كتاب Additive Manufacturing Processes
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 كتاب Additive Manufacturing Processes

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Additive Manufacturing Processes    كتاب Additive Manufacturing Processes  Emptyالخميس 29 أبريل 2021, 1:55 am

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Additive Manufacturing Processes
Sanjay Kumar

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و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Introduction . 1
1.1 Introduction . 1
1.2 Definition of a Process and Additive Manufacturing 3
1.3 Steps in Additive Layer Manufacturing 4
1.4 Additive Layer Manufacturing and Additive Manufacturing 5
1.5 Oldest Evidence of Additive Layer Manufacturing . 6
1.6 Comparison Between Machining and Additive
Manufacturing . 7
1.6.1 Approach . 7
1.6.2 Generation of Waste . 8
1.6.3 Material Properties 9
1.7 Why ‘Complexity in Additive Manufacturing Is Free’
Is a Myth . 9
1.8 Summary of Additive Manufacturing Processes . 11
1.9 AM Processes for Fabricating Parts . 14
1.9.1 Metallic Parts 14
1.9.2 Polymer Parts 14
1.9.3 Ceramic Parts 15
1.9.4 Composite Parts 15
1.9.5 Functionally Graded Materials 16
References . 16
2 Classification 21
2.1 Introduction . 21
2.2 Difference in Additive Manufacturing Processes . 21
2.2.1 Materials . 22
2.2.2 Agent for Joining Materials . 23
2.2.3 Form of Feedstock 24
2.2.4 Conveyance of Feedstock 25x
2.3 Classification by ASTM 26
2.3.1 Complication with ASTM Classification . 27
2.4 Attempt to Classify on the Basis of Materials . 28
2.5 Attempt to Classify on the Basis of Agents for Joining
Materials . 29
2.6 Attempt to Classify on the Basis of Form of Feedstock . 29
2.7 Attempt to Classify on the Basis of Conveyance of
Feedstock . 30
2.7.1 No Feeding Category 30
2.7.2 Feeding Category . 31
2.8 Difference Between Solid Deposition Process and Liquid
Deposition Process 34
2.9 Classification of AM 36
References . 39
3 Laser Powder Bed Fusion 41
3.1 Powder Bed Process . 41
3.1.1 Classification 42
3.1.2 Description of Classification 43
3.1.3 Role of Heat . 43
3.2 Laser Powder Bed Fusion 44
3.2.1 Why Selective Laser Sintering Is a Misnomer . 44
3.2.2 Selective Laser Sintering . 45
3.2.3 Selective Laser Melting 46
3.3 Process Parameters 46
3.3.1 Scan Spacing 48
3.3.2 Scan Speed 48
3.3.3 Layer Thickness 49
3.4 Why There Are No Four Binding Mechanisms 50
3.4.1 Liquid Phase Sintering . 51
3.4.2 Full Melting . 52
3.4.3 Why Solid State Sintering Is Not a Binding
Mechanism 52
3.4.4 Why Chemical-Induced Binding Is Not a Binding
Mechanism 54
3.5 Methods for Increasing Fabrication Rate . 54
3.5.1 Increasing Layer Thickness . 55
3.5.2 Dividing the Processing Area 55
3.5.3 Optimizing the Process as per the Need . 56
3.5.4 Changing the Orientation of Design to Be Fabricated . 57
3.5.5 Increasing Scan Speed . 58
3.5.6 Adopting Linewise and Areawise Scanning 59
3.6 Repair in Laser Powder Bed Fusion 60
References . 62
Contentsxi
4 Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion 65
4.1 Process Description . 65
4.1.1 Beam Generation . 66
4.1.2 Beam Manipulation . 67
4.1.3 Vacuum Chamber . 72
4.1.4 Powder Bed Processing 73
4.2 Difference from Selective Laser Melting . 74
4.2.1 Powder . 74
4.2.2 Beam 75
4.2.3 Beam-Powder Interaction 75
4.2.4 Parameter . 76
4.2.5 Implication of Vacuum . 77
4.2.6 Scanning 77
References . 78
5 Other Powder Bed Processes . 79
5.1 Introduction . 79
5.2 Non-beam Based Powder Bed Fusion . 80
5.2.1 Heater Based Sintering 80
5.2.2 Localized Microwave Heating Based AM 81
5.3 High Speed Sintering 82
5.3.1 Energy-Efficiency of High Speed Sintering . 84
5.4 Linewise, Pointwise, Areawise Scanning 84
5.4.1 Linewise Scanning 84
5.4.2 Pointwise Scanning . 85
5.4.3 Areawise Scanning 85
5.4.4 Basic Difference Between the Three Types
of Scanning . 87
5.5 Binder Jet Three-Dimensional Printing 88
5.5.1 Role of Binder . 88
References . 91
6 Beam Based Solid Deposition Process 93
6.1 Introduction . 93
6.2 Laser Solid Deposition Process 94
6.2.1 Types of Powder Deposition 95
6.2.2 Laser-Powder Interaction . 97
6.3 Repair in Laser Solid Deposition Process 101
6.4 Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing . 102
6.5 Difference Between Powder and Wire as Feedstock 103
6.5.1 Cost . 103
6.5.2 Availability 103
6.5.3 Material Efficiency 104
6.5.4 Processing in Vacuum . 104
6.5.5 Oxidation . 104
Contentsxii
6.5.6 Effect on Process . 105
6.5.7 Processing an Inaccessible Area . 106
References . 108
7 Other Solid Deposition Processes . 111
7.1 Introduction . 111
7.2 Friction Based Solid Deposition Process . 112
7.2.1 Additive Friction Stir Deposition . 113
7.2.2 Friction Surfacing Based Additive Manufacturing
(FSBAM) . 114
7.3 Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing 116
7.3.1 How Cold Spray Is Generated . 117
7.4 Arc Welding Based Additive Manufacturing 119
7.4.1 What Is Arc . 119
7.4.2 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Based AM . 122
7.4.3 Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Based AM . 124
7.5 Extrusion Based Additive Manufacturing 126
7.5.1 Feedstock Type in Extrusion Based AM . 127
7.6 Comparison Between Friction Based SDP and Fusion
Based SDP 128
References . 129
8 Liquid Based Additive Layer Manufacturing . 131
8.1 Introduction . 131
8.2 Photopolymer Bed Process . 132
8.3 Why Stereolithography Is Not Stereolithography 134
8.4 Liquid Deposition Process 135
8.4.1 Water Deposition . 137
8.5 Slurry Based Process 138
8.5.1 Slurry Bed Process 139
8.5.2 Binding Methods in Slurry Bed Process . 140
8.5.3 Slurry Deposition Process 141
8.6 Four Dimensional Printing 142
References . 143
9 Air and Ion Deposition Processes . 147
9.1 Aerosol Jetting . 147
9.2 Ionic Solution Based Additive Manufacturing . 150
9.2.1 Electrolytic Solution Based Additive Manufacturing . 151
9.2.2 Colloidal Solution Based Additive Manufacturing . 155
References . 156
10 Additive Non-layer Manufacturing 159
10.1 Introduction . 159
10.2 Disadvantages of Additive Layer Manufacturing 160
10.2.1 Staircase Effect . 160
10.2.2 Need for Support Structure 162
Contentsxiii
10.2.3 Problem in Repair of an AM Part . 162
10.3 Additive Non-layer Manufacturing Process . 163
10.3.1 Layerless Fused Deposition Modeling 164
10.3.2 CNC Accumulation 165
10.3.3 Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP) 166
10.3.4 Two-Photon Polymerization (2PP) 168
References . 170
11 Sheet Based Process 171
11.1 Introduction . 171
11.2 Ultrasonic Consolidation . 172
11.3 Laminated Object Manufacturing 173
11.3.1 Why Cut-Then-Bond Type Is a Subset
of Bond-Then-Cut Type . 175
11.4 Why Sheet Based Process Is Not Additive Manufacturing . 177
11.5 Why Sheet Based Process Is Considered Additive
Manufacturing . 178
11.6 Why Sheet Based Process Is Not a Hybrid Additive
Manufacturing . 178
11.6.1 An Ideal Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Process . 179
11.6.2 Application of Hybrid Additive Manufacturing
Criteria in Ultrasonic Consolidation . 180
11.7 Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing 181
11.8 Comparison Between FSAM and Powder Bed Fusion (PBF) . 183
11.8.1 Surface Finish 183
11.8.2 Micro-features 183
11.8.3 Feedstock 183
11.8.4 Part Properties 183
11.8.5 Part Fabrication . 184
References . 184
12 Future Additive Manufacturing Processes 187
12.1 Introduction . 187
12.2 Future Processes Based on Classification 188
12.2.1 Particle Bed Process 188
12.2.2 Non-photopolymer Bed Process 189
12.2.3 Sheet Bed Process . 189
12.3 Future Powder Bed Process . 193
12.3.1 Using Powder Deposition Tracks 193
12.3.2 Using Powder Hoppers . 196
12.4 Future Laser Solid Deposition Process 198
References . 202
Index.
Index
A
Ablation, 1, 48, 77
Additive friction stir deposition (AFSD), 11, 22, 23, 29, 30, 33, 93, 112–114, 116
Additive layer manufacturing (ALM), 5, 6, 36,
37, 132, 160–165
Additive non-layer manufacturing (ANLM), 5, 36, 37, 132, 165
Aerosol jetting (AJ), 11, 14, 15, 22, 30,
147, 148
Areawise scanning, 85, 86, 88
ASTM,
B
Big area additive manufacturing (BAAM), 11, 15, 22, 27
Binder, 11, 13–15, 24, 25, 27, 29, 41–43, 51,
52, 59, 88–90, 139, 140, 142, 173
Binder jet three-dimensional printing (BJ3DP), 11, 22
Bottom-up approach,
C
CAD, 4, 5, 7, 41, 49, 61, 82, 94, 116, 140,
154, 155, 160, 172, 175, 176
Classification, 5, 27–30, 32, 36–38, 43,
188, 189
CNC, 1, 9, 100, 163, 165–166, 191, 199, 201
Coating, 25, 30–32, 51, 54, 94, 101,
142, 162
Cold metal transfer (CMT), 126
Cold spray,
Cold spray additive manufacturing (CSAM), 12, 14, 16, 22, 23, 27, 33, 60, 93,
116, 117
Complete melting, 32, 51, 100
Complexity, 9–11, 45, 85, 177, 188, 190,
192–194, 199
Complex part, 10, 90, 152, 154, 163, 182, 183,
188, 189, 192, 202
Composite, 3, 14, 15, 51, 54, 104, 105, 117, 193
Composite extrusion modeling (CEM), 126, 128 Continuous liquid interface production
(CLIP),
D
Degradation, 9, 84
Digital light processing (DLP), 12, 22
Directed energy deposition (DED), 1–3, 12,
24–28, 30, 94
Drilling, 1, 10, 189, 192, 201
E
Electrochemical additive manufacturing (ECAM), 12, 14–16, 22, 24, 27
Electrode, 12, 66, 150, 151, 156
Electron beam (e-beam), 70, 74
Electron beam melting (EBM), 3, 12, 14, 16,
22–24, 27–32, 42, 43, 59, 70, 85
Electron welding, 3
Energy-efficient, 84, 100, 175, 180
Evaporation rate, 77
F
Fabrication rate, 54–59, 175
Feeding, 30–32, 36, 37, 45, 46, 105, 107, 174
Feedstock, 9, 24, 25, 29–34, 93, 94, 103–108,
113, 170, 177, 179, 181, 188, 189
Filament, 12
Four-dimensional printing (4DP), 142, 143
Friction stir additive manufacturing
(FSAM), 181–182
Friction stir processing (FSP), 113
Friction stir welding (FSW), 4, 181
Full melting, 3, 14, 44, 46, 51, 54
Functionally graded materials (FGM), 16, 195
Fused deposition modelling (FDM), 11, 12,
15, 22, 24, 27, 30, 37, 126, 127, 142,
143, 152, 155, 164–165
Fused pellet modeling (FPM), 126, 127
Future process, 190
G
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 119
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), 119, 122
H
High energy beam, 23, 25, 42, 75, 106, 107,
128, 129, 181
High speed, 59, 82–84, 117
High speed sintering (HSS), 12, 14, 22, 32, 42,
43, 82–86
Hoppers, 196, 197
Hybrid manufacturing, 178–180, 184
I
Infiltration, 14, 15, 53, 88, 195
Inhibiter, 43, 83, 90
Ink jet printing (IJP), 12, 22
K
Kinetic energy, 23, 29, 75, 117
L
Laminated object manufacturing (LOM),
173–175, 177
Laser energy density, 48, 49, 59
Laser engineered net shaping (LENS), 12,
14–16, 22, 23, 27–30, 33, 60, 93, 94
Layer thickness, 49, 50
Layer-less FDM, 164
Layerwise scanning, 86
Linewise scanning, 59, 85, 87
Liquid deposition, 33
Liquid deposition process (LDP), 35
Lithography based ceramic manufacturing
(LCM), 12
Localized microwave heating based AM
(LMHAM), 12, 22
Low temperature, 23, 29, 101
M
Machining, 1, 7–11, 61, 102, 162, 166, 174,
177, 178, 180, 181, 183, 184, 189, 191,
192, 201
Magnetic field, 68–72
Material bed process, 32, 36, 37, 188–190
Material deposition process, 36, 37
Melt pool, 48, 52, 58, 97–100, 104–106, 112
Metal powder, 14, 29, 75
Micro droplet deposition manufacturing
(MDDM), 13, 22
Microheater array powder sintering
(MAPS), 13, 22
Microwave energy, 29, 80, 81
Multi-functional, 195, 196
Multi-material, 150, 193, 195–198
N
Non-layer, 37
O
Orientation, 7, 57, 61, 152, 154, 163, 166, 176,
199, 200
Overhangs, 9, 52, 100, 192, 198, 199
P
Partial melting, 3, 14, 32, 44, 50,
52–54, 73, 117
Photopolymer, 12, 13, 15, 23, 25, 28, 30–34,
140, 165, 167–169, 178, 188, 189, 191
Photopolymer bed process (PPBP), 132–143
Photopolymer jetting (PJ), 13, 22
Plasma arc additive manufacturing
(PAD), 13, 22
Plasma transferred arc, 124
Plasma welding, 4
Pointwise scanning, 59, 85, 87, 88
Porosity, 16, 48, 52, 74, 77, 111, 112, 167,
181, 188, 191, 198
Index205
Post-processing, 8, 13, 14, 43, 50, 53, 81,
88–90, 140, 142, 143, 162, 177,
190, 192
Powder bed fusion (PBF), 3, 9, 24–26, 32, 42,
43, 56, 60, 61, 80, 82, 183–184,
193–194, 199
Powder bed process (PBP), 41, 139, 188
Powder deposition, 12, 33, 94–101, 193, 194,
196, 198
Powder melt extrusion (PME), 126, 128
Production, 44, 48, 49, 52, 54, 70, 73, 74, 77,
78, 84, 85, 97, 112, 114, 163, 166–168
Q
Quadrupole, 72
R
Rapid freeze prototyping (RFP), 13, 22,
132, 138
Repair, 60, 101, 102, 162–163
S
Scan speed, 48, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 69, 70, 76,
77, 101, 112
Selective heat sintering (SHS), 13, 15,
22, 42, 81
Selective inhibition sintering (SIS), 13, 42,
43, 89, 90
Selective laser melting (SLM), 3, 13–16, 22,
23, 27–32, 42, 43, 46, 48,
74–77, 85, 140
Selective laser sintering (SLS), 3, 13–16, 22,
23, 27–32, 42–46, 51, 83–85, 140
Sheet, 27, 171–184
Sheet based process (SBP), 178, 181
Sheet lamination, 27
Slurry bed process, 139, 140
Slurry deposition, 13, 35, 139–141
Small feature, 128, 129, 183
Solid bed process, 189
Solid deposition, 33, 35, 112–116
Staircase effect, 160, 162, 165, 168
Stereolithography (SL), 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 15,
22–29, 31, 132, 134, 135, 142, 143,
166, 169, 178
Subtractive manufacturing, 177, 180
Support structure, 57, 100, 162, 165
Surface roughness, 30, 49, 51–53, 57, 74, 75,
77, 117, 191
Sustainability, 56, 189
T
Thermal lamp, 43, 82–84, 86
Thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP), 13, 22
3D gel printing (3DGP), 13, 22, 23, 33
Three-dimensional printing (3DP), 88, 143
Tooling, 2, 5, 177
Top-down approach, 7
Tungsten electrode, 122–124
Two-photon polymerization (2PP), 13, 15, 22,
30, 37, 163, 168–170
U
Ultrasonic consolidation (UC), 27, 172, 180,
181, 184
V
Vacuum, 14, 65, 68, 72–74, 77, 104
Vat photopolymerization, 13, 28
W
Waste, 8, 53, 90, 174, 189
Water bed process, 189
Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), 13,
14, 22, 23, 27, 30, 33, 93
Wire deposition, 33
Wire feeding, 30–32, 105–107


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