كتاب ASHRAE Handbook 2016 - HVAC Systems and Equipment
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 كتاب ASHRAE Handbook 2016 - HVAC Systems and Equipment

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عدد المساهمات : 16639
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ASHRAE Handbook 2016 - HVAC Systems and Equipment

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Chapter
Hvac System Analysis and Selection
Selecting a System .
HVAC Systems and Equipment .
Space Requirements . .
Air Distribution .
Pipe Distribution .
Security . .
Automatic Controls and Building
Management Systems .
Maintenance Management System . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
DECENTRALIZED COOLING AND HEATING
System Characteristics . .
Design Considerations . .
Window-Mounted and Through-theWall Room HVAC Units . .
Water-Source Heat Pump Systems . .
Multiple-Unit Systems .
Residential and Light Commercial Split Systems . .
Commercial Self-Contained (Floor-by-Floor) Systems . .
Commercial Outdoor Packaged Systems . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management Systems . .
Maintenance Management . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
CENTRAL COOLING AND HEATING PLANTS
System Characteristics . .
Design Considerations . .
Equipment .
Distribution Systems .
Sound, Vibration, Seismic, and Wind Considerations . .
Space Considerations . .
Automatic Controls and Building
Management Systems .
Maintenance Management Systems . .
Building System Commissioning.
CHAPTER
AIR HANDLING AND DISTRIBUTION
AIR-HANDLING UNITS .
Air-Handling Unit Psychrometric Processes . .
Air-Handling Unit Components . .
Air Distribution .
AIR-HANDLING SYSTEMS . .
Single-Duct Systems . .
Dual-Duct Systems . .
Multizone Systems .
Special Systems .
Air Terminal Units . .
Air Distribution System Controls . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management Systems . .
Maintenance Management System . .
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
IN-ROOM TERMINAL SYSTEMS
System Characteristics . .
System Components and Configurations . .
Secondary-Water Distribution . .
Piping Arrangements . .
Fan-Coil Unit and Unit Ventilator Systems . .
Variable-Refrigerant-Flow (VRF) Units . .
Chilled-Beam Systems .
Radiant-Panel Heating Systems . .
Radiant-Floor Heating Systems . .
Induction Unit Systems .
Supplemental Heating Units .
Primary-Air Systems .
Performance Under Varying Load . .
Changeover Temperature . .
Two-Pipe Systems with Central Ventilation . .
Four-Pipe Systems . .
Automatic Controls and Building Management
Systems . .
Maintenance Management Systems and
Building System Commissioning
CHAPTER
RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING
PRINCIPLES OF RADIANT
SYSTEMS .
Heat Transfer . .
Factors Affecting Heat Transfer .
Panel Design .
General Design Considerations . .
Hybrid Systems .
RADIANT HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS . .
Hydronic Ceiling Panels .
Embedded Systems with Tubing in Ceilings,
Walls, or Floors .
Electrically Heated Radiant Systems . .
DESIGN PROCEDURE . .
Controls
CHAPTER
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEMS
Terminology . .
CHP System Concepts . .
Performance Parameters . .
Fuel-to-Power Components . .
Thermal-to-Power Components . .
Thermal-to-Thermal Components .
Electrical Generators and Components . .
System Design .
Codes and Installation . .
Economic Evaluation .
CHAPTER
COMBUSTION TURBINE INLET COOLING
Advantages .
Disadvantages . .
Definition and Theory . .
System Types . .
Calculation of Power Capacity Enhancement and Economics.
CHAPTER
APPLIED HEAT PUMP AND HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS
TERMINOLOGY .
APPLIED HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS . .
Heat Pump Cycles .
Heat Sources and Sinks .
Types of Heat Pumps . .
Heat Pump Components .
Industrial Process Heat Pumps .
APPLIED HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS .
Waste Heat Recovery . .
Water-Loop Heat Pump Systems .
Balanced Heat Recovery Systems .
Heat Pumps in District Heating and Cooling Systems
CHAPTER
SMALL FORCED-AIR HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS
Components . .
Common System Problems .
System Design . .
Detailed Duct Design .
Small Commercial Systems . .
Testing for Duct Efficiency
CHAPTER
STEAM SYSTEMS
Advantages . .
Fundamentals . .
Effects of Water, Air, and
Gases .
Heat Transfer . .
Basic Steam System
Design .
Steam Source .
Boiler Connections .
Design Steam Pressure .
Piping . .
Condensate Removal from TemperatureRegulated Equipment .
Steam Traps .
Pressure-Reducing Valves . .
Terminal Equipment . .
Convection Steam Heating . .
Steam Distribution . .
Temperature Control .
Heat Recovery .
Combined Steam and Water Systems . .
Commissioning
CHAPTER
DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING
SYSTEM MASTER PLANNING . .
Economic Considerations .
CENTRAL PLANT . .
Heating and Cooling Production . .
Chilled-Water Distribution Design Considerations .
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM .
Hydraulic Considerations .
Thermal Considerations .
Methods of Heat Transfer Analysis . .
Expansion Provisions . .
Distribution System Construction .
CONSUMER INTERCONNECTIONS . .
Direct Connections . .
Indirect Connections .
Steam Connections . .
Components .
Temperature Differential Control .
Operation and Maintenance .
CHAPTER
HYDRONIC HEATING AND COOLING
TEMPERATURE CLASSIFICATIONS .
CLOSED WATER SYSTEMS . .
Method of Design . .
Thermal Components . .
Hydraulic Components .
Piping Circuits . .
Capacity Control of Load System .
Low-Temperature Heating Systems . .
Chilled-Water Systems . .
Dual-Temperature Systems .
Other Design Considerations . .
Other Design Procedures . .
Antifreeze Solutions
CHAPTER
CONDENSER WATER SYSTEMS
Once-Through City Water Systems . .
Open Cooling Tower Systems . .
Low-Temperature (Water Economizer) Systems . .
Closed-Circuit Evaporative Coolers . .
Other Sources of Water . .
Overpressure Caused by Thermal Fluid Expansion
CHAPTER
MEDIUM- AND HIGH-TEMPERATURE WATER HEATING
System Characteristics . .
Basic System .
Design Considerations . .
Distribution Piping Design .
Heat Exchangers .
Air-Heating Coils . .
Space-Heating Equipment .
Instrumentation and
Controls .
Water Treatment . .
Heat Storage . .
Safety Considerations
CHAPTER
INFRARED RADIANT HEATING
Energy Conservation . .
Infrared Energy Sources .
System Efficiency . .
Reflectors . .
Controls .
Precautions .
Maintenance . .
Design Considerations for Beam Radiant Heaters
CHAPTER
ULTRAVIOLET LAMP SYSTEMS
Terminology .
UVGI Fundamentals . .
Lamps and Ballasts . .
Maintenance .
Safety . .
Unit Conversions.
CHAPTER
VARIABLE REFRIGERANT FLOW
Standards . .
Equipment . .
VRF System Operation .
Modeling Considerations .
Design Considerations .
VRF System Design Example .
Commissioning .
CHAPTER
DUCT CONSTRUCTION
Building Code Requirements . .
Pressure Classifications .
Duct Cleaning .
HVAC System Leakage .
Air-Handling Unit Leakage . .
Residential and Commercial Duct
Construction . .
Industrial Duct Construction . .
Antimicrobial-Treated Ducts . .
Duct Construction for Grease- and
Moisture-Laden Vapors .
Rigid Plastic Ducts . .
Air Dispersion Systems .
Underground Ducts .
Ducts Outside Buildings . .
Seismic Qualification . .
Sheet Metal Welding .
Thermal Insulation . .
Specifications
CHAPTER
ROOM AIR DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT
SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONS .
Fully Mixed Systems .
Fully Stratified Systems . .
Partially Mixed Systems . .
EQUIPMENT . .
Supply Air Outlets .
Return and Exhaust Air Inlets .
Terminal Units
CHAPTER
FANS
Types of Fans . .
Principles of Operation . .
Testing and Rating . .
Field Testing of Fans for
Air Performance . .
Fan Laws .
Fan and System Pressure Relationships .
Temperature Rise Across Fans .
Duct System Characteristics .
System Effects . .
Selection . .
Parallel Fan Operation .
Series Fan Operation . .
Noise . .
Vibration .
Arrangement and Installation .
Fan Control .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
HUMIDIFIERS
Environmental Conditions .
Enclosure Characteristics . .
Energy Considerations .
Equipment . .
Controls . .
Application Considerations
CHAPTER
AIR-COOLING AND DEHUMIDIFYING COILS
Uses for Coils . .
Coil Construction and Arrangement .
Coil Selection . .
Airflow Resistance . .
Heat Transfer . .
Performance of Sensible Cooling Coils . .
Performance of Dehumidifying Coils . .
Determining Refrigeration Load .
Maintenance . .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFICATION AND
PRESSURE-DRYING EQUIPMENT
Methods of Dehumidification . .
Desiccant Dehumidification .
Liquid Desiccant Equipment .
Solid-Sorption Equipment .
Rotary Solid-Desiccant Dehumidifiers .
Equipment Ratings . .
Equipment Operating Recommendations . .
Applications for AtmosphericPressure Dehumidification . .
Desiccant Drying at Elevated Pressure . .
Equipment Types .
Applications
CHAPTER
MECHANICAL DEHUMIDIFIERS AND
RELATED COMPONENTS
Mechanical Dehumidifiers .
Controls and Sensors .
Installation and Service Considerations . .
Wraparound Heat Exchangers
CHAPTER
AIR-TO-AIR ENERGY RECOVERY EQUIPMENT
Applications . .
Basic Thermodynamics .
Airflow Arrangements .
Additional Technical Considerations .
Performance Ratings . .
Types and Applications of Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers .
Comparison of Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Systems . .
Economic Considerations .
Energy and/or Mass Recovery Calculation Procedure . .
Symbols
CHAPTER
AIR-HEATING COILS
Coil Construction and Design . .
Coil Selection .
Installation Guidelines .
Coil Maintenance .
CHAPTER
UNIT VENTILATORS, UNIT HEATERS,
AND MAKEUP AIR UNITS
Unit Ventilators . .
Unit Heaters .
Makeup Air Units
CHAPTER
AIR CLEANERS FOR PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS
Atmospheric Dust . .
Aerosol Characteristics . .
Air-Cleaning Applications . .
Mechanisms of Particle
Collection . .
Evaluating Air Cleaners .
Air Cleaner Test Methods .
Types of Air Cleaners . .
Filter Types and Performance . .
Selection and Maintenance .
Air Cleaner Installation . .
Safety Considerations .
CHAPTER
INDUSTRIAL GAS CLEANING AND AIR
POLLUTION CONTROL
Regulations and Monitoring .
PARTICULATE CONTAMINANT CONTROL .
Mechanical Collectors . .
Electrostatic Precipitators . .
Fabric Filters . .
Granular-Bed Filters . .
Particulate Scrubbers (Wet Collectors) . .
GASEOUS CONTAMINANT CONTROL .
Spray Dry Scrubbing .
Wet-Packed Scrubbers . .
Adsorption of Gaseous Contaminants .
Incineration of Gases and Vapors .
AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT .
Ducts .
Dust- and Slurry-Handling Equipment .
OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE.
CHAPTER
AUTOMATIC FUEL-BURNING SYSTEMS
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .
Terminology . .
System Application . .
Safety .
Efficiency and Emission Ratings .
GAS-BURNING APPLIANCES . .
Gas-Fired Combustion Systems . .
Residential Appliances . .
Commercial-Industrial Appliances .
Applications . .
OIL-BURNING APPLIANCES .
Residential Oil Burners .
Commercial/Industrial Oil Burners . .
Dual-Fuel Gas/Oil Burners .
Equipment Selection . .
SOLID-FUEL-BURNING
APPLIANCES . .
Capacity Classification of Stokers . .
Stoker Types by Fuel-Feed Methods .
CONTROLS .
Safety Controls and Interlocks . .
Operating Controls
CHAPTER
BOILERS
Classifications .
Selection Parameters . .
Efficiency: Input and Output Ratings .
Performance Codes and Standards . .
Sizing .
Burner Types .
Boiler Controls . .
Flame Safeguard Controls
CHAPTER
FURNACES
Components . .
Heat Source Types . .
Commercial Equipment . .
Controls and Operating
Characteristics . .
Equipment Selection . .
Calculations . .
Technical Data . .
Installation . .
Agency Listings .
CHAPTER
RESIDENTIAL IN-SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT
GAS IN-SPACE HEATERS .
Controls . .
Vent Connectors . .
Sizing Units .
OIL AND KEROSENE IN-SPACE
HEATERS . .
ELECTRIC IN-SPACE HEATERS . .
Radiant Heating Systems .
SOLID-FUEL IN-SPACE HEATERS . .
Fireplaces . .
Stoves .
GENERAL INSTALLATION PRACTICES
CHAPTER
CHIMNEY, VENT, AND FIREPLACE SYSTEMS
Terminology . .
Draft Operating Principles .
Chimney Functions .
Steady-State Chimney Design Equations . .
Steady-State Chimney Design
Graphical Solutions . .
Vent and Chimney Capacity Calculation Examples .
Gas Appliance Venting .
Oil-Fired Appliance Venting . .
Fireplace Chimneys . .
Air Supply to Fuel-Burning Appliances . .
Vent and Chimney Materials .
Vent and Chimney Accessories .
Draft Fans .
Terminations: Caps and Wind Effects .
Codes and Standards .
Conversion Factors .
Symbols
CHAPTER
HYDRONIC HEAT-DISTRIBUTING UNITS
AND RADIATORS
Description .
Ratings of Heat-Distributing Units . .
Design . .
Applications
CHAPTER
SOLAR ENERGY EQUIPMENT
SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS .
Air-Heating Systems .
Liquid-Heating Systems . .
Solar Thermal Energy Collectors .
Row Design .
Array Design .
Thermal Energy Storage .
Heat Exchangers .
Controls .
PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS
CHAPTER
COMPRESSORS
POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT
COMPRESSORS .
Performance . .
Abnormal Operating Conditions, Hazards, and
Protective Devices .
Motors .
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS .
ROTARY COMPRESSORS .
Rolling-Piston Compressors .
Rotary-Vane Compressors . .
Screw Compressors .
Scroll Compressors .
Trochoidal Compressors .
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS . .
Application . .
Mechanical Design . .
Isentropic Analysis . .
Polytropic Analysis .
Operation and Maintenance .
Symbols .
CHAPTER
CONDENSERS
WATER-COOLED CONDENSERS . .
Heat Removal . .
Heat Transfer . .
Water Pressure Drop . .
Liquid Subcooling .
Water Circuiting .
Types .
Noncondensable Gases .
Testing and Rating . .
Operation and Maintenance .
AIR-COOLED CONDENSERS .
Types .
Fans and Air Requirements . .
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop . .
Condensers Remote from Compressor .
Condensers as Part of Condensing Unit .
Water-Cooled Versus Air-Cooled
Condensing . .
Testing and Rating . .
Control . .
Installation and Maintenance .
EVAPORATIVE CONDENSERS .
Heat Transfer . .
Condenser Configuration . .
Condenser Location . .
Multiple-Condenser Installations . .
Ratings .
Desuperheating Coils . .
Refrigerant Liquid Subcoolers . .
Multicircuit Condensers and Coolers .
Water Treatment . .
Water Consumption .
Capacity Modulation .
Purging . .
Maintenance . .
Testing and Rating .
CHAPTER
COOLING TOWERS
Principle of Operation . .
Design Conditions .
Types of Cooling Towers . .
Materials of Construction .
Selection Considerations . .
Application . .
Performance Curves . .
Cooling Tower Thermal
Performance . .
Cooling Tower Theory . .
Tower Coefficients . .
Additional Information .
CHAPTER
EVAPORATIVE AIR-COOLING EQUIPMENT
Direct Evaporative Air Coolers .
Indirect Evaporative Air Coolers .
Indirect/Direct Combinations . .
Air Washers . .
Humidification/Dehumidification . .
Sound Attenuation . .
Maintenance and Water Treatment .
CHAPTER
LIQUID COOLERS
Types of Liquid Coolers .
Heat Transfer .
Pressure Drop . .
Vessel Design .
Application Considerations
CHAPTER
LIQUID-CHILLING SYSTEMS
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS . .
Principles of Operation . .
Common Liquid-Chilling Systems . .
Selection . .
Control . .
Standards and Testing . .
General Maintenance . .
RECIPROCATING LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance Characteristics and
Operating Problems . .
Method of Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Special Applications .
CENTRIFUGAL LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance and Operating Characteristics . .
Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Auxiliaries .
Special Applications . .
Operation and Maintenance .
SCREW LIQUID CHILLERS . .
Equipment .
Performance and Operating Characteristics . .
Selection . .
Control Considerations .
Auxiliaries .
Special Applications . .
Maintenance
CHAPTER
CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
Centrifugal Pumping .
Construction Features . .
Pump Types .
Pump Performance Curves .
Hydronic System Curves .
Pump and Hydronic System Curves . .
Pump Power . .
Pump Efficiency . .
Affinity Laws .
Radial Thrust .
Net Positive Suction Characteristics .
Selection of Pumps . .
Arrangement of Pumps . .
Motive Power . .
Energy Conservation in Pumping .
Installation, Operation, and
Commissioning . .
Troubleshooting
CHAPTER
MOTORS, MOTOR CONTROLS, AND
VARIABLE-FREQUENCY DRIVES
MOTORS .
Alternating-Current Power Supply .
Codes and Standards . .
Motor Efficiency .
General-Purpose Motors . .
Permanent-Magnet AC Motors .
Hermetic Motors .
Integral Thermal Protection .
Motor Protection and Control . .
AIR VOLUME CONTROL . .
Variable-Frequency Drives .
Power Distribution System
Effects . .
AHRI Standard .
CHAPTER
PIPES, TUBES, AND FITTINGS
Pipe .
Fittings . .
Joining Methods . .
Special Systems .
Selection of Materials .
Pipe Wall Thickness . .
Stress Calculations . .
Plastic Piping . .
Pipe-Supporting Elements .
Pipe Expansion and Flexibility .
Pipe Bends and Loops .
Expansion Joints and Expansion Compensating Devices
CHAPTER
VALVES
Fundamentals . .
Manual Valves . .
Automatic Valves . .
Balancing Valves . .
Multiple-Purpose Valves .
Safety Devices .
Self-Contained Temperature Control Valves . .
Pressure-Reducing Valves . .
Check Valves .
Stop-Check Valves .
Backflow Prevention Devices . .
Steam Traps
CHAPTER
HEAT EXCHANGERS
Fundamentals .
Types of Heat Exchangers . .
Components . .
Application .
Selection Criteria .
Installation
CHAPTER
UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND HEAT PUMPS
General Design Considerations .
Types of Unitary Equipment .
Equipment and System Standards . .
Air Conditioners .
Air-Source Heat Pumps . .
Water-Source Heat Pumps .
Variable-Refrigerant-Flow Heat Pumps
CHAPTER
ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS AND PACKAGED
TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS
ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS . .
Sizes and Classifications .
Design .
Performance Data .
Special Features .
Safety Codes and Standards .
Installation and Service . .
PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR
CONDITIONERS .
Sizes and Classifications .
General Design Considerations . .
Design of PTAC/PTHP Components . .
Heat Pump Operation .
Performance and Safety Testing
CHAPTER
THERMAL STORAGE
Sensible Thermal Storage Technology .
Chilled-Water Thermal Storage Sizing Examples . .
Chiller and Ice Storage Selection .
Heat Storage Technology . .
Sizing Cool Storage Systems .
Application of Thermal Storage Systems . .
Operation and Control . .
Other Design Considerations . .
Cost Considerations . .
Maintenance Considerations . .
Commissioning . .
Good Practices .
CHAPTER
CODES AND STANDARDS
COMPOSITE INDEX
ASHRAE HANDBOOK SERIES
This index covers the current Handbook series published by
ASHRAE. The four volumes in the series are identified as follows:
F = Fundamentals
R = Refrigeration
A = HVAC Applications
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment
Alphabetization of the index is letter by letter; for example, Heaters precedes Heat exchangers, and Floors precedes Floor slabs.
The page reference for an index entry includes the book letter
and the chapter number, which may be followed by a decimal point
and the beginning page in the chapter. For example, the page number S . means the information may be found in the HVAC
Systems and Equipment volume, Chapter , beginning on page .
Each Handbook volume is revised and updated on a four-year
cycle. Because technology and the interests of ASHRAE members
change, some topics are not included in the current Handbook
series but may be found in the earlier Handbook editions cited in
the index.
Abbreviations, F
Absorbents
liquid, F . ; F .
refrigerant pairs, F .
Absorption
ammonia/water, F .
hydrogen cycle, R .
technology, R .
chillers, S .
turbines, S .
coefficient of performance (COP), F .
dehumidification, S .
equipment, R .
evolving technologies, R .
ideal thermal, F .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
refrigeration cycles, F .
ammonia/water, F .
calculations, F .
cascaded, F .
coupling, F .
double-effect, F .
lithium bromide/water, F . ; F .
modeling analysis and performance,
F .
phase constraints, F .
representations, F .
solar cooling, A . , ; S . ,
water/lithium bromide technology
components, R .
control, R .
double-effect chillers, R .
maintenance, R .
operation, R .
single-effect chillers, R .
single-effect heat transformers, R .
terminology, R .
working fluids, F .
Acoustics. See Sound
Activated alumina, S . , ,
Activated carbon adsorption, A .
Adaptation, environmental, F .
ADPI. See Air diffusion performance index
(ADPI)
Adsorbents
impregnated, S .
solid, A . ; F .
Adsorption
dehumidification, S . ,
indoor air cleaning, A .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
moisture, F .
solid-vapor sorption, F .
Aeration, of farm crops, A
Aerosols, S .
AFDD. See Automated fault detection and
diagnostics (AFDD)
Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps, S .
AFUE. See Annual fuel utilization efficiency
(AFUE)
AHU. See Air handlers
Air
age of, and ventilation, F .
changes per hour (ACH), F .
drying, S .
flux, F .
liquefaction, R .
permeability, F .
permeance, F .
separation, R .
transfer, F .
Air barriers, F .
Airborne infectious diseases, F .
Air cleaners. (See also Filters, air; Industrial
exhaust gas cleaning)
gaseous (indoor air)
adsorbers, A .
chemisorbers, A .
economics, A .
energy consumption, A .
environmental effects on, A .
installation, A .
media selection, A .
operation and maintenance, A .
safety, A .
sizing, A .
terminology, A .
testing, A .
types, A .
industrial exhaust systems, A .
particulate
contaminants, S .
industrial ventilation, S .
particle collection mechanisms, S .
penetration, S .
residential, S .
safety requirements, S .
selection, S .
standards, S . ,
test methods, S .
types
air washers, S .
combination, S .
electronic, S . ; S . , ; S .
evaporative coolers, S .
maintenance, S .
media filters, S .
Air conditioners. (See also Central air
conditioning)
packaged terminal (PTAC), S .
design, S .
heavy-duty commercial grade, S .
sizes and classifications, S .
testing, S .
residential, A
split systems, S .
through-the-wall room units, A .
unitary, A .
retail stores, A .
rooftop units, S .
room
codes and standards, S .
design, S .
features, S .
filters, S .
installation and service, S .
noise, S .
performance, S .
sizes and classifications, S .
split systems, S .
coil placement, S .
residential and light-commercial, S .
unitary
air handlers, S .
application, S .
capacity control, S .
certification, S .
circuit components, S .
codes and standards, S . ,
desuperheaters, S .
efficiency, S .
electrical design, S .
installation, S .
mechanical design, S .
piping, S .
refrigerant circuit control, S .
service, S .
space conditioning/water heating, S .
types, S .
unit ventilators, S .

. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
window-mounted, S .
Air conditioning. (See also Central air
conditioning)
airports, A .
animal buildings, A .
arenas, A .
atriums, A .
auditoriums, A .
automobiles, A .
bakeries, R
buses, A .
bus terminals, A .
changeover temperature, S . ,
clean spaces, A
commercial buildings, A . ; S .
computer rooms, A
concert halls, A .
convention centers, A .
data centers, A
desiccant dehumidification and, S .
dormitories, A . ,
educational facilities, A .
engine test facilities, A .
equipment
outdoor, S .
refrigeration, S .
exhibition centers, A .
fairs, A .
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
gymnasiums, A .
health care facilities, A
hospitals, A .
nursing facilities, A .
outpatient, A .
hotels and motels, A
houses of worship, A .
ice rinks, A .
industrial environments, A ; A
kitchens, A
laboratories, A .
mass transit, A .
mines, A
natatoriums, A .
nuclear facilities, A
office buildings, A .
paper products facilities, A .
photographic processing and storage areas,
A .
places of assembly, A
plant growth chambers, A .
power plants, A .
printing plants, A
public buildings, A .
rail cars, A .
retrofitting, contaminant control, R .
solar energy systems, A . , ,
subway stations, A .
swimming areas, A .
systems
decentralized, S .
floor-by-floor, S .
forced-air, small, S .
packaged, S .
radiant panel S .
selection, S . ,
self-contained, S .
space requirements, S .
split, S .
telecommunication facilities, A
temporary exhibits, A .
textile processing plants, A .
theaters, A .
transportation centers, A .
warehouses, A .
wood products facilities, A .
Air contaminants, F . (See also
Contaminants)
Aircraft, A
air conditioning, A .
air distribution, A .
air filters, A . ,
air quality, A .
cabin pressurization
control, A . ,
performance, A . ,
carbon dioxide concentration, A .
environmental control system (ECS),
A . , ,
air-conditioning packs, A .
air-cycle machine, A .
cabin pressure control, A . , , ,
design conditions, A .
engine bleed air system, A .
load determination, A .
outdoor air, A .
pneumatic system, A .
regulations, A .
heating, A .
humidity, A .
oxygen levels, A . ,
ozone concentration, A . , ,
ventilation, A . ,
Air curtains
display cases, R .
units, S .
Air diffusers, S
sound control, A .
testing, A .
Air diffusion, F
air jets
Archimedes number, F .
axial, F . ,
behavior, F .
centerline velocity, F .
Coanda effect, F . ,
drop, F .
entrainment ratios, F .
expansion zones, F .
fundamentals, F .
isothermal, F . ,
multiple, F .
nonisothermal, F . ,
spread, F .
surface (wall and ceiling), F .
throw, F .
velocity, terminal, F .
vena contracta, F .
applications, A
aspect ratio, F . ,
core area, F .
diffuser, F .
discharge, coefficient of, F .
distribution, F .
draft, F .
effective area, F . ,
equipment, S
free area, F .
induction, F .
induction ratio, F .
neck area, F .
occupied zone, F .
outlet, F .
primary air, F .
space, F .
stratification height, F .
stratified zone, F .
terminology, F .
total air, F .
upper zone, F .
Air diffusion performance index (ADPI),
A .
Air dispersion systems, fabric, S .
Air distribution, A ; F ; S ; S
aircraft cabins, A .
air terminals, A .
animal environments, A . ,
applications, A
buildings, S .
central system, A .
control, S .
ductwork, S . ; S .
equipment, S
fixed-guideway vehicles, A .
forced-air systems, small, S .
industrial environments, A .
in-room terminal systems, S .
isovels, A .
kitchen makeup air, A .
laboratories, A .
mapping, A .
occupied zone, A .
places of assembly, A .
rail cars, A .
retail stores, A .
ships, A . ,
sound control, A . ,
systems, A .
design considerations, A .
fully stratified, A .
mixed, A .
partially mixed, A .
rooms, A .
terminal boxes, A .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
textile processing plants, A .
zone control, A .
Air exchange rate
air changes per hour (ACH), F .
modeling, F .
multizone measurement, F .
time constants, F .
tracer gas measurement method, F .
Air filters. See Filters, air
Airflow
air-to-transmission ratio, S .
around buildings, F
air intake contamination estimation, F .
coefficients wind pressure, F .
computational modeling, F .
internal pressure, F .
LES model, F .
modeling and testing, F . ,
patterns, A . ; F .
RANS model, F .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
through building components, F .
clean spaces, A .
computational fluid dynamics, A .
computer-aided modeling, A .
condensers
air-cooled, S .
evaporative, S .
control, F ; F ; F
and convection, F .
displacement flow, F .
entrainment flow, F .
exhaust hoods, A .
furnaces, S .
with heat and moisture flow, F .
laminar, A .
measurement of, A .
modeling
in buildings, F
hygrothermal, F .
nonunidirectional, A .
perfect mixing, F .
pressure differentials, F .
solar energy systems, A .
terminology, F .
tracking, A .
transport velocity, A .
unidirectional, A . , ,
velocity measurement, F .
and water vapor flow, F .
wind
data, F . ,
effects on system operation, F .
velocity pressure (Bernoulli equation),
F .
wind tunnels, F .
Airflow retarders, F . ,
Air flux, F . . (See also Airflow)
Air handlers
all-air systems, S .
cooling, S .
dampers, S . ,
dehumidification, S . ,
distribution systems, A .
draw-through, S .
economizers, S .
fans, S . , ,
filter, S .
heating, S .
humidification, S . ,
location, S .
mixing plenum, S .
psychrometrics, S .
reheat, S .
sequencing, A .
set point reset, A .
sound levels, A .
strategies, A .
unitary, air conditioners, S .
vibration isolation, S .
Air inlets
applications, S .
types, S .
Air intakes
design, A .
hospitals, A .
location to avoid contamination, A .
outdoor, S .
vehicular facilities, enclosed, A .
Air jets. See Air diffusion
Air leakage. (See also Infiltration)
area, F .
building distribution, F .
commercial buildings, F .
controlling, air-vapor retarder, F .
leakage function, F .
measurement, F . ,
Air mixers, S .
Air outlets
accessories, S .
dampers, S . , ,
location, S .
selection, S . ,
smudging, S .
sound level, S .
supply, S .
surface effects, S .
temperature differential, S .
types, S .
Airports, air conditioning, A .
Air quality. [See also Indoor air quality (IAQ)]
aircraft cabins, A .
animal buildings, A .
bus terminals, A .
diesel locomotive facilities, A .
parking garages, A .
road tunnels, A .
tollbooths, A .
Air terminal units (ATUs)
air distribution, S .
constant volume, S .
fan-powered, S .
humidifiers, S .
induction, S .
reheat boxes, S .
throttling, S .
variable-air-volume (VAV), S .
Airtightness, F .
Air-to-air energy recovery, S
Air-to-transmission ratio, S .
Air transport, R
altitude effects, R . ,
animals, R .
commodity requirements, R .
design considerations, R .
galley refrigeration, R .
ground handling, R .
perishable cargo, R .
refrigeration, R .
shipping containers, R .
Air washers
air cleaning, S .
coolers, S .
dehumidification performance factor, S .
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous, F .
humidification, S .
maintenance, S .
spray, S .
textile processing plants, A .
water treatment, A . ; S .
Algae, control, A .
All-air systems
advantages, S .
air distribution, S .
air handlers, S .
air terminal units (ATUs), S .
buildings, S .
constant-volume, S . ,
control, S .
cooling, S . ,
costs, S .
dehumidification, S . ,
disadvantages, S .
dual-duct, S .
economizers, S .
heating, S . ,
humidification, S . ,
multizone, S .
primary equipment, S .
single-duct, S .
variable-air-volume (VAV), S . ,
zoning, S .
Altitude, effects of
air-cooling and dehumidifying coils, S . , ,
air transport, R . , ,
ambient temperature, F .
chimney, vent, and fireplace draft calculations,
S . ,
combustion and fuel calculations, F . ; S . ,
, ; S .
fans, S .
hydronic heat-distributing units and radiators,
S .
load calculations, F . ; F .
outdoor air thermal loads, F .
psychrometrics, F . ,
Ammonia
absorption
ammonia/water, F . ; R .
ammonia/water/hydrogen, R .
in animal environments, A . ,
properties, F . –
system practices, R
and water, F . –
Anchor bolts, seismic restraint, A .
Anemometers
air devices, A .
types, F .
Animal environments
air contaminants
ammonia, A . ,
carbon dioxide, A .
air distribution, A . ,
air inlets, A .
air quality control, A .
air transport, R .
cattle, beef and dairy, A .
cooling, A .
design, A .
disease control, A .
evaporative cooling, A . ; A .
fans, A .
heating, A .
hydrogen sulfide, A .
insulation, A .
laboratory conditions, A . ; A .
moisture control, A .
particulate matter (PM), A .
poultry, A .
shades, A .
swine, A .
temperature control, A .
ventilation, A .
Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE),
S .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Antifreeze
coolants, secondary, F .
ethylene glycol, F .
hydronic systems, S .
propylene glycol, F .
Antisweat heaters (ASH), R .
Apartment buildings
service water heating, A . ,
ventilation, A .
Aquifers, thermal storage, S .
Archimedes number, F .
Archives. See Museums, galleries, archives,
and libraries
Arenas
air conditioning, A .
smoke control, A .
Argon, recovery, R .
Asbestos, F .
ASH. See Antisweat heaters (ASH)
Atriums
air conditioning, A .
smoke control, A .
Attics, unconditioned, F .
Auditoriums, A .
Automated fault detection and diagnostics
(AFDD), A . ; A .
benefits, A . ,
controller-embedded, A .
detection, A . ,
diagnosis, A .
evaluation, A .
methods, A .
tools, A .
Automobiles
engine test facilities, A .
HVAC, A
design factors, A .
subsystems, A .
Autopsy rooms, A . ; A . ,
Avogadro’s law, and fuel combustion,
F .
Backflow-prevention devices, S .
BACnet®, A . ; F .
Bacteria
control, A .
food, growth in, R .
humidifiers, growth in, S .
pathogens, F .
Bakery products, R
air conditioning, R .
bread, R
cooling, R .
dough production, R .
freezing, R .
ingredient storage, R .
refrigeration, R . ; R .
slicing, R .
wrapping, R .
Balance point, heat pumps, S .
Balancing. (See also Testing, adjusting, and
balancing)
air distribution systems, A .
dual-duct systems, A .
HVAC systems, A .
hydronic systems, A .
induction systems, A .
kitchen ventilation systems, A .
refrigeration systems, R .
steam distribution systems, A .
temperature controls, A .
variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A .
BAS. See Building automation systems (BAS)
Baseboard units
application, S .
design, S .
finned-tube, S .
nonstandard condition corrections, S .
radiant, S .
rating, S .
Basements
conditioned, A .
heat loss, F . ; F .
heat transfer, F .
moisture control, A .
unconditioned, A .
Beer’s law, F .
Bernoulli equation, F .
generalized, F . ,
kinetic energy factor, F .
steady flow, F .
wind velocity pressure, F .
Best efficiency point (BEP), S .
Beverages, R
beer, R .
storage requirements, R .
carbonated, R .
coolers, R .
fruit juice, R .
liquid carbon dioxide storage, R .
refrigeration systems, R .
refrigerators for, R .
thermal properties, R .
time calculations
cooling, R .
freezing, R .
wine
production, R .
storage temperature, R .
BIM. See Building information modeling
(BIM)
Bioaerosols
airborne
bacteria, F . ,
fungus spores, F .
microbiological particulate, F .
mold, F .
pollen, F .
sampling, F .
viruses, F .
origins, F .
particles, F .
Biocides, control, A .
Biodiesel, F .
Biological safety cabinets, A .
Biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A .
Bioterrorism. See Chemical, biological, radiological, and explosive (CBRE) incidents
Boilers, S
air supply, S .
burners, S .
burner types, S .
carbonic acid, S .
central
multifamily, A .
classifications, S .
codes, S .
combination, S .
condensing, S .
construction materials, S .
controls, A . ; A . ; S .
flame safeguard, S .
draft types, S .
dry-base, S .
efficiency, S .
electric, S .
equipment, S .
gas-fired, S . ,
venting, S .
integrated, S .
modeling, F .
noncondensing, S .
oil-fired venting, S .
piping, S .
rating, S .
residential, A .
scotch marine, S .
selection, S .
service water heating, A .
sizing, S .
standards, S .
steam, S .
systems, S .
stokers, S .
venting, S . ,
wall-hung, S .
waste heat, S .
water, S .
water treatment, A .
blowdown, A .
wet-base, S .
wet-leg, S .
working pressure, S .
Boiling
critical heat flux, F .
evaporators
flow mechanics, F .
heat transfer, F .
film, F .
natural convection systems, F .
nucleate, F . ,
pool, F .
Brake horsepower, S .
Brayton cycle
cryogenics, R .
gas turbine, S .
Bread, R
Breweries
carbon dioxide production, R .
refrigeration
fermenting cellar, R .
Kraeusen cellar, R .
stock cellar, R .
systems, R .
wort cooler, R .
storage tanks, R .
vinegar production, R .
Brines. See Coolants, secondary
Building automation systems (BAS), A . ;
A . ; F .
Building energy monitoring, A . (See also
Energy, monitoring)
Building envelopes
air barrier, A .
requirements, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
air intrusion, A .
air leakage control, A .
attics, A .
bound water, A .
building assembly, A .
building enclosure, A .
component, A .
condensation, A . ; S .
convective loop, A .
driving rain load, F .
dropped ceiling, A .
durability, A .
energy conservation, A .
exfiltration, A .
existing buildings
changing HVAC equipment in, A .
envelope modifications in, A .
face-sealed systems, A .
fenestration, A .
foundations, A .
heat transfer through, A .
moisture effects, A .
historic buildings, A .
hygrothermal design analysis, A .
infiltration, A .
insulation, F .
interstitial spaces, A .
interzonal environmental loads, A .
material properties, F
moisture content, A .
moisture control, A .
museums, galleries, archives, and libraries,
A .
plenum, A .
return air, A .
rain screen designs, A .
roofs, A .
insulated sloped assemblies, A .
low-slope assemblies, A .
steep-roof assemblies, A .
vegetated roofing, A .
R-value, A .
clear-wall, A .
material, A .
system, A .
total, A .
sorption, A .
structural failure, from moisture, F .
surface condensation, A .
terminology, A .
thermal
break, A .
bridges, A . ; F .
insulation, A .
mass, A .
performance, A .
transmittance, A .
U-factor (thermal transmittance), A .
U-value, F .
vapor
barrier, continuous, A .
diffusion control, A .
retarder (vapor barrier), A .
wall/window interface, A .
walls, A .
curtain, A .
precast concrete panels, A .
steel-stud, A .
water-resistive barrier (WRB), A .
wind washing, A .
zone method, A .
Building information modeling (BIM), A .
Building materials, properties, F
Buildings
air barrier, A .
airtight duct connections, A .
damp, A .
human health, A .
dampness risk, A .
dew point, A .
drainage plane, A .
flashing, A .
moisture, A .
content, A .
risk, A .
mold, A .
mold-resistant gypsum board, A .
positive pressure, A .
problems
causes, A .
dampness A .
roof overhang, A .
sill pans, A .
vinyl wall covering, A .
water barrier, A .
Building thermal mass
charging and discharging, S .
effects of, S .
precooling, A .
Burners
air supply, S .
controls, S .
conversion, S . ,
dual-fuel gas/oil, S .
gas-fired, S .
altitude compensation, S .
combustion and adjustments, S .
commercial, S .
industrial, S .
residential, S .
venting, S .
oil-fired, S .
commercial, S .
fuel handling, S .
industrial, S .
residential, S .
venting, S .
venting, S . ,
Buses
air conditioning, A .
garage ventilation, A .
Bus terminals
air conditioning, A .
physical configuration, A .
ventilation
effects of alternative fuel use, A .
equipment, A .
operation areas, A .
platforms, A .
Butane, commercial, F .
CAD. See Computer-aided design
(CAD)
Cafeterias, service water heating, A . ,
Calcium chloride brines, F .
Candy
chocolate, R .
manufacture, R .
storage, R .
Capillary action, and moisture flow, F .
Capillary tubes
capacity balance, R .
characteristic curve, R .
pressure-reducing device, R .
restrictor orifice, S .
selection, R .
Carbon dioxide
in aircraft cabins, A .
in animal environments, A .
combustion, F . ,
greenhouse enrichment, A .
liquefaction, R .
measurement, F .
refrigerant, R .
storage, R .
Carbon emissions, F .
Carbon monoxide
analyzers, A . ,
health effects, F .
parking garages, A . ,
road tunnels, A .
tollbooths, A .
Cargo containers, R
airborne sound, R .
air circulation, R .
ambient design factors, R .
commodity precooling, R .
control, R . ,
controlled atmosphere, R .
costs, owning and operating, R .
design, R .
equipment
attachment provisions, R .
design and selection factors, R . ,
operating efficiency, R .
qualification testing, R .
selection, R .
system application factors, R .
types, R .
heating only, R .
insulation barrier, R .
load calculations, R .
maintenance, R .
mechanical cooling and heating, R .
operations, R .
qualification testing, R .
safety, R .
sanitation, R .
shock and vibration, R .
space considerations, R .
system application, R .
temperature-controlled transport, R .
temperature settings, R .
use, R .
vapor barrier, R .
ventilation, R . ,
Carnot refrigeration cycle, F .
Cattle, beef and dairy, A . . (See also Animal
environments)
CAV. See Constant air volume (CAV)
Cavitation, F .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
valves, S .
CBRE. See Chemical, biological, radiological,
and explosive (CBRE) incidents
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
CEER. See Combined energy efficiency ratio
(CEER)
Ceiling effect. See Coanda effect
Ceilings
natural ventilation, F .
sound correction, A .
sound transmission, A .
Central air conditioning, A . (See also Air
conditioning)
Central plants
chiller, S .
cooling and heating, S .
distribution design, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
emission control, S .
heating medium, S .
hotels and motels, A .
thermal storage, S .
Central systems
cooling and heating, S .
features, S .
furnaces, S .
humidifiers, S .
residential forced air, S .
space requirements, S .
in tall buildings, A .
acoustical considerations, A .
economic considerations, A .
location, A .
ventilation, with in-room terminal systems,
S .
Cetane number, engine fuels, F .
CFD. See Computational fluid dynamics
(CFD)
Charge minimization, R .
Charging, refrigeration systems, R .
Chemical, biological, radiological, and
explosive (CBRE) incidents, A
biological events, A .
building envelope as protection, F . ,
chemical agent types, A .
gases and vapors, A .
incapacitating, A .
irritants, A .
toxic, A .
chemical events, A .
commissioning, A .
explosive events, A .
design considerations, A .
loading description, A .
radiological events, A .
Chemical plants
automation, R .
energy recovery, R .
flow sheets, R .
instrumentation and controls, R .
outdoor construction, R .
piping, R .
pumps, R .
refrigeration
compressors, R .
condensers, R .
cooling towers, R .
equipment, R . ,
evaporators, R .
load, R .
safety requirements, R .
spray ponds, R .
systems, R . ,
safety requirements, R .
specifications, R .
tanks, R .
Chemisorption, A .
Chilled beams, S .
Chilled water (CW)
combined heat and power (CHP) distribution,
S .
district heating and cooling, S . ,
optimal temperature, A .
pumping system, A . ,
pump sequencing, A . ,
reset, A . ,
systems, S . ,
central plant, A .
heat transfer vs. flow, A .
one-pipe, S .
testing, adjusting, balancing, A .
two-pipe, S .
thermal storage, S .
water treatment, A .
Chillers
absorption, S .
ammonia/water, R .
heat-activated, S .
water/lithium bromide, R .
blast, R .
central plants, A . ; S .
centrifugal
air-cooled, S .
controls, S .
equipment, S .
fouling, S .
free cooling, S .
hot-gas bypass, S .
maintenance, S .
purge units, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant
selection, S .
transfer units, S .
selection methods, S .
temperature lift, S .
control, A .
capacity, S . ,
considerations, S .
regulating, S .
safety, S .
costs, S .
direct expansion, R . ; S .
economizing, S .
expansion turbines, S .
flash, S .
heat recovery, S .
injection, S .
liquid-chilling systems, S
liquid heads, S .
load distribution, A .
maintenance, S . , ,
marine water boxes, S .
noise generation, A . ; S .
optimization, A .
prerotation vanes, S . ,
reciprocating
components, S .
control, S .
equipment, S .
performance, S .
refrigerant selection, S .
selection methods, S .
refrigeration cycle, S .
screw
applications, S .
capacity control, S .
components, S .
equipment, S .
maintenance, S .
performance, S .
selection methods, S . , ,
sequencing, A . ,
standards, S .
subcooling, S .
and turbines, S .
vapor compression model, F .
variable-flow, S .
variable-speed, S . ,
vibration control, S .
walk-in, R .
Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy, F .
Chimneys, S
accessories, S .
capacity calculation examples, S .
caps, S .
codes, S .
design equations, S .
draft, S .
altitude effects, S . ,
available, S . ,
theoretical, S . ,
fireplace, S . ,
flue gas, S .
functions, S .
gas, appliance venting, S .
masonry, S . ,
materials, S .
standards, S . ,
terminations, S .
wind effects, S . ,
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), A .
Chocolate, R . . (See also Candy)
Choking, F .
CHP systems. See Combined heat and power
(CHP)
Cinemas, A .
CKV. See Commercial kitchen ventilation
(CVK)
Claude cycle, R .
Cleanrooms. See Clean spaces
Clean spaces, A
aerospace, A .
air filters, A . , ,
airflow, A . , , ,
applications, A .
biomanufacturing, A .
construction, A .
contaminant control, A . ,
cooling, A .
energy conservation, A .
fire safety, A .
high-bay, A .
humidity control, A .
makeup air, A . ,
noise control, A .
operation, A .
particle sources, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
pharmaceutical
aseptic, A .
biomanufacturing, A .
contaminant control, A .
control and monitoring, A .
design, A .
isolators, A .
nonaseptic, A .
unidirectional hoods, A .
pharmaceutical, A .
pressurization, A .
process exhaust, A . ,
semiconductor, A .
start-up, A .
system sizing and redundancy, A .
temperature control, A .
terminology, A .
testing, A .
vibration control, A .
Clear-sky solar radiation, calculation, F .
Climate change, effect on climatic design
conditions, F .
Climatic design information, F
annual design conditions, F .
calculation of, F .
changes in, F .
climate change’s effect on, F .
cooling, F .
data sources, F .
heating, F .
monthly design conditions, F .
precipitation, F .
return period of extremes, F .
uncertainties in design data, F .
Clinics, A .
Clothing
insulation, clo units, F .
moisture permeability, F .
CLTD/CLF. See Cooling load temperature
differential method with solar cooling load
factors (CLTD/CLF)
Coal
classification, F .
handling facilities, A . ,
heating value, F .
stokers, S .
types, F .
Coanda effect, A . ; F . , ; S .
Codes, S . (See also Standards)
air conditioners, room, S .
air distribution, A .
boilers, S .
building codes, S .
chilled-beam system, A .
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S .
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
water-cooled, S .
coolers, liquid, S .
dehumidifiers, room, S .
duct construction, S .
electrical, A .
furnaces, S .
makeup air units, S .
motors, S .
nuclear facilities, A .
piping, S .
tall buildings, A .
Coefficient of performance (COP)
absorption, F .
compressors, S .
refrigeration, F . ,
room air conditioners, S .
Cogeneration. See Combined heat and power
(CHP)
Coils
air-cooling, S .
airflow resistance, S .
applications, S . ,
aqueous glycol coils, S .
construction and arrangement, S .
control, A . ; S .
direct-expansion coils, S .
fluid flow arrangement, S .
heat transfer, S .
load determination, S .
maintenance, S .
performance, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant coils, S .
selection, S .
on ships, A .
water coils, S .
air-heating, S .
aqueous glycol, S .
construction, S .
design, S .
electric, A . ; S .
installation, S .
maintenance, S .
rating, S .
refrigerant, S .
selection, S .
shipboard, A .
steam, S .
water, S . ; S .
altitude effects, S . ,
condensers, S
evaporative, S .
dehumidifying, S .
desuperheating, S .
energy recovery loops, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
heat and mass transfer, simultaneous, F .
heat reclaim, S .
preheat, S .
reheat, S . ; S .
Colburn’s analogy, F .
Colebrook equation
friction factor, F .
pressure drop, F .
Collectors, solar, A . , , , ; S .
(See also Solar energy)
Colleges and universities, A .
Combined energy efficiency ratio (CEER),
S .
Combined heat and power (CHP), S
economic feasibility,
load duration curve, S .
simulation, S .
electrical systems, S .
utility interface, S .
expansion engines/turbines, S .
heat-activated chillers, S .
heat recovery
engines, S . ,
turbines, S .
load profiling, S .
maintenance, S .
modular systems, S .
packaged systems, S .
peak shaving, S .
prime movers
fuel cells, S .
selection, S .
thermal output, S .
turbines
combustion, S . ,
steam, S . ,
thermal energy storage, S .
utility interface, electric, S .
utilization systems
air, S .
district heating and cooling, S .
hydronic, S .
service hot water, S .
vibration control, foundations, S .
Combustion, F
air pollution, F .
air required for, F .
altitude compensation, F . ; S . , , ;
S .
calculations
air required for, F .
carbon dioxide, theoretical, F .
efficiency, F .
flue gas, F .
coals
classification, F .
heating value, F .
types, F .
condensation in, F .
continuous, F .
corrosion in, F .
diesel fuel, F .
efficiency, F .
engine fuels, cetane number, F .
excess air, F .
flammability limits F .
flue gas, F . , , , ,
fuel oils, F .
gaseous fuels
illuminants, F .
liquefied petroleum gas, F .
natural gas, F .
types and properties, F .
gas turbine fuel, F .
heating value, F .
ignition temperature, F .
illuminants, F .
liquid fuels, F .
engines, F .
noise, F .
oscillation, F .
pollution, F .
principles, F .
pulse, F .
reactions, F .
resonance, F .
solid fuels, F .
soot, F .
sound, F .
stoichiometric, F .
types, F .
I. ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Combustion air systems
air required, S .
analysis, F .
burners
gas, S .
oil, S .
control, S .
efficiency boilers, S .
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S .
venting, S .
Combustion turbine inlet cooling (CTIC),
S . ; S .
thermal storage, S .
Comfort. (See also Physiological principles,
humans)
environmental indices, F .
environmental parameters
air velocity, F .
asymmetric thermal radiation, F .
draft, F .
floor temperature, F .
radiant temperature, F .
vertical air temperature difference, F .
humidity, F . ; F .
local discomfort, F .
models
adaptive, F .
multisegment, F .
two-node, F .
nonuniform conditions, F .
predicted mean vote (PMV), F . ; F .
predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F .
productivity, F .
radiant heating, A .
special environments
extreme cold, F .
hot and humid environments, F .
infrared heating, F .
personal environmental control (PEC)
systems, F .
radiant heating, comfort equations, F .
steady-state energy balance, F .
multisegment models, F .
two-node model, F .
task performance, F .
thermal sensation scale, F .
zones, F . ; F .
Commercial and public buildings, A
air leakage, F .
airports, A .
burners
gas, S . ,
oil, S .
bus terminals, A .
central cooling systems, A .
cruise terminals, A .
design concepts, A .
ducts, S
furnaces, S .
general design considerations, A .
humidifiers, S .
ice rinks, R
kitchen ventilation, A .
load characteristics, A .
malls, A .
materials, S .
office buildings, A .
retail facilities, A .
service water heating, A .
transportation centers, A .
warehouses, A .
Commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV),
A
Commissioning, A
acceptance, A .
basis of design (BOD), A . ,
certification, A .
checklist, A . ,
construction, A .
control systems, F .
costs, A .
desiccant dehumidifiers, S .
design, A . ; A .
design review, A .
existing buildings, A . ,
humidifiers, S .
in integrated building design, A .
issues log, A .
laboratories, A .
makeup air units, S .
new construction, A .
objectives, A .
occupancy and operations, A .
owner’s project requirements (OPR), A .
predesign, A .
pumps, centrifugal, S .
recommissioning, A . ,
retrocommissioning, A .
steam systems, S .
systems manual, A . , ,
team, A .
test procedures, A .
Compressors, S
air conditioners, room, S .
ammonia refrigeration systems, R .
bearings
centrifugal, S .
reciprocating, S . ,
rotary, S .
single-screw, S .
twin-screw, S .
centrifugal, S . ; S .
chemical industry refrigeration, R .
drives, R .
dynamic, S .
engine-driven, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R .
heat pump systems, S .
motors, S . ; S .
noise generation, A . ; S . ,
operation and maintenance, S .
positive-displacement, S .
reciprocating, S . ; S .
crankcase, R .
rotary, S .
screw, S .
single, S .
twin, S .
scroll, S .
trochoidal (Wankel), S .
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), F .
assessing predictions, F .
boundary conditions for
inlet, F .
outlet, F .
reporting, F .
sources/sinks, F .
surfaces, F . ,
walls, F .
considerations, F .
grids, F .
mathematical approaches, F .
meshing, F .
reporting, F . ,
steps, F .
turbulence modeling, F .
validation, F . ,
verification, F .
viscosity modeling, F .
Computer-aided design (CAD), A . ; A .
Computers, A
abbreviations for programming, F .
BACnet®, A . ; F .
building automation systems (BAS), A .
computational fluid dynamics, A . ; A . ;
A .
computer-aided design (CAD), A . ; A .
for control, F . , ,
design tools
acoustic calculations, A .
building information modeling (BIM),
A .
combined heat and power (CHP), S .
computational fluid dynamics, A .
computer-aided design (CAD), A .
duct design, A .
equipment selection and simulation, A .
load calculations, A .
piping design, A .
refrigerant properties, A .
smoke control analysis, A . ,
ventilation, A .
road tunnel, A .
equipment, A .
graphics, A .
hardware, A .
HVAC simulation, A .
Internet, A .
modeling, F .
monitoring and control, A .
networking components, A .
peripherals, A .
smoke control analysis, A . ,
software, A .
antispyware, A .
custom programming, A .
development tools, A .
energy analysis, F .
firewall, A .
graphics, A .
HVAC, A .
readymade, A .
road tunnel, A .
terminology, A .
utilities, A . ,
supervisory control, A .
World Wide Web, A .
Concert halls, A .
Concrete
cooling, R .
pozzolanic admixtures, R .
selection, R .
thermal design, R .
water heating for, A .
Composite Index I.
S = HVAC Systems and Equipment A = HVAC Applications R = Refrigeration F = Fundamentals
Condensate
steam systems, F . ; S . ; S . ,
water treatment, A .
Condensation
in building components, F .
in combustion systems, F .
concealed, S .
control, with insulation, F .
dew-point analysis, F .
dropwise, F .
energy recovery equipment, S .
film, F .
heat transfer coefficients, F .
interstitial, and drying, F .
noncondensable gases, F .
with oil, F .
oil-fired appliances, S .
prevention, dehumidification for, S .
surface, F . ,
in tubes, F .
visible, S .
Condensers, S
air conditioners, room, S .
air-cooled, R . ; S . ,
airflow, S .
control, S .
fans, S .
heat transfer, S .
installation, S .
machine room, R .
maintenance, S .
noise, R .
pressure drop, S .
rating, S .
types, S .
ammonia refrigeration systems, R .
cascade, R .
chemical industry refrigeration, R .
in chillers, S . , ,
evaporative, R . ; S .
airflow, S .
capacity control, S .
codes, S .
coils, S .
freeze prevention, S .
heat transfer, S .
liquid subcoolers, S .
location, S .
maintenance, S .
multicircuiting with liquid coolers, S .
multiple-condenser installations, S .
purging, S .
rating, S .
standards, S .
water, S .
halocarbon refrigeration systems
air-cooled, R .
evaporative, R .
piping, R .
pressure control, R .
water, R .
retail food store refrigeration, R .
water-cooled, S .
codes, S .
Darcy-Weisbach equation, S .
fouling factor, S .
heat removal, S . ; S .
heat transfer, S .
liquid subcooling, S .
maintenance, S .
noncondensable gases, S .
pressure drop, S .
standards, S .
types, S .
water circuiting, S .
Conductance, thermal, F . ; F .
Conduction
display cases, R .
steady-state, F .
thermal, F . ,
Conductivity, thermal, F . ; F .
apparent, F . ; F .
of thermal insulation, F .
foods, R .
soils, F .
Constant air volume (CAV)
control, A .
supply air temperature reset, A .
versus variable-air-volume (VAV), A .
Constant-volume, all-air systems
air terminal units, S .
dual-duct, S .
single-duct, S .
Construction. (See also Building envelopes)
curtain wall, F .
glass block wall, F .
in integrated building design, A . ,
Containers. (See also Cargo containers)
air transport, R .
marine transport, R .
Contaminants
clean spaces, A . ,
food, R .
gaseous
combustion, F . ; S .
concentration, indoor, measurement, A .
control, S . ; S . , ,
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS),
F .
flammable, F .
indoor air, F .
industrial, F .
inorganic, F .
measurement, F . ; F .
microbial volatile organic compounds
(MVOCs), F .
nuclear facilities, A . , ,
outdoor air, F .
ozone, A .
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs),
F .
radioactive, F .
radon, A . ; F .
removal, A .
semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs),
F . , ; F .
soil gases, F .
vapors, flammable, F .
volatile organic compounds (VOCs),
F . , ; F .
total (TVOCs), F .
indoor, concentration prediction, F .
organism destruction, R .
particulate
aerosols, S .
asbestos, F .
classification, F .
coarse, F .
collection mechanisms, S . ; S . ,
combustion, F .
dusts, F . ; S .
environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F .
fine, F .
fogs, F . ,
fumes, F .
measurement, F .
mists, F . ,
pollen, F .
polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs),
F .
radioactive, F .
size distribution, F .
smogs, F . ,
smokes, F .
suspended particles, counters, F .
synthetic vitreous fibers, F .
ultrafine, F .
refrigerant systems, R .


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