كتاب Plumbing - Mechanical Services - Book 1
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

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الرئيسيةالبوابةأحدث الصورالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Plumbing - Mechanical Services - Book 1

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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كتاب Plumbing - Mechanical Services - Book 1  Empty
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أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Plumbing - Mechanical Services - Book 1
Fifth Edition
G. J. Blower
Eng Tech (CEI), MIP, LCGI, Technical Teachers Cert.
Formerly Senior Lecturer, Plumbing Mechanical
Services Section, College of North East London.
Currently an NVQ Visiting Assessor  

كتاب Plumbing - Mechanical Services - Book 1  P_m_s_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Care and maintenance of tools 46
Further reading 48
Self-testing questions 48
3 Mechanical and special tools 49
Gas heating equipment used by
the plumber 49
Machine tools used in plumbers’
workshops 56
Socket- and branch-forming tools 61
Electrical methods of soldering 65
Drain and discharge pipe cleaners 67
Freezing equipment for water
services 68
Power cleaning pumps 71
Radial press jointing tools 71
Further reading 72
Self-testing questions 72
4 Materials and fittings for gas,
water services and sanitary
pipework 73
Introduction 73
Standards and legislation relating to
the construction industry 73
Working properties of materials 74
Pipework materials 76
Joints and fittings 80
Cast iron 84
Synthetic plastics 86
Plastics commonly used for water
services and sanitary pipework 87
Jointing materials 91
Corrosion 94
Protection of materials against
corrosion 95
Flow characteristics of pipe materials 96
Pipework fixings 96
Water storage vessels 96
Foreword viii
Preface to the fifth edition ix
1 Safety on site and in the
workshop 1
Health and safety at work
(HSW Act) 1
Accident reporting 3
Disciplinary procedures 4
Grievance procedures 7
General safety requirements on site 7
First-aid procedures 7
Accidents on site 11
Health and safety when working near
lift shafts and in excavations 16
Electric power tools and temporary
lighting 18
General site safety 19
Safety signs 20
Toxic and dangerous substances
and materials 22
Safety with compressed gases and
blowlamps 23
Lifting and handling materials 25
Levers 27
Pulleys 27
Slings 28
Further reading 30
Self-testing questions 30
2 Hand tools 31
Introduction 31
Classification of hand tools 31
Tools for laying and fixing sheet
roof materials 35
Pipework-jointing tools 37
Pipe-bending tools 39
Tools for fitting and fixing pipework 40
Miscellaneous tools 46Hot water storage vessels 97
Storage calculations 97
Further reading 99
Self-testing questions 99
5 Working processes 101
The Building Regulations 101
Materials and work 102
Drawings 102
Using a scale rule 102
Connections to existing lead pipe 103
Soft-soldered joints – general
principles 105
Jointing copper tube 106
Jointing steel pipe 108
Jointing synthetic plastics 110
Pipe bending 118
Bending by hand 118
Bending by machine 120
Machine-bending processes 123
Steel pipe bending 126
Tapping and threading 129
Soft soldering 130
Further reading 133
Self-testing questions 134
6 Taps and valves 135
Taps and valves – general
requirements 135
Rewashering and maintenance
of taps 142
Float-operated valves 144
Further reading 152
Self-testing questions 152
7 The cold water supply 153
The supply of water 153
Approved plumber scheme 154
Sources of water supply 154
Characteristics and physical
properties of water 156
Water treatment 159
Pressure in pipes and fittings 160
Water supplies to consumers 164
Cold water supply systems in
buildings 167
Pipe runs 169
Protection from frost damage 173
Cold water storage 182
Water conservation 185
Further reading 187
Self-testing questions 189
8 The hot water supply 191
Heat 191
Expansion of hot water and
heating pipes 192
Transfer of heat 194
Energy-efficient heating and
hot water systems 198
Boilers 205
Installation 208
Domestic hot water pipework
systems 213
Indirect systems of hot water supply 214
Hot water systems with a
secondary circulation 216
Defects in hot water systems 217
Prevention of heat loss 222
Characteristics of good insulating
materials 225
Insulation of hot storage vessels
and cisterns 226
Further reading 229
Self-testing questions 229
9 Sanitary appliances 231
Materials for sanitary appliances 231
Storage of sanitary appliances
on site 232
Sanitary appliances 232
Overflows to sanitary fittings 250
Waste fittings 252
Brackets and supports for
sanitary fittings 253
Further reading 255
Self-testing questions 256
10 Sanitary pipework 258
Introduction 258
Traps 259
Discharge pipework systems 265
Seal loss due to bad design 269
WC connections to discharge pipe
systems 271
Cross flow 272
vi CONTENTSGround floor appliances 272
Termination of vent pipes 273
Access points 273
Branch discharge pipe connections 274
Mechanical waste-disposal units 275
Washing machines and dishwashing
equipment 276
Further reading 277
Self-testing questions 277
11 Lead sheet weatherings 279
Introduction 279
Methods of working 279
Physical properties of lead 280
Roofing terms 284
Jointing methods 285
Fixing methods 288
Forming roofing details 290
Damp-proof courses 294
Simple external weatherings 295
Weathering small canopies and
flat roofs 302
Valley gutters 304
Tilting fillets 305
Roofing calculations 305
Further reading 309
Self-testing questions 309
12 Eaves gutters 311
Introduction 311
Materials for eaves gutters 312
Methods of cutting, jointing and
fixing gutters 314
CONTENTS vii
Forming and fixing 315
Sizing rainwater gutters 316
Setting out gutter falls 317
Falls in gutters 318
Rainwater pipes for eaves gutters 319
Rainwater conservation 322
Rainwater collection in buildings
having large areas of flat roof 323
Rainwater collection from large
areas of pitched roof 323
Inspection of gutters 324
Testing 324
Maintenance 324
Further reading 324
Self-testing questions 325
Appendix A: Assignments 326
Appendix B: National Vocational
Qualifications 329
Appendix C: BS 1192: Piped and
ducted services 331
Appendix D: Colour coding of
pipelines 335
Appendix E: Useful contacts relating
to heating and hot water efficiencies,
courses and information 336
Index 33
Index
abrasions, small 8
Abrasive Wheel Regulations 57
acceleration 161
access 261–2
box with tubular sleeves 174
points 273–4
accident reporting 3–4
accidents on site 11–16
accreditation of prior learning 330
acetylene 51–2
dissolved 50
see also oxy-acetylene
acrylic 91
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 90–1
activity record 329–30
adhesion 282
adhesives 23
Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service
7
Agrément Certificate 264
air locks 217–18
alloys 76, 77, 93
aluminium:
gutters 314
pipe 89, 90
angle grinder 57–60
angles of branches (junctions) 259
annealing 76
approved plumber scheme 154
‘Aquadapt’ in-line meter adaptor 169
area:
of a circle 98
of a cylinder side 98
of a rectangle 98
Armstrong Installation Manual 226
artificial reservoirs 156
asbestos 23
cement 314
assignments 326–8
atmosphere, composition of 51
Australia 281
backfire 53
bar 163–4
baths 234–5
bay sizes, maximum 284
Benchmark Scheme 205
bending:
adjustable 117
by hand 118–20
by machine 120–3
dresser 36
light-gauge stainless steel pipes 122
machines, components of 122–3
machines, maintenance of 123
pipe 39–40, 118, 126–7
springs 39–40
springs for copper tube 118–19
bends:
90 degree 123–4, 127–8
passover 125–6
square 123–4
bent bolts 39
bevels 35
bidets 241–2, 243
blood loss 8
blowlamps 23–5
blowpipes 54
Boiler Manufacturers Association 205
boilers 200–2, 205–8
back 206
capacities 209
condensing 200–1, 203–4
electric 208
explosions 218–19
free-standing 205
gas 200–2
hopper-fed 207–8
non-condensing 200
oil 200–2, 210
power for hot water services 212–13
regular 200–1
sizes 209
solid fuel 207
solid fuel back 205, 206, 210
with top connections 206
bolsters 43
bolts, bent 39
bossing 290–2
an external corner 292
an internal corner 292–3
lead, problems encountered with 293–4INDEX 339
bossing (continued)
mallet 36–7
stick 36
brackets 253–5, 312, 315
branch:
discharge pipe connections 274–5
-forming tools 61–5
joints 107–8
-opening tools 63–5
British Association 39
British Board of Agrément 74, 186
British National Committee of the International
Electrotechnical Commission 74
British Plumbing Employers Council 329
British Standard 23, 110, 264
British Standard Pipe threads 38, 39
British Standards Institution 74
Building Control Body 204
Building Regulations 97, 101–2, 199, 267
hot water supply 204, 209, 210, 215, 224
sanitary pipework 258–9, 265, 266, 273
Building Research Establishment 183
burns 8
burring reamers 34
burrs 34
calculation of basic unit of area 306
calculation of circle circumference 307
calculation of five-sided canopy 308
calculation of less than one square metre 306
calculation of semicircular canopy area 307
calculation of small canopy area 306
calculation of triangular areas 308
Canada 281
canopies, small 302–4
capacity of vessel in litres 98
capillary action 260–1, 282
capillary solder joints 106–7
carbon dioxide gas 69, 71
cast iron 84–6, 231
gutters 313–14, 316
central heating power cleaning pumps 70
central heating specification (CHeSS) 200
ceramic ware 232
chalk line setting out 291
chamfers on pipe ends 116
chase wedges 36
chaser die stocks 38
chimney stacks 295–6
weathering assignment 328
chisels 43, 47
circle, area of 98
circumference of a circle 98
cisterns 96, 161, 184–6, 221, 226–9, 245–6
feed 212–13
flushing 255
siphons, flushing 246–7
clamping 57
Class A risks 25
Class B risks 25
Class C risks 25
cleats 288, 289, 305
clips 289
Codes of Practice 73–4, 258, 262
coefficient of linear expansion 192–3, 280–1
cohesion 282
cold feed 168, 213
cold water assignment 326
cold water supply 153–90
approved plumber scheme 154
characteristics and physical properties of water 156–9
conservation 185–6
engineering joists 170–3
frost damage, protection from 173–82
pipe runs 169–70
pressure in pipes and fittings 160–4
reverse osmosis 186–7
sources 154–6
storage 182–5
supply of water 153
systems in buildings 167–9
to consumers 164–7
water treatment 159–60
colour coding of pipelines 335
combined system 214–15
combustible gas equipment, portable 49–52
combustion air control 207
commercial and industrial premises 228–9
competency 204
compressed gases 23–5
condensate 202–4
condensed water 203
conduction 194–5
cone of unburned gases too close to work 53
Construction (Health and Welfare) Regulations 1996 2, 7,
12
Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 2, 23
Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 2
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
2–3
convection 195–7, 198
cooker, solid fuel 206
cooking ranges 205
copper 80, 95, 97, 104–5
bit 37, 131–2
compression fittings 82
cutters 34
fittings 83–4
tube 81, 82, 108, 118–19, 179
tube jointing 106–8
tube jointing tools 39
tubes, light-gauge 120–2
CORGI registered 204
corrosion 94–5, 221–2, 281–2
protection against 86, 95
coupling 108340 INDEX
cradles 255
creep of metals 75
cross flow 272
cuts, small 8
cutters 31–4, 48
cutting:
eaves and gutters 314–15
sheet and pipe 31–3
cylinders 96
collapse 220–1
indirect 211–12
side, area of 98
single-feed indirect 215
storage 20, 21
trolleys 55
volume 98
damp-proof courses 294–5
dangerous occurrences 3
dangerous substances and materials 22–3
decking, preparation of 284–5
density 280
density of water, relative 157
Department of Health and Social Security 3
dezincification 95, 222
dies 47
receder 38
split circular 45
DIN Standards 74
direct system 169
disciplinary procedures 4, 7
dishwashers 276–7
drain and discharge pipe cleaners 67–8
drain-off cock 142
drains 331
drawings 102
drilling machines 56–7
drills 42
core 65–7
expanding 63
high-carbon steel 42
high-speed steel 42
masonry 42
portable electric 56
twist 42, 48
drip plate 36
drips 286
ductility of materials 74–5
ducts 331
ductwork 334
eaves and gutters 311–25
adaptors 316, 322
brackets 312
cutting, jointing and fixing 314–15
falls in gutters 318–19
forming and fixing 315–16
gutter fittings 312, 313
inspection 324
maintenance 324
materials used 312–14
profiles or sections 311
rainwater collection in buildings with flat roof 323
rainwater collection in pitched roof 323–4
rainwater conservation 322–3
rainwater pipes 319–22
setting out gutter falls 317–18
sizing rainwater gutters 316–17
testing 324
efficiency and temperature, relationship between 202
electric pipe-freezing machine 68–9
electric power tools 18–19
electric shock 9
electrical tools 46
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 3
electrochemical series in metals 94
electrolytic corrosion 94
emergency resuscitation 9–11
Employers’ Liability (Compulsory Insurance) Act 1969 3
EN 1057: 1996 80, 81
energy-efficient heating and hot water systems 198–205
Benchmark Scheme 205
central heating specification (CHeSS) 200
competency and workmanship 204
condensate 202–4
gas and oil boilers 200–2
seasonal efficiency of domestic boilers in the UK
(SEDBUK) 199–200
standard assessment procedures 199
environmental health officers 3
equilibrium diagram for lead/tin alloys 93
Europe 247, 264
European Committee Standardization (EN) 74
European Union 153
eutectic point 94
evaporation 260
excavations 16–17
expansion of hot water and heating pipes 87, 113, 192–4,
221
expansion loop 193
explosions 218–19
external corners 291, 292, 293
external weatherings, simple 295–302
chimney back gutters 297–8
chimney stacks 295–6
flashings 298–302
soakers 296–7
extinguisher selection chart types and uses 26
eye injuries 8–9
eye protection 20, 58
fabricating sectional insulation 226
Factories Act 1833 1
factory inspection 3INDEX 341
fatigue cracking 283–4
feed and expansion vessels, sizing 214
felt underlay 285
female threads 129
files 19, 44, 47
rethreading 39
round/half round 34
filtration 160
fire risks, prevention of 23–5
fireclay 232
first-aid procedures 7–11
fittings 77–8, 80–4
Fixicon bracket 275
fixings 288–90
eaves and gutters 314–16
for flushing cisterns 255
flame temperatures of fuel gases 50
flashback arrestors 53
flashings 298–302
float-operated valves 144–51, 186
Aylesbury 149–50
diaphragm 145–6
equilibrium 146
floats 150–1
fluidmaster 148–9
Keraflo 150
Portsmouth 145, 146
Torbeck 147–8
flow characteristics of pipe materials 96
flues 209
flushing, electronic 249–50
fluxes 132, 133
soldering 92–3
force 161
form F2508 3
former USSR 281
forming:
eaves and gutters 315–16
welts (seams) 132–3
fossil fuel combustion products 199
freezing equipment for water services 68–71
frictional resistance 96
front apron 298
frost damage, protection from 173–82, 223
automatic 174–6
pipe supports 176–9
pipe supports, fixing of 179–82
galvanised steel 97
gas freezing equipment 69, 70
gas heating equipment 49–56
oxy-acetylene equipment 52–6
portable combustible gas equipment 24, 49–52
portable electric drills 56
gas, water services and sanitary pipework, materials and
fittings for 73–100
cast iron 84–6
Codes of Practice 73–4
corrosion 94–5
corrosion, protection against 95
flow characteristics of pipe materials 96
hot water storage vessels 97
jointing materials 91–4
joints and fittings 80–4
pipework fixings 96
pipework materials 76–80
plastics 87–91
storage calculations 97–8
synthetic plastics 86–7
water storage vessels 96–7
working properties of materials 74–6
‘gauge’ 296
gravitational pull 161
greenhouse emissions in United Kingdom 199
grievance procedures 7
grinding 19
tools 57
wheels 58
ground floor appliances 272–3
guards 19
gulleys 331
gutters:
aluminiuim 89, 90
cast iron 313–14
chimney back 297–8
purpose-made 314
PVC 315–16
sheet zinc 314
valley 304–5
see also eaves and gutters
hacksaws 32, 33
hand-held power 59, 60
hammers 19, 42–3, 48
hand tools 31–48
basic tool kit 31
care and maintenance 46–8
classification 31–5
fitting and fixing pipework 40–6
hand vice 46
laying and fixing sheet roof materials 35–7
maintenance 31
pipe-bending tools 39–40
pipework-jointing tools 37–9
safety 18–19
selection 31
hand vices 46
hard water 158–9
hardness of metals 75–6
Head Protection Requirements Regulations 1989 2
Health And Safety at Work Act 1974 1–3, 7, 16, 18, 26
Health and Safety Commission 2
Health and Safety Executive 2, 3, 5–6
Health and Safety (First Aid) Regulations 1981 3342 INDEX
Health and Safety Information for Employees Regulations
1989 3
Health and Safety Regulations 17
Health and Welfare Regulations 1966 2
hearing protection 20
hearths 209
heat 191–2
emission 198
loss, prevention of 222–5
quantity of 194
transfer 194–8
heater, solid fuel 207
Hepworth discharge pipe valves 264–5
HETAS registered 204
hexagon die nut 39
HM Factory Inspectorate 7, 25
hole:
cutters 32
saws 32
hoses 24, 53
hot draw-off 213
hot storage vessels 226–9
hot water assignment 326–7
hot water services, boiler power for 212–13
hot water storage capacities 212
hot water storage vessels 97, 210–12
hot water supply 191–230
boilers 205–8
circulation 196
defects 217–22
domestic hot water pipework systems 213
expansion of hot water and heating pipes 192–4
heat 191–2
heat loss, prevention of 222–5
heat transfer 194–8
indirect systems 214–16
installation 208–13
insulating materials 225–6
insulation of hot storage vessels and cisterns 226–9
with secondary circulation 216–17
see also energy-efficient heating and hot water
systems
hydraulic gradient 164, 165
hydraulic jump 269
hydraulic pipe-bending machines 126–7, 128
IEE Recommendations 142, 208
improvement notices 3
indirect system 170
Industrial Tribunal 4
information signs 21
insulating materials 225–6
insulation of hot storage vessels and cisterns 226–9
insulation, protection of 226
internal corners 291, 292–3, 303
International Organization of Standardization (ISO)
74
Joint Industrial Board for the Plumbing Industry 329
jointing:
copper tube 39, 106–8
eaves and gutters 314–15
materials 91–4
methods 285–8
pastes 92
pipework 37–9
polythene pipes 79
steel pipe 79, 108–10
synthetic plastics 88, 110–18
connection to other pipework material 112–14
discharge pipework systems 115–18
fusion-welded joints in plastic pipe 114–15
plastic pipes for hot and cold services 110–12
to cast iron and clayware 117–18
tools, radial 71
joints 77–8, 80–4
branch 107–8
capillary solder 106–7
compression 78, 79, 107
expansion 193–4
flange 109–10
fusion-welded 114–15
grab-ring-type 82
lead to copper mechanical joints 104–5
manipulative 107
‘multiquick’ 240
non-manipulative 107
‘O’ ring 116–17
soft-soldered 105–6
soldered 132–3
solvent-welded 115
threaded 108–9
wiped soldered 130–1
joists, engineering 170–3
junctions 259
knee pads 20
knowledge 330
ladders 13, 15–16, 313
laps 285–6, 296
lead 79–80, 93
Lead Development Association 281, 294
lead dot method 288, 289
lead dresser 35–6
lead pipe, connections to existing 103–5
lead saddle 300
lead sheet, jointing or patching of 131
lead sheet weatherings 279–310
canopies, small and flat roofs 302–4
damp-proof courses 294–5
fixing methods 288–90
jointing methods 285–8
methods of working 279–80
physical properties of lead 280–4INDEX 343
lead sheet weatherings (continued)
roofing calculations 305–9
roofing details, forming 290–4
roofing terms 284–5
specification and production 281
tilting fillets 305
valley gutters 304–5
working 290–4
see also external weatherings, simple
lead to copper mechanical joints 104–5
lead welding 287–8
leverage 42
levers 27
lift shafts 16–17
lifting and handling materials 25–6
lighting, temporary 18–19
lighting-up procedure of oxy-acetylene equipment 55
liquid petroleum gas 23, 24, 50–1
Little Blue Book of Boilers 199
lock shields 138–9
machine tools used in workshops 56–61
machine vices 57
machine-bending processes 123–6
malleability of materials 74, 75
mallets 36
mandatory signs 21
manholes 331
Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 3
manual lifting and carrying 25–6
mass 160
of material in a vessel 98
of water in a vessel in kilograms 98
materials and work 102
measurements 31
mechanical and special tools 49–72
drain and discharge pipe cleaners 67–8
freezing equipment for water services 68–71
gas heating equipment 49–56
machine tools used in workshops 56–61
power cleaning pumps 71
radial press jointing tools 71
socket and branch-forming tools 61–5
soldering, electrical methods of 65–7
meniscus 282
metals 231
see also aluminium; alloys; cast iron; steel; tin
metres head 163
millibar 164
momentum 261
mushroom headed tools 19
nails 19, 288
National Vocational Qualifications 329–30
Newtons per metre squared 164
noggins 181
Noise at Work Regulations 1989 3
nozzles 53–4
nuts, corroded, removal of 130
nylon 91, 92
offsets 124, 125, 128–9, 271, 322
Oil and Solid Fuel Manufacturers Associations 204
one-pipe circulation 221
one-pipe system 266–7
OTEC registered 204
overflows 250–1
oxidation 94–5
oxide colour and corresponding temperature 47
oxy-acetylene equipment 52–6, 57
oxygen 52
patent compression coupling 79
patina 94–5
pedestals 254–5
percentages 308–9
Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 2
pH values of water 159
pipelines, colour coding of 335
pipes 331
aluminium 89, 90
bending 118
bending machines, hydraulic 126–7
bending, steel 126–9
bending tools 39–40
connections 111
connections, branch discharge 274–5
cutters 31–4, 48
discharge 115–18, 259, 265–8, 269, 271–2
distribution 168
ducts in solid floors 174
fittings 333
fixing boards 181
flashings 301–2
grip, footprint 40
grips 48
guards 172
insulation 225–6
joints, flush 240
laminated barrier 89
lead 103–5
light-gauge stainless steel 122
plastic 95, 114–15
plastic, cutters 34–5
rainwater 319–22
runs 169–70
service 164–5, 167
stainless steel 122
storage 20, 21
supports 176–9
supports, fixing of 179–82
threading tools, steel 38–9
vent 221, 273
ventilating 259344 INDEX
pipework:
approved methods 173
components 334
fitting and fixing 40–6
-jointing tools 37–9
materials 76–80
see also sanitary pipework
plastics 87–91, 179, 232
see also synthetic plastics
pliers 46, 64
plumb bob 320
plungers 67
polybutylene 35, 82, 89, 112, 113, 179
polyethylene 179
polypropylene 88–9
polystyrene 91
polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) 92
polythene 35, 79, 87–8
cross-linked 35, 82, 89, 90, 179
polyvinyl chloride 90
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) 89–90
porcelain-enamelled ware 231
portfolio of evidence 330
potteryware see ceramic ware
power cleaning pumps 71
power threading machines 60–1
pressure 161
calculation 161–3
conversion chart 164
filters 160
intensity 161
in pipes and fittings 160–4
static 163
primary ventilated stack system 267–8
prohibition notices 3–4
prohibition signs 21
protective clothing 21–2
protective footwear 20
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 2
Public Health Act 101
pulleys 27–8
putlogs, distance between 12
PVC 117, 118, 275, 312–13, 315–16
radiation 197–8
rainwater 154
collected from roof areas, use of 185–6
collection in buildings with flat roof 323
collection in pitched roof 323–4
conservation 322–3
pipes 319–22
rapid sand 160
rasp 37
ratchet drop head die stock 38
rectangle, area of 98
rectangular vessel, volume of 98
regulators 52–3
Requirements of Working Places Regulations 1966 2
resuscitation, emergency 9–11
reverse osmosis 186–7
rewashering 142–4
river water 156
rolls 286–7
hollow 287
roofing calculations 305–9
roofing details, forming 290–4
roofing terms 284–5
roofs 185–6
flat 302–4, 323
pitch 284
pitched 323–4
rubber, synthetic 91
Safe Working Load 28–9
safety aspects 1–30
accident reporting 3–4
accidents on site 11–16
compressed gases and blowlamps 23–5
disciplinary procedures 4, 7
electric power tools and temporary lighting 18–19
first-aid procedures 7–11
general site safety 7, 19–20
grievance procedures 7
Health And Safety at Work Act 1974 1–3
levers 27
lift shafts and excavations 16–17
lifting and handling materials 25–6
pulleys 27–8
safety signs 20–2
slings 28–9
toxic and dangerous substances and materials 22–3
safety precautions with carbon dioxide 69, 71
safety switches 61
St. John’s Ambulance Association 9
sanitary appliances 231–57
baths 234–5
brackets and supports 253–5
butler’s sinks 232–3
cistern siphons, flushing 246–7
cisterns, flushing 245–6
cleaner’s sinks 233–4
drop-type flushing valves 250
materials used 231–2
overflows to sanitary fittings 250–1
shower trays 235
showers 235
sink units 234
storage of appliances on site 232
valves, flushing 247–50
vanitory units 237
wash basins 235–7
waste fittings 252–3
WCs 237–8
see also siphonic WCsINDEX 345
sanitary fittings 331–2
sanitary pipework 258–78
access points 273–4
angles of branches (junctions) 259
and appliance assignment 327–8
branch discharge pipe connections 274–5
Building Regulations 258–9
cross flow 272
discharge pipework systems 265–8
ground floor appliances 272–3
mechanical waste-disposal units 275–6
seal loss due to bad design 269–71
terminology 259
vent pipes, termination of 273
washing machines and dishwashers 276–7
WC connections to discharge pipe systems 271–2
see also gas, water services and sanitary pipework;
traps
saws 32
pad 33
power 59–60
scaffolding 11–13
trestle 13, 14
scalds 8
scale deposits 219
scale rule 102–3, 104
Scottish Vocational Qualifications 329
screw extractors 130
screw heads 179
screwdrivers 44, 45, 48
screwed method of fixing to masonry 289
screws 288
seals 259–60
loss of by compression 271
loss of due to bad design 269–71
loss of 260–1
loss of of due to siphonage 263
retention, testing for 263
seasonal efficiency of domestic boilers in the UK
(SEDBUK) 199–200
secondary circulations in public and commercial buildings
216–17
secret fixings 290
Secretary of State 153
for Employment 2
sedimentation 159–60
self-siphonage 269–70
Serious Accidents, Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous
Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 3
form 5–6
service pipes, entry of into building 167
service pipes, protection of 164–5
sets, location of 126
setting out 31, 119–20
sewers 331
shavehooks 37
sheared-off studs, removal of 129–30
sheet:
cutting 31–3
roof materials, laying and fixing 35–7
see also lead sheet
shower trays 235, 236
showers 235
shutting-down procedure of oxy-acetylene equipment
55–6
sinks 232–4
siphonage 108, 263
induced 270
see also siphonic WCs
siphonic WCs 238–45
bidets 241–2
combined bidet and WC unit 243
fixing WCs to floors 241
flush pipe joints 240
siphonage, principles of 243–4
WC joints to drain 240–1
working principles 244–5
sleeving through walls 194
sliding dampers 207
slings 28–9
slow sand filtration 160
soakers 296–7
socket formers 39
socket tools 61–5
socket-expanding tools 62–3
soft soldering 93–4, 105–6, 130–3
soft water 158
soldering 130–1, 288
capillary fittings 81
electrical methods 65–7
fluxes 92–3
iron 37
joints, design of 132–3
soft 93–4, 105–6, 130–3
solid fuel appliances 205, 206, 207
solvents 23
spacing for supports 179
spanners 19, 40–2, 48, 55
special tools see mechanical and special tools
special treatment of water 160
spin wheels 207
square cut marking out 116
stacks 259
stainless steel 78–9, 95, 97, 122, 222, 231
standard assessment procedures 199
standing waste and overflow 251
stands 255
static pressure 163
steel 95, 316
cutters 34
galvanised 97
low-carbon 54, 76–8
pipe bending 126–9
pipe jointing 79, 108–10346 INDEX
steel (continued)
pipe threading tools 38–9
vitreous enamelled pressed 231
water storage vessels 96
see also stainless steel
step flashings 298–301
step turners 37
sterilisation of water 160
stoneware 232
stop valves 137–8
chambers 167
ferrules 166
storage calculations 97–8
storage vessels, plastic 96–7
studs, sheared-off 129–30
supports 253–5
surface tension 282
swaging tools 39
synthetic plastics 86–7
see also jointing synthetic plastics
synthetic rubber 81, 91
Système International 157–8, 163
tanks 96
tapping 129–30
taps and valves 135–52
automatic taps 142, 143
bib taps 136–7
ceramic disc taps 139
drain-off cock 142
gate valves 141
lock shields 138–9
mixer taps 140–1
non-concussive taps 139
pillar taps 137
plug taps 141–2
rewashering and maintenance of taps 142–4
screw-down taps 135–6, 137
service valves 139–40
stop valves 137–8
thread taps 44–5
use of taps for making female threads 129
see also float-operated valves
temper of metals 76
temperature 192
tensile strength of materials 75
thermoplastic materials 232
thermosetting materials 232
thermostatic control 207
threading 108–9, 129–30
tools 38–9
tilting fillets 305
tin 93
tinman’s snips 31
toxic substances and materials 22–3
traps 172, 259–65
access 261–2
combination 262
discharge pipes, flexible 265
Hepworth discharge pipe valves 264–5
P and S traps 259
running 262
seal 259–60
seal, loss of due to siphonage 263
seal, loss of 260–1
seal retention, testing for 263
shower 262
straight-through 261–2
variable outlet 261
trenches 17
two-pipe system 265–6
United States 247, 281
upland surface water 156
valley tile 304
valves 332–3
air admittance 263
drop 247
drop-type flushing 250
equilibrium 146
flushing 247–50
gate 141
Portsmouth 145
safety 219–20
service 139–40
see also float-operated; stop valves; taps and valves
vanitory units 237
vessel capacity in litres 98
vice 57
hand 46
visual inspection 232
visual overflow fitting 251
vitreous china 232
vitreous enamel 231
vitreous enamelled pressed steel 231
volume of a cylindrical vessel 98
volume of a rectangular vessel 98
volume of water 157–8
warning signs 21
wash basins 235–7
washing machines 276–7
waste 251
-disposal units, mechanical 275–6
fitting holder 41
fittings 252–3
pipe cleaners 67
pipes 270
water:
columns 197
condensed 203
conservation 187
density 157
hard 158–9
mass 98INDEX 347
water (continued)
meters 165–7, 168
ph values 159
river 156
services see gas, water services and sanitary pipework
soft 158
special treatment 160
sterilisation 160
storage vessels 96–7
supply see cold water supply; hot water supply
treatment flow chart 160
upland surface 156
volume 157–8
see also rainwater
Water Bylaws 1986 135, 141, 238, 245, 247, 248, 251
‘Water Cycle’ 154
Water Regulations 1999 135, 140, 148, 150
cold water supply 153, 154, 169, 175, 186
Guide Recommendations 216
sanitary appliances 238, 245, 246
WCs 237–8
connections to discharge pipe systems 271–2
weathering a porch canopy 303–4
weathering to stone abutments 299
weatherings see external; lead sheet
wedge, chase 36
weight 161
weir overflows 250
welding 287–8
equipment, high-pressure 52
wells 154–5
welts 133, 286
WIMLAS 264
wind 261
effect 284
wiping cloths 35
wood tools 46–7
wooden flooring, replacement of 172
work hardening 76
work-based assignments 329
working platforms 13
working processes 101–34
bending by hand 118–20
bending by machine 120–6
Building Regulations 101–2
drawings 102
jointing copper tube 106–8
jointing steel pipe 108–10
jointing synthetic plastics 110–18
lead pipe, connections to existing 103–5
materials and work 102
pipe bending 118
scale rule 102–3
soft soldering 130–3
soft-soldered joints 105–6
steel pipe bending 126–9
tapping and threading 129–30
working properties of materials 74–6
workmanship 204
wrenches 40–2, 48


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