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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook

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كتاب Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook    كتاب Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook  Emptyالجمعة 21 مايو 2021, 11:42 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook
Gregory K. McMillan Editor-in-Chief
Douglas M. Considine Late Editor-in-Chief
Fifth Edition

كتاب Process / Industrial Instruments and Controls Handbook  P_i_i_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Section 1. Introductory Review 1.1
Section 2. Control System Fundamentals 2.1
Control Principles / 2.4
Techniques for Process Control / 2.30
Basic Control Algorithms / 2.57
Safety in Instrumentation and Control Systems / 2.83
Section 3. CONTROLLERS 3.1
Distributed Control Systems / 3.6
Programmable Controllers / 3.32
Stand-Alone Controllers / 3.50
Hydraulic Controllers / 3.57
Batch Process Control / 3.70
Automatic Blending Systems / 3.85
Distributed Numerical Control and Networking / 3.91
Computers and Controls / 3.100
Manufacturing Message Specification / 3.134
Field-Based Systems / 3.162
Section 4. PROCESS VARIABLES—FIELD INSTRUMENTATION 4.1
Temperature Systems / 4.8
Fluid Pressure Systems / 4.47
Industrial Weighing and Density Systems / 4.188
Humidity and Moisture Systems / 4.194
Section 5. GEOMETRIC AND MOTION SENSORS 5.1
Metrology, Position, Displacement, Thickness and Surface Texture Measurement / 5.5
Magnetostrictive Linear Position Sensors / 5.38
Object Detectors and Machine Vision / 5.65
Flat Web (Sheet) Measurement and Control / 5.92
Speed, Velocity and Acceleration Instrumentation / 5.96
Vibration Measurement / 5.111
Section 6. REAL-TIME ANALYTICAL COMPOSITION MEASUREMENTS
FOR INPUT TO PROCESS CONTROL 6.1
Introduction / 6.6
Concentration Measurement Technology and Devices / 6.10
pH Measurement: Theory and Reality / 6.23
Optical Concentration Transducers / 6.55vi CONTENTS
Ultraviolet/Visible Absorption Analysis / 6.70
Sample Extraction, Conditioning, and Preparation for On-Line Analysis (Continuous Sample
Flow versus Discrete Sampling) / 6.83
System Control and Managing Data / 6.104
Calibration and Validation / 6.112
Application Examples / 6.130
Section 7. CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS 7.1
Data Signal Handling in Computerized Systems / 7.2
Noise and Wiring in Data Signal Handling / 7.27
Industrial Control Networks / 7.34
Section 8. OPERATOR INTERFACE 8.1
Operator Interface—Design Rationale / 8.2
Cognitive Skills and Process Control / 8.11
Distributed Display Architecture / 8.22
Knowledge-Based Operator Training / 8.31
Intelligent Alarms / 8.37
Section 9. VALVES, SERVOS, MOTORS, AND ROBOTS 9.1
Process Control Valves / 9.5
Control Value Cavitation: An Overview / 9.63
Control Valve Noise / 9.75
Servomotor Technology in Motion Control Systems / 9.82
Solid-State Variable Speed Drives / 9.107
Robots / 9.123
Current-to-Pressure Transducers for Control-Valve Actuation / 9.139
Section 10. PROCESS CONTROL IMPROVEMENT 10.1
World-Class Manufacturing / 10.7
Plant Analysis, Design, and Tuning for Uniform Manufacturing / 10.17
Control Valve Response / 10.61
Process Impact / 10.70
Best Practices, Tools, and Techniques to Reduce
the Maintenance Costs of Field Instrumentation / 10.86
New Developments in Analytical Measurements / 10.107
Fundamentals of the Quantitative NMR / 10.135
The Improvement of Advanced Regulatory Control Systems / 10.170
Multivariable Predictive Control and Real-time Optimization / 10.190
Neural Networks / 10.222
Section 11. STANDARDS OVERVIEW 11.1
Safety Instrumented (Interlock) Systems / 11.3
An Overview of the ISA/IEC Fieldbus / 11.14
Batch Control: Applying the S88.01 Standard / 11.35
Index /
Index terms Links
A
Abrasion 6.48
Absolute-pressure manometer 4.50
Acceleration instrumentation 1.7 5.96 5.116
Accelerometers 5.11 5.116
Accessibility 10.95
Acid error 6.44
Acoustic pyrometer 4.47
AC synchronous motor 9.87
AC tachometers 5.100
Activity coefficients pH 6.39
Actuators 9.35 9.62 10.67 10.93
AC variable frequency 9.111
Adaptive control 2.48 2.79 10.178 10.228 10.231
Air speed 5.109
Alarms 8.32 8.37 11.8
Aliasing 2.47 2.58 10.32
Algorithms 1.2 2.19 2.28 2.44 2.75
Alkalinity error 6.44
Allocation batch control standard (S88) 11.52
Alphanumeric displays 8.5
Aluminum oxide sensor 4.218 4.221 4.236 4.238 4.247
Analog systems 7.9
Analog-to-digital converters 7.9 7.15 10.32 10.89 10.92 10.173
Analytical measurements 1.12
Analyzers
apodization 10.112
applications of 10.129
Beer’s law 6.71
calibration of 6.113 6.129
capabilities of 10.128
chemilluminescence 6.79
coating 10.95 10.100 10.164
diagnostics 6.125
digital signal processing 6.106
diode array 10.125
fluoresence 6.80
Fourier transform in 10.110
information display 6.109
introduction to 1.7
ionization and 6.80
limitations 10.128
linear column 6.102
maintenance of 6.126
microwave analyzers 10.149
near-infrared (NIR) 10.108Index terms Links
Analyzers (Cont.)
neutron activation and 6.79 10.161
ownership cost 6.9
oxygen 6.122
photometric 6.74
Raman scattering 10.126
resolution 10.112
rules of thumb 10.133
sampling systems 1.8 6.7 6.75 6.84
sonic analyzers 10.149
statistical control 6.11
thermal conductivity 6.10
ultrasonic 6.80
validation 6.128
(See also specific devices;
applications)
Anemometers revolving vane 5.109
Angular velocity 5.97
Antialiasing 2.47 10.32
Apodization 10.112
Application considerations 4.179
Application matrix 4.139
Area classification 2.84
Artificial vision 5.85
Asset effectiveness management software 10.101
Associative pattern processing 5.88
Asymmetry potential 6.24
Asynchronous operation 3.114
Atomic emission spectrometers 10.168
Attenuation 7.49
Audit 10.24
Autocollimator 5.9
Autocorrelation 10.43
Automatically retractable 6.42
electrode
Automatic reset 2.16
Automation impact 8.17
Automotive industry 4.246
B
Back calculation 2.71 3.17
Backlash 5.16 10.68
(See also Dead band)
Backpropogation 10.224 10.242
Backscatter 6.59
Ball valve 9.10 9.12
Bandwidth 7.49Index terms Links
Bang-bang control 2.41
Barometer liquid 4.50
Basic fiber types 7.47
Batch control standard (S88) 1.3 3.70 11.37 11.57
Batch formalism 3.74
Batch operations 10.187
Batch preload 2.70
Batch process control 3.70
Batch sequence 8.37
Bearingless generators 5.102
Bearings 9.102
Beer’s law 6.71
Belt conveyors 4.152
Benefits 5.92 10.7 10.86
Best practices 1.12 10.86 10.179 10.189 11.34
Blackbody 4.35
Blending systems 1.3 3.85 10.46
Blend ratios 10.46
Bode’s integral 10.49
Body selection 9.52
Branch topology 11.18
Brush cleaner 6.34
Brushless motor 9.86
Bubbles 4.166 6.48
Buffer solution 6.50
Bulk effect sensors 4.226
Bulk solids flow measurement 4.151
Bumpless transfer 2.70 3.14
Business benefits 10.7
Butterfly valve 9.11 9.14
C
Cable length 7.32
Calibration 1.8 6.50 6.64 6.113 10.97
Capability 5.54
Capacitance 4.176 4.233
Capacitive proximity sensors 5.72
Capacitive sensors 4.86
Capacitive transducers 4.68
Carbon dioxide 4.242
Cascade control 10.181
Cascade loop 10.47
Catalytic beads 6.13
Cathode ray tubes 3.9 3.11 8.5 8.23 8.28
CATV Cable 7.38
Cavitation 1.10 9.63
Central processing unit 3.116Index terms Links
Centrifugal method 4.234
Ceramic sensors 4.86
Charge balances 8.32
Chemical cleaning 6.34 6.41 6.43
Chemical industry 4.241
Chemical resistant glass 6.45
Chemical seal 4.87 4.89 4.90 4.92
Chemilluminescence 6.79
Chilled mirror hygrometers 4.121 4.211 4.239
Choked flow 9.33
Cleaning methods 6.32
Clean rooms 4.245
Clinometer 5.9
Closed-loop performance monitor 10.104
Closed-loop time constant 10.50 10.184
Coating 6.47 6.52 10.95 10.100 10.160
Cognitive skills 1.9 8.11
Cold cathode ionization gage 4.82 4.84
Cold-start initialization 2.70
Color differentiation 5.80
Combination electrode 6.27 6.30
Combustion emissions monitoring
(CEMS) 10.231
Common cause 5.54
Common-mode rejection 7.13
Communication models 7.41
(See also Signals)
Communication standards 3.17
Compiler 3.120
Component balances 8.33
Computers 3.100
Computers terminology 3.111
Concentration measurement 6.10
Concentric flow 4.99 5.13 5.19
Concurrent operation 3.121
Conductivity 4.162 4.234 6.13 6.25 6.52
Control improvement 1.11
Controllability 2.4 2.23
Controllers 2.4 3.46 9.45
batch 3.70
blend 3.87
computers and 3.100
distributed 3.6
hydraulic 3.57
numerical 3.91
programmable 3.32Index terms Links
Controllers (Cont.)
stand-alone 3.50
Control limits 5.54
Control loop performance 10.43
Control module 11.41
Control network 3.36
Control optimization 10.71
Control rooms 3.10
Control system 1.1 2.1 5.92 10.170
Control valves 1.10
best practices 10.86
body selection 9.52
cavitation 9.63
choked flow 9.33
controller 9.45
damaged 9.66 9.73
diagnostics 9.46
dynamic specification 10.56 10.63 10.68
failures 10.92
flow capacity 9.28
flow control 9.58 10.65
hydrodynamics of 9.64
installation 9.48 10.180
introduction to 1.10 9.58
leakage 9.32 9.55
limit switch 9.47
maintenance procedures 9.59
material selection 9.25 9.69
noise 1.10 9.75
nonlinearities 10.56
nuclear service 9.19
operating temperature 9.24
packing 9.26 9.59
performance 9.21
piping 9.34 9.50
rangeability 9.29
resolution 9.130 10.57 10.171
response 1.11 9.22 9.57 10.61 10.93
selection 9.6 9.23 9.54
shutoff capability 9.30
sizing 9.23 9.31 9.52 10.56
special 9.16
troubleshootin
(See also specific devices effects)
Coriolis flow 4.193 10.92
Corrosion 6.48
9.54
4.34Index terms Links
Critical angle measurement 6.66
Cross-correlation 10.42
Cross direction 5.92
Cryogenic control valve 9.18
CSMA/CD protocol 7.40
Current conversion 7.21
Current fed inverter 9.113
Current proportioning 2.19
controllers
Current source inverter 9.113 9.119
Current-to-pressure 1.11 9.139
transducers
Cycle time 10.172
Cycling hygrometer 4.215
Cycloconverter 9.121
D
Dahlin method 10.186
Daisy-chain topology 11.18
Dampers 10.172
Data aliasing 10.30
Dead bandcontrol valve 9.22 10.63 10.68 10.76 10.78
Dead time 2.6 2.31 3.10 8.34 10.51 10.63
(Cont.) 10.68 10.170 10.182
DECnet 7.38
Deflector bar design 9.142
Density measurement 4.136
Density systems 1.6 4.188
Derivative action 2.19 2.27
Design life cycle 11.3
Device description language 11.27
Device network 3.37
Dew point 4.198 4.212 4.216
Diagnostics 1.12 6.125 9.46 10.28 10.99 10.104
11.23
Diaphragm actuators 9.38
Diaphragm seals 10.93
Differential pH electrode 6.31 6.40
Differential pressure 4.107
flowmeters
Differential pressure 4.94 4.132 4.171
measurement
Digital systems 2.65 5.10 6.106 7.24 7.47 9.46
Dimension gage 5.61
Diode array process 10.125
spectrometer
Direct digital control 3.101Index terms Links
Discrete model identification 2.52 5.89
Discrete switches 11.10
Displacement measurement 1.6
Displacers 4.160
Displays 3.9
Dissociation constants 6.38
Distillation 4.235 10.71 10.178
Distributed control systems 1.2 3.6 3.103 10.172
Distributed display architecture 1.9
Distributed numerical networking 1.4 3.91
Disturbance 2.40
Doppler-effect flowmeters 4.141
Dry bulb pyschrometry 4.206
Dryers 4.242
Dunmore sensors 4.221
Dynamic performance 10.63
Dynamic properties 9.127
Dynamic specification 10.56 10.93
Dynamic test 10.68
E
Eccentric flow 4.99
Eccentric plug valve 9.11
Economic optimization 10.206
Eddy current 5.107 5.119
Effective wavelength 4.37
Electrical analog 2.7 2.9
Electrodes 6.48 10.93
Electrohydraulic actuator 9.42
Electrohydraulic amplifier 3.63
Electroluminescent panels 8.31
Electrolytic sensor 4.226
Electromechanical switches 4.159 4.162 5.65
Electropneumatic transducers 9.46
Emissions monitoring (CEMS) 6.135
Emissivity 4.35 4.37
Emulated control systems 8.36
Encoders 5.32
rotary motion 5.20
End-effectors 9.132
Energy balances 8.32
Equipment module 11.41
Ergonomic analysis 8.4
Erosion 9.55 10.95
Error analysis 6.24 6.39 10.85 10.88
Ethernet 3.17 3.36 7.36 7.39
ETO sterilizers 4.241
8.23 8.30Index terms Links
Evolutionary training 10.242
Exception handling 11.54
Exothermic process 2.10 10.187
Expert knowledge 8.14
Expert systems 8.13
Explosion hazard 2.86
External feedback 2.69 2.71
External reset 3.17
F
Fail-safe 10.101 11.10 11.11
Failures 6.39 6.48 10.89
Faraday’s law 4.113
Fast fourier transform 10.38
Fatigue life equation 9.103
Feedback control 2.33
Feedforward control 2.37 3.17 10.180
FET sensors 6.30
Fiber optics 4.43 4.46 5.66 7.46
Fieldbus 1.13 3.21 4.88 7.45 10.92 11.15
best practices 11.34
branch topology 11.18
daisy-chain topology 11.18
device description language 11.27
(DDL)
function blocks 11.21 11.23
installation 11.15
simulation 8.34
terminations 11.31
tree topology 11.19
wiring 11.31
Filled-system thermometers 4.44
Filter commutated thyristor drive 9.118
Filters 6.34 7.15 8.37 10.177 10.182 10.187
aliasing and 10.32
First-principle models 10.10
Fisher-Rosemount electrode 6.32
Fixed-point arithmetic 2.61 2.68 3.123
Flapper valve 3.61 9.139
Flat surface electrode 6.34
Flat web (sheet) 1.7 5.92
Floating-point format 2.66
Flow application matrix 4.139
Flowchart 3.129
Flows
bulk-solids 4.151
concentric 4.99Index terms Links
Flows (Cont.)
differential pressure 4.94 4.105 4.107 4.132
Doppler effect in 4.141
eccentric 4.99
Faraday’s law 4.113
magnetic flowmeter 4.113
mass flow measurement 4.130
nozzle 4.96 4.100
open channel flow 4.149
orifice 4.96
oscillatory flowmeters 4.124
Parshall flumes 4.151 4.194
pitot tube 4.104 4.108
positive displacement 4.144
Reynolds numbers 4.121
segmental 4.99
steadiness 10.65
straight pipe lengths 4.106 4.108
tubes 4.100
venturi 4.96
vortex meters 4.126 4.131 4.133
weirs 4.149
Fluidic flowmeters 4.127
Fluted rotor meter 4.147
Forward scatter 6.59
Fouling 10.95
Fourier transform 10.38 10.110 10.122
Frequency outputs 7.24
Frequency responsive systems 5.101
Friction vacuum gage 4.84
Fuel/air ratio control 2.71
Functional specifications 11.49
Function approximation 10.227
Function blocks 3.43 11.21 11.23
Fuzzy logic 10.242
G
Gain scheduling 10.178 10.182
Gas density detector 6.12
Gases measurement in 4.206
Gases application guide 4.231
Gas sizing 9.35
Gas turbines 4.245
Gate-turn-off thyristors (GTO) 9.109
Gaussian distribution 10.35
Gel layers 6.23 6.36 6.43 6.48 6.50
Genetic training 10.242Index terms Links
Geometric sensors 5.1
Glass electrode 6.37 6.45
Glass fundamentals 6.23 6.27
Goniometer 5.9
Governors 5.108
Graphical user interface (GUI) 8.25 8.34
Graphics 8.22
Grippers 9.132
Grounding 7.29
H
Hall-effect proximity sensors 5.69 5.71
Harmonics 10.38
HART transmitters 3.163 3.165 3.169 4.86 4.88 10.92
(Cont.) 10.105
Hazard analysis 11.4
Heaters 2.23
Heat exchangers 10.178
Heat flux sensor 6.13
High-temperature sheath materials 4.18
Histogram 5.54 10.14 10.35
Hot-filament ionization vacuum gage 4.81
Human factors 8.10
Humidity 1.6
(See also Moisture)
Hydraulic controllers 1.3 3.57
Hydraulic tachometers 5.108
Hydrocarbons 6.142
Hysteresis 2.12 2.24
I
Image processing 5.86
Impulse response modeling 10.213
Induction motor 9.87 9.112
Inductive-bridge transducer 5.29
Inductive proximity sensors 5.66
Industrial control networks 1.9 7.34
Infared radiation thermometers 4.34
Inferential measurements
(See Neural networks)
Information display 6.109
Information network 3.36
Information overload 8.19
Infrared absorption analysis 4.222 4.233 6.78
Inherent flow characteristic 10.63
Initialization sequences 3.16Index terms Links
Installation
best practices 6.49 10.95
control valve 9.48 10.178
fieldbus 11.15 11.29
guidelines 4.179 4.182
instrument 10.98
pH and 6.49
turbidity and 6.63
Instruction list 3.44
Insulated gate bipolar transistors 9.109
Insulation class 9.96
Integral-only controller 3.12 3.15
Integrated absolute error 2.31
Integrity level 11.5
Intelligent devices 3.2 3.163
(See also Smart transmitters;
Neural networks)
Interactivity 10.177 10.182
Interferometer 5.6
Interlock systems
(See Safety)
Interrupts 3.109
Inverse control 10.229 10.232
Inverse response 10.177 10.181 10.184
Inverters 9.112 9.119
I/O channel 3.116
Ionic equilibrium 6.40
Ionization 4.81 6.80
Ion resonance mass analyser 10.121
IP classification 9.101
Iridium oxide 6.29
ISA standards
(See specific types)
Isopotential point 6.25 6.29 6.36
J
Jet pipe valve 3.59
Justification 10.211
K
Kalman filter 2.56
Keyboards 8.8 8.26
Key process variables 10.9
Kicker algorithm 10.189
Kurtosis 5.54
L
Ladder diagram 3.41 3.43
Lag calculation 2.74Index terms Links
Lambda tuning method 5.94 10.45 10.50 10.51 10.183 10.186
Lapping the seats 9.60
Lasers scanning 5.91
Lead calculation 2.74
Leakage 9.32 9.55
Learning styles 8.17
Least-squares method 2.55 2.79
Lethal service 6.150
Level sensors 1.5
application considerations 4.179
bubblers 4.166
capacitance 4.176
conductivity 4.162
differential pressure 4.171
displacers 4.160
electromechanical 4.159
floats 4.160
installation 4.179 4.182
magnetostrictive 4.183
material buildup 4.158
microwave analyzers 4.182
mounting 4.168 4.175
optics 4.186
plumb bob 4.161
pressure transmitters 4.167
radiometric 4.184
rotating paddles 4.161
rules of thumb 10.47
selection criteria 4.181
selection of 4.155
thermodispersion 4.166
time-domain reflectometry 4.182
ultrasonic 4.166 4.173 4.187
vibrating rod 4.163
vibration 4.158
weighing 4.186
Life expectancy of instrument 10.93
Light scattering 6.56
Light sensors 5.82 7.50
Limit switches 5.65 9.47
Linear column 6.102
Linear motion 5.28
Linear potentiometers 5.36
Linear programs 2.72
Linear-quadratic design 2.40
Linear systems 10.197Index terms Links
Linear transformers 5.97
Liquid application guide 4.235
Liquid chromatography 10.168
Liquid crystal displays 8.31
Liquid flow equation 9.3
Liquid material balances 8.32
Liquid velocity 10.98
Load commutated inverter 9.116
Lobed-impeller meter 4.148
Local area networks (LANS) 7.36 7.38
Loop current step response 10.100
(LCSR)
Loop performance 9.21 10.43 10.178
Lubrication 9.104
Lyman-alpha absorption 4.223
M
Machine vision 1.6 5.84
Magnetic dry-reed switches 5.70
Magnetic flowmeter (magmeter) 4.113 10.93
Magnetic position transducer 5.32
Magnetic properties 5.44
Magnetic speed sensors 5.102
Magnetostrictive linear position
sensors 5.38
Maintenance 1.12 3.171 6.25 6.41 6.51 6.64
6.126 9.59 10.25 6.97
Manipulated variables 10.181
Manometers 4.48
Manual handwheel 9.48
Manual reset 2.16
Manufacturing Automation protocol 7.43
Manufacturing message specification 1.4 3.134
Mass flow measurement 4.130 10.92
Mass spectrometer 10.119
Material balances 10.102
Material selection 9.25 9.69
Matrix-oriented issues 2.79
McLeod gage 4.50
Metrology 1.6 5.5
Microwave analyzers 4.182 10.149
Minature positioning tables 5.12
Minimum-time switching control 2.41
Minimum-variance design 2.42
Model feedback control 2.44
Modeling guidelines 10.212Index terms Links
Moisture
aluminum oxide sensor 4.21 4.233
analysis 1.6
bulk-effect sensors 4.226
capacitance and 4.233
centrifugal 4.237
chilled mirror hygrometers 4.208 4.211
conductivity 4.237
content on paper 4.240
dew point 4.198 4.216
distillation 4.237
Dunmore sensors 4.221
electrolytic sensor 4.226
Fischer titration 4.230
humidity and 4.194
infrared absorption 4.222
liquids selection guide 4.238
lithium chloride sensor 4.221
Lyman absorption 4.223
piezoelectric applications 4.223
polystyrene sensor 4.222
psychrometric charts 4.197 4.199 4.206
sample systems 4.200
silicon chip sensors 4.222
turbidity 6.55
water activity measure 6.65
zirconium oxide sensors 4.230
Motion control 1.10 9.82
Motion sensors 5.1 5.112 5.118
Motor control 7.26
Motors 1.10
AC synchronous 9.87
bearings 9.102
brushes in 9.85
fatigue life equation 9.103
induction 9.87
Motors ((Cont.))
installation class 9.96
IP classification 9.101
lubrication 9.104
mounting 9.98
name-plate ratings 9.91
regulatory considerations 9.93
seals 9.105
torque curves 9.94
variable reluctance 9.89Index terms Links
Motors (Cont.)
vibration 9.105
Move suppression 10.204
Multi-capacity process 2.25
Multilevel series-cell inverter 9.121
Multiple loop control 2.38
Multiple output control 2.71 3.11
Multiplexers 7.14
Multivariable control 1.12 3.6 3.19 8.32 10.174
N
Name-plate ratings 9.91
Natural gas 4.241
Near-infrared (NIR) 10.108
Nernst equations 6.23 6.37 6.38 6.41 6.49
Network selection 3.36 7.38
Neural networks 1.13 10.102
adaptive control 10.231
backpropagation perception 10.224
combustion emission monitors 10.234
evolutionary training 10.242
function approximation 10.227
future directions 10.240
genetic training 10.242
guidelines 10.239
interpolation 10.227
inverse control 10.229 10.232
optimization 10.235
parameter estimation 10.228
pattern recognition 10.226
recurrent network 10.240
selection 10.238
sensor validation 10.234
supervisory control 10.231
system identification 10.228
virtual sensor 10.234
Neural-point-clamped inverter 9.120
Neutron activation analyzers 6.79 10.161
Nitric oxide 6.131
Noise 1.8 1.10 7.27 8.34 9.75 10.175
10.177 10.183
Nominal pipe size 9.7
Noncontacting gages 5.45 5.118
Nonlinearities 10.56 10.172
Normal distribution 5.55 10.35
Nozzles 4.96 4.100 4.150
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 6.151 10.133Index terms Links
Nuclear service control valve 9.19
Numerical aperture 7.49
O
Object detectors 1.6 5.65
Object link embedding (OLE) 3.164 3.169
Object oriented software 3.24
Offset 2.15 2.25
On-off controller 2.11 2.24
Open-channel flow 4.149 4.151
Open-loop control 2.33 10.54 10.178 10.183
Open systems 3.17 7.44
Operating system 3.121
Operator entry 3.9
Operator interface 1.9 8.3 11.8
Opportunity assessment 10.14
Optical bench 5.12
Optical field 4.39
Optical path length 6.58
Optical pyrometer 4.43
Optical vibrometers 5.119
Optic fibers 7.47
Optimization 2.72 10.190 10.235
Orifice 4.94 10.94
Oscillating-position meters 4.145
Oscillatory flowmeters 4.124
OSI reference model 7.42
Out-of-loop familiarity 8.18
Oval-shaped gear flowmeter 4.147
Override control 5.96
Ownership cost 6.9
Oxidation 10.94
Oxygen 6.122
P
Packing 9.26 9.59
Paddle wheel flowmeters 4.124
Paper industry 4.239
Paper machine 10.43
Parallel form 10.60
Parallel installation 6.48
Parameter estimation 10.228
Pareto chart 5.55
Parshall flumes 4.149 4.151
Partial pressure analyzers 4.85
Pattern recognition 2.50 5.85 8.14 10.104 10.226
PC-based control 3.33 3.48
Peak error 10.174Index terms Links
Peltier effect 4.12
Performance 10.15 10.58
Personal computer 3.96 8.36
Phase angle control 2.21
Phase equilibrium 8.32
Phase logic 11.51
pH measurement
abrasion and 6.48
acid error 6.44
activity coefficients 6.39
alkalinity electrode 6.29
asymmetry potential 6.24
brush cleaner 6.35
bubbles 6.48 6.64
buffer solution 6.51
calibration 6.51
cleaning 6.32 6.41 6.43 6.45 6.53
combination electrode 6.27 6.30
corrosion and 6.48
design 10.93
differential electrode 6.31 6.40
dissociation constants 6.38
electrode life 6.48
failures 6.24 6.39 6.40 6.48
FET sensors 6.30
filters 6.34
Fisher-Rosemount electrode 6.32
flat glass electrode 6.27
flat surface electrode 6.34
flowing junction reference electrode 6.36 6.40
gel layers 6.23 6.36 6.43 6.48 6.51
glass electrode resistance 6.37 6.46
glass fundamentals 6.27
high-purity water 6.39
installation 6.47
ionic equilibrium 6.40
iridium oxide 6.29
isopotential point 6.25 6.36
key points 6.46
maintenance of 6.53
measurement electrode 6.27 6.39
middle select 6.43 6.51
Nernst equations 6.23 6.37 6.38 6.41 6.49
parallel installation 6.48
probes 10.98
reference electrodes 6.27 6.30 6.39Index terms Links
pH measurement (Cont.)
rugged glass electrode 6.45
rules of thumb 6.54
scale 6.25
selection 6.40
sensor diagnostic 6.46
series installation 6.48
shrouds 6.28 6.33
soaking solution 6.47
sodium ion error 6.44
solids
solid-state reference electrodes 6.31 6.40
spurious grounds 6.37
streaming potential 6.37
temperature compensation 6.24 6.38 6.41 6.49
troubleshooting logic 6.53
ultrasonic cleaning 6.41
velocity 6.49
water jet 6.35
Photoelectric sensors 5.77 5.107
Photometric analyzers 6.74
Physical models 11.40 11.43
PID algorithm 2.19 2.28 2.44 2.75 10.80 10.170
Pieozoresistive accelerometers 5.115
Piezoceramic 9.141
Piezoelectric devices 4.70 4.223 5.113 10.68
Piping practices 9.34 9.50 10.98
Pirani gage 4.79
Piston actuator 9.39
Pitot tube 4.104 4.108 5.109
Planck’s law 4.34
Plant analysis 1.11 10.17 10.46 10.107
Plumb bob 4.161
Pole-placement design 2.40
Polling 3.109
Polymerization 8.34
Polymer reference electrode 6.31
Polymer sensors 4.220
Pope polystyrene sensor 4.221
Positioner design 10.67
Position measurement 1.6
Position transmitters 9.45 9.48
Positive-displacement flowmeters 4.144
Power blending 3.86
Power outage 3.14 3.16
Power spectrum analysis 5.94 10.40
Predictive control 10.202
6.48Index terms Links
Predictive maintenance 10.107
Predictors 8.16
Pressure
capacitive transducers 4.68
ceramic sensors 4.86
chemical seals application 4.87
control and 10.178 10.184
differential pressure transmitters 4.94
piezoelectric transducers 4.72
piezoresistive transducers 4.70
resonant wire transducers 4.74
smart transmitters 4.86
strain-gage systems 4.54
variable differential transformers 4.76
(LVDTs)
variable reluctance transducers 4.76 4.79
Pressure recovery factor 9.64 9.73
Pressure switches 10.92
Pressure systems 1.5
Pressure transmitters 4.53 4.167
Preventative maintenance 10.107
Principal component analysis 10.103
(PCA)
Procedure control model 11.43
Process capability index 10.12
Process cell 11.42
Process characteristics 3.73
Process constraint 2.72 10.19 10.26
Process control tasks 8.11 10.9
Process dynamics 10.18 10.22
Process gain 2.10 10.178
Process impact 1.12 10.70
Process modeling 10.206 11.43
Process performance 3.18 3.19 10.12
Process reaction curve 2.4 2.23
Process sensitivity 10.178
Process variability 10.1 10.18 10.24
Production cost management 3.17
Production gaging 1.6 5.50
Profibus 3.23
Programmable controllers 1.3 3.9 3.32
Propeller-type anemometers 5.110
Propionic acid 6.122
Proportional band 2.13
Proportional controller 2.12 2.25
Proportional plus integral (PI) controller 2.16 2.70Index terms Links
Proportional plus integral plus
derivative (PID) controllers 2.19 2.28 2.44
Proportional valves 3.63 3.67
Protocol analysis 8.14
Proximity sensors 5.66 5.104
Pulsed flame photometric detector 6.79
Pulse inputs 7.24
Pyschrometry
(See Moisture)
Q
Quality control 1.6 5.50
Quantization effects 2.78
(See alsoResolution)
Quarter amplitude response 10.174
R
Radar devices 10.92
Radiation stimulated fluorescence 6.80
Radio frequency (RF) probes 10.92
Radiometric 4.184
Raman scattering 10.126
Ramps 8.32
Rangeability 9.29
Rapid application tools 3.21
Recovery coefficient 10.95
Reaction kinetics 8.32 8.34
Reactor impact 10.74
Real-time expert system 10.103
Real-time optimization (RTO) 1.13 10.190
Recipe types 11.37
Recycle 10.181
Redundancy 11.11
Reference electrode 6.27 6.30 6.39
Refractive index 6.58 6.65
Refractometer 6.68
Regulatory considerations 9.93
Relative gain array (RGA) 2.38
Relative humidity 4.197
Relay-based control 3.34
Relay driving 7.26
Reliability 10.181
Remote digital heads 10.91
Remote terminal units 3.49
Repeatability 5.13 9.130 10.91 10.177
Reset 2.16 2.25 2.69 10.183
Resistance signals 7.18
Resistance-temperature detectors 4.20Index terms Links
Resolution 2.30 3.131 5.13 8.34 9.130 10.57
10.112 10.175 10.183
Resolvers 5.27
Resonance 10.50 10.177
Resonant wire transducers 4.74
Retracting vane meter 4.149
Revolving anemometers 5.109
Reynolds numbers 4.121
Risk assessment 11.4
Robots 1.10 9.123
Robustness 2.34 10.49
Root cause 8.37
Rotary motion 5.19
Rotating paddles 4.161
Runaway response 10.178
Runout 5.13 5.20
S
Safety 2.38 2.86
alarms 11.8
design life cycle 11.6
diagnostics 11.12 11.23
discrete switches 11.10
fail-safe 11.10
hazard analysis 11.4
instrumentation 1.2
integrity level 11.5
ISA standard 11.3
key points 11.13
layers 11.7
logic systems 11.9
operators 11.8
redundancy 11.11
risk assessment 11.4
rules of thumb 10.206 11.13
solenoids 11.11
Sampling 1.8 6.7 6.75 6.84 7.8 7.13
Sanitary service control valve 9.17
Saturated-salt/heated lithium chloride 4.221
Saturation 2.18 2.78
SCADA methods 3.48 3.108
Scanning techniques 5.79 5.91
Scan time 10.173
Scientific Apparatus Makers
Association (SAMA) 3.74
Seals 4.91 9.105
Seat rings 9.62Index terms Links
Seebeck effect 4.12
Segmental flow 4.99
Selection criteria 4.181 6.40 9.23 9.54 10.94 10.238
Self-regulation 10.178 10.181
Sensitivity 10.91 10.176 10.181
Sensor selection 6.19
Sensor sensitivity 6.46 10.175
Sensor validation 10.103 10.234
Sequential function chart (SFC) 3.41 3.44
Serial connections 3.36 3.38
Series installation 6.48 10.60
Servomotors 1.10 9.82
Servo valves 3.63 3.67 5.116
Set point response 10.183
Shaft windup 10.66
Shielding 5.73 5.75 7.29
Shortcut tuning method 10.185
Shrinkage 5.94
Shrouds 6.28 6.33
Shutoff capability 9.30
Signal characterization 7.2 7.12 10.178 10.189
Signal conditioning 5.116
Signal validation 10.103
Silicon chip sensors 4.222
Simulation 8.32
Sine bar 5.11
Single-board controllers 3.34
Single capacity-process 2.24
Single ended-signal 7.12
Sizing control valve 9.23 9.31 9.52 10.64
Skewness 5.58 9.7
Sliding stem 10.92
Sliding-vane rotary meter 4.149
Smart alarms 1.9 8.37
Smart positioners 10.98
Smart transmitters 4.31 4.86 10.91 10.98 10.100
Smith predictors 5.95
Soaking solution 6.47
Sodium ion error 6.44
Soft control 3.46
Software standards 3.44
Solenoids 9.47 11.11
Solids 6.47
Solid-state reference electrodes 6.30 6.40
Solid-state temperature sensors 7.7
Sonic analyzers 10.149Index terms Links
Spatial representations 2.31 8.15 8.17
Special cause 5.58
Special control valve 9.16
Specification limits 5.58
Spectral analysis 10.36 10.41
Speed instrumentation 1.7 5.96
Speed sensors
(See Tachometers)
Spherometer 5.11
Spinning rotor friction gage 4.84
Split-range control 2.72
Spool valve 3.61
Spurious grounds 6.37
Stand-alone controllers 1.3 3.50
Statistical analysis 5.50 6.115 10.11 10.33 10.63 10.104
Status checks 10.100
Steady-state modeling 10.9
Steam conditioning 9.20
Steam sizing 9.35
Stefan-Boltzmann law 4.35
Stochastic data 10.34
Straight-line accuracy 5.13 5.18
Straight pipe lengths 4.106
Strain-gage systems 4.54
Stray light 6.64
Streaming potential 6.37
Stroboscopic methods 5.105
Structured text 3.43
Sulfide stress cracking 9.19
Sulfuric acid alkylation 6.151
Supervisory control 10.183 10.189 10.231
Surface measurement 1.6
Surface scatter 6.59
Surface texture measurement 5.48
Surge protection 7.22
Synchronization 3.133 11.52
System evaluation 3.29
System identification 10.228
T
Tachometers 5.98
Temperature compensation 3.91 6.16 6.25 6.38 6.41 6.52
Temperature control 2.5 10.178 10.184
Temperature scales 4.9
Temperature sensors 4.12 10.98
Temperature switches 10.91
Temperature systems 1.5 4.8Index terms Links
Terminations 7.4 11.31
Texture measurement 1.6
Theodolite 5.10
Thermal concentration transducers 6.10
Thermal conductivity 6.10
Thermal mass flowmeters 4.138
Thermistors 4.28
Thermocouples 4.12 4.26 7.6 10.176
Thermodispersion 4.166
Thermowell 4.16
Thickness measurement 1.6 5.45
Thin film strain gage 4.62
Thomson effect 4.13
Thoughput stake 10.15
Thyristor 9.108
Tiebacks 8.32
Time-constant 2.6 2.7
Time constant 10.176 10.183
Time delay
(See Dead time)
Time-domain reflectometry 4.182
Time proportioning controllers 2.19
Time-sequence diagram 3.74
Time series analysis 10.28 10.215
Titration 4.234 10.178
Token bus protocol 7.40
Toroidal sensors 6.16
Torque curves 9.94
Touchscreen 8.26
Transducers 5.45 7.4
Transfer-function form 2.32
Transit-time ultrasonic flowmeters 4.143
Transparent objects 4.39
Transportation delay 10.170
Tree topology 11.19
Trim characteristics 10.78
Trip valve 9.47
Troubleshooting 6.53 9.54
True mass flowmeter 4.134
Tubes 4.100
Tuning 2.25 10.75
Turbine flowmeter 4.121
Two-stage valves 3.61
U
Ultrasonic analyzers 4.166 4.173 5.47 5.74 6.80
Ultrasonic cleaning 6.41
10.177 10.183Index terms Links
Ultrasonic flowmeters 4.141
Ultrasonic tank resonance 4.187
Ultraviolet/visible analyzers 6.70 6.75 10.123
Underdamped response 2.28
UNIX-based network 3.17 3.98
User interactions 8.25
V
Vacuum measurement 4.77 8.31
Validation 1.8 6.128
Vapor material balances 8.32
Variability process 10.10
Variability attenuation 10.49
Variable area flowmeters 4.109 4.112
(rotameters)
Variable differential transformers 4.76
(LVDTs)
Variable reluctance 4.76 4.79 5.107 9.89
Variable-speed drives 1.10 9.107 10.57
Veleocity effect 6.47
Velocity instrumentation 1.7 5.96 5.118 10.183
Venturi flow 4.96 4.100 5.109 10.91
Vibrating rod attenuation 4.163 4.225
Vibration 5.18 5.111 9.105
Vigilance decrement 8.18
Villari effect 5.40
Virtual manufacturing device model 3.138
Virtual sensor 10.235
Viscous flow 9.34
Voice recognition 8.10
Voltage responsive systems 5.100
Volume booster 9.47
Vortex flow meters 4.126 4.131 4.133 10.91
Vortex shedding flowmeters 4.125
W
Waste-water monitoring 6.149
Water
(See Moisture)
Water jet washers 6.35 6.45
Weighing systems 1.6 4.186 4.188
Weirs 4.149
White noise 10.34
Wiedemann effect 5.40
Wiegand effect 5.69
Wien’s law 4.36
Windows programs 3.165 3.167 5.95 8.36
Wiring 1.8 7.27 10.92 11.31Index terms Links
X
X-ray methods 5.47 6.79 10.137
Y
Yield stake 10.14
Z
Ziegler-Nichols method 10.44 10.183
Zirconium oxide sensors 4.230


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