn 427
Igor, Pull the Switch! 428
Brains from Discrete Components 428
Programmed Brains 429
Of Inputs and Outputs 434
Chapter 35-Understanding Microcontrollers 437
All about Microcontroller Categories 437
Microcontroller Shapes and Sizes 440
Under the Hood of the Typical Microcontroller Chip 441
Microcontroller Programmers 444
All about Microcontroller Speed 445
Chapter 36-Programming Concepts: The Fundamentals 446
Important Programming Concepts 446
Understanding Data Types 450
Lucky Seven Most Common Programming Statements 452
Variables, Expressions, and Operators 455
On the Web: More Programming Fundamentals 459xvi CONTENTS
Part 7-Microcontroller Brains
Chapter 37-Using the Arduino 463
Arduino under the Hood 463
Many Variations on a Theme 464
Ready Expansion via Shields 465
USB Connection and Power 466
Arduino Pin Mapping 467
Programming the Arduino 467
Programming for Robots 469
Using Servos 473
Creating Your Own Functions 474
On the Web: Operating Two Servos 475
Flow Control Structures 476
Using the Serial Monitor Window 477
Some Common Robotic Functions 478
Using Switches and Other Digital Inputs 479
Interfacing to DC Motors 479
Chapter 38-Using the PICAXE 482
Understanding the PICAXE Family 482
Programming the PICAXE 487
Core Language Syntax 488
PICAXE Functions for Robotics 492
Example: Controlling an RC Servo with the PICAXE 493
Example: Reading Buttons and Controlling Outputs 494
Chapter 39-Using the BASIC Stamp 496
Inside the BASIC Stamp 496
Stamp Alone or Developer’s Kit 498
Physical Layout of the BS2 498
Hooking Up: Connecting the BASIC Stamp to a PC 499
Understanding and Using PBasic 500
Interfacing Switches and Other Digital Inputs 506
Interfacing DC Motors to the BASIC Stamp 507
Interfacing RC Servo Motors to the BASIC Stamp 508
Additions in PBasic 2.5 509CONTENTS xvii
Chapter 40-Interfacing Hardware with Your
Microcontroller or Computer 512
Sensors as Inputs 512
Motors and Other Outputs 514
Input and Output Architectures 516
Interfacing Outputs 519
Interfacing Digital Inputs 520
Interfacing Analog Input 522
Connecting with USB 525
Using Analog-to-Digital Conversion 526
Using Digital-to-Analog Conversion 527
Expanding Available I/O Lines 528
Understanding Port Changing 531
On the Web: Understanding Bitwise Port Programming 533
Chapter 41-Remote Control Systems 534
Build a Joystick “Teaching Pendant” 534
Commanding a Robot with Infrared Remote Control 537
On the Web: Control by Radio Signal 543
Broadcasting Video 543
Part 8-Sensors, Navigation, and Feedback
Chapter 42-Adding the Sense of Touch 547
Understanding Touch 547
Mechanical Switch 548
Using a Button Debounce Circuit 555
Debouncing Switches in Software 556
Programming for Bumper Contacts 557
Mechanical Pressure Sensors 558
Experimenting with Piezoelectric Touch Sensors 563
Experimenting with Piezo Film 565
On the Web: Build a Piezo Bumper Bar 568
Other Types of “Touch” Sensors 568
Chapter 43-Proximity and Distance Sensing 570
Design Overview 570
Simple Infrared Light Proximity Sensor 572xviii CONTENTS
Modulated Infrared Proximity Detector 574
Infrared Distance Measurement 580
On the Web: Passive Infrared Detection 585
Ultrasonic Distance Measurement 585
Chapter 44-Robotic Eyes 590
Simple Sensors for Robotic Eyes 590
Building a One-Cell Cyclops Eye 594
Building a Multiple-Cell Robotic Eye 596
Using Lenses and Filters with Light-Sensitive Sensors 600
Video Vision Systems: An Introduction 600
Chapter 45-Navigating Your Robot 603
Tracing a Predefined Path: Line Following 603
Wall Following 608
Odometry: Calculating Your Robot’s Distance of Travel 609
Compass Bearings 617
Experimenting with Tilt and Gravity Sensors 619
More Navigational Systems for Robots 624
Chapter 46-Making and Listening to Sound 625
Preprogrammed Sound Modules 625
Commercial Electronic Sound Effects Kits 627
Making Sirens and Other Warning Sounds 627
Using a Microcontroller to Produce Sound and Music 628
Using Audio Amplifiers 630
Sound and Music Playback with a Microcontroller 631
Speech Synthesis: Getting Your Robot to Talk 632
Listening for Sound 634
On the Web: More Sound Projects 637
Chapter 47-Interacting with Your Creation 639
Using LEDs and LED Displays for Feedback 639
Feedback via Simple Sounds 646
Using LCD Panels 646
Robot-Human Interaction with Lighting Effects 649
Chapter 48-Danger, Will Robinson! 655
Flame Detection 655
Smoke Detection 657CONTENTS xix
Detecting Dangerous Gas 661
Heat Sensing 664
Robotic Firefighting Contests 665
Finally, Go Out and Do! 665
Appendix A-RBB Online Support 667
You’ll Find . . . 667
Backup Support Site 668
Sources for Special Parts, Web Sites 668
Appendix B-Internet Parts Sources 669
Robotics 669
Electronics 670
Hobby 670
Forums and Blogs 671
More on the Web! 671
Appendix C-Mechanical Reference 672
Decimal Fractions 672
Drill Bit and Tap Sizes-Imperial 673
Drill Bit and Tap Sizes-Metric 674
Numbered and Fractional Inch Drill Bit Comparison 675
Fasteners: Standard (Imperial) Threads at a Glance 675
Comparison of Decimal Inch, Fractional Inch, Mil, and Gauge 676
More on the Web! 676
Appendix D-Electronic Reference 677
Formulas 677
Abbreviations 679
Letter Symbols Used in Electronics 681
Numbering Units in Electronics 681
The Six Most Common Units of Measure in Electronics 682
Resistor Color Coding 683
Wire Gauge 684
Index 685
Index
3D CAD
file formats, 158
visualizing design, 156
3D printers, 159
3-DOF wrist, 344
3M
adhesive transfer tape, 151
Dual Lock, 148
Dual Lock, for battery pack,
194
Photo Mount, 151
VHB self-adhesive tape, 150
4WD (four-wheel-drive) and
6WD locomotion, 211,
306
linked-drive, construction,
308
separate motor, construction,
307
12-Servo Hexapod, bonus project, 338
754410 motor control IC, 244
abbreviations, in electronics,
679
ABS (plastic), defined, 88
accelerometer
dual-axis, 621
accelerometer (Cont.):
experimenting with, 621
measuring tilt, 620
as touch sensor, 569
use in robotics, 619
acetal resin, characteristics, 88
Ackermann steering, 212
acrylic, characteristics, 88
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene,
characteristics, 88
additive manufacturing, 159
adhesives and glue, introduction
to, 136
air pressure sensor, 568
air tools, using, 68
Airtronics, connector style,
256
alkaline battery, 180
allophone, defined, 632
alloy, defined, 107
aluminum, 107
bending, 119
bracket, DC motor mounting,
268
filing, 120
painting, 120
in quick-turn manufacturing,
159
aluminum, extruded, 111
framing, 115
for motor mounting, 269
aluminum electrolytic capacitor,
394
amplifier, audio, 631
amplifying signals, 523
analog
comparator, 442
demultiplexer, 531
interfacing, 522
multiplexer, 531
sensors, 513
analog and digital R/C servos,
257, 325
Analog Devices, ADXL dual-axis
accelerometer, 621
analog-to-digital conversion
(ADC), 442, 436, 526
analog video
security camera, 602
sync separator for, 602
vision sensor, 602
analogWrite, Arduino programming statement, 478
And and Or operators, 458
android robot, 19, 320
And truth table, 458
685686 INDEX
animatronic devices, 534
annealing, metal treatment for,
110
anode (diode), 395
antistatic conductive foam,
558
ArdBot, bonus project, 475
Arduino
circuit boards for use with,
420
custom functions in programming for, 474
flow control, programming
with, 476
joystick, 536
microcontroller, introduction
to, 463
operating voltage, 466
pin mapping, 467
pins, using, 470
programming, general, 467
programming for switches,
479
serial monitor window, using,
477
serial servo control, 325
shield, printed circuit board
layouts, 420
USB connection to, 466
USB fuse protection, 466
arm, robotic
cartesian coordinate, 342
construction sets, built from,
350
cylindrical coordinate, 342
degrees of freedom (DOF),
339
electrical actuation, 343
hydraulic actuation, 343
mobile robots, 19
pneumatic actuation, 343
polar coordinate, 341
revolute coordinate, 341
specialty kits, built from,
350
stationary robots, 19
armatures, dolls and teddy
bears, 32
articulated joints in nature, 12
art tape, in line following, 604
Atmel
ATmega microcontroller chip,
463
ATmega328 microcontroller,
441
audio amplifier, 631
AutoCad, 156
aviation snips, cutting metal
with, 115
AVR, serial port, programming
through, 526
back EMF, 238
backing board, use when cutting
wood, 78
backsaw, cutting with, 64
balance
legged robots, 319
static, 328
static and dynamic, 319
tilt sensors, 620
ball bearing construction in R/C
servo motor, 255
bases, plastic, from straight cuts,
94
BasicBot, 304
BASIC language
BASIC Stamp programming,
500
PICAXE programming, 487
as programming language,
439
BASIC Stamp
integrated editor, 505
introduction to, 496
microcontroller, 430
serial servo control, 325
special programming functions, 505
batteries
amp-hour rating, 184
brownouts, 184, 207, 228
capacity ratings, 184, 186
characteristics and applications table, 187
common sizes, 187
composition and types, 180
current rating, 184
discharge, 185
environmental concerns, 183
batteries (Cont.):
fuse protection, 198
increasing ratings, 189
internal resistance, 186
multimeter, testing with,
366
multiple voltages, 199
recharging, 187
reverse polarity, preventing,
197
safe use of, 44
schematic circuit symbols for,
190
selection, 182
SMA wire, with, 290
solder terminals for, 192
split power supply, 228
table of nominal voltages,
183
using polarized plugs with,
196
voltage monitors, 208
voltage rating, 183
voltage regulation, 184, 201
wiring to robot, 196
batteries, polarity, 197
connectors, 197
electronic protection, 198
mechanical protection, 197
using diodes, 198
batteries, ratings
capacity, 184, 186
voltage, 183
batteries, recharging
fast-charge, 187
lithium-ion cells (Li-ion), 181
monitoring voltage of, 208
recharger, universal, 181
batteries, sizes, 192
batteries, types
alkaline, high-capacity, 180
nickel cadmium, nickel metal
hydride, 181
lithium-ion cells (Li-ion), 181
sealed lead-acid, 182
battery holder, 193
9-volt, polarized snap, 194
for in-between voltages, 195
mounting, 194, 196
placement, 195INDEX 687
battery pack
from consumer electronics
device, 191
custom-made, 192
layouts, 189, 192
premade, 191
for R/C models, 191
rechargeable, 191
recharger table, 192
shrink-wrap, 192
battery test with multimeter,
366
BEAM robotics, 17, 24
bearings, 278
belt drive
aligning motors, 308
cogged, 308
plastic molded sprockets, 309
segmented chain for, 308
bendable posing wire, 32
bending metal, 119
bidirectional data communication I2C, 518
Biologically Inspired Robotics
Laboratory, 217
Bioloid walking robot set, 11,
323
BioMetal shape memory alloy,
287
bipolar junction transistor (See
BJT)
bipolar transistor, 239
bird’s-nest circuit construction,
417
bit, 438, 448, 451
bitmap graphics, 154
bitwise port programming, 533
BJT (bipolar junction transistor),
239
Boarduino, Arduino-compatible
board, 465
BOE (Board of Education), 498
bounce, switch, 555
bracket
DC motor mounting blocks,
wood and plastic, 269
DC motor mounting, metal,
268
double-sided, 324
plastic, 136
bracket (Cont.):
R/C servo, custom mount,
271
R/C servo, tab mount, 271
R/C servo, for walking robot,
323
using, 135
zinc-plated steel, 135
brains
hardwired, discrete components, 428
manually operated, 428
microcontroller based, 429
mini-ITX motherboard, 432
personal computer, 431
single-board computer, 430
Smartphones, tablets, PDAs,
434
USB port, connecting
through, 433
variations in, 430
wireless connection, 433
branch, in programming, 449
brass, and robot construction,
108
brass bracket, DC motor mounting, 268
breakdown voltage, zener
diodes, 203
bridge module
intelligent, 247
interfacing, bonus projects,
248
serial motor control, 246
broadcasting video, 543
brownout, 184, 207, 228
brushed versus brushless motors,
231
BuggyBot (online content), 175
bumper bar, piezoelectric touch
sensor, 568
bumper switch, 549
multiple, 551
multiplexer, 553
PISO IC, 554
priority encoder, 552
programming for, 557
bumpers, foam rubber, 32
bump switch, placement in multidirectional robot, 298
bushing, 278
bushings in R/C servo motor,
255
cable clamp, as fastener, 150
CAD (computer-aided design),
156
benefits of, 157
etchable PDF, circuit board
design, 421
introduction to, 152, 157
printed circuit board design,
418
shapes stacking order, 159
CadSoft, Eagle PCB software,
419
CA glue (cyanoacrylate adhesive), 97, 139
Caidin, Martin, author, 16
calculating capacitance and
resistance, 678
calculating speed for wheel
diameter, 301
Call and Return programming
statements, 454
Cameron, Russell, 597
capacitance, calculating, 678
capacitors, 390
applications, 393
calculating capacitance,
678
capacitance value, 392
decoupling, 200, 206
dielectric breakdown voltage
value, 393
dielectric material, 391
dielectric material, table of,
394
microfarads, measured in,
391
for noise suppression, 200
polarized, 393
rating, capacitance, 391
rating, dielectric breakdown
voltage, 391
value reference table, 392
in voltage regulation circuits,
206
Capek, Karel, 28
carbon-zinc battery, 180688 INDEX
cardboard
cutting, 146
heavy-duty, 145
screws and nuts, using, 148
cartesian coordinate arm, 342
car-type steering, 212
Case Western Reserve University, 217
casters
ball, 303
placement, 298
selection, 303
stability, 303
swivel, 302
cathode (diode), 395
CD players, robotics parts from,
36
CdS (cadmium sulfide) photocell,
390, 591
input, interface for, 524
CDs and DVDs, as robot bodies,
171
celluloid, as early plastic, 87
Celtec, plastic, 91
central processing unit (CPU), in
microcontroller, 442
ceramic, dielectric, 394
Chaney Electronics Theremin
kit, 627
circuit board, 414
Arduino-specific boards, 420
cleaning, 415
dead bug wiring, 417
etchable PDF, from CAD,
421
lead-to-lead construction, 417
options for creating, 420
PCB CAD, creating with, 418
perf board construction, 416
printed, 418
proto boards, using, 422
solder breadboard, 415
stripboard, 417
wire wrapping, 422
wire wrapping tools, 423
wire wrap sockets, 417
circuit design
best practice, 377
decoupling capacitors, 200,
206, 378
circuit design (Cont.):
resistors, pull-up/pull-down,
378
wire length, 379
circular saw, cutting with, 65
clamping and taping
clamps and vises, using, 63
glued joints, 141
clevis ends, 276
clip-on jumpers, 377
CMOS integrated circuits, and
electrostatic discharge, 45
CMUcam vision sensor, 602
code block, in Arduino programming, 469
codewheel, in odometry, 609
collision avoidance, 570
color code chart, resistor, 682
combat robot, 18
relays with, 405
comments, 452
in Arduino programming,
473
in BASIC Stamp programming, 502
in PICAXE programming,
488
communicating
with lighting effects, 649
with lights, 639
with sounds, 646
text display, 646
communications, interconnectivity, 433
commutator, in DC motor, 231
compass, electromagnetic, 617
programming sensors, 619
compiling, in programming,
453
compliance, 301
components, building blocks
as, 6
computer-aided design (See
CAD)
computer control
hardwired, discrete components, 428
manually operated, 428
microcontroller-based, 429
mini-ITX motherboard, 432
computer control (Cont.):
personal computer, 431
single-board computer, 430
Smartphones, tablets, PDAs,
434
USB port, connecting
through, 433
variations in, 430
wireless connection, 433
computer mice, as robot bodies,
171
conditional expressions, 449,
453
in Arduino programming,
476
in BASIC Stamp programming, 502
in PICAXE programming,
490
conductive foam, 558
connectors, 375
clip-on jumpers, 377
custom-made, male and
female, 375
Conner, Sarah, 17, 288
constants, in programming,
451
construction foam, 146
construction materials
comparison, 50
selection of, 49
selection table, 52
construction plans, basics of, 60
contact area, touch sensor,
549
contact bumper, 549
contact cement glue, 137
continuity test with multimeter,
366
continuous rotation R/C servo
motor, 261
controlling outputs
with Arduino, 479
with BASIC Stamp, 502
PICAXE, 494
controlling R/C servo
with Arduino, 473
with BASIC Stamp, 508
with PICAXE, 493
coping saw, cutting with, 64INDEX 689
copper
craft and hobby store, 113
robot construction, 108
corrugated plastic
as a construction material,
145
cutting, 146
counters, timers, in microcontrollers, 442
couplers, 278
flexible, custom-made, 281
ready-made, 278
rigid, flexible, 278
standoffs and threaded, 280
tubing, custom, 279
C programming language, 440
with Arduino, 467
current
limiting, interfacing for, 521
Ohm’s law, 387
sinking, 515
sourcing, 515
current draw
amp-hours, 184
brownout, 207
current sense, 244
digital multimeter, using, 199
fuse protection, 199
of motors, 222
rating of batteries, 185
stalled, DC motors, 232
voltage drop, 228
custom battery packs, making,
192
cutting
basics, 64
circles, 73
circuit boards, 416
controlling the depth, 66
creating a layout for, 152
laser cutter, 158
miter box, using, 76
square into other shapes, 73
substrate sheets, 146
tool choice and speed table, 65
wheel wells, 74
cutting techniques
for metal, 114
for plastic, 91
for wood, 72
cyanoacrylate adhesive (CA),
164
using, 139
cybernetic anthropomorphous
machine (cyborg), 16
cyclops eye, construction of, 594
cylindrical coordinate arm, 342
DAGU Electronics, multiple-cell
robotic eye, 597
data
input, 450
output, 450
selector, 530
storage, 433
data conversion
analog-to-digital, 526
digital-to-analog, 527
data demultiplexer, 528
data type
in Arduino programming, 470
constants, 451
expression, 451
literals, 450, 456
number limits table, 451
variables, 451, 469
Dave Brown Lite-Flight wheels,
299
DC motors, 220, 230
from junkyards, 35
motor control, H-bridge, 244
from surplus, 35
dead band, in R/C servos, 260
dead bug wiring, 417
debounce circuit
software in microcontroller,
556
touch sensor, 555
decimal fractions, table of, 672
decoupling capacitor, 378
as motor noise filter, 229
uses for, 200, 206
degrees of freedom (See DOF)
Delrin, 88
demultiplexer (demux)
analog, 531
binary control signals, table
for, 528
desktop robot, 17
relays in, 405
detracking, derailing, 317
Devantech
CMPS09 compass, 618
SRF05, 265, 587
dielectric (capacitor) materials,
391
differential steering
4WD robot, 306
BasicBot, 304
defined, 211
switch-controlled, 234
track steering, 215
wheel traction, 300
digital multiplexer, 530
digital proportional motor (R/C
servo), 252
digital R/C servos, 257
digital sensors, 512
digital-to-analog conversion,
527
digital video, 600
CMUcam, 602
Webcam, 600
Dinsmore 1490 compass, 617
Dinsmore Sensors, 617
diodes, 394
applications, 396
for battery polarity protection,
198
common anode, cathode,
LEDs, 398
current rating of, 395
flyback, in MOSFET motor
bridge, 243
flyback, in motor control circuits, 240
forward voltage drop, 395
incremental voltage drop, 396
laser, 395
LEDs, 396
light-emitting, 395
peak inverse voltage rating,
395
photo, 394
polarization of, 395
ratings of, 395
rectifier, 394
reverse polarity protection,
396
Schottky, 394690 INDEX
diodes (Cont.):
voltage regulation, 202
zener, 394, 522
DIP (dual in-line package), 401
direct motor current measurement, 225
discharge rate of batteries, 185
discrete components, 428
distance and proximity senses,
overview, 26
distance sensor
defined, 572
depth and breadth, 572
far-object detection, 572
infrared light, 580
judgment sensor, 582
position-sensitive device
(PSD), 580
ultrasonic, 572
wall following, 608
DOF (degrees of freedom)
arm, robotic, 340
defined, 19, 320
leg joints, 320
operating terrain, 321
wrist, 344
double-sided adhesive tape, for
battery pack, 194
double-sided foam tape, using,
149
DPDT switch, for motor control,
233
drill bit
selection and use, 60
types and use, 55
drill bit and tap sizes
imperial, table of, 673
metric, table of, 674
drill chuck, 55
using, 62
drilling
aligning holes, 62
basics of, 60
controlling hole depth, 62
creating layout for, 152
metal, 116, 118
plastic, 93
setting proper speed, 61
speed and bit table, 63
wood, 78
drill press, and metalworking,
117
drills, electric, 55
drive geometry, definition of,
209
drivetrain components, table of
commonly used, 277
dual in-line package (See DIP)
Dual Lock, by 3M, 148
Du-Bro foam tires, 275
Duemilanove Arduino, 463
durometer, of wheel material,
299
DWG, DXF (file formats), 158
Dynalloy Flexinol, 287
EEPROM data storage, in
microcontrollers, 442
electrical metallic tubing (See
EMT)
electrical noise from motors,
229
electric drills, robot construction
and, 55
electric light kits
incandescent, 32
low-voltage LEDs, 32
electric shock and first aid, 48
electronic circuit, ground in,
190
electronics
abbreviations used in, 679
letter symbols used in, 680
numbering used in, 680
units of measure used in, 681
electronics parts sources, list of,
670
electrostatic discharge (See ESD)
emitters/detectors
layout, 606
mounting, 612
EMT (electrical metallic tubing),
113
strap for motor mounting,
269
encoders, optical
conditioning, 613
mounting, 612
multimeter, testing with, 614
in odometry, 609
encoders, optical (Cont.):
quadrature, 614
reflective disc, 609, 610
resolution, 611
transmissive disc, 609, 611
types, 609
end effector (grippers),
defined, 19
robotic, 352
endless round belts, 277
environment settings, PICAXE
programming, 487
EPS (Encapsulated PostScript),
158
Erector set, 160
gears in, 286
as robotic parts, 10
ESC motor speed controllers,
247
ESD (electrostatic discharge)
defined, 45
prevention of, 45
etchable PDF, 421
expansion board, Arduino, 465
expressions
order of precedence, 459
in programming, 448, 451,
456
extension arm, 354
eye injury and first aid, 48
eye protection, 369
eyes, for dolls, teddy bears, 32
eye sensors, 590
farads, as unit of measure, 391
far-object detection, 572
fasteners
basic hardware, 57
best selection for robotics,
134
brackets, using, 135
cable clamp, 150
double-sided foam tape, 149
drive styles, 132
head styles, 131
hook-and-loop, 148
introduction to, 129
machine screws, 131
machine screws, self-tapping,
134INDEX 691
fasteners (Cont.):
nuts, using, 132
plastic ties, 149
screws, wood and sheet
metal, 131
semipermanent, 147
sizes, imperial and metric,
130
tape, 149
tapping threads for, 134
Velcro, 148
washers, using, 133
FDM (fused deposition modeling), 159
feedback with lights and sound,
639, 646
filing, metal, 119
fingers
flexible, 359
parallel, 355
FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and
Technology), 11
Tech Challenge kit, 11
first aid, and project safety, 47
Fischertechnik, 161
flame detection, 655
fire flickering, 656
infrared heat, 656
ultraviolet light sensors,
656
flash, burrs, metal finishing and,
119
flash program storage, in microcontrollers, 442
flat washers, 133
Flexinol (shape memory alloy),
287
flex resistor, as pressure sensor,
562
flex sensor, force-sensitive resistor, 390
flippers, locomotion with, 217
flow control
in Arduino programming,
476
in BASIC Stamp programming, 502
in PICAXE programming,
490
flowchart, in programming,
447, 487
in PICAXE, 487
flush wire cutters, 369
foamboard, 32
cutting, 146
screws and nuts, using, 148
used in rapid prototyping,
145
Foam Core, 145
foam PVC, 90
foam rubber sheets, 32
Forbidden Planet, 14
force-sensitive resistors, 390,
561
forklift, robotic, cylindrical coordinate work envelope, 342
Forrest Mims Engineer’s Notebook, 524
forums and blogs sources, list of,
671
found parts, explanation of,
170
frame
assembly, 77
constructing using metal, 116
constructing using plastic, 95
construction steps for, 76
metal materials for, 115
miter box, using, 76
from PVC irrigation pipe,
171
Frankenstein
likened to robotics, 3
nuts and bolts to keep head
on, 129
Freeduino, Arduino-compatible
board, 465
Fritzing, ECAD software, 420
full-bridge (motor control), 241
fused deposition modeling (See
FDM)
fuse protection
multimeter, 365
resettable PPTC, 199
selection of, 199
slow-blow glass-type, 199
Futaba
connector style, 256
drive sprockets, plastic, 316
Futaba (Cont.):
S3003 servo, modifying for
continuous rotation, 264
gait (walking)
alternating tripod, 327
defined, 327
hexapod, 328
metachronal, 327
gates, defined, 236
gauge
as metal thickness measurement, 109
wire, 370, 682
gear reduction, 284
gears, 277
4WD robots, 308
function, 283
gearbox, gears in, 283
introduction to, 283
reduction ratio, 284
specifications, 285
types of gear teeth, 285
gear trains, 283
used in R/C servo, 254
germanium diode, 395
global declaration, in Arduino
programming, 469
global positioning satellite (See
GPS)
Global Specialties EXP-350
solderless breadboard,
412
glue
construction toys, 163
cross-reference table of, 143
cyanoacrylate adhesive, 139
dots, sticks, transfer tape,
150
hot, for plastics, 98
hot-melt, 140
household adhesive, application of, 98
introduction to, 136
joints, reinforcing, 141
mounting R/C servos, 271
paper, 32
plastic bonding, characteristics
table, 97
for plastics, 96692 INDEX
glue (Cont.):
RTV adhesive, silicone-based,
164
setting and curing, 136
Shoe Goo, 164
solvent cement, application
of, 97
Super Glue, 137
two-part epoxy, 137, 138
gm-cm motor specification, definition of, 224
Google Sketch, 155
GPS (global positioning satellite), 624
graphics programs, creating layouts with, 154
gripper
bonus projects, 359
defined, 19
plastic tool clamp, construction of, 356
robotic, 352
two-pincher, advanced, 354
two-pincher, basic, 353
two-pincher, parallel, 355
grit, defined, 79
ground, defined, 190
ground loop, prevention of,
379
GWS, S-35 continuous rotation
servo, 261
gyro sensors, 621, 624
hacking, of hardware
appliances for robotics parts,
35
First Alert smoke alarm, 658
mini 4WD trucks, 166
mouse, encoder wheels, 611
R/C vehicles, 166
smoke detector, 658
snowmobile, metal treads,
310
sources for gears, 286
toy extension arm, 354
toys and kits, 165, 166
toy tanks, treads, 310
hacksaw, 64
cutting metal, 114
robot construction and, 55
half-bridge, 237
Hamamatsu R2868 Flame
Detector UVTron sensor,
656
hardening, metal treatment for,
110
hardwood versus softwood, 69
H-bridge, 241, 244
for BASIC Stamp, 507
MOSFET transistor, using,
242
in R/C vehicles, 166
HDPE, defined, 88
heat sensor, 568, 664
heat treating metal, 110
Heinlein, Robert, 15
Hewitt, Robin, 601
Hex3Bot robot, 9, 328
hexagon, bases, 73
Hitec
connector style, 256
HS-422, modifying for continuous rotation, 262
R/C servos, 254
hobby parts sources, list of, 670
holonomic steering, 213
Honeywell C7027 flame detector, 656
hook-and-loop fasteners, 148
hot-melt glue, 140
household glue
applying, 138
characteristics, 137
household plastics, constructing
robots from, 98
humanoid robot, 320
defined, 19
hydraulic power
arm actuation with, 343
robotics use of, 24
Hyzod (plastic), 88
I2C interface, 518
IDE (integrated development
environment), 467
in Arduino programming,
468
idler wheels, 278
in-circuit programming, of
microcontrollers, 444
indirect motor current measurement, 226
in-field programming, of microcontrollers, 444
infrared detector
adjusting sensitivity, 573
gripper, mounting on, 573
infrared distance sensor, 580
analog or digital, 582
analog output ranging, 583
beam width, 581
coding, 584
distance judgment, 582
electrical hookup, basic,
582
working distance, 581
using, 583
infrared emitter/detector pairs,
606
infrared light proximity sensor,
572
infrared proximity detector (See
IRPD)
infrared receiver/demodulator,
538
PICAXE, interface for, 538
infrared remote control, 537
DC motors, 541
operating robot, 542
universal, 537
Inkscape, 158
using for layout, 155
input
analog interfacing, 522
buffer, 521
current-limiting interface,
521
digital, 520
direct connection, 520
protection with zener diode,
522
sensors, 514
signal amplification, 523
switch, 520
input, adding more
demultiplexer, 528
multiplexer, 529
serial-to-parallel shift register,
528
integer data type, 452INDEX 693
integrated circuits
dual in-line package (DIP),
401
identifying, 401
microcontroller, 402
integrated development board,
441
integrated development environment (See IDE)
internal resistance of batteries,
186
Internet parts sources, list of,
669
interrupts, in microcontrollers,
442
Inventa, gear sets, 286
invertible robot, PlyBot as, 85
iRobot Create platform, 10
IRPD (infrared proximity detector), 574
enhanced circuitry, 578
microcontroller, connecting
to, 576
modulated, 574
using auxiliary microcontroller, 577
jigsaw, cutting with, 65
JohnnyRobot plastic treads,
310, 316
joint, reinforcement of, 141
joystick, 534
analog, IBM PC, 535
Arduino, 536
buttons, table for, 535
teaching pendant, 535
USB, 535
jumper wires, solderless breadboard, 409
K&S Engineering metal structural components, 116
kerf, defined, 66
K’NEX, constructions with,
163
L293D motor control IC, 244
table, 246
L298 motor control IC, 246
laser cutting, 158, 159
layout
computer programs, 154
direct, 153
paper, 153
paper, copying, 153
paper, transfer, 154
lb-ft motor specification, definition of, 224
LCD (liquid-crystal display) panel
characteristics, 647
interface types, 647
text display, 646
lead-free solder, 372
leaf switch touch sensor, 548
LED (light emitting diode), 396
in Arduino programming,
471
colors, 397
common anode, cathode,
398
feedback circuit with, 639,
641
flashing patterns, 640
forward voltage drop, 386
limiting current to, 386
multicolor, 651
as photodiode, 593
powering, 397
size, shape, output, 397
specifications, 396
LED, infrared
optical sensor, 604
resistor values, 605
LED display
feedback, 642
numerals, displaying, 642
pictures and shapes, displaying, 644
LEGO
balloon tires, 275
bricks, 88
constructions with, 163
gears in, 286
motor and component mounting, 164
Technic, rubber tank treads,
311
legs
balance, 319
brackets, R/C servo, 323
legs (Cont.):
locomotion with, 210, 216
multisegment, 217
operating terrain, 321
power supply, 324
R/C servos, 324
with SMA linear actuation,
293
X-Y joint, 322
lenses and filters, using, 600
lever switch, as touch sensor,
548
Lexan (plastic), 88
library code, in Arduino programming, 469
light-emitting diode (See LED)
light feedback, 639
lighting effects, 649
bonus projects, 654
multiple LEDs, 650
superbright and ultrabright
LEDs, 650
light sensor
cyclops eye, building, 594
lenses and filters, 600
light-receptive robot, 595
light spoilage, 599
multiple-cell robotic eye, 596
optical filtration, 593
photodiodes, 593
photophilic and photophobic,
596
photoresistors, 591
spectral response, 593
light spoilage, 599
with optical encoders, 613
lightweight composites, as a
construction material, 51
LilyPad Arduino microcontroller
board, 465
linear voltage regulation, 204
line following, 603
emitters/detectors layout,
606
optical sensors, 604
programming, 607
reflective tape, 604
liquid-crystal display panel (See
LCD panel)
literal data type, 456694 INDEX
literals, in programming, 450
LM34 temperature sensor, 664
LM386 audio amplifier IC, 631
LM1881 sync separator IC, 602
lock washers, 133
locomotion
drive and mechanical considerations for, 209
legs, 23, 318
techniques in robotics, 209
tracks, 23
wheels, 22
logical 0, LOW and HIGH, definition, 235
logic probe, 368
loop, in programming, 449,
455
Lost in Space robot, 14
Lovejoy three-piece jaw coupler,
278
Lucite (plastic), 88
Lynxmotion
arm kits, 350
Phoenix, 18
plastic treads, 310
Servo Erector Set, 10
wheel flange, 274
X-Y joints, 323
Mabuchi FA-130-size motor,
306
machine screws, 131
machine vision, 600
magnetic encoder, 609
Magnevation SpeakJet, 632
Mars Rover Sojourner, 15
mat board, as construction
material, 146
math operators, table of, 457
McMaster-Carr
ball caster/transfer, 80
casters, 303
double-sided foam tape, 150
industrial-grade fasteners, 148
MDF (medium-density fiberboard), defined, 72
Meccano, 160
mechanical construction, techniques for, 59
mechanical encoder, 610
medium-density fiberboard (See
MDF)
melting plastic, toxic fumes
from, 45
metal
bending, 119
characteristics and applications table, 110
conduit, 113
as construction material, 51
cutting using backsaw and
miter box, 116
extruded aluminum, 111
heat treatments, 110
measuring thickness of, 109
painting, 120
properties, and thickness,
109
summary of use in robotics,
107, 111
tapping holes in, 118
where to find, 110
metal, properties
alloys, 107
stress, 119
thickness, 114
metal finishing
filing, 119
painting, 120
removing flash and burrs, 119
sanding, 120
metal oxide substrate, 45
Metropolis (movie), depiction of
robots in, 21
microcontrollers
Arduino, 463
Arduino, low-level programmable, 439
AVR programming, 445
BASIC Stamp, 496
BASIC Stamp, integrated language programming, 439
debounce delays, 556
form factors, 440
hardware interrupts, 442
input/output pins, 442
integrated development environment, 467
integrated-language programmable, 439, 482
microcontrollers (Cont.):
low-level programmable, 439
output interface, 519
parallel interface, 516
PICAXE, 482
PICAXE, integrated-language
programmable, 439
pin functions, 443
programmers for, 438, 444
programming in-field, 444
programming languages,
446
programming limitations of,
443
programming steps, 440
programming, one-time, 444
R/C servo, controlling, 258
serial-based hardware, interfacing with, 518
serial communications, 517
serial interface, 517
SMA, actuating, 290
speed, 445
types of, 437
USB, connecting through,
525
microcontrollers, programming
languages
BASIC, 439
C, 440, 467
Pascal, 440
microcontrollers, use in robotics,
437
micrometer, machinist, 109
microphone
amplifier, 635
best placement for, 635
electret condenser, 635
as touch sensor, 569
Microswitch, 548
Mims, Forrest M., III, 524
mini-ITX motherboard, 432
Mini T-bot, constructing, 172
miter box, and frame assembly,
76
MIT HandyBoard, 431
mobile robots (comparison to
stationary), 13
modulated light, use in IRPD
sensor, 574INDEX 695
modules, robotics as building–
blocks, 6
Mondo-Tronics Muscle Wire,
287
MOSFET transistors, 240,
241
defined, 241
electrostatic discharge, 45
H-bridge, 242
N-channel, P-channel, difference in, 242
switch motor control, 241
most significant bit (See MSB)
motion detection sensor, accelerometer, 623
motors
4WD robot, 307
AC, DC explained, 219
centerline drive mount, 298
common drivetrain components, 277
continuous, stepping motor
explained, 220
current draw, 222
front-drive mount, 298
gear reduction, using with,
286
holes for, 267
loading, 222
linked drive or separate
motors, 307
main specifications, 221
micro-miniature and PlastoBot, 102
mounting brackets, 268
noise with, 200, 229
operating voltage, 221
R/C servo, mounting, 270
servo, 220
shaft types, 282
speed, RPM, 222
Tamiya worm gear, 80
testing current draw, 224
torque, 223
motors, DC
Arduino, using with, 479
BASIC Stamp, controlled by,
507
bridge module control, 244
brushed and brushless, 231
motors, DC (Cont.):
drivetrain components to
shaft, mounting, 272
ESC motor speed controllers,
247
MOSFET transistor, controlled
by, 241
mounting techniques, 266
permanent magnet, 230
PICAXE, remote control, 541
pulse width modulation, 478
ratings, 232
relay controlled, 234
relay half-bridge, 237
reversible, 231
serial control, 246
speed, controlling, 247
switch, controlled by, 232
transistor, control, 239
transistor, full-bridge, 241
wheels, mounting, 273
motors, gearbox, 283
motors, R/C servo
analog and digital, 325
Arduino, 473
BASIC Stamp, controlled by,
508
controlling, 258
drivetrain components to
shafts, mounting, 272
lubrication, 277
mechanical linkages, attaching, 276
modified, 261
modified, limitations of, 265
mounting, 270
PICAXE, controlling with,
493
serial controller, 325
torque ratings, 326
wheels, mounting, 274
MOVITS robot kits, 165
MP3 file sound playback, 631
MSB (most significant bit), 451
multimeter
accuracy, 365
batteries, testing, 366
continuity test, 366
functions, 365
introduction to, 363
multimeter (Cont.):
optical encoders, testing, 614
potentiometers, testing, 389
range, selecting, manual or
automatic, 364
resistor, verifying value of,
367
resistors, testing value of, 384
safeguards, 367
testing, 366
test leads and supplies, 365
using, basics, 366
multiple-cell robotic eye, 596
testing program, 597
multiplexer, 529
analog, 531
bumper switches, controlling,
553
digital, 530
multisegment legs, locomotion
with, 217
Muscle Wire (shape memory
alloy), 287
music, output, 629, 631
mux (data multiplexer), 529
My First Robot, directions to,
667
nail plate, as robot construction
material, 124, 174
navigational sensor, 624
N-channel, P-channel MOSFET,
difference in, 242
near-object detection, 571
netbook, used in robotics, 432
nibbler tool, cutting metal with,
115
NiCd battery, 181
nickel cadmium (NiCd) battery,
181
nickel metal hydride (NiHM) battery, 181
Nickel Titanium Naval Ordnance
Laboratory (Nitinol), 287
Nitinol, 287
N-m motor specification, definition of, 224
noise, electrical
decoupling capacitors for,
200, 206696 INDEX
noise, electrical (Cont.):
ground loops, 379
prevention of, 378
nominal battery voltage, 183
noncontact sensing, 570
nonholonomic steering, 213
nonslip surfaces, and foam rubber, 32
noxious gas
detector, 661
location, 663
specific gravity table, 663
warm-up period, 662
Nubotics Wheel Watcher, 616
numbered and fractional drill
bits, table of, 675
Number Five, example robot
using tracks, 215
numbering units, electronics,
680
number limits of data types,
table of, 452
numeric values
in programming, 449
signed and unsigned, 451
nut drivers, robot construction
and, 56
nylon, characteristics, 88
octagon, bases, 73
odometry, 609
calculating distance and
speed, 610
errors, understanding, 617
pulse accumulator, 612
odometry codewheel
mounting, 612
quadrature encoding pulses,
614
reflective and transmissive,
610
resolution of, 611
ohm, 382
Ohm’s law, 387, 677
calculations, zener diode, 203
in measuring motor torque,
227
and resistors, 387
Oilite bushing, 255
omnidirectional steering, 214
one-time programmable microcontroller (See OTP)
operating voltage of motors,
221
optical encoder, 609
optical filtration for light sensors, 593
optical sensor
line following, 604
mounting, 612
opto-isolator, 521
order of precedence, operators,
459
Or truth table, 458
oscillation, floating voltage, 378
oscillator, voltage-controlled
(VCO), 531
OTP (one-time programmable
microcontroller), 444
output
motors, 514
power-handling requirements,
515
sound and voice, 515
visual indication, 515
output interface, and microcontrollers, 519
OWIKIT robot kits, 165
oz-in motor specification, definition of, 224
pads, foam rubber, 32
painting
metal, 120
plastic, 98
wood, 79
paper foil, capacitor dielectric,
394
Parallax
BASIC Stamp, 496
BOE-Bot robot kit, 429
Continuous Rotation Servo,
261
noxious gas detector, 661
Ping, 265
servo motor, modified, 124
parallel interface
communications, 435
LCD panels, 647
microcontrollers, 516
parallel-to-serial port changing,
531
parts
from craft stores, 32
from hobby and model
stores, 31
from online robotics
retailers, 31
parts storage
antistatic, 46
organization, 37
Pascal programming language,
440
PBasic, 496
BASIC Stamp, 500
special functions, 505
PCB (printed circuit board),
418
PC motherboard, use in robots,
430
peak inverse voltage, 395
pentagon, bases, 73
permanent magnet motor, 230
personal computer (PC)
Mini-ITX, 432
Mini-ITX motherboard, 432
netbook, mounted on robot,
432
USB port, 433
use in robots, 430
Perspex (plastic), 88
Philips head screws, 132
photocell, 390
photodiodes, as light sensors,
593
photophilic and photophobic
reactions, 596
photoresist, 418
photoresistors
in fire detection, 656
light sensors, 390, 591
line following, 605
phototransistors
flame detection, 656
light sensors 592
mounting for odometry, 613
optical sensors, 604
resistor values, 605
PIC (programmable integrated
circuit), 496INDEX 697
PICAXE
08M, 577, 578
08M, introduction to, 485
18M2, introduction to, 486
BASIC language, 487, 488
functions for robotics, 492
infrared proximity detector,
enhanced, 578
infrared proximity detector,
simple, 577
introduction to, 482
pins and legs, 483
program construction, 489
remote control, 539
serial port connection, 484
serial port, programming
through, 526
piezoelectric film, 565
bend sensor, constructing,
567
leads, attaching to, 566
as mechanical transducer,
566
piezoelectric touch sensor, 563
experimenting with, 563
interface circuit, building, 564
pillow block, couplers with, 281
pin jumpers
custom, 410
solderless breadboard, 410
pin mapping, Arduino, 467
pins (inputs, outputs)
Arduino, 470
BASIC Stamp, 498, 502
expanding, 528
PICAXE, 483
PISO (parallel-in, serial-out) IC,
532
bumper switches, controlling,
554
pitch, of gears, 285
Pitsco
TETRIX, 11, 350
X-Y joints, 323
planking (wood), use in robots,
71
plastic
bending and forming, 96
characteristics and usability
table, 89
plastic (Cont.):
as construction material, 50
finishing, 96
frames with, 95
painting, 98
ties as fasteners, 149
varieties, 87
plastic bases, from straight
cuts, 94
plastic project boxes, 171
PlastoBot
construction of, 100
design variations, 105
introduction to, 100
using, 104
Plexiglas (plastic), 88
pliers, robot construction
and, 55
PlyBot
cutting and drilling, 81
introduction to, 80
using, 85
plywood
thickness table, 70
use in robots, 70
pneumatic power
arm actuation with, 343
use in robotics, 25
pneumatic shears, cutting metal
with, 115
point-to-point perforated circuit
board, 416
polar coordinate arm, 341
Pololu
casters, 303
DC motors, 165
FA-130-size motor, 306
miniature motors and wheels,
101
motor kits, mounting, 266
servo motor, modified, 124
polycarbonate, characteristics,
88
polyester polypropylene, as
dielectric material, 394
polyethylene, characteristics, 88
polystyrene, characteristics, 88
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), characteristics, 89
port changing, 531
posing wire, bendable, 32
position-sensitive device (See
PSD)
potentiometer
Arduino, wiring, 471
interface for, 524, 388
multimeter, testing with, 389
rating, value, 390
taper, 388
used in R/C servo motor, 253
using, 389
powder coating, 121
power MOSFET transistor, 241
power sources for robotics,
review of, 179
power systems used in robots,
24
power tools, using, 67
PPTC fuses, 199
pressure angle, of gears, 285
pressure sensitivity, 548, 558
pressure sensor, 558
antistatic conductive foam,
558
microcontroller, connecting
to, 560
on/off pressure pad, 561
reading resistance, 559
printed circuit board (See PCB)
priority encoder, bumper
switches, controlling, 552
programmable integrated circuit
(See PIC)
programming
And truth table, 458
assigning value to variable,
455
bitwise port, 533
branch, 449
bumper switches, 557
call and return statements,
454
C language, case statement,
454
code block, 469
code library, 469
comments in, 452
conditional branching, 490
conditional expression, 453
conditional statement, 449698 INDEX
programming (Cont.):
data input/output, 450
electromagnetic compass sensor, 619
environment settings, 487
expressions, 448, 456
flowchart, 447, 487
for/next statement, 454
fundamentals, 446
global declaration, 469
Go statement, 454
if statement, 453
integer, 452
languages for microcontrollers, 446
line-following robot, 607
loop, 449, 454, 455
numerical values, 449
Or truth table, 458
PBasic, 500
PICAXE, remote control,
539
PICAXE BASIC, 488
pulse counting, odometry,
614
routine, 447
Select Case, 453
simulator, PICAXE, 487
sketch, Arduino, 468
source code, 453
string, 449
strings, using operators with,
458
syntax checker, 487
ultrasonic distance sensor,
587
unconditional branching, 454
variables, 447
While/Wend statements,
455
programming microcontrollers,
steps in, 440
programming, operators
And and Or, 458
math, 457
multiple, 459
order of precedence, 459
relational, 457
string, 458
proto shield, for Arduino, 465
prototype
quick-turn, 159
rapid, 144
proximity sensor
adjusting sensitivity, 573
defined, 571
gripper mounted on, 573
infrared light, 572
wall following, 608
PSD (position-sensitive device),
defined, 580
pseudo-code, 446
pull-up resistor, 516
pulse accumulator, and measuring distance, 612
pulse and frequency management, 436
pulse counter
measuring distance, 612
programming for odometry,
614
pulseIn Arduino programming
statement, 478
pulse width modulation (See
PWM)
pushrod, 276
PVAc glue, 137
PVC
benefits of, 90
defined, 89
foam, 90
rigid expanded, 90
sheets, common thickness
of, 91
as substrate, 91
weight and thickness table, 91
PWM (pulse width modulation),
252, 436, 247
defined, 244
sound produced with, 628
quadrature encoding, 615
quick-turn prototyping, 159
R2-D2 robot, 14
radio-controlled vehicles, hacked
for parts, 166
radio frequency navigation sensors, 624
radio signal remote control, 543
RAM and EEPROM data storage, in microcontrollers,
442
RAM data storage, in microcontrollers, 442
rapid prototyping, 144
razor saw, cutting with, 65
RBB online support, main entry,
667
R/C servo, 220, 249
analog, digital, 257
Arduino, using with, 473
ball bearing construction,
255
basic control, 249
brackets, mounting with,
270
components used inside,
250
connectors and wiring, 256
continuous rotation, 260,
261
controlling speed of, 252
dead band, 260
drivetrain components to
shaft, mounting, 272
general specifications, 255
glue, mounting with, 271
horns for, 272
limiting rotation, 251
linear movement, controlling,
276
mechanical linkages, attaching, 276
microcontroller, controlled by,
258
modifying, 261
pulse, controlling by, 251
pulse duration modulation,
252
pulse width range, 252
recommended voltage, 259
screws, mounting with, 270
sensor turret, 265
serial controller, 259
transit time, 255
types and sizes, 253
rechargeable/nonrechargeable
batteries, 180, 191
alkaline, 181INDEX 699
relational operators, table of,
457
relay
characteristics, 404
common types, 404
driver electronics, 238
motor control, 234
motor direction control, 236
motor on/off control, 235
rating, 405
specifications for, 238
remote control, 534
broadcast video, 543
infrared, 537
joystick, 534
radio signal, 543
teaching pendant, 535
telerobotics, 543
RepRap, 159
repurposing parts, 35
bicycle wheels, 299
CDs, 171
computer mice, 171
consumer electronics device,
battery pack, 191
Erector set, 160
Fischertechnik, 161
flooring and countertop samples, 175
joystick, 534
K’NEX, 162
LEGO Technic, rubber tank
treads, 311
metal hardware parts, 172
plastic tool clamp, 356
plumbing supplies, 176
radio-control, battery packs,
191
skateboard/inline roller skate
wheels, 275
solderless breadboards, 171
storage containers, 170
from toys, 167
trash cans, 170
TV remote control, 537
wheelbarrow wheels, 300
wheelchair wheels, 299
resistance
calculating, 678
Ohm’s law, 387
resistors
calculating resistance, 678
color code table, 383, 682
dividing voltage, 385
fixed, 382
force-sensitive, 390, 561
limiting current, 385
limiting current, Ohm’s law
calculation, 388
multimeter, testing value,
367
photoresistors, 390
potentiometers, 388
power dissipation, 384
pull-up, 516
rating, unit of value, 382
series, potentiometers, 389
series connection, 385
value, testing of, 367, 384
value tolerance, 383
variable, 388, 390
wattage, 384
Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS), 379
reverse polarity protection, and
diodes, 396
reversible motor, 231
revolute coordinate arm, 341
construction of, 345
Revolution Education PICAXE
microcontroller, 483
revolutions per minute (See
RPM)
rigid expanded PVC, 90
Robby the Robot (Forbidden
Planet), 14
RoboRealm vision analysis software, 601
robot
definition, 16, 27
first use of term, 28
(see also robots)
Robot B-9 (Lost in Space), 14
as example of robot using
tracks, 215
robot bases
metal, 114
plastic, 93
wood, 72
robota, 28
Robot Builder’s Bonanza
online support (See RBB
online support)
robot-human interaction, 639
lighting effects, 649
robotic eyes, 590
robotic senses, overview, 25
robotics parts sources, list of,
669
robot locomotion systems,
defined, 209


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