كتاب Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers
Fourth Edition
Max S. Peters
Klaus D. Timmerhaus
Professors of Chemical Engineering
University of Colorado

كتاب Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers  P_d_a_10
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CONTENTS
Preface
Prologue-The International System of Units (SI)
1 Introduction
2 Process Design Development
3 General Design Considerations
4 Computer-Aided Design
5 Cost and Asset Accounting
6 Cost Estimation
7 Interest and Investment Costs
8 Taxes and Insurance
9 Depreciation
10 Profitability, Alternative Investments,
and Replacements
11 Optimum Design and Design Strategy
1 2 Materials Selection and Equipment Fabrication
AB CD
The Design Report
Materials Transfer, Handling, and Treatment
Equipment-Design and Costs
Heat-Transfer Equipment-Design and Costs
Mass-Transfer and Reactor Equipment-Design
and Costs
Statistical Analysis in Design
Appendixes
The International System of Units 61)
Auxiliary, Utility, and Chemical Cost Data
Design Problems
Tables of Physical Properties and Constants
Indexes
Name Index 893
Subject Index
SUBJECTINDEX
Abbreviations, accepted, 472-473
in reports, 471
Abstract of reports, 455, 458
Accounting:
asset and cost, 137-148
basic relationships in, 139
procedures for, 138-139
purpose of, 137
cost, materials, 146-148
methods for, 145-148
types of accounts for, 146-148
Accumulations accounts, 146
Acid eggs, 522
Acquisition analysis, 329-336
ACRS, 273, 276, 286-290
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, 436
Administrative costs, 194-196, 206-207, 211
ADR, 273-276
Agitators, cost of, 540
A h :
analysis of, 53
compressed, cost of, 815
Air compressors, 523-525
cost of, 529-531, 810
Air-conditioning units, cost of, 808
Air-displacement systems, 522-523
Air lift, 522
Air pollution:
abatement of, 79-84
sources of, 50
Air-suction rate for rotary vacuum filters,
551-554
Algorithm:
definition of, 386-388
simplex, 388-393
Alkylation of benzene, 23-34
Alternative comparisons, 296
Alternative investment analysis, 315-329
by capitalized costs, 230-232
practical factors in, 335-336
as replacements, 329-336
Aluminum, 432,440-442
Aluminum fittings, cost of, 504-505
Aluminum pipe, cost of, 504-505
Amortization, definition of, 267~
Annuity:
definition of, 226-230
for depreciation calculations, 228-229
due, 230
Appendix to reports, 455-458
Approach to design, 11-12
Area, mean, for heat transfer, 587-588
ASPEN PLUS, 127
Asset guide-line period, 273-275
Assets in accounting, 139-145
definition of, 139
types of, 140-142
Assumed liability, 262
Assumptions in design, 11
Atomic weights, table of, 891
897898 SUES.JECT INDEX
Attractive nuisance, 263
Audits, project, 137-142
Automotive materials-handling equipment, cost
of, 568
Average-unit-cost estimate, 191-192
Calculations in reports, sample, 462
Calorie, types of, 798n.
Capacity, plant, 155-156, 349-361
Capacity exponents:
for equipment, 170
for plants, 183-184, 186-187
Back-mix reactor design, 721, 728
Baffles in heat exchangers, 595, 610-612
pressure drop over, 599-602, 605-606
Bailee’s liability, 263
Balance sheet, 140-142
Barometric-leg pumps, 523
Batch operation versus continuous, 35-36
Batch-reactor design, 721-727
Battery-limit additions, definition of, 167
Berl saddles, 688-690
cost of, 710
Billion, meaning of, 789-790
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 87-88
Biodegradable synthetic detergent, manufacture
of, 23-34
Blenders, cost of, 556-558
Blowers, cost of, 531
BOD, 87-88
Boilers, cost of, 809
Boiling liquids, heat-transfer coefficients for, 597
Bonds, interest rate on, 248-249
Book value:
definition of, 277
in replacement analysis, 332
Box-Wilson design, 766, 769
Break-even chart, 155-156
for optimum analysis, 349-350
Brick as material of construction, 434
British thermal unit (Btu), types of, 798n.
Bubble-cap contactors, 650-687
caps and risers in, 652-654, 679-680
cost of, 709-713
downcomers in, 684-686
entrainment in, 683-684
liquid flow in, 683
plate efficiencies of, 661-667
plate stability for, 686
pressure drop in, 667-679
relative merits of packed and, 706-707
trays for, 652, 654-656, 681-684
velocities in, 656-661, 680
weirs in, 684-686
Buildings, cost of, 174-175, 803-805
Burning for equipment fabrication, 447
Butyl rubber, 435
CACHE, 111, 118
CAD/CAM, 110
Capital:
cost of, 246-250, 297
sources of, 248
Capital costs for plants, 186-187
Capital gains taxes, 156-157
Capital investments, 157-158
cost factors in, 166-179
estimation of, 158-163, 179-193, 210
types of, 157-158
Capital ratio, 191
Capital-recovery factor, 228
Capital sink, 150-152
Capitalized costs:
application of, 231-232
definition of, 230-231
equations for, 231
for profitability evaluation, 297-299, 308-309
examples of applications of, 231, 324-329
Capitalized engineering, 3
Caps in bubble-cap columns, 652-654, 679-680
Carbon as material of construction, 434
Cash flow, 150-154
Cash position, cumulative, 152-154
Cash ratio, 140-142
Cash recovery period (see Payout period)
Cast-iron pipe and fittings, cost of, 509-510
Cellulose acetate butyrate, 436
Centrifugal pumps, 518-521
cost of, 526
Centrifugal separators, 560-561
Charpy values, 439
CHEMCAD, 126
Chemical Abstracts, information on, 19
Chemical Engineering Catalog, information
on, 20
Chemical Engineering plant cost index, 163, 165
Chemical hazards, 60,83-84, 86
Chemical Marketing Reporter, 1 9 7
Chemical oxygen demand (COD), 87
Chemicals, cost of, 816
Chi-squared test for statistical analysis, 751-754,
758
Chlorinated polyether, 436, 443
Chlorobenzene, reactor design for production
of, 718-726
Chloroprene, 435
Chutes, cost of, 569
CLADR, 273-275286-288
Class life depreciation, 270-276, 286-290SUBJECT INDEX 899
Coal, cost of, 815
Coefficients of heat transfer (see Heat-transfer
coefficients)
Common stock, dividend rates on, 248-249
Company policies, effect on cost by, 155
Comparison, of different processes:
items to consider in, 34-36
investment, 9-11, 315-329
Compartmentalization for capital investment,
191-193
Composite account depreciation, 290
Compound interest, definition of, 217-218
(See also specific designation)
Compound interest factors:
definition of, 223n., 236-237
tables of, 219, 234-235, 240-246
(See also specific name)
Compressibility exponent of cake for filtration,
545
Compressors, 523-525
cost of, 529-530,810
specifications for, 17
Computer-aided design, 110-134
Computer solutions for reactor design, 718-726
Condensation, heat-transfer coefficients for,
597-599
Condensers:
cost of, 619-620
optimum water flow rate in, 368-371
Conduction, heat transfer by, 580-581
Confidence-interval estimation, 756-759
Confidence level, definition of, 745-746
Constants, table of, 870-871
Construction:
cost of, 177-178, 803-805
materials of, 42-43, 421-446
(See also specific designation)
plant, 18-19
Containers, cost of, 541
Contingencies, cost of, 209-210
Contingency factors, 178-179
Contingency test for statistical analysis, 752
Continuous cash flow:
equations for, 227-228
for profitability analyses, 232-239
Continuous interest:
basic equations for, 222-225
concept of, 220-222
for continuous cash flow, 227-228
for depreciation calculations, 229
examples of application of, 303-304, 310-314
for profitability analyses, 232-239
Continuous operation versus batch, 35-36
Contraction, friction due to, 484
Contractor’s fee, 178
Control, of plants, 96-98
Convection, heat transfer by, 580, 582, 597-598
Conversion factors:
tables of, 870-871
SI units, 790-799
Convex set in linear programming, 382
Conveyors, cost of, 569-571
Cooling towers, cost of, 810
COPE, 128
Copper and alloys, 431, 440-442
Corrosion, 42-43
table of materials’ resistance to, 440-442
Cost accounting, 137-148
(See also Accounting)
Cost estimation, 4-5, 150
examples of, for production of synthetic
detergent, 23-34
information guide to, 161
(See also specific item)
Cost factors in capital investment, 166-179
Cost indexes, 163-166
Cost of equipment:
blenders, 556-558
blowers, 531
boilers, 809
bubble-cap contactors, 709-713
centrifugal pumps, 526
compressors, 529-530, 810
condensers, 619-620
containers, 541
conveyors, 569-571
cooling towers, 810
crushers and grinders, 562-566
crystallizers, 561
drives, 532-533
dryers, 713-716
ductwork, 808
dust collectors, 566-567
ejectors, 528
evaporators, 623
fans, 531
filters, 554-556
gates, 569.
gear pumps, 527
handrails, 711
heat exchangers, 615-621
instrumentation, 172-173, 812-814
insulation, 172, 513
kettles, 731
kneaders, 559
ladders, 711
level controllers, 813
liquid level gages, 812
mixers, 558
motors, 533900 SUJ3JECl’ I N D E X
Cost of equipment (Cont.)
platforms, 711
pressure indicators, 814
pressure vessels, 539-542
pumps, 526-527
reactors, 730-732
reboilers, 731
reciprocating pumps, 515-518
rotary pumps, 518-521
separators, 559-561
sieve trays, 709
storage equipment, 539-542
tanks, 539-542
trays, 709
valve trays, 709
valves, 511-513
Costs (see specific designation)
CPES, 128
Credits in bookkeeping, 143-144
Criminal liability, 263
Critical path method (CPM), 18, 407-408
Crushing and grinding equipment, cost of,
562-566
Crystallizers, cost of, 561
Cumulative cash position, 152-154
Current assets, 140-141
Current-average method’for materials
accounting, 148
Current liabilities, 140-141
Current ratio, 140-142
Cutting for equipment fabrication, 447
Cyclic operations, optimum conditions for,
353-361
Debits in bookkeeping, 143-144
Declining-balance method for determining
depreciation, 280-282
Deferred annuity, 230
Definitive estimate, 162
Deflation (see Inflation)
Degeneracy in simplex algorithm, 390
Degrees of freedom, 128-129
in statistical analysis, 743
Density of water, 876
Depletion, 269
Depreciation cost, 267-269
accounts for, 290-291
application of annuities to, 229, 283-285
class-life, 270-276
definition of, 267-269
as fixed charge, 204-205, 210
methods for determination of, 278-290
rapid write-off of, 156-157
tax laws for, 280-281, 292
types of, 269-270
Depreciation reserve, 140
DESIGN II, 127
Design:
approach to, 11-12
computer-aided, 110-134
detailed-estimate, 14, 17, 161-162
firm process, 14, 18
preliminary, 14, 17, 22, 160-162
example of, 22-34
strategy for, 341-413
Design project, procedure for, 14-19
development of, 2-4
Design report (see Reports)
Detailed-estimate designs, 14, 17, 162
Detailed-item estimates, 179-180
Detergent, manufacture of, 23-34
Diagrams, flow (see Plow diagrams)
Dichotomous search, 407
Dimensionless numbers, definitions of, 468-469
DIPPR, 117
Direct costs, 210
in capital investment, 167
Direct production costs, 197-204,210
Discount, definition of, 226
Discount factors:
definition of, 223n., 236-237, 303
tables of, 219, 234-235, 240-246
(See aLr0 specific name)
Discounted cash flow for profitability evaluation,
297,299,301-308
example of application of, 310-314, 324-329
Discrete single-payment compound-amount
factor, 218-220
Discrete single-payment present-worth factor,
226
Discrete uniform-series compound-amount
factor, 227
Discrete uniform-series present-worth factor,
228
Distillation towers:
feed-tray location for, 10
optimum reflux ratio for, 371-376
specifications for, 16
(See alro Bubble-cap contactors, Packed
towers, Sieve trays, and Valve trays)
Distribution costs, 194, 196, 207, 211
Distribution in statistical analyses, 745-746
Dividends, tax exemptions for, 259
Documentation, 137-149,452-476
Double-entry bookkeeping, 143-144
Downcomers in tray columns, 684-686
Drives, cost of, 532-533
Dryers, cost of, 713-716SUBJECT I N D E X 901
Ductwork, cost of, 808
Dust collectors, cost of, 566-567
Dynamic programming, strategy of, 393-402
Economic lot size, 350
Effective interest, 218-222, 224, 241
Efficiency, packing, 702-706
plate, 661-667
pump, 517-518,520
Ejectors, cost of, 528
Electrical installation, cost of, 174, 807
Electricity, cost of, 815
Electromotive series of metals, 433
Emissivity of surfaces, 582-585
Energy balance, mechanical, 479-480
for reactor design, 715-716
total, 479-480
Engineering News Record cost index, 163-165
Entrainment, 683-684
Environmental protection, 75-91
regulations for, 74-78
Epoxy resins, 437-443
Equipment, fabrication of, 446-449
specifications for, 22, 36-42
tables for estimated life of, 271-275
(See also specific name)
Equipment cost:
capacity exponents for, 165
estimation by scaling, 169-171
(See aLFo specific name and Cost of
equipment)
Equities in accounting, 139
Equivalents, list of, 870-871
Erosion, 42-43
Error propagation, 770-771
Estimated variance, 743-744
Evaporators:
cost of, 623
optimum operation conditions for, 355-360
Evolutionary operations (EVOP), 407, 769-770
Exact interest, 217
Excise taxes, 254
Expansion, friction due to, 484
Expensed engineering, 3
Experimental design, statistical strategy in,
766-770
Explosion hazards, 55-59
Exponents:
for equipment cost versus capacity, 169-171
for unit-capacity costs, 185-187
F-test for statistical analysis, 746, 749n.,
752-756,769
Fabrication:
of equipment, 446-449
of stainless steel, 423-430
Factorial design, 766-769
Factors:
in equipment scale-up and design, 36-39
for investment corrections, 182
Fanning equation, 481-483
Fans, cost of, 531
Fastening for equipment fabrication, 447-448
Fault-tree analysis, 69-70
Feasibility survey, factors in, 14-15
Federal environment regulations, 75-78
Feed-tray location in distillation towers, 10
Fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP), 436-437
Fibonacci search, 407
Fifo method for materials accounting, 148
Filters:
basic design equations for, 544-552
batch, cost of, 554-556
design methods for, 545-548
continuous, air-suction rate for, 551-554
cost of, 554-555
design methods for, 549-554
factors in choice of, 543
plate and frame, cost of, 556
optimum operating conditions for, 360-361
types of, 543
Financing costs, 196, 207-208, 211
Finishing in equipment fabrication, 449
Finned-tube heat-exchanger costs, 616
Fire and explosion hazards, 55-59
Firm process design, 14, 18
Fittings:
cost of, 499-510
frictional effects due to, 484-486
Five-point method, 405-406
Fixed-bed reactors, 729
Fixed-capital investments, 157-158
breakdown of items in, 159-160
Fixed charges, 204, 210
Fiied-percentage method for determining
depreciation, 280-283
Float-valve trays, 656
Flooding velocities:
in packed towers, 697-702
in plate towers, 656-661
Flow diagrams:
combined-detail, 20-21
nitric acid production, 20-22
qualitative, 20-21
quantitative, 20, 22
sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate production,
23-34902 SUBJECT INDEX
Flow diagrams (Cont.)
symbols for, 889-890
Flow indicators, cost of, 813
Flow-measuring equipment, types of, 534-536
Flow-sheet symbols, 889-890
Flow-sheeting, 112
software, 125-128
ASPEN PLUS, 127
CHEMCAD, 126
COPE, 128
CPES, 128
DESIGN II, 127
FLOWIRAN, 126
HYSIM, 127
IPES, 128
PROCESS, 126
SPEED-UP, 126
FLOWTRAN, 126
Fluid transfer design, 478-498
Fluidized-bed reactors, 729
Foot, international and U.S. survey, 871n.
Forecasting, 295,408-413
Formal reports, definition of, 453
Format for presentation, 36, 40-42, 453-457
Formaldehyde, production of, 6-7
Forming for equipment fabrication, 447
Fouling factors for heat transfer, 586-587
Freedom, degrees of, 128-129
in statistical analysis, 743
Frequency distribution in statistical analysis,
745-746
Friction factor, Moody plot for, 482
Friction in flow systems, 480-488
Functional-unit estimate, 191-192
Furane plastics, 436, 443
Furnaces, specifications for, 17
Future worth, factors for, 223~
Galvanic action, 432-433
Gaseous pollutants, 79-84
Gases:
cost of, 815
heat capacities of, 880
thermal conductivities of, 879
viscosities of, 872-873
Gasket materials, 439, 440-442
Gates, cost of, 569
Gear pumps, cost of, 527
Geometric programming, 407
Glass as material of construction, 433-434,
440-442
Glass pipe and fittings, cost of, 505-506
Golden-section search technique, 406-407
Governmental-policies effect on costs, 155-157
Gradient, liquid, over bubble-cap trays, 672-673
Graphs in reports, 460-461
Grass-roots plant, definition of, 167
Gross-earnings costs, 194, 196-197, 208-209,
2 1 1
Guesstimation, 5
Hagen-Poiseuille law, 481~
Half-year convention, 286-290
Handling of materials, 101-102
Handrails, cost of, 711
Harmonic mean, 742
Hastelloy, 431
Haveg, 440-442
Hazards, health and safety, 47-75
HAZOPS study, 62-69
Health hazards, 47-75
Health in plant-design considerations, 47-75
Heat capacities:
of gases, 880
of liquids, 881
Heat exchangers:
baffles in, 595-596,599~602,605-606,
610-612
cleaning and maintenance of, 609-610
cost of, 615-621
fluid velocities in, 612
general method for design of, 642-643
length of tubes in, 607
number of tubes in, 608
optimum design of, 621, 625-642
simplified cases of, 639-642
summary of general procedure for, 634-635
pressure drop
inside tubes in, 596-599, 602-605
on shell side in, 599-602, 605-606
selection of, 606-615
shell-and-tube, 580, 602-606, 609-612
specifications for, 17, 40-41, 614-615
thermal strains in, 608-609
tube data for, 886-887
tube size and pitch in, 607-608
use of
steam in, 613-614
water in, 613
Heat of reaction, example calculations for,
28-29
Heat transfer:
area for, mean, 587 588
by conduction, 580-581
by convection, 580, 582,597-598
mechanisms of, 580-581by radiation, 580, 582-585
rate of, for optimum cooling-water rate,
368-371
temperature-difference driving force for,
mean, 588-590
theory of, 580-596
unsteady-state, 590-592
Heat-transfer coefficients:
accuracy of, 592
for boiling liquids, 597
definition of, 582, 585-586
equivalent diameter and hydraulic radius for,
594-595
for film-type condensation, 597-599
for fluids
in pipes and tubes, 593-595
simplified equations for, 594, 597-598
outside pipes and tubes, 595-596
for fouling, dirt, or scale, 586-587
for natural convection, 597-598
order of magnitude of, 599
overall
definition of, 585-586
design values for, 600-601
for radiation, 582-585
Heat-transfer equipment (see Heat exchangers)
Heat treating for equipment fabrication,
448-449
Heaters, cost of, 624
Heliarc welding, 448
HETP:
definition of, 650
prediction of, 702-703, 705-706
Hoists, cost of, 572
Hold-harmless agreements, 263
Homogeneity tests for statistical analysis,
751-752
Hourly wage rates, 802
HTU, 702-705
Hydraulic efficiency of pumps, 517
Hydraulic radius:
for fluid flow, 486
for heat transfer, 594-595
Hypalon, 435
HYSIM, 127
Incineration, 88-89
Income statement, 142-145
Income-tax effects:
on cost of capital, 248-249
on optimum economic pipe diameter, 366-367
on profitability evaluation, 300, 324
on strategy for inflation, 409-413
(See ah Taxes)
Income-tax rates, 208, 210, 255-259
Inconel, 431
Incremental investments, 315-329
Index:
name, 893
subject, 897
Indexes, cost, 163-166
Indirect costs, 210
in capital investments, 160, 167
Inflation, 295
strategy for, 408-413
tax effects on, 410-413
Informal reports, definition of, 453- 454
Infringements of patents, 102
Installation costs for equipment, 171-172
Instrumentation:
cost of, 172-173, 812-814
plant requirements for, 97
Insulation:
cost of, 172
for pipe, 513
Insurance, 262-265
as a cost, 253, 262
cost of, 205, 210
Intalox saddles, 688, 690, 694
cost of, 710
Interest:
as a cosf, 207-208, 211
definition of, 216
rate of return, 301~
types of, 216-225
(See also specific designation)
International system of units @I), xiii, 778-799
advantages of, 782-785
base units for, 779-780
conversion tables for, 790-799
derived units for, 781-783
prefixes for, 786, 788-789
rules for use of, 785-790
supplementary units for, 780-781
unacceptable units for, 784
Inventions, 102
Inventory accounts, 146
Investment ratio, 191
Investment tax credit, 260
Investments:
alternative, 315-329
practical factors in choosing, 335-336
as replacements, 329-335
capital (see Capital investments)
comparison of, 10, 315-329
SUBJECT INDEX 903904 SUBJECT INDEX
Investments (Cont.)
cost of, factors affecting, 154-157
return on, acceptable, 314-315
with depreciation included in annual cash
flow, 298n.
discounted cash flow method for, 297-298,
301-304
incremental, 319-323
interest rate of return method for, 301n.
investor’s rate of return method for, 301n.
with minimum profit as an expense, 298-301
present-worth method for, 297-298,
304-308
profitability index for, 301n., 310-314
use of total and fixed-capital investment
for, 298n.
(See also Rate of return on investments)
Investor’s rate of return, 301n.
IPES, 128
Iron and steel as materials of construction,
422-424.440-442
Jet pumps, 522-523
Joint efficiencies, 538
Joule, pronunciation of, 782
Journal in accounting, 138, 144
Karbate, 440-442
Kel-F, 435
Kettles, cost of, 731
Kneaders, cost of, 559
Koroseal, 435
Labor costs, 197-202,210, 802
indexes for, 165
by location, 201
relative, 188-190
Labor requirements for plants, 197-202
Laboratory test costs, 204
Ladders, cost of, 711
Lagrange multipliers, applications of, 631
for optimum conditions, 402-403
Land, cost of, 176
Lang factors, 184
Layout, for equipment fabrication, 446
of plant, 95-96
Lead, 432
Lead pipe, cost of, 506-507
Least squares analysis, 760-764
Ledgers in accounting, 138, 144-145
Legal liability, 262-263
fessing rings, 688-690
Level controllers, cost of, 813
Liabilities;
in accounting, 139
types of, 262-263
Lifo method for materials accounting, 148
Linear programming, strategy of, 376-393
Linear regression analysis, 759-764
Liquid assets, 140
Liquid flow in tray columns, 655, 683
Liquid gradient over bubble-cap trays, 672-673
Liquid-level gages, cost of, 812
Liquids:
heat capacities of, 881
specific gravities of, 882
thermal conductivities of, 878
viscosities of, 874-875
Literature references in reports, 461-462
Literature surveys, 19-20
Location, plant, 91-95
Lucite, 440-442
MACRS, 273,276,286-290
Maintenance:
costs for, 203, 210, 269-270
plant, 97-98
Manufacturing costs, 195-196, 210-211
Market value, definition of, 277
Marketing costs, 194, 196, 207
Marshall and Swift cost indexes, 163-164
Mass-transfer equipment, costs for, 708-716
Material balances for reactor design, 715
Materials, of construction, 42-43, 421-446
(See also specific designation)
cost indexes for, 165
economics in selection of, 445-446
fabrication of, 446-449
handling of, 101-102
equipment for, cost of, 568-572
Matheson formula, 280
Matrix solution generalizations, 387n., 388n.
Mean, 741-742
Mean deviation, 744
Median, 741-742
MEDLAR, 48
Metals:
cost of, 422
as materials of construction, 422-433,
437-439,440~442
specific gravities of, 883
thermal conductivities of, 877
Methanol, synthesis of, 113-116
Mixers, cost of, 558
Mode, 741
Models for plant layouts, 96
Modular estimates, 191-183SUBJEm I N D E X 905
Monel, 431,440~442
Motors:
cost of, 533
efficiencies of, 521
Murphree plate efficiency, 661
Name index, 893-895
Natural convection, heat-transfer coefficients
for, 597-598
Nelson refinery construction cost index, 163, 165
Neoprene rubber, 435
Net present worth, method for, 297-298,
304-308
(See aho Present worth)
Net realizable value, definition of, 333
Nickel and alloys, 431, 438, 440-442
Nitric acid, flow diagram for production of,
21-22
Nitrile rubber, 435
Noise control, 90-91
Nomenclature in reports, 464-470
Nominal interest, 218-222, 224, 241-244
Nonlinear regression analysis, 765
Nonmetals:
as materials of construction, 433-437,440-442
thermal conductivity of, 877
Noxious gas removal, 83-84
NTU, 703
Nucerite, 434
Objective function, definition of, 376
Obsolescence, 269
Oil, cost of, 815
Operating-time effect on costs, 155-156
Operation of plants, 18-19, 96-98
Optimum conditions:
accuracy and sensitivity for, 361
critical path method (CPM) for, 407-408
in cyclic operations, 353-361
dynamic programming for, 393-402
geometric programming for, 407
Lagrange multipliers for, 402-403
linear programming for, 376-393
methods of steepest ascent or descent for,
403-405
program evaluation and review technique
(PERT) for, 407-408
response surface techniques for, 405-408
Optimum design:
basic principles for, 6-9, 341-342
break-even chart for, 349-350
comparison of graphical and analytical
methods for, 348-349
economic, 7-8
general procedures for, 343-349
of heat exchangers, 621, 625-642
operation, 8-9
practical considerations in, 343
role of incremental costs in, 343
Optimum economic pipe diameter, 343,361-368
(See also Pipe, sizing of)
Optimum flow rate of cooling water in
condenser, 368-371
Optimum insulation thickness, 341-342,
344-345
Optimum operating conditions
for evaporators, 355-361
for filters, 360-361
tangential method for determining, 358
Optimum production rates, 349-353
Optimum reflux ratio, 371-376
Optimum temperature for oxidation of sulfur
dioxide, 8-9
Order-of-magnitude estimates, 160-162
Ordinary interest, 217
Organization of reports, 454-457
Orifice meters, relationships for, 534-536
Orifices, frictional effects due to, 484-486
Overhead costs, 205-206,211
Packed towers, 687-708
allowable velocity in, 697-700
cost of components of, 708-713
flooding point in, 697-702
liquid distribution in, 691-692
loading point in, 692-694
pressure drop in, 692-697
relative merits of plate and, 706-708
Packings:
characteristics of, 687-693
cost of, 710
efficiencies of, 702-706
types of, 688-690
Pall rings, 688-690
cost of, 710
Particulate removal, 81-83
Partitioning in recycle, 131-134
Pascal:
definition of, 782,785
pronunciation of, 782
Passivation of steels, 430
Patents, 102
cost of, 204, 210
Payback period (see Payout period)
Payoff period (see Payout period)
Payout period:
example of application of, 324-329
for profitability evaluation, 297-298, 309-310906 SUBJECTI- INDEX
Perforated-plate towers, 651-652, 662, 681
(See aLr0 Sieve trays)
Perpetuity, definition of, 230
Personal pronouns in reports, use of, 471
Personnel safety, 47-53,59-61,69-75
Phenolic resins, 436, 443
Pilot plants:
definition of, 3
need of, for equipment specifications, 36-39
Pipe:
cost of, 499-510
basic equations for, 363
dimensions of, table for, 888
power requirements for flow in, 479-492
safe working stresses for, 492-493
schedule number for, definition of, 493
sizing of, 495-497
optimum economic, 7-8,343,361-368,
495-497
equations for estimation of, 496-497
nomograph for, 498
velocities for, 496
strength of, 492-493
thermal expansion of, 495
water hammer in, 495
Pipe diameter:
nominal, 493
optimum, 7-8,343,361-368,495-498
Pipe insulation, cost of, 513
Pipe painting, cost of, 514
Pipe roughness, equivalent, 480, 482
Piping standards, 492-494
Piping systems:
cost of, 173-174,497-510
design of, 494-497
Plant:
capacity of, 155-156, 349-361
construction of, 18-19
layout of, 95-96
location of, 91-95
operation of, 96-98
pilot (see Pilot plants)
site selection of, 94-95
Plastics as materials of construction, 435-437,
443
Plate efficiencies for tray columns, 661-667
Plate stabilities for tray columns, 686
Platforms, cost of, 711
Plug-flow reactor design, 727-728
Point efficiencies for tray columns, 661
Poiseuille’s law, 481~
Pollution:
control of, 75-91
thermal, 89-90
Polycarbonate, 436, 443
Polyethylene, 436, 443
Polypropylene, 436, 443
Polyvinyl chloride, 436, 443
Polyinyl-chloride pipes and fittings, cost of,
507-508
Porcelain, 434
Post-mortem cost accounting, 145
Power factors for plant capacity, 185-188
Power requirements:
for gas compressors, 523-525
for pumping, 479-492
Practical considerations in design, 9-11
Precedence ordering in design, 383n.
Predesign cost estimation, 5
Preferred stock, dividend rates on, 248-249
Preliminary designs, 14,16-18
example of, 22-34,
Preliminary estimates, 160-162
Preparation of reports, 459-471
Present value:
definition of, 277
method for, 304-308
(See also Present worth)
Present worth:
of an annuity, 228
definition of, 225-226
factors for, 223n., 236-237
method for determining depreciation, 285
method for profitability evaluation, 297-298,
304-308
example of application of, 324-329
Pressure drop:
in heat exchangers, 596-606
in packed towers, 692-697
in tray columns, 667-679
Pressure indicators, cost of, 814
Pressure vessels:
cost of, 539-542
design equations for, 537-538, 732
equations for wall thickness for, 450, 537-538
Prestartup costs in profitability evaluation,
310-314
Price fluctuations, 154
Probability distribution, 745-746
Process design:
definition of, 2
development of, 2-4, 14-19
Process engineering, definition of, 2
Process synthesis, 112, 117-125
Product cost, estimation of, 192-209
Production costs, factors affecting, 154-157SUBJECT INDEX 907
Production-rates effect on cost, 155-156
Production schedules, for optimum rates,
350-354
break-even chart for, 349-350
Profitability:
definition of, 295
factors affecting, 5-6
standards for, 296
Profitability evaluation:
bases for, 291
capitalized costs for, 297-298, 308-309
discounted cash flow for, 297-298, 301-308
examples of, 310-314, 324-329
income-tax effects in, 300, 324
mathematical methods for, 297-298
comparison of, 323
payout period for, 297-298,309-310
present worth for, 297-298, 304-308
rate of return for, 298-301
Profitability index, 301n., 310-314
Program evaluation and review technique
(PERT), 18, 407-408
Programming:
dynamic, strategy of, 393-402
linear, strategy of, 376-393
Project audits, 137-142
Propagation of error, 770-771
Proprietorship in accounting, 139
Protruded packing, 706
Pumps:
air-displacement, 515, 522-523
acid eggs, 515, 522
barometric leg, 523
centrifugal, 515,518-521
advantages and disadvantages of, 521
brake horsepower for, 520
characteristic curves for, 520-521
efficiency of, 520-521
theory for operating characteristics of,
518-521
cost of, 526-527
factors in choice of, 516
jet, 522-523
steam requirements for, 523
power requirements for, 479-492
reciprocating, 515-518
advantages and disadvantages of, 518
cost of, 525
efficiencies for, 517-518
sizing of, example for, 29-30
specifications for, 17
types of, 515
Pyrolysis, 89
Quality control, 772
Radiation, heat transfer by, 582-585
Radius, hydraulic, 486
Raschig rings, 688-690, 694, 704
cost of, 710
Rate of return on investments:
acceptable, 314-315
based on discounted cash flow, 301-308
for profitability evaluation, 297-299
applications of, 317-323
with depreciation included in annual cash
flow, 298n.
with incremental investment, 319-323
with minimum profit as expense, 298-301
(See af!ro Investments, return on)
Ratio, cash, 140-142
current, 140-142
reflux, optimum, 371-376
turnover, 190-191
Ratio factors for capital investment, 180-184
Raw materials:
cost of, 197,210
cost accounting for, 146-148
Reactor design, 714-732
back-mix, 728
batch, 726-727
computer solution for, 718-726
equations for, 721-728
example calculations for, 26-30, 730-732
mechanical features of, 729-730
plug-flow, 727-728
principles of, 714-717
rate expression for, 728-729
Reactors:
cost of, 730-732
specifications for, 16
types of, 721-728
Reboilers, cost of, 731
Reciprocating pumps, 515-518
cost of, 525
Recycle, 130-134
References to literature in reports, 461-462
Reflux ratio, optimum, 371-376
Refrigeration, cost of, 811, 815
Regression analysis, 759-765
Rent, cost of, 205, 210
Repairs, cost of, 203, 210, 269-270
Replacement evaluation, 329-336
Replacement value, definition of, 277
Reports:
abbreviations in, 471-473
check list for, 475-476908 SUBJECT INDEX
Reports (Conr.)
literature references in, 461-462
organization of, 455-459
preparation of, 459-471
rhetoric for, 471-475
common errors in, 475
standard nomenclature for, 464-470
types of, 453-454
writing of, 452-476
Research, cost of, 194, 196, 207, 211
Reserve for depreciation, 140
Response surface techniques for optimum
conditions, 405-407
Returns, acceptable, 314-315
related to interest, 216, 246-248
(See aL.ro Rate of return on investments)
Rhetoric in report writing, 471-475
Risers in tray columns, 652-654, 680
Risk earning rate, definition of, 299
Rotameters, relationships for, 534-536
Rotary pumps, 518-521
cost of, 528-529
Royalties, cost of, 204, 210
Rubber as material of construction, 435
Safety:
audits, 71-75
factors in equipment specifications, 36-40
hazards, 47-75
indexes, 70-71
in plant design considerations, 59-61, 70-75
regulations, 60-61
Safety and health, 47-75
Salvage value, definition of, 276-278
Sample calculations in reports, 462
Saran, 437, 440-442
Sawing for equipment fabrication, 447
Scale formation in evaporators, 355-360
Scaling for equipment cost estimation, 169-171
Scaling factors for heat transfer, 586-587
Scale-up for equipment specifications, 36-39
Schedule number for pipe, 493
Screen, cost of, 567
Self insurance, 264-265
Sensitivity of results for pipe sizing, 367-368
Separators, cost of, 559-561
Sequential analysis, 771-772
Series compound-amount factor, 227
Service facilities, cost of, 175-176
Service life:
definition of, 270
values of, 271-276
Sewage disposal, cost of, 811-812
Shearing for equipment fabrication, 447
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers, 580, 602-606,
609-612
Shielded-arc welding, 448
SI (see International system of units)
Sieve trays, 651-652, 662, 681-686
allowable velocities in, 656-661
cost of, 709
efficiency of, 661-667
pressure drop over, 667-679
Silicon rubber, 435
Silver, 432
Simple interest, 216-217
Simplex algorithm, 388-393
Simplex search, 407
Single-unit depreciation, 290-291
Singular and plural in reports, use of, 474
Sink, capital, 150-152
Sinking-fund method for determining
depreciation, 283-285
Site-improvement costs, 175-176
Six-tenths-factor rule for cost estimation,
169-171
Skirt clearance, definition of, 680
Slack variable in linear programming, 377,
383-386
Slot velocities in bubble caps, 680
Social security taxes, 261
Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, manufacture
of, 23-34
Soil-bearing pressures, 99-100
Soldering, 448
Solid-waste disposal, 88-90
Space velocity, definition of, 728
Specific gravities:
of liquids, 882
of solids, 883
Specifications, equipment, 36-42
(See also specific designation)
SPEED-UP, 126
Split infinitives in report writing, use of, 475
Spread sheet, 111
Stages of plant-design project, 2-3
Stainless steel as material of construction,
423-430
classification of, 425
Stainless-steel fittings, cost of, 502-504
Stainless-steel pipe, cost of, 502
Standard cost accounting, 145
Standard deviation, 743-145
Startup:
costs, 179
Static submergence, definition of, 685
Statistical analysis in design:
basic concepts of, 741-746SUBJECT INDEX 909
regression analysis for, 759-765
strategy of, 766-770
tests for, 746-759
Steam:
cxxt of, 815
table of properties for, 884-885
use in heat exchangers, 613-614
Steam generators, cost of, 809
Steam-jet pumps, 522-523
Steel, fittings:
cost of, 499-502
as material of construction, 422-423,426-429
pipe, cost of, 499-502
standards for, 422-424
Steepest ascent or descent, method of, 403-405
Stocks, preferred and common, return on,
248-249
Stoneware, 434
Storage equipment:
cost of, 539-542
design of, 536-542
Storage facilities, 100-101
Storage tanks, example of sizing of, 29-30
Straight-line method for determining
depreciation, 278-279
Strategy of design, 341-413
Strategy of experimental design, 766-770
Structural design, 99-100
Study estimate, 160-162
Styrene rubber, 435
Styrene, synthesis of, 118-125, 132-134
Subject index, 897
Submerged-arc welding, 448
Subrogation rights, 263
Sulfonation of alkylbenzene, 23-25
Sulfur dioxide, optimum temperature for
oxidation of, 8-9
Sum-of-the-years-digits factor with continuous
cash flow, 238~
Sum-of-the-years-digits method for determining
depreciation, 279, 283
Summary in reports, 455-458
Superproduction costs for optimum analysis,
351-353
Supervision, cost of, 177, 202
Supplies, cost of, 204, 210
Survey of literature, 19-20
Symbols for flow sheets, 889-890
r-test for statistical analysis, 747-751, 754
Tables in reports, 460
Tangential method for optimum conditions, 358
Tanks:
cost of, 539-542
design of, 536-542
Tantalum, 432
Taxes:
capital gains, 155-157, 256, 259
excise, 253-254
income, 253-254
depreciation regulation for, 260-261
(See also Depreciation cost)
excess profits, 261
laws for Federal, 254-261
normal, 256, 258
state, 253
surtax, 256,258-259
local, 205, 253
property, 253-254
returns for, 261
social security, 261
Tearing in recycle, 131-134
Teflon, 435,440
Temperature-difference driving force, mean,
588-590
Temperature effects on materials of
construction, 437-439
Temperature recorders, cost of, 814
Tenses in reports, 473
Testing in fabrication of equipment, 448
Thermal conductivities:
of gases, 879
of liquids, 878
of metals, 877
of nonmetallic solids, 877
of water, 876
Thermal pollution, control of, 89-90
Title page for reports, 455-457
Tolerance intervals, 759
Total capital investment, 157
Towers, cost of, 707-713,810
TOXLINE, 48
Transmittal, letter of, in reports, 455, 457
Trays, cost of, 709
(See also specific type of trays)
Trenches, cost of, 514
True mean, 741
True rate of return, 301n.
True variance, 743
Tube cost for heat exchangers, 615
Tube size in heat exchangers, 607-608
Tubing, data table for, 886-887
Turbine pumps, 519
Turbogrid trays, 656
Turnover ratios, 190-191
Unamortized values in making replacements,
332-333
,._ :
919 SUBJECT I N D E X
Uniflex trays, 654-656
Unit cost estimates, 180
Unit-operations estimates, 191-192
Unsteady-state heat transfer, 590-592
Utilities:
cost of, 202-203,710, 815 .
plant requirements for, 199-200
types of, for process design, 98-99
Value, meaning of, 268
Valve trays, 651-652, 656, 681-686
allowable velocities for, 656-661
cost of, 709
efficiency of, 661-667
pressure drop over, 667, 671-673
Valves, cost of, 511-513
Variability of data, 743-745
‘Variance, 743
in cost accounting, 145
in co$t estimates, 162
Velocities, economic, for flow:
. ih pipes, 496,. 498
, In packed towers, 697-702
, in tray towers, 656-661, 680, 681
Venture worth (see Present worth)
Venturi, frictional effects due to, 485
Venturi meters, relationships for, 534-536
Vintage-group accounts, 291
Viscosities:
of gases, 872-873
of liquids, 874-875
of water, 876
Viton A, 435
Volumetric efficiency of pumps, 517
Waste disposal:
Federal regulations for, 75-78
in plant location, 91-93
Wastewater-treatment plants, cost of, 811-812
Water:
cooling, optimum flow rate of, 368-371
cost of, 815
for industrial process, 99
pollution abatement, 84-88
by biological treatment, 87
by chemical treatment, 86-88
use in heat exchangers, 613
Weirs in tray columns, 685
Welch’s approximation, 749~
Welding processes, 447-448
Wilcoxon’s tests, 747n.
Wood as material of construction, 437
Working capital from balance sheet, 140
Working-capital investment, 157-158
Yard improvements, cost of, 175-176, 805


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