كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook
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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 18769
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook    كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook  Emptyالثلاثاء 20 أبريل 2021, 1:20 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Electrical Safety Handbook
John Cadick, P.E.
Cadick Corporation, Garland, Texas
Mary Capelli-Schellpfeffer, M.D., M.P.A.
CapSchell, Inc., Chicago, Illinois
Dennis K. Neitzel, C.P.E.
AVO Training Institute, Inc., Dallas, Texas

كتاب Electrical Safety Handbook  E_s_h_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


CONTENTS
Foreword xvii
Preface xix
Acknowledgments xxi
Chapter 1. Hazards of Electricity 1.1
Introduction / 1.1
Glossary / 1.1
Hazard Analysis / 1.2
Shock / 1.2
Description / 1.2
Influencing Factors / 1.3
Arc / 1.7
Definition and Description / 1.8
Arc Energy Release / 1.9
Arc Energy / 1.12
Arc Energy Input / 1.12
Arcing Voltage / 1.13
Arc Surface Area / 1.13
Incident Energy / 1.14
Arc Burns / 1.16
Blast / 1.16
Affected Body Parts / 1.17
General / 1.17
Skin / 1.19
The Nervous System / 1.20
Muscular System / 1.21
The Heart / 1.22
The Pulmonary System / 1.23
Summary of Causes—Injury and Death / 1.23
Shock Effect / 1.23
Arc Flash Effect / 1.24
Causes of Injury / 1.24
Causes of Death / 1.25
Protective Strategies / 1.25
References / 1.26
Chapter 2. Electrical Safety Equipment 2.1
Introduction / 2.1
Glossary / 2.1
General Inspection and Testing Requirements for Electrical
Safety Equipment / 2.2
For more information about this title, click hereFlash and Thermal Protection / 2.2
A Note on When to Use Thermal Protective Clothing / 2.2
Thermal Performance Evaluation / 2.3
Clothing Materials / 2.4
Non-Flame-Resistant Materials / 2.5
Flame-Resistant Materials / 2.6
Work Clothing / 2.9
Flash Suits / 2.11
Head, Eye, and Hand Protection / 2.13
Head and Eye Protection / 2.14
Hard Hats / 2.14
Safety Glasses, Goggles, and Face Shields / 2.15
Rubber-Insulating Equipment / 2.15
Rubber Gloves / 2.16
Rubber Mats / 2.20
Rubber Blankets / 2.21
Rubber Covers / 2.22
Line Hose / 2.25
Rubber Sleeves / 2.26
In-Service Inspection and Periodic Testing of Rubber Goods / 2.29
Hot Sticks / 2.44
Description and Application / 2.44
When to Use / 2.47
How to Use / 2.47
Testing Requirements / 2.47
Insulated Tools / 2.48
Description and Application / 2.48
When to Use / 2.49
How to Use / 2.49
Barriers and Signs / 2.49
Barrier Tape / 2.49
Signs / 2.49
When and How to Use / 2.50
Safety Tags, Locks, and Locking Devices / 2.51
Safety Tags / 2.51
Locks and Multiple-Lock Devices / 2.52
Locking Devices / 2.53
When/Where to Use Lockout Tagout / 2.53
Voltage-Measuring Instruments / 2.54
Safety Voltage Measurement / 2.54
Proximity Testers / 2.55
Contact Testers / 2.56
Selecting Voltage-Measuring Instruments / 2.57
Instrument Condition / 2.59
Low Voltage Voltmeter Safety Standards / 2.60
Three-Step Voltage Measurement Process / 2.60
General Considerations for Low-Voltage Measuring Instruments / 2.62
Safety Grounding Equipment / 2.63
The Need for Safety Grounding / 2.63
Safety Grounding Switches / 2.64
Safety Grounding Jumpers / 2.65
Selecting Safety Grounding Jumpers / 2.70
Installation and Location / 2.74
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters / 2.74
Operating Principles / 2.74
Applications / 2.75
Safety Electrical One-Line Diagram / 2.78
The Electrician’s Safety Kit / 2.78
References / 2.79
viii CONTENTSCONTENTS ix
Chapter 3. Safety Procedures and Methods 3.1
Introduction / 3.1
The Six-Step Safety Method / 3.1
Think—Be Aware / 3.2
Understand Your Procedures / 3.2
Follow Your Procedures / 3.2
Use Appropriate Safety Equipment / 3.2
Ask If You Are Unsure, and Do Not Assume / 3.2
Do Not Answer If You Do Not Know / 3.3
Pre-Job Briefings / 3.3
Definition / 3.3
What Should Be Included? / 3.3
When Should Pre-Job Briefings Be Held? / 3.3
Energized or De-Energized? / 3.3
The Fundamental Rules / 3.3
A Hot-Work Decision Tree / 3.5
After the Decision Is Made / 3.6
Safe Switching of Power Systems / 3.6
Introduction / 3.6
Remote Operation / 3.7
Operating Medium-Voltage Switchgear / 3.7
Operating Low-Voltage Switchgear / 3.11
Operating Molded-Case Breakers and Panelboards / 3.15
Operating Enclosed Switches and Disconnects / 3.17
Operating Open-Air Disconnects / 3.18
Operating Motor Starters / 3.20
Energy Control Programs / 3.23
General Energy Control Programs / 3.23
Specific Energy Control Programs / 3.24
Basic Energy Control Rules / 3.24
Lockout-Tagout / 3.26
Definition and Description / 3.26
When to Use Locks and Tags / 3.26
Locks without Tags or Tags without Locks / 3.26
Rules for Using Locks and Tags / 3.27
Responsibilities of Employees / 3.27
Sequence / 3.28
Lock and Tag Application / 3.28
Isolation Verification / 3.28
Removal of Locks and Tags / 3.28
Safety Ground Application / 3.29
Control Transfer / 3.31
Nonemployees and Contractors / 3.31
Lockout-Tagout Training / 3.31
Procedural Reviews / 3.32
Voltage-Measurement Techniques / 3.32
Purpose / 3.32
Instrument Selection / 3.32
Instrument Condition / 3.33
Three-Step Measurement Process / 3.34
What to Measure / 3.34
How to Measure / 3.36
Placement of Safety Grounds / 3.37
Safety Grounding Principles / 3.37
Safety Grounding Location / 3.38
Application of Safety Grounds / 3.38
The Equipotential Zone / 3.43Removal of Safety Grounds / 3.44
Control of Safety Grounds / 3.44
Flash Hazard Calculations and Approach Distances / 3.46
Introduction / 3.46
Approach Distance Definitions / 3.46
Determining Shock Hazard Approach Distances / 3.46
Calculating the Flash Hazard Minimum Approach Distance
(Flash Protection Boundary) / 3.49
Calculating the Required Level of Arc Protection (Flash Hazard Calculations) / 3.51
Introduction / 3.51
The Lee Method / 3.52
Methods Outlined in NFPA 70E / 3.52
IEEE Standard Std 1584-2002 / 3.53
Software Solutions / 3.55
Required PPE for Crossing the Flash Hazard Boundary / 3.55
A Simplified Approach to the Selection of Protective Clothing / 3.56
Barriers and Warning Signs / 3.56
Illumination / 3.61
Conductive Clothing and Materials / 3.61
Confined Work Spaces / 3.62
Tools and Test Equipment / 3.62
General / 3.62
Authorized Users / 3.62
Visual Inspections / 3.63
Electrical Tests / 3.63
Wet and Hazardous Environments / 3.63
Field Marking of Potential Hazards / 3.65
The One-Minute Safety Audit / 3.65
References / 3.66
Chapter 4. Grounding of Electrical Systems and Equipment 4.1
Introduction / 4.1
Electric Shock Hazard / 4.1
General Requirements for Grounding and Bonding / 4.2
Definitions / 4.2
Grounding of Electrical Systems / 4.3
Grounding of Electrical Equipment / 4.6
Bonding of Electrically Conductive Materials and Other Equipment / 4.6
Performance of Fault Path / 4.8
Arrangement to Prevent Objectionable Current / 4.8
Alterations to Stop Objectionable Current / 4.8
Temporary Currents Not Classified as Objectionable Current / 4.8
Connection of Grounding and Bonding Equipment / 4.8
Protection of Ground Clamps and Fittings / 4.9
Clean Surfaces / 4.9
System Grounding / 4.9
Purposes of System Grounding / 4.9
Grounding Service-Supplied Alternating-Current Systems / 4.9
Conductors to Be Grounded—Alternating-Current Systems / 4.11
Main Bonding Jumper / 4.11
Grounding Electrode System / 4.12
Grounding Electrode System Resistance / 4.14
Grounding Electrode Conductor / 4.14
Grounding Conductor Connection to Electrodes / 4.16
Bonding / 4.18
x CONTENTSEquipment Grounding / 4.19
Equipment to Be Grounded / 4.19
Grounding Cord- and Plug-Connected Equipment / 4.19
Equipment Grounding Conductors / 4.21
Sizing Equipment Grounding Conductors / 4.22
Use of Grounded Circuit Conductor for Grounding Equipment / 4.22
Ferroresonance / 4.25
Summary / 4.27
Chapter 5. Electrical Maintenance and Its Relationship to Safety 5.1
Introduction / 5.1
The Safety-Related Case for Electrical Maintenance / 5.1
Overview / 5.1
Regulatory / 5.2
Relationship of Improperly Maintained Electrical Equipment to the
Hazards of Electricity / 5.2
Hazards Associated with Electrical Maintenance / 5.3
The Economic Case for Electrical Maintenance / 5.3
Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) / 5.4
What is Reliability Centered Maintenance? / 5.5
A Brief History of RCM / 5.5
RCM in the Industrial and Utility Arena / 5.5
The Primary RCM Principles / 5.6
Failure / 5.8
Maintenance Actions in an RCM Program / 5.8
Impact of RCM on a Facilities Life Cycle / 5.9
Conclusion / 5.10
The Eight Step Maintenance Program / 5.10
Introduction / 5.11
Step 1—Plan / 5.11
Step 2—Inspect / 5.11
Step 3—Clean / 5.12
Step 4—Tighten / 5.12
Step 5—Lubricate / 5.12
Step 6—Test / 5.13
Step 7—Record / 5.13
Step 8—Evaluate / 5.13
Frequency of Maintenance / 5.14
Determining Testing Intervals / 5.14
Summary / 5.14
Maintenance Requirements for Specific Equipment and Locations / 5.14
General Maintenance Requirements / 5.14
Substations, Switchgear, Panel Boards, Motor Control Centers, and
Disconnect Switches / 5.15
Fuse Maintenance Requirements / 5.16
Molded-Case Circuit Breakers / 5.16
Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers / 5.18
Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers / 5.20
Protective Relays / 5.21
Rotating Equipment / 5.23
Portable Electric Tools and Equipment / 5.23
Personal Safety and Protective Equipment / 5.24
Conclusion / 5.24
References / 5.24
CONTENTS xiChapter 6. Regulatory and Legal Safety Requirements
and Standards 6.1
Introduction / 6.1
The Regulatory Bodies / 6.1
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / 6.1
The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) / 6.3
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) / 6.3
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) / 6.4
American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE) / 6.5
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) / 6.6
Other Electrical Safety Organizations / 6.12
The National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)—ANSI C-2 / 6.12
General Description / 6.12
Industries and Facilities Covered / 6.13
Technical/Safety Items Covered / 6.13
The National Electrical Code (NEC)—ANSI/NFPA 70 / 6.14
General Description / 6.14
Industries and Facilities Covered / 6.15
Technical and Safety Items Included / 6.15
Electrical Equipment Maintenance—ANSI/NFPA 70B / 6.15
General Description / 6.15
Industries and Facilities Covered / 6.16
Technical and Safety Items Covered / 6.16
Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace—ANSI/NFPA 70E / 6.16
General Description / 6.16
Industries and Facilities Covered / 6.17
Technical Safety Items Covered / 6.18
The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards / 6.19
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standards / 6.19
Overview / 6.19
General Industry / 6.19
Construction Industry / 6.22
Chapter 7. Accident Prevention, Accident Investigation,
Rescue, and First Aid 7.1
Accident Prevention / 7.1
Individual Responsibility / 7.1
Installation Safety / 7.1
Power System Studies / 7.3
First Aid / 7.7
General First Aid / 7.8
Resuscitation (Artificial Respiration) / 7.12
Heart-Lung Resuscitation / 7.12
Rescue Techniques / 7.14
General Rescue Procedures / 7.14
Elevated Rescue / 7.18
Confined-Space Rescue / 7.30
Ground-Level Rescue / 7.31
Accident Investigation / 7.37
Purpose / 7.37
General Rules / 7.38
Data Gathering / 7.38
Accident Analysis / 7.40
xii CONTENTSChapter 8. Medical Aspects of Electrical Trauma 8.1
Introduction / 8.1
Statistical Survey / 8.1
Non-Occupational Electrical Trauma / 8.4
Fatality and Injury Related Costs / 8.4
Electrical Events / 8.6
Electrocution and Electrical Fatalities / 8.7
Medical Aspects / 8.8
Non-Electrical Effects in Electrical Events / 8.10
Stabilization and Initial Evaluation / 8.13
Medical and Surgical Intervention / 8.14
Rehabilitation Focus and Return to Work Planning / 8.16
Reentry to Employment Settings / 8.16
Plateau in Recovery / 8.16
References / 8.18
Chapter 9. Low-Voltage Safety Synopsis 9.1
Introduction / 9.1
Low-Voltage Equipment / 9.1
Extension Cords / 9.2
Plug- and Cord-Connected Equipment / 9.3
Current Transformers / 9.5
Grounding Low-Voltage Systems / 9.5
What Is a Ground? / 9.5
Bonding Versus Grounding / 9.6
Voltage Hazards / 9.6
System Grounds / 9.8
Equipment Grounds / 9.11
Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters / 9.14
Safety Equipment / 9.14
Overview / 9.14
Hard Hats / 9.14
Eye Protection / 9.15
Arc Protection / 9.18
Rubber Insulating Equipment / 9.18
Voltage-Testing Devices / 9.18
Safety Procedures / 9.20
General / 9.20
Approach Distances / 9.20
Voltage Measurement / 9.20
Locking and Tagging / 9.21
Closing Protective Devices After Operation / 9.21
Electrical Safety Around Electronic Circuits / 9.21
The Nature of the Hazard / 9.21
Special Safety Precautions / 9.22
Stationary Battery Safety / 9.23
Introduction / 9.23
Basic Battery Construction / 9.24
Safety Hazards of Stationary Batteries / 9.25
Battery Safety Procedures / 9.25
Chapter 10. Medium- and High-Voltage Safety Synopsis 10.1
Introduction / 10.1
High-Voltage Equipment / 10.1
Current Transformers / 10.1
CONTENTS xiiiGrounding Systems of Over 1000 V / 10.3
What Is a Ground? / 10.3
Bonding Versus Grounding / 10.4
Voltage Hazards / 10.5
System Grounds / 10.5
Equipment Grounds / 10.7
Safety Equipment / 10.7
Overview / 10.7
Hard Hats / 10.8
Eye Protection / 10.8
Arc Protection / 10.9
Rubber Insulating Equipment / 10.9
Voltage-Testing Devices / 10.9
Safety Procedures / 10.12
General / 10.12
Approach Distances / 10.12
Voltage Measurement / 10.13
Locking and Tagging / 10.13
Closing Protective Devices After Operation / 10.13
Chapter 11. Human Factors in Electrical Safety 11.1
Introduction / 11.1
Background / 11.1
Power Systems and Human Factors / 11.3
Visualization / 11.4
Cognitive Ergonomics / 11.4
Summary / 11.8
References / 11.8
Chapter 12. Safety Management and Organizational Structure 12.1
Introduction / 12.1
Electrical Safety Program Structure / 12.1
Electrical Safety Program Development / 12.2
The Company Electrical Safety Team / 12.2
Company Safety Policy / 12.4
Assessing the Need / 12.4
Problems and Solutions / 12.4
Program Implementation / 12.5
Examples / 12.5
Company Safety Procedures / 12.7
Results Assessment / 12.7
Employee Electrical Safety Teams / 12.8
Reason / 12.8
Method / 12.8
Safety Meetings / 12.9
Who Attends / 12.9
What Material Should Be Covered / 12.9
When Meetings Should Be Held / 12.10
Where Meetings Should Be Held / 12.10
How Long Meetings Should Be / 12.10
Evaluation of Safety Meetings / 12.10
Outage Reports / 12.11
Safety Audits / 12.11
xiv CONTENTSDescription / 12.11
Purposes / 12.12
Procedure / 12.12
The Audit Team / 12.14
Audit Tools / 12.14
Follow-Up / 12.14
Internal versus External Audits / 12.14
Chapter 13. Safety Training Methods and Systems 13.1
Introduction / 13.1
Safety Training Definitions / 13.1
Training Myths / 13.2
Conclusion / 13.3
Elements of a Good Training Program / 13.3
Classroom Training / 13.3
On-the-Job Training (OJT) / 13.5
Self-training / 13.6
Conclusion / 13.6
On-the-Job Training / 13.6
Setup / 13.6
Implementation / 13.8
Evaluation / 13.8
Conclusion / 13.9
Training Consultants and Vendors / 13.9
Canned Programs and Materials / 13.9
Tailored Programs / 13.10
Training Analysis / 13.10
Evaluating Training Vendors and Consultants / 13.11
Conclusion / 13.11
Training Program Setup—A Step-By-Step Method / 13.12
Introduction / 13.12
Background / 13.12
A Plan / 13.14
Analyze / 13.14
Design / 13.16
Develop / 13.17
Implementation / 13.18
Evaluation / 13.18
Modification / 13.19
Index I.1
AAFS (see American Academy of Forensic
Sciences)
ABA (Advanced Burn Life Support guidelines),
8.12
Abrasions (in rubber goods), 2.33, 2.35
AC (see Alternating current)
Access plates, for rotating equipment, 5.23
Accident investigation, 7.37–7.41
accident analysis in, 7.40–7.41
data gathering for, 7.38–7.40
employee safety team in, 12.8–12.9
general rules for, 7.38
purpose of, 7.37, 7.38
Accident prevention, 7.1–7.7
and first aid training, 7.7–7.8 (See also First
Aid)
individual responsibility for, 7.1, 7.2
installation safety for, 7.1–7.3
power system studies for, 7.3–7.7
Advanced Burn Life Support guidelines (ABA),
8.12
A-frame hoist, 7.35
Afterglow, 2.3
Age cracks (in rubber goods), 2.33, 2.36
AIEE (American Institute of Electrical
Engineers), 6.3
Airline industry, RCM in, 5.5
Alternating current (AC):
circuits requiring grounding, 9.9
grounding of conductors for, 4.11
power supplies for electronic circuitry, 9.22
service-supplied, grounding of, 4.9–4.11
and severity of shock, 1.4
American Academy of Forensic Sciences
(AAFS), 6.13, 7.38
American Burn Association, 6.13
American Institute of Electrical Engineers
(AIEE), 6.3
American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
2.14, 6.1–6.2, 6.13
American Red Cross rescue method, 7.16, 7.17
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM), 2.4, 2.16, 6.4–6.5, 6.13
American Society of Safety Engineers (ASSE),
6.5–6.6, 6.13
American Society of Training and Development,
6.13
ANSI (see American National Standards Institute)
ANSI C-2 (see National Electrical Safety Code)
ANSI standards:
for electrical grounding, 9.5, 10.3
for eye protection, 9.15
for hard hats, 9.14, 10.8
for power systems studies, 7.4
for short-circuit analyses and coordination
studies, 7.7
ANSI/NFPA 70 (see National Electrical Code)
ANSI/NFPA 70B (see Electrical Equipment
Maintenance)
ANSI/NFPA 70E (see Standard for Electrical
Safety in the Workplace)
Approach distances, 3.46–3.51
barriers and warning signs for, 3.56,
3.60–3.61
flash hazard distance, 3.46, 3.49–3.51
with high- and medium-voltage systems and
equipment, 10.12–10.13
and illumination, 3.61
with low-voltage systems and equipment, 9.20
protective clothing for, 3.56–3.60
shock hazard distance, 3.46–3.48
terms related to, 3.46, 3.47
Arc (electric), 1.7–1.16
blasts formed by, 1.16
burns from, 1.16
defined, 1.1, 1.8
I.1
INDEXI.2 INDEX
Arc (electric) (Cont.):
description of, 1.8–1.9
effects of, 1.24
energy input to, 1.12–1.13
energy release from, 1.9, 1.12
flash and thermal protection from, 2.2–2.13
incident energy of, 1.14–1.16
procedural protection strategy for, 1.24
protective equipment for, 1.24, 2.2
surface area of, 1.13–1.14
and voltage magnitude, 1.4
voltage of, 1.13
Arc energy input, 1.1
Arc incident energy, 1.1
Arc protection:
calculations for, 3.51–3.62
with high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.9
with low-voltage systems, 9.18
Arc Thermal Performance Value (ATPV):
calculation of, 2.1
defined, 2.1
developing rating for, 2.9
evaluation of, 2.3
Arc-energy analysis, 13.15–13.16
Arc-flash, 1.1
Arc-flash study, 7.7
Arc-in-a-box, 3.52
Arcing current, 1.12–1.13, 3.53, 3.54
Arc-resistant switchgear, 1.1–1.2
Area enclosures, maintenance of, 5.15
Artificial respiration, 7.12–7.14
ASSE (see American Society of Safety
Engineers)
ASSE standards, 6.6
ASTM (see American Society of Testing and
Materials)
ASTM standards, 2.5, 6.4–6.5, 6.19–6.21
ATPV (see Arc Thermal Performance Value)
Attendants, hazard, 2.50
Audiovisual proximity tester, 2.56
Audit teams, 12.14
Audits (see Safety audits)
Authorized controller (lockout/tagout), 3.29
Authorized employee (lockout/tagout), 3.29
Barricades:
for temporary hazards, 2.50
Barrier tape, 2.49–2.51
Barriers:
for approach distances, 3.56, 3.60–3.61
for rotating equipment, 5.23
BASOFIL®, 2.7
Batteries, stationary, 9.23–9.25
Behavioral approaches to safety, 7.1, 7.2
Behavioral modification, 13.1–13.2
Blanket drag, 7.36
Blankets, rubber, 2.21–2.23, 2.29, 2.31
Blast (electric), 1.16–1.18
defined, 1.2
procedural protection strategy for, 1.24
protective equipment for, 1.24
Blood vessels, 1.20
Body (see Human body)
Bonding, 4.18–4.19
connection of equipment for, 4.8–4.9
defined, 4.2
of electrically conductive materials, 4.6–4.7
of equipment, 4.6–4.7
general requirements for, 4.2–4.9
grounding vs., 9.6, 10.4
Bonding jumper:
defined, 4.2
equipment, 4.2
main, 4.2
and system grounding, 4.11–4.12
Breakers, locking devices for, 2.53, 2.54
Breathing, 1.7 (See also Pulmonary system)
Brown Book (IEEE), 7.7
Burns:
from arcs, 1.16, 1.20, 1.21
categories of, 1.16
first aid for, 7.11–7.13
heart damage from, 1.23
from shock, 1.3
sources of, 1.20
Cable ampacity analysis, 7.5
Cables, jumper, 2.66, 2.67, 2.70, 2.72, 2.73
Cadick, John, 5.10
Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences (CSFS),
6.13, 7.38
Capacitive discharges, 9.21
Carbon monoxide exposure, 7.30, 7.31
Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR),
7.12–7.16
CBM (see Condition Based Maintenance)
Cell wall damage, from shock, 1.3
CEST (see Company electrical safety team)
Chair carry, 7.38
Chemical bloom (in rubber goods), 2.33, 2.36
Chemically treated materials, 2.6
Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, 11.2
Chest compressions, 7.14–7.16Circuit breakers:
failure of, 5.17
low voltage, 5.18–5.20
medium voltage, 5.20–5.21
molded-case, 5.16–5.18
Clamps, jumper, 2.66–2.68, 4.9
Classroom training, 13.3–13.5
Cleaning, in Eight Step Maintenance Program,
5.12
Cleared circuits (see De-energized circuits)
Closed-door operation:
of low-voltage switchgear, 3.10, 3.12,
3.14–3.15
of medium-voltage switchgear, 3.10–3.11
of motor starters, 3.21–3.23
Clothes drag, 7.36
Clothing:
for approach distances, 3.56–3.60
comparison of material characteristics, 2.7
conductive, 3.61
for crossing flash hazard boundary, 3.59
flame-resistant materials for, 2.6–2.9
flash suits, 2.11–2.13
ignition temperatures and fiber types, 1.8
non-flame-resistant materials for, 2.5
thermal protective, 2.2–2.5, 2.9, 2.11
work, 2.9–2.11
Cognitive ergonomics, 11.1, 11.4–11.7
Color splash (in rubber goods), 2.36, 2.37
Company electrical safety team (CEST),
12.2–12.4
Condition Based Maintenance (CBM), 5.9, 5.14
Condition-directed maintenance, 5.7
Conductive clothing, 3.61
Conductive materials, bonding of, 4.6–4.7
Conductors:
in AC systems, 4.11
grounding, 4.2, 4.11
grounding electrode, 4.3
maintenance of, 5.15
Confined work spaces:
avoiding hazards in, 3.62
rescues from, 7.30–7.36
Construction industry:
electrical fatalities in, 8.1–8.5
installation safety standards, 6.23,
6.165–6.184
OSHA standard definitions for, 6.23,
6.188–6.194
OSHA standards, 6.22–6.23
safety standards for special equipment, 6.23,
6.187
safety-related maintenance and environmental
considerations standards, 6.23, 6.186
safety-related work practices standards, 6.23,
6.185
Construction work clothing, 2.9–2.11
Consultants, training by, 13.9–13.11
Contact testers, 2.56–2.59
Contractor muscle, 1.2
Cord-connected equipment:
grounding of, 4.19–4.21
low-voltage safety with, 9.3–9.5
OSHA standards for, 4.20
(See also Extension cords)
Correspondence schools, 13.9
Cotton clothing materials, 2.5
Course critiques (training), 13.19
Covers, rubber, 2.22, 2.24–2.25
CPR (cardio-pulmonary resuscitation) (see
Heart-lung resuscitation)
CSFA (see Canadian Society of Forensic
Sciences)
CTs (see Current transformers)
Current transformers (CTs):
in high- and medium-voltage safety, 10.1–10.2
in low-voltage systems, 9.5
in power protection scheme, 5.22
Current(s):
alternating (see Alternating current)
arcing, 1.12–1.13
direct (see Direct current)
objectionable, 4.8
severity of shock and duration of, 1.3
severity of shock and magnitude of, 1.5–1.7
temporary, 4.8
Curriculum development, 13.10–13.11
Cuts (in rubber goods), 2.36, 2.37
DC (see Direct current)
Deaths:
causes of, 1.25
in construction industry, 8.1–8.5
cost-related, 8.4–8.6
from electrical events, 8.7–8.8
statistical survey of, 8.1–8.6
De-energized (cleared) circuits:
safety procedures and methods, 3.3–3.6
steps before working with, 3.6
verification of isolation, 3.28
De-energizing equipment, energy control rules
for, 3.24–3.25
Depressions (in rubber goods), 2.37
Design of electrical systems, 7.1–7.3
INDEX I.3Design safety standards, OSHA, 6.22, 6.24–6.47
Detergent cracks (in rubber goods), 2.37
Digital multimeter, 2.57, 2.58
Digital readout safety voltmeter, 2.57, 2.58
Direct current (DC):
circuits requiring grounding, 9.8
power supplies for electronic circuitry, 9.22
and severity of shock, 1.4
DOT rules, 8.17
Double-insulated tools, 9.3
Duct systems, grounding of, 4.6, 4.7
DuPont Company, 2.6
E
BT (Energy break-through), 2.1
Economic case for electrical maintenance,
5.3–5.4
Educational objectives, 13.2
EEST (see Employee electrical safety teams)
Effectively grounded, 4.2
The Eight Step Maintenance Program
(John Cadick), 5.10–5.14
Electric arc (see Arc [electric])
Electric blast (see Blast [electric])
Electric shock (see Shock [electric])
Electrical accident fatality, 8.7
Electrical Equipment Maintenance—
ANSI/NFPA 70B, 6.15–6.16
for maintenance, 5.1
for short-circuit analyses and coordination
studies, 7.7
Electrical events, 8.6–8.8
arc (see Arc [electric])
blast (see Blast [electric])
deaths from, 8.7–8.8
electrocution, 8.7–8.8
non-electrical effects in, 8.10–8.13
physical responses to, 8.11, 8.12
possible trauma following, 8.9, 8.10
schematic of, 8.8–8.9
shock (see Shock [electric])
survivor experience, 8.11–8.13
Electrical hold, 1.7
loss of control during, 1.21
and muscular system, 1.22
Electrical injury mortality, 8.7
Electrical maintenance, 5.1–5.24
area enclosures, 5.15
conductors, 5.15
economic case for, 5.3–5.4
eight-step maintenance program, 5.10–5.14
electrical insulation, 5.16
enclosures, 5.15
frequency of, 5.14
fuses, 5.16
general requirements for, 5.14–5.15
low-voltage power circuit breakers, 5.18–5.20
medium voltage circuit breakers, 5.20–5.21
molded-case circuit breakers, 5.16–5.18
OSHA standards for, 6.23, 6.186
personal safety/protective equipment, 5.24
portable electric tools/equipment, 5.23–5.24
protective devices, 5.16
protective relays, 5.21–5.23
Reliability-Centered Maintenance, 5.4–5.10
rotating equipment, 5.23
safety-related case for, 5.1–5.3
Electrical paralysis, 1.21, 1.22
Electrical safety program, 12.1–12.34
company electrical safety team, 12.2–12.4
development of, 12.2–12.8
employee safety teams, 12.3–12.4, 12.8–12.9
outage reports, 12.11
safety audits, 12.11–12.34
safety meetings, 12.9–12.11
structure of, 12.1–12.2
in training program, 13.12–13.19
Electrical testing:
for rubber-insulating equipment, 2.43–2.44
of tools and extension cords, 3.63
Electrically conductive materials, bonding of,
4.6–4.7
Electrician’s safety kit, 2.78, 2.79
Electrocution, 8.7–8.8
deaths from, 8.1
defined, 1.2
Electronic circuitry:
grounding of workers with, 9.1
safety around, 9.21–9.23
Electroporation, 1.3, 1.4
Elevated rescue, 7.18–7.29
Embedded foreign matter (in rubber goods),
2.37
Employee electrical safety teams (EEST),
12.3–12.4, 12.8–12.9
Employee interviews (training evaluation), 13.19
Enabling training objectives, 13.16
Enclosed switches and disconnects, 3.17–3.18
Enclosures, maintenance of, 5.15
Energized, defined, 4.2
Energized circuits:
costs requiring, 3.5
decision tree for, 3.4, 3.5
safety procedures and methods for, 3.3–3.6
work requiring, 3.6
I.4 INDEXEnergy, incident, 1.14
Energy break-through (EBT), 2.1
Energy control programs, 3.23–3.26
Energy control rules:
for de-energizing equipment, 3.24–3.25
for procedures involving more than one
person, 3.25–3.26
for reenergizing equipment, 3.25
Energy input (arcs), 1.12–1.13
Energy release (arcs), 1.9, 1.12
Environmental issues, OSHA standards for,
6.23, 6.186
Epidermis, 1.19, 1.20
Equipment:
bonding of, 4.6–4.7
construction, OSHA standards for, 6.23,
6.187
defined, 4.2
improper maintenance of, 5.2–5.3
portable, 5.23–5.24
safety (see Safety equipment)
(See also specific types)
Equipment grounding, 4.6, 4.19–4.26
conductors for, 4.21–4.26
cord- and plug-connected equipment,
4.19–4.21
and ferroresonance, 4.25–4.26
ground-fault protection, 4.3
grounding and bonding, 4.8
for high- and medium-voltage systems, 10.7
for low-voltage systems, 9.11–9.13
Equipotential grounding, 3.38, 3.43–3.44
Ergonomics, 11.1, 11.4–11.7
Evacuation, medical, 8.12
Evaluation:
in Eight Step Maintenance Program,
5.13–5.14
of on-the-job training, 13.8–13.9
of training programs, 13.11, 13.18–13.19
Experimentation (accident investigation), 7.40
Extension cords:
low-voltage safety with, 9.2–9.3
testing of, 3.63
Extensor muscle, 1.2, 1.21
Eye protection, 2.13, 2.15, 2.16
for high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.8–10.11
for low-voltage systems, 9.15–9.17
Face shields, 2.12, 2.15
Facilities life cycle, impact of maintenance on,
5.9–5.10
Failure:
of circuit breakers, 5.17
defined, 5.8
Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA),
5.6, 8.6–8.7
Failure-finding maintenance, 5.7
Fatalities (see Deaths)
Fault path, performance of, 4.8
Ferroresonance, 4.25–4.26
Ferrules, jumper cable, 2.66, 2.69–2.73
Fibrillation, 1.2, 1.3, 1.7
Field testing:
of rubber goods, 2.29–2.35
of voltage testers, 2.62
Fire scene ratings, 8.7
Firefighter’s carry, 7.36
First aid, 7.7–7.16
ABCs of, 7.9–7.10
for electric shock, 7.11–7.13
for electrical burns, 7.11–7.13
general procedures for, 7.8–7.11
heart-lung resuscitation, 7.12–7.16
resuscitation (artificial respiration), 7.12–7.14
First-degree burns, 1.16
Fittings, protection of, 4.9
Flame resistance (FR):
defined, 2.1
and energy break-through, 2.3
evaluation of, 2.3
for protective clothing, 2.4–2.5
Flame retardant, defined, 2.1
Flame-resistant materials, 2.6–2.9
Flammable, defined, 2.1
Flash (see Arc [electric])
Flash boundary, 2.1, 2.3
Flash hazard:
calculating protection for, 3.51–3.62
distance for, 3.46, 3.49–3.51
IEEE Std 1584–2002 methods of calculating,
3.53–3.55
Lee method of calculating, 3.52
NFPA 70E methods of calculating, 3.52, 3.53
PPE for crossing boundary for, 3.55
software solutions for calculating, 3.53–3.55
Flash line (in rubber goods), 2.40
Flash protection:
safety equipment for, 2.2–2.13
thermal performance evaluation, 2.3–2.4
thermal protective clothing, 2.2, 2.3
Flash suits, 2.11–2.13
Flexible cord sets (see Extension cords)
Flexor muscles, 1.21
INDEX I.5FMEA (see Failure Modes and Effects
Analysis)
Form marks (in rubber goods), 2.37
FR (see Flame resistance)
FR Cotton, 2.7
FR Polyester, 2.7
Frequency:
with electronic circuitry, 9.21
and severity of shock, 1.3–1.4
FR9B®, 2.7
Full body rope harness, 7.32
Functional failure, 5.8
Fuses, maintenance of, 5.16
General industry standards (OSHA), 6.19, 6.22,
6.156–6.164
GFCIs (see Ground fault circuit interrupters)
Gin pole hoists, 7.34, 7.35
Gloves, rubber, 2.16–2.20, 2.29–2.35
Goggles, 2.15, 2.16
Ground, defined, 4.2, 9.5
Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCIs),
2.74–2.76, 4.3, 4.20, 9.14
Ground mat analysis, 7.5
Ground rods/pipes, 4.12–4.15
Grounded:
defined, 4.2
effectively, 4.2
Ground-fault protection of equipment, 4.3
Grounding, 4.1–4.27
bonding vs., 9.6, 10.4
connection of equipment for, 4.8–4.9
and electric shock hazard, 4.1–4.2
of equipment, 4.19–4.26, 9.11–9.13, 10.7
equipment used for (see Grounding equipment)
general requirements for, 4.2–4.9
of high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.3–10.7
of low-voltage systems, 9.5–9.14
need for, 2.63–2.64
to prevent objectionable current, 4.8
of systems, 4.9–4.19, 9.8–9.11, 10.5–10.6
Grounding conductor, 4.2
equipment, 4.2
for equipment grounding, 4.21–4.26
Grounding electrode conductor, 4.3, 4.14–4.16
Grounding electrode system, 4.3, 4.12–4.14
Grounding equipment, 2.63–2.74
cables, 2.66, 2.67, 2.70, 2.72, 2.73
clamps, 2.66–2.68
ferrules, 2.66, 2.69–2.73
installation and location of, 2.74
jumpers, 2.65–2.73
and need for grounding, 2.63–2.64
switches, 2.64, 2.65
Ground-level rescue, 7.31, 7.34–7.38
“Group” padlocks, 2.52
Guards, for rotating equipment, 5.23
Hand protection, 2.13
Hand tools:
grounding of, 4.19–4.21
insulated, 2.48–2.49
low-voltage safety with, 9.3–9.5
Hard hats, 2.14, 2.16
for high- and medium-voltage systems, 10.8
for low-voltage systems, 9.14
Hard spots (in rubber goods), 2.37–2.39
Harmonic analysis, 7.4
Hazardous energy source control, 6.22,
6.139–6.155 (See also Lockout/tagout)
Hazardous environments, use of tools in, 3.63
Hazards of electricity, 1.1–1.25
arc, 1.7–1.16
blast, 1.16–1.18
body parts affected by, 1.17, 1.19–1.23
causes of injury and death, 1.23–1.25
with electronic circuitry, 9.21–9.22
field marking of, 3.65
and improper maintenance of equipment,
5.2–5.3
protective strategies, 1.25
shock, 1.2–1.7
with stationary batteries, 9.25
voltage hazards, 9.6–9.8
Head protection, 2.13–2.16
Health and safety department (HSD), 12.2–12.3
Heap, Howard, 5.5, 5.8
Heart, 1.22–1.23
burn damage to, 1.23
fibrillation of, 1.2, 1.3, 1.7
shock damage to, 1.23
Heart-lung resuscitation (CPR), 7.12–7.16
High- and medium-voltage safety, 10.1–10.13
current transformers, 10.1–10.2
equipment for, 10.7–10.12
flash protection boundary, 3.50–3.51
grounding, 10.3–10.7
procedures for, 10.12–10.13
High Voltage Rescue Technique, 7.16, 7.17
Hoechst Celanese Corporation, 2.6
Horny layer, 1.19
defined, 1.2
and electrical resistance, 1.20
I.6 INDEXHospitalization of victims, 8.14
Hot stick kit, 2.45–2.47
Hot sticks, 2.44–2.48, 3.38
Hot work (see Energized circuits)
HSD (see Health and safety department)
Human body:
arc effects on, 1.8–1.12, 1.24
body parts affected by electricity, 1.17,
1.19–1.23
heart, 1.22–1.23
muscular system, 1.21–.122
nervous system, 1.20, 1.21
nominal resistance values for parts of, 1.6
pulmonary system, 1.23
response to current magnitudes, 1.7
shock effects on, 1.2–1.3, 1.6, 1.23
skin, 1.19–1.21
tolerance to heat, second-degree burns, 3.50
Human factors in safety, 11.1–11.8
background of, 11.1–11.3
meanings of term, 11.2
and power systems, 11.3–11.7
Hydrogen sulfide exposure, 7.30, 7.31
IAS Electrical Safety Workshop, 6.13
IEC (see International Electrotechnical
Commission)
IEEE (see Institite of Electrical and Electronic
Engineers)
IEEE standards:
for calculating flash hazard, 3.53–3.55
for conductor size, 4.17
for electrical grounding, 9.5, 10.3
for power systems studies, 7.4
Illumination of work areas, 3.61
Incident energy:
of arcs, 1.14–1.16
calculation of, 3.54–3.55
Indentations (in rubber goods), 2.37
Infrastructure design (for training), 13.17
In-house training, 13.16
Injury:
causes of, 1.24–1.25
cost-related, 8.4–8.6
electrical injury mortality, 8.7
to muscles and peripheral nerves, 8.15
non-occupational, 8.4
statistical survey of, 8.1–8.6
Inspection, 2.2
in Eight Step Maintenance Program, 5.11–5.12
of rubber-insulating equipment, 2.29–2.44
safety audit vs., 12.11–12.12
timing of, 2.2
of tools and test equipment, 3.63
with tools/instruments, 5.11–5.12
unaided, 5.11
of voltage-measuring instruments, 2.59
Installation:
accident prevention during, 7.1–7.3
Instantaneous trip units, 5.23
Institite of Electrical and Electronic Engineers
(IEEE), 6.3, 6.13
Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model, 13.14
Instructors, training, 13.4
Instruments, voltage-measuring (see Voltagemeasuring instruments)
Insulated tools, 2.48–2.49, 9.3
Insulation:
electrical, 5.16
insulated tools, 2.48–2.49, 9.3
for jumper cables, 2.67
maintenance of, 5.16
rubber insulated equipment, 2.29–2.44 (See
also Rubber insulating equipment)
InterNational Electrical Testing Association
(NETA), 5.1, 5.12, 5.13, 6.13
International Electrotechnical Commission
(IEC), 6.2, 6.13
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO), 6.2, 6.13
Ionizing hazards, 9.22–9.23
ISD model, 13.14
ISO (see International Organization for
Standardization)
Job and task analysis, 13.10, 13.15
Jumper, bonding, 4.2
Jumpers, safety grounding (safety grounds),
2.65–2.73
cables, 2.66, 2.67, 2.70, 2.72, 2.73
clamps, 2.66–2.68
ferrules, 2.66, 2.69–2.72
selection of, 2.70, 2.72–2.73
Keratin, 1.20
KERMEL®, 2.6, 2.7
KEVLAR®, 2.7
Laboratory training, 13.3–13.4
Lead-acid batteries, 9.24
Leather protectors, 2.19
Lee, Raphael C., 1.3, 1.9, 1.14, 3.52
Lee Method, 1.14–1.15
“Let-go” threshold, 1.4
INDEX I.7Line hose, 2.25–2.26, 2.29
Litigation, accident, 7.37, 7.38
Load flow analysis, 7.4
Lockout/tagout, 3.26–3.32
applications for, 3.28
control bypass for, 3.29–3.31
control transfer for, 3.31
employee responsibilities for, 3.27–3.28
with high- and medium-voltage systems and
equipment, 10.13
isolation verification, 3.28
locks without tags, 3.27
with low-voltage systems and equipment, 9.21
by nonemployees and contractors, 3.31
normal removal of, 3.28–3.29
OSHA standards for, 6.22
procedural reviews for, 3.32
removal of, 3.28–3.31
rules for using locks and tags, 3.27
safety ground application with, 3.29, 3.31
sequence for, 3.28
SHA standards for, 6.139–6.155
tags without locks, 3.26–3.27
training for, 3.31
when/where to use, 2.53–2.55, 3.26
Locks and locking devices, 2.51–2.55 (See also
Lockout/tagout)
Low voltmeter safety standards, 2.60, 2.61
Low-voltage measuring instruments, 2.62–2.63
Low-voltage power circuit breakers,
maintenance of, 5.18–5.20
Low-voltage safety, 9.1–9.25
arc hazard, 1.9
current transformers, 9.5
equipment for, 9.14–9.19
extension cords, 9.2–9.3
flash protection boundary, 3.49, 3.50
grounding, 9.5–9.14
on or near electronic circuitry, 9.21–9.23
plug- and cord-connected equipment, 9.3–9.5
procedures for, 9.20–9.21
with stationary batteries, 9.23–9.25
Low-voltage switchgear:
closed-door operation of, 3.10, 3.12, 3.14–3.15
open-door operation of, 3.10, 3.15
safety procedures/methods with, 3.11–3.15
Lubrication, in Eight Step Maintenance
Program, 5.12–5.13
Main bonding jumper, 4.11–4.12
Maintenance, 7.3 (See also Electrical
maintenance)
“Maintenance Testing Specifications for
Electrical Power Distribution Equipment
and Systems” (NETA), 5.1
Manufacturer’s seminars, 13.9
Materials, training, 13.4, 13.10, 13.18
Mats, rubber, 2.20, 2.29
Medical aspects of electrical trauma, 8.8–8.17
medical and surgical intervention, 8.14–8.16
non-electrical effects in electrical events,
8.10–8.13
rehabilitation and return to work, 8.16
stabilization and initial evaluation, 8.13–8.14
statistical survey of known injuries/fatalities,
8.1–8.6
Medical interventions, 8.14–8.16
Medium voltage circuit breakers, maintenance
of, 5.20–5.21
Medium-voltage safety, 3.50–3.51, 10.1n. (See
also High- and medium-voltage safety)
Medium-voltage switchgear:
closed-door operation of, 3.10–3.11
open-door operation of, 3.10, 3.11
safety procedures/methods with, 3.7–3.11
Meetings, safety, 12.8–12.11
Mesh voltage hazards, 9.7, 10.5
Mold marks (in rubber goods), 2.37, 2.40
Molded-case circuit breakers:
locking devices for, 2.53, 2.54
maintenance of, 5.16–5.18
safety procedures/methods with, 3.15–3.17
Motor starters:
closed-door operation of, 3.21–3.23
open-door operation of, 3.23
safety procedures/methods with, 3.20–3.23
Motor-starting analysis, 7.4
Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, 7.13–7.14
Multiple-lock devices, 2.52–2.53, 2.55
Muscles:
contractor, 1.2
electrical hold, 1.7
extensor, 1.2, 1.21
flexor, 1.21
“Let-go” threshold, 1.4
Muscular system, 1.21
determination of injuries to, 8.15
shock damage to, 1.21–1.22
National Electrical Code (NEC)—ANSI/NFPA
70, 2.75, 4.1, 6.14–6.15
bonding, 4.18
cord- and plug-connected equipment,
4.19–4.20
I.8 INDEXequipment grounding conductors, 4.21–4.22,
4.25, 9.11, 9.12
equipment to be grounded, 4.19, 9.11–9.13
ground-fault protection for temporary wiring,
4.20
grounding electrode conductor installation,
4.15–4.16
grounding of electrical systems, 4.3–4.6
grounding service-supplied AC systems,
4.10–4.11
performance of fault path, 4.8
safety requirements, 5.3
National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association,
6.13
National Electrical Safety Code (NESC)—ANSI
C-2, 4.16, 6.12–6.14
National Electrical Safety Foundations (NESF),
6.13
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA),
6.3–6.4, 6.13, 8.6
Natural fibers, as non-flame-resistant, 2.5
NEC (see National Electrical Code)
Needs analysis, 13.10, 13.14, 13.15, 13.19
Neon light proximity tester, 2.55, 2.56
Nervous system, 1.3, 1.20, 1.21, 8.15
NESC (National Electrical Safety Code), 4.16
NESF (National Electrical Safety Foundations),
6.13
NETA (see InterNational Electrical Testing
Association)
NFPA (see National Fire Protection
Association)
NFPA 70 (see National Electrical Code)
NFPA 70B (see Electrical Equipment
Maintenance)
NFPA 70E (see Standard for Electrical Safety in
the Workplace)
NFPA standards system, 6.4
Nickel-Cadmium (NiCad) batteries, 9.24
Nicks (in rubber goods), 2.37, 2.40
NOMEX®, 2.7, 2.8
NOMEX IIIA, 2.6
Non-current-carrying metal parts, grounding of,
4.6, 4.19
Non-flame-resistant materials, 2.5
Nonionizing hazards, 9.22–9.23
Nowland, Stan, 5.5, 5.8
Nylon, 2.7
Objectionable current, 4.8
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,
6.6, 6.11
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA), 4.1, 6.6–6.12, 6.13
electrical safety standards, 6.9
employee responsibilities and rights, 6.8–6.9
employer responsibilities and rights, 6.7–6.8
purpose of, 6.6–6.7
“qualified persons” defined by, 13.12, 13.13
safety regulations developed by (See also
OSHA standards)
state OSHA organizations, 6.11, 6.12
technical consultation, 6.9, 6.11
training and education, 6.11
voluntary protection programs, 6.9, 6.11, 6.12
OJT (see On-the-job training)
One-line diagrams, 2.77, 2.78
One-minute safety audit, 3.65–3.66
On-the-job training (OJT), 13.5–13.9
Open-air disconnects, 3.18–3.21
Open-door operation:
of low-voltage switchgear, 3.10, 3.15
of medium-voltage switchgear, 3.10, 3.11
of motor starters, 3.23
Operating procedures, for accident prevention,
7.3
OSHA (see Occupational Safety and Health
Administration)
OSHA standards, 6.9, 6.10, 6.19, 6.22–6.194
for construction industry, 6.22–6.23
control of hazardous energy source, 6.22,
6.139–6.155
for cord- and plug-connected equipment, 4.20
definitions used in (construction), 6.23,
6.188–6.194
definitions used in (general), 6.22, 6.156–6.164
design safety standards, 6.22, 6.24–6.47
for general industry, 6.19, 6.22
for grounding of electrical equipment, 4.6
for grounding of electrical systems, 4.3–4.6
for grounding service-supplied AC systems,
4.9–4.11
installation safety requirements
(construction), 6.23, 6.165–6.184
lockout/tagout, 6.22, 6.139–6.155
for maintenance, 5.1
for molded-case circuit breakers, 5.17–5.18
for performance of fault path, 4.8
power generation/transmission/distribution,
6.66–6.138
power generation/transmission/distribution,
6.22
safety requirements for special equipment
(construction), 6.23, 6.187
INDEX I.9OSHA standards (Cont.):
safety-related maintenance and environmental
considerations (construction), 6.23, 6.186
safety-related work practices (construction),
6.23, 6.185
safety-related work practices (general), 6.22,
6.48–6.65
for voltage measurement, 9.20
OSHA Training Institute, 6.11
Outage reports, 12.11
Outpatient services for victims, 8.14–8.16
Ozone cracks (in rubber goods), 2.40, 2.41
Pack-strap carry, 7.36
Padlocks, 2.52, 2.53
Pain, 1.20
Panel voltmeters, 3.36
Panelboards, safety procedures/methods with,
3.15–3.17
Parting line (in rubber goods), 2.40
PBI (see Polybenzimidazole)
PBI Gold, 2.7
PCIC (Petroleum and Chemical Industry
Committee), 6.13
PdM (see Predictive Maintenance)
PEARL (Professional Electrical Apparatus
Recyclers League), 6.13
PEARL Reconditioning Standards, 5.17
Performance objective design, 13.16
Peripheral nerve injury, 8.15
Personal protective equipment (PPE):
for crossing flash hazard boundary, 3.55,
3.56, 3.59
maintenance of, 5.24
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee
(PCIC), 6.13
PFR Rayon, 2.7
Phasing tester, 2.57, 2.59
Physical condition, severity of shock and, 1.3
Physical evidence (accidents), 7.40
Piping systems, grounding of, 4.6, 4.7
Pitting (in rubber goods), 2.40, 2.41
Planning, in Eight Step Maintenance Program,
5.11
Plasma, 1.8
burns from, 1.20
defined, 1.2
Plug-connected equipment:
grounding of, 4.19–4.21
low-voltage safety with, 9.3–9.5
OSHA standards for, 4.20
PM (see Preventive Maintenance)
Pole-top rescue, 7.18–7.29
Policy, safety, 12.4
Polybenzimidazole (PBI), 2.6, 2.9
Portable electric tools/equipment, maintenance
of, 5.23–5.24
Power generation/transmission/distribution,
OSHA standards for, 6.22, 6.66–6.138
Power system studies, 7.3–7.7
Power systems:
and human factors, 11.3–11.7
switching of, 3.6–3.23
voltage ratings of, 10.1n.
PPE (see Personal protective equipment)
Predictive Maintenance (PdM), 5.5, 5.7, 5.9
Pre-job briefings, 3.3
Preventive Maintenance (PM), 5.5, 5.7, 5.9
Privette, Alan, 3.55
Proactive Maintenance, 5.5
Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers
League (PEARL), 6.13
Professional Electrical Apparatus Recyclers
League (PEARL) Reconditioning
Standards, 5.17
Prohibited approach boundary, 3.47, 3.48, 9.20
Protective clothing:
for approach distances, 3.56–3.60
characteristics of, 3.60
for crossing flash hazard boundary, 3.59
Protective devices, 7.3
coordination study for, 7.5–7.7
with high- and medium-voltage systems and
equipment, 10.13
with low-voltage systems and equipment, 9.21
maintenance of, 5.16
(See also Personal protective equipment
(PPE))
Protective relays, maintenance of, 5.21–5.23
Protective strategies, 1.24, 1.25 (See also Safety
equipment; Safety procedures and
methods)
Protex, 2.7
Protuberance (in rubber goods), 2.42
Proximity testers, 2.55–2.59
Pulmonary system, 1.23
Puncture (in rubber goods), 2.42
Quad pod retractable lifeline, 7.34
“Qualified persons,” 13.12, 13.13
Racking a breaker, 3.7
Radiation burns, 1.20
Radiation hazards, 9.22–9.23
I.10 INDEXRCM (see Reliability-Centered Maintenance)
RCM White Paper (Al Rose), 5.4
Reactive maintenance, 5.5
Real-time Monitoring (RTM), 5.5
Record keeping, in Eight Step Maintenance
Program, 5.13
Recovery plateaus, 8.16–8.17
Reenergizing equipment, energy control rules
for, 3.25
Regulatory bodies, 6.1–6.12
ANSI, 6.1–6.2
ASSE, 6.5–6.6
ASTM, 6.4–6.5
IEEE, 6.3
NFPA, 6.3–6.4
OSHA, 6.6–6.12
Rehabilitation of victims, 8.16–8.17
Relays, protective, 5.21–5.23
Reliability analysis, 7.4–7.5
Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM),
5.4–5.10
and facilities life cycle, 5.9–5.10
and failure, 5.8
history of, 5.5
in industry and utilities, 5.5–5.6
maintenance actions in, 5.8–5.9
primary principles of, 5.6–5.8
Remote operation, safety procedures/methods
for, 3.7
Repair marks (in rubber goods), 2.42, 2.43
Reports, accident, 7.40, 7.41
Rescue breathing, 7.13–7.14
Rescue techniques, 7.14, 7.16–7.38
confined-space rescue, 7.30–7.36
elevated rescue, 7.18–7.29
general procedures for, 7.14, 7.16–7.17
ground-level rescue, 7.31, 7.34–7.38
Restricted approach boundary, 3.47, 3.48, 9.20
Resuscitation:
artificial respiration, 7.12–7.14
heart-lung, 7.12–7.16
Return to work (RTW), 8.16–8.17
Rose, Al, 5.4
Rotating equipment, maintenance of, 5.23
RTF (see Run-to-Failure)
RTM (Real-time Monitoring), 5.5
RTW (see Return to work)
Rubber insulating equipment, 2.15–2.44
blankets, 2.21–2.23
classifications of, 2.17
covers, 2.22, 2.24–2.25
electrical testing of, 2.43–2.44
gloves, 2.16–2.20
for high- and medium-voltage systems, 10.9
inspection and testing of, 2.29–2.44
irregularities in, 2.33, 2.36–2.43
labeling requirements for, 2.16, 2.19
line hose, 2.25–2.26
for low-voltage systems, 9.18
mats, 2.20
maximum-use voltages for, 2.17
sleeves, 2.26–2.28
test voltages for, 2.17
Runs (in rubber goods), 2.42
Run-to-Failure (RTF), 5.5, 5.8
Safety audits, 3.65–3.66, 12.11–12.34
description of, 12.11–12.12
follow-up for, 12.13
inspections vs., 12.11–12.12
internal vs. external, 12.14, 12.34
procedure for, 12.12–12.14
purposes of, 12.13
team for, 12.14
tools for, 12.14–12.33
Safety credo, 7.2
Safety electrical one-line diagram (SEOLD),
2.77, 2.78
Safety equipment, 1.24, 2.1–2.79
barriers, 2.49–2.51
clothing materials, 2.4–2.5
electrician’s safety kit, 2.78, 2.79
eye protection, 2.13, 2.15, 2.16
flame-resistant materials, 2.6–2.9
for flash and thermal protection, 2.2–2.13
flash suits, 2.11–2.13
general inspection/testing requirements for,
2.2
ground fault circuit interrupters, 2.74–2.76
grounding equipment, 2.63–2.74
hand protection, 2.13
head protection, 2.13–2.16
for high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.7–10.12
hot sticks, 2.44–2.48
insulated tools, 2.48–2.49
locks and locking devices, 2.51–2.55
for low-voltage systems, 9.14–9.19
maintenance of, 5.24
non-flame-resistant materials, 2.5
one-line diagrams, 2.77, 2.78
rubber-insulating equipment, 2.15–2.44
signs, 2.49–2.51
tags, 2.51–2.55
INDEX I.11Safety equipment (Cont.):
thermal performance evaluation for, 2.3–2.4
thermal protective clothing, 2.2, 2.3
voltage-measuring instruments, 2.54–2.63
work clothing, 2.9–2.11
(See also specific equipment)
Safety glasses, 2.15
Safety grounds:
application of, 3.38–3.43
control of, 3.44–3.46
with lockout/tagout, 3.29, 3.31
placement of, 3.37–3.46
removal of, 3.44
(See also Jumpers, safety grounding)
Safety kit for electricians, 2.78, 2.79
Safety meetings, 12.8–12.11
Safety policy, 12.4
Safety procedures and methods, 1.24, 3.1–3.66
approach distances, 3.46–3.51
arc protection calculations, 3.51–3.62
around electronic circuitry, 9.21–9.23
development and structure of, 12.7
for energized or de-energized circuits, 3.3–3.6
energy control programs, 3.23–3.26
field marking of potential hazards, 3.65
flash hazard calculations, 3.46–3.62
for high- and medium-voltage systems (see
High- and medium-voltage safety)
lockout/tagout, 3.26–3.32
for low-voltage safety (see Low-voltage safety)
one-minute safety audit, 3.65–3.66
operating enclosed switches and disconnects,
3.17–3.18
operating low-voltage switchgear, 3.11–3.15
operating medium-voltage switchgear,
3.7–3.11
operating molded-case breakers and
panelboards, 3.15–3.17
operating motor starters, 3.20–3.23
operating open-air disconnects, 3.18–3.21
pre-job briefings, 3.3
remote operation, 3.7
requiring flash suits, 2.13
results assessment for, 12.7–12.8
safety grounds, 3.37–3.46
six-step safety method, 3.1–3.3
with stationary batteries, 9.25
for switching of power systems, 3.6–3.23
tools and test equipment, 3.62–3.64
voltage-measurement techniques, 3.32–3.37
Safety standards (see Standards)
Safety tags, 2.51–2.55
Safety teams:
company electrical safety team, 12.2–12.4
employee safety teams, 12.3–12.4, 12.8–12.9
Safety voltage measurement (see Voltagemeasuring instruments)
Safety-related case for electrical maintenance,
5.1–5.3
Safety-related work practices (OSHA
standards), 6.22, 6.48–6.65, 6.185
Scratches (in rubber goods), 2.33, 2.35, 2.37
Seat carry, 7.37
Second-degree burns, 1.16
Self-training, 13.6, 13.17
SEOLD (see Safety electrical one-line diagram)
Service enclosures, grounding of, 4.6, 4.7
SHEPP briefings, 3.3
Shock circuit, 1.2
Shock (electric), 1.2–1.7
defined, 1.2
description of, 1.2–1.3
effects of, 1.23
and equipment grounding, 4.1–4.2
factors influencing severity of, 1.3–1.7
first aid for, 7.11–7.13
heart damage from, 1.23
muscular system damage from, 1.21–1.22
nervous system damage from, 1.20, 1.21
procedural protection strategy for, 1.24
protective equipment for, 1.24
pulmonary system damage from, 1.23
Shock hazard distance, 3.46–3.48
Short-circuit analysis, 7.5–7.7
Shotgun hot sticks, 2.44–2.46
Signs:
for approach distances, 3.56, 3.60–3.61
safety, 2.49–2.51
Single-phase systems, voltage measurement in,
3.34, 3.35
Single-point grounding, 3.38
Site surveys (accidents), 7.38, 7.39
Six-step safety method, 3.1–3.3
SKED system, 7.33
Skin, 1.19–1.21
Skin breaks (in rubber goods), 2.42
Sleeves, rubber, 2.26–2.28
Snags (in rubber goods), 2.37, 2.40
Soft spots (in rubber goods), 2.43
Stability analysis, 7.4
Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace—
ANSI/NFPA 70E, 5.2–5.4, 6.16–6.19
approach distances, 9.20
on capacitive discharges, 9.21
I.12 INDEXflash hazard calculation, 3.52, 3.53
as minimum requirements, 12.1
Standard universal fitting (hot sticks), 2.44
Standards:
ASSE, 6.6
ASTM, 6.19–6.21
OSHA (see OSHA standards)
(See also specific equipment and procedures;
specific standards)
Stationary batteries, 9.23–9.25
Step voltage hazards, 9.7, 10.4–10.5
Step-down voltage transformers, 3.35, 3.36
Stokes navy stretcher, 7.33
Stoll curve, 2.1, 2.3
Stratum corneum, 1.19 (See also Horny layer)
Structure design (for training), 13.16–13.17
Super Valzer, 2.7
Surgical interventions, 8.14–8.16
Sweat glands, 1.20
Switches, safety grounding, 2.64, 2.65
Switchgear:
arc-resistant, 1.1–1.2
low-voltage, 3.11–3.15
medium-voltage, 3.7–3.11
Switching of power systems, 3.6–3.23
enclosed switches and disconnects, 3.17–3.18
low-voltage switchgear, 3.11–3.15
medium-voltage switchgear, 3.7–3.11
molded-case breakers and panelboards,
3.15–3.17
motor starters, 3.20–3.23
open-air disconnects, 3.18–3.21
remote operation, 3.7
safety procedures/methods for, 3.6–3.23
Switching transients analysis, 7.4
Synthetic clothing materials, 2.5
Synthetic-cotton materials, 2.5
System grounding, 4.3–4.6, 4.9–4.19
bonding, 4.18–4.19
conductors, AC systems, 4.11
defined, 9.8
grounding conductor connection to
electrodes, 4.16–4.18
grounding electrode conductor, 4.14–4.16
grounding electrode system, 4.12–4.13
for high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.5–10.6
for low-voltage systems, 9.8–9.11
main bonding jumper, 4.11–4.12
methods of, 4.9, 4.10
purposes of, 4.9
service-supplied AC systems, 4.9–4.11
Tags, 2.51–2.55 (See also Lockout/tagout)
“Tailgate meetings,” 3.3
Tailored training programs, 13.10
Tears (in rubber goods), 2.43
Technora, 2.7
Telescoping hot sticks, 2.44, 2.46
Terminal boxes, 5.23
Terminal training objectives, 13.16
Test reviews, 13.19
Testing, 2.2
determining intervals for, 5.14
in Eight Step Maintenance Program, 5.13
of extension cords, 3.63
for flame resistance, 2.3
of ground fault circuit interrupters, 2.76
of hot sticks, 2.47, 2.48
of molded-case circuit breakers, 5.16–5.17
of rubber-insulating equipment, 2.29–2.44
safety procedures/methods for, 3.62–3.64
of tools, 3.63
Thermal burns, 1.20
Thermal performance evaluation, 2.3–2.4
Thermal protection:
safety equipment for, 2.2–2.13
usage standards for, 2.4
Thermal protective clothing, 2.2–2.5, 2.9, 2.11
Thermo-Man®, 2.8, 2.9
Third-degree burns, 1.16
Thone-Poulenc, 2.6
Three Mile Island Power Station, 11.2
Three-phase systems, voltage measurement in,
3.35, 3.36
Three-step voltage measurement process,
2.60–2.62, 3.34
Tightening, in Eight Step Maintenance Program,
5.12
Time-directed maintenance, 5.7
Tools:
grounding of, 4.19–4.21
insulated, 2.48–2.49, 9.3
low-voltage safety with, 9.3–9.5
portable, 5.23–5.24
safety procedures/methods for, 3.62–3.64
Touch voltage hazards, 9.7, 10.5
Training, 13.1–13.19
classroom, 13.3–13.5
consultants and vendors offering, 13.9–13.11
defined, 13.1
of employee safety team, 12.9
in first aid, 7.7–7.8
for lockout/tagout, 3.31
myths about, 13.2–13.3
INDEX I.13Training (Cont.):
on-the-job, 13.5–13.9
program for, 13.12–13.19
self-training, 13.6
Transferred voltage hazards, 9.7–9.8, 10.5
Transformers (see Current transformers)
TREVIRA®, 2.7
Triage, medical, 8.12
Tripod hoist, 7.33, 7.35
TWARON®, 2.7
Two-phase systems, voltage measurement in,
3.34, 3.35
Two-point grounding, 3.38
United Airlines, 5.5
U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) rules,
8.17
Vendors, training by, 13.9–13.11, 13.17
VINEX®, 2.7
Visualization, 11.4
Vocational technical schools, 13.9–13.10
Voltage:
of arcs, 1.13
severity of shock and magnitude of, 1.4
Voltage hazards:
with high- and medium-voltage systems,
10.4–10.5
with low-voltage systems, 9.6–9.8
Voltage measurement, 3.32–3.37
with high- and medium-voltage systems and
equipment, 10.13
how to measure, 3.36–3.37
instrument condition for, 3.33–3.34
instrument selection for, 3.32–3.33
with low-voltage systems and equipment,
9.20
three-step process for, 2.60–2.62, 3.34
what to measure, 3.34–3.36
Voltage-measuring instruments, 2.54–2.63,
3.32–3.34
condition of, 3.33–3.34
contact testers, 2.56–2.59
inspecting condition of, 2.59
low voltmeter safety standards, 2.60, 2.61
low-voltage, 2.62–2.63
proximity testers, 2.55–2.59
selecting, 2.57–2.59
selection of, 3.32–3.33
and three-step process, 2.60–2.62, 3.34
Voltage-testing devices:
for high- and medium-voltage systems, 10.9,
10.12
for low-voltage systems, 9.18–9.19
Voluntary protection programs (VPPs), 6.9,
6.11, 6.12
VPPs (see Voluntary protection programs)
Wall switches, locking devices for, 2.53, 2.54
Warning signs, 2.49–2.51, 3.56, 3.60–3.61
Wet environments, use of tools in, 3.63
Witness interviews (accidents), 7.39, 7.40
Wool clothing materials, 2.5
Work clothing, 2.9–2.11
Work practices, safety-related (OSHA
standards), 6.22, 6.48–6.65, 6.185
I.14 INDEX


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