كتاب Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook
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 كتاب Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook
2nd English edition
Europa-Technical Book Series for the Metalworking Trades
Ulrich Fischer
Roland Gomeringer
Max Heinzler
Roland Kilgus
Friedrich Naher
Stefan Oesterle
Heinz Paetzold
Andreas Stephan

كتاب Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook  M_a_m_14
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
1 Mathematics
1.1 Numerical tables
Square root, Area of a circle 10
Sine, Cosine 11
Tangent, Cotangent . 12
1.2 Trigonometric Functions
Definitions 13
Sine, Cosine, Tangent, Cotangent 13
Laws of sines and cosines . 14
Angles, Theorem of intersecting
lines . 14
1.3 Fundamentals of Mathematics
Using brackets, powers, roots 15
Equations 16
Powers of ten. Interest calculation 17
Percentage and proportion
calculations 18
1.4 Symbols, Units
Formula symbols, Mathematical
symbols 19
Sl quantities and units of
measurement 20
Non-SI units . 22
2 Physics
2.1 Motion
Uniform and accelerated motion . 34
Speeds of machines . 35
2.2 Forces
Adding and resolving force vectors . 36
Weight. Spring force . 36
Lever principle, Bearing forces . 37
Torques, Centrifugal force . 37
2.3 Work, Power, Efficiency
Mechanical work . _ 38
Simple machines . 39
Power and Efficiency ___ . __ . _ . 40
2.4 Friction
Friction force . __ _ . _ . _41
Coefficients offriction . _ . 41
Friction in bearings . 41
2.5 Pressure in liquids and gases
Pressure, definition and types . 42
Buoyancy . _ . _ . 42
Pressure changes in gases 42
2.6 Strength of materials
Load cases. Load types __ . ___ 43
Safety factors, Mechanical
strength properties _____ 44
Tension, Compression,
Surface pressure . 45
Shear, Buckling 46
9
1.5 lengths
Calculations in a right triangle . 23
Sub-dividing lengths, Arc length . 24
Flat lengths, Rough lengths . 25
1.6 Areas
Angular areas 26
Equilateral triangle, Polygons,
Circle 27
Circular areas . 28
1.7 Volume and Surfac. area
Cube, Cylinder, Pyramid 29
Truncated pyramid, Cone.
Truncated cone, Sphere . 30
Composite solids 31
1.8 Mass
General calculations 31
Linear mass density 31
Area mass density . 31
1.9 Centroids
Centroids of lines . 32
Centroids of plane areas 32
33
Bending, Torsion . 47
Shape factors in strength _ . 48
Static moment, Section modulus,
Moment of inertia 49
Comparison of various
cross-sectional shapes 50
2.7 Thermodynamics
Temperatures. Linear
expansion, Shrinkage . 51
Quantity of heat . 51
Heat flux, Heat of combustion . 52
2.8 Electricity
Ohm's Law, Conductor resistance 53
Resistor circuits _54
Types of current . 55
Electrical work and power . 56Table of Contents
3 Technical drawing
3.1 Basic geometric constructions
Lines and angles . 58
Tangents. Circular arcs, Polygons 59
Inscribed circles. Ellipses, Spirals . 60
Cycloids, Involute curves, Parabolas 61
3.2 Graphs
Cartesian coordinate system 62
Graph types . 63
3.3 Drawing elements
Fonts 64
Preferred numbers, Radii, Scales . 65
Drawing layout 66
Line types . fil
3.4 Representation
Projection methods 69
Views 71
Sectional views 73
Hatching . 75
3.5 Entering dimensions
Dimensioning rules 76
Diameters, Radii, Spheres, Chamfers,
Inclines, Tapers, Arc dimensions . 78
Tolerance specifications . 80
Types of dimensioning . 81
Simplified presentation in drawings 83
4 Materials science
4.1 Materials
Material characteristics of solids . 116
M aterial characteristics of liquids
and gases 117
Periodic table ofthe elements 118
4.2 Designation system for steels
Definition and classification of steel . 120
Material codes, Designation 121
4.3 Steel types. Overview 126
Structural steels 128
Case hardened, quenched and tempered, nitrided, free cutting steels 132
Tool steels . 135
Stainless steels, Spring steels . 136
4.4 Finished st.eel products
Sheet, strip, pipes . 139
Profiles 143
4.5 Heat treatment
Iron-Carbon phase diagram 153
Processes . 154
4.6 Cast iron materials
Designation, Material codes 158
Classification . 159
Cast iron . 160
Malleable cast iron, Cast steel 161
57
3.6 Machine elements
Gear types 84
Roller bearings . 85
Seals . 86
Retaining rings, Springs . 87
3.7 Workpiece elements
Bosses, Workpiece edges . 88
Thread runouts, Thread undercuts . 89
Threads, Screw joints . 90
Center holes, Knurls, Undercuts 91
3.8 Welding and Soldering
Graphical symbols . 93
Dimensioning examples 95
3.9 Surfaces
Hardness specifiCations in drawings 97
Form deviations, Roughness . 98
Surface testing, Surface indications 99
3.10 ISO Tolerances and Fits
Fundamentals 102
Basic hole and basic shaft systems 106
General Tolerances, Roller
bearing frts .110
Fit recommendations . 111
Geometric tolerancing .112
GO&T (Geometric
Dimensioning & Tolerancing) . 113
115
4.7 Foundry technology
Patterns, Pattern equipment 162
Shrinkage allowances,
Dimensional tolerances 163
4.8 Light alloys, Overview of AI alloys 164
Wrought aluminum alloys . 166
Aluminum casting alloys . 168
Aluminum profiles . 169
Magnesium and titanium alloys 172
4.9 Heavy non-ferrous metals,
Overview 173
Designation system 174
Copper alloys 175
4.10 Other metallic materials
Composite materials,
Ceramic materials . 177
Sintered metals 178
4.11 Plastics, Overview 179
Thermoplastics 182
Thermoset plastics, Elastomers 184
Plastics processing 186
4.12 Material testing methods,
Overview 188
Tensile testing 190
Hardness test 192
4.13 Corrosion, Corrosion protection 196
4.14 Hazardous materials 197
56 Table of Contents
5 Machine elements
5.1 Threads (overview) 202
Metric ISO threads . 204
Whitworth threads, Pipe threads 206
Trapezoidal and buttress threads 207
Thread tolerances . 208
5.2 Bolts and screws (overview) . 209
Designations, strength 210
Hexagon head bolts & screws . 212
Other bolts & screws 215
Screw joint calculations . 221
Locking fasteners . 222
Widths across flats, Bolt and
screw drive systems . 223
5.3 Countersinks . 224
Countersinks for countersunk
head screws . 224
Counterbores for cap screws 225
5.4 Nuts (overview) . 226
Designations, Strength . 227
Hexagon nuts . 228
Other nuts . 231
5.5 Washers (overview) 233
Flat washers . 234
HV, Clevis pin, Conical spring washers . 235
5.6 Pins and clevis pins (overview) . 236
Dowel pins, Taper pins, Spring pins . 237
6 Production Engineering
6.1 Quality management
Standards, Terminology . 274
Quality planning, Quality testing 276
Statistical analysis . 277
Statistical process control 279
Process capability . 281
6.2 Production planning
'Time accounting according to REFA . 282
Cost accounting 284
Machine hourly rates 285
6.3 Machining processes
Productive time . 287
Machining coolants 292
Cutting tool materials, Inserts,
Tool holders . 294
Forces and power . 298
Cutting data: Drilling, Reaming,
Turning . 301
Cutting data: Taper turning . 304
Cutting data: Milling . 305
Indexing . 307
Cutting data: Grinding and honing . 308
6.4 Material removal
Cutting data 313
Processes . 314
6.5 Separation by cutting
Cutting forces 315
201
Grooved pins, Grooved drive studs,
Clevis pins 238
5.7 Shaft-hub connections
Tapered and feather keys 239
Parallel and woodruff keys 240
Splined shafts, Blind rivets 241
Tool tapers . 242
5.8 Springs, components of jigs
and tools
Springs 244
Drill bushings 247
Standard stamping parts 251
5.9 Drive elements
Belts . 253
Gears . 256
Transmission ratios . 259
Speed graph . 260
5.10 Bearings
Plain bearings (overview) . 261
Plain bearing bushings 262
Antifriction bearings (overview) . 263
Types of roller bearings 265
Retaining rings . 269
Sealing elements 270
Lubricating oils 271
Lubricating greases . 272
273
Shearing 316
Location of punch holder shank . 317
6.6 Forming
Bending . 318
Deep drawing 320
6.7 Joining
Welding processes 322
Weld preparation . 323
Gas welding 324
Gas shielded metal arc welding . 325
Arc welding 327
Thermal cutting 329
Identification of gas cylinders . 331
Soldering and brazing . 333
Adhesive bonding 336
6.8 Workplace safety and environmental
protection
Prohibitive signs 338
Warning signs . 339
Mandatory signs,
Escape routes and rescue signs . 340
Information signs . 341
Danger symbols 342
Identification of pipe lines 343
Sound and noise . 344Table of Contents 7
7 Automation and lnfonnation Technology 345
7.1 Basic terminology for control
engineering
Basic terminology, Code letters,
Symbols . 346
Analog controllers . 348
Discontinuous and digital controllers 349
Binary logic 350
7.2 Electrical circuits
Circuit symbols . 351
Designations in circuit diagrams . 353
Circuit diagrams 354
Sensors . 355
Protective precautions . 356
7.3 Function charts and function diagrams
Function charts 358
Function diagrams 361
7.4 Pneumatics and hydraulics
Circuit symbols . 363
Layout of circuit diagrams . 365
Controllers . 366
Hydraulic fluids . 368
Pneumatic cylinders . 369
Forces,Speeds, Po~er 370
Precision steel tube . 372
7.5 Programmable logic control
PLC programming languages . 373
ladder diagram (LO) 374
Function block language (FBU 374
8 Material chart, Standards
8.1 International mat.erial
comparison chart 407
8.2 DIN, DIN EN, ISO etc. standards 412
Subject index
Structured text (STI . 374
Instruction list . 375
Simple functions . 376
7.6 Handling and robot systems
Coordinate systems and axes . 378
Robot designs 379
Grippers, job safety . 380
7.7 Numerical Control INC) technology
Coordinate systems . 381
Program structure according to DIN 382
Tool offset and Cutter compensation . 383
Machining motions as per DIN . 384
Machining motions as per PAL
(German association) 386
PAL programming system for turning . 388
PALprogramming system for milling . 392
7.8 Information technology
Numbering systems . 401
ASCII code . 402
Program flo~ chart, Structograms 403
WORD- and EXEL commands 405
Subject index
Abrasives 309
ABS (IICrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
copolymers) 181. 187
Acceleration 34
Ac<:oloration due to gravity . 36
Acceleration Ioree 36
Acceptance quality level (AOl) 280
Acceptance SBmpling . 280
Ac<:idont prevention regulations with
regard to noise protection 344
Ace1yleno cylinders, color coding 332
Acme screw threads . 203
Acrylonitrole butadiene rubber (NBAI 185
Address codes, CNC controls 382
Adhesive bonding . 336
Adhesives. microencapsulated 222
Air consumption or pneumatic cylinders . 369
Air pressure . 42
Aluminum alloys, heat treatment 157
Aluminum casting alloys . 168
Aluminum Cllstings. designation . 168
Aluminum profiles 169- 171
Aluminum profiles, overview 169
Aluminum tubes . 171
Ball bearings . 265, 266
Ball knobs . 248
Basic dimensions 81
Basic geometrical constructions . 58- 61
Basic hole 103
Basic polymers, designation . 180
Basic quantities 20
Basic shaft . 103
Basic units 20
Beam cutting . 329, 330
Beam cutting, areas of application . 329
Bearing foroes 37
Belt drive. transmission ratio . 259
Bending 318,319
Bending load . 47
Bending stress 47
Bending, bending radius 318
Bending, Clllculation of blanks 31B, 319
Bending, spring back . 319
Bevel gears, Clllculation 258
Binary logic . 350
Binary number system . 401
Binomialformula . 15
Blind rivet 241
Block and tackle . 39
A
B
Aluminum, Aluminum alloys, overview 164
Aluminum, welding fillers 326
Amino plastic molding materials 164
Analog controllers . 348
AND operation . 350, 375, 376
Angular-contact ball bearings . 265
Anti-rotation lock lor SCfOWS 222
Aramide fibers 187
Arc length, dimensionong 78
Arc welding 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 327. 328
Arc welding. weld design 328
Area graphs . 63
Argon cylinders, color coding 332
Arrow projection method 70
ASOI code . 402
Austenite . 153
Austenitic steels . 136
Automation 345-406
Auxiliary dimensions 81
Average speed of crank mechanism 35
Axial deep groove ball bearings . 266
Axonometric representation . 69
Boiling temperature . 116, 117
Bolt thread as inclined plane . 39
Bolts and screws 209-221
Bolts and screws for T-slots . 250
Bolts and screws, designation 210
Bolts and screws, head styles . 223
Bolts and screws, overview 209, 210
Bolts, tightening torques . 221
Bonded joints, preparation . 336
Bonded joints. representation 96
Bonded joints, !.Osting . 337
Bonded joints. types . 337
Bosses on turned parts . 88
BA (butadiene rubber) . 185
Brazing materials . 333
Breakeven point . 286
Brinell hardness test . 192
Buckling, load 46
Buoyant force 42
Buttress threads . 207418 Subject index
Subject index
Cabinet projec1ion 69
Calculations with brackets 15
Captive fastener . 222
Car·bon dioxide cylinders. color coding . 332
Carbon fibers 187
Cartesian coordinate system . 62
Case hardening steels 132
Case hardening steels. heat treatment 155
Case-hardening 154
Cast copper alloys 176
Cast iron with flake graphite 159, 160
Cast iron with spheroidal graphite 159, 160
Cast iron, bainitic . 159
Cast iron, designation system 158
Cast iron, dimensional tolerances . 163
Cast steel 159, 161
Casting tolerance grade 163
Castle nuts . 232
Cavalier projection 69
Cellulose acetate plastics (CAl 181
Cellulose acetobutyrate plastics ICABI . 181
Centrifugal force 37
Centroids, lines 32
Centroids, plane areas 32
Ceramic materials 177
Chamfers, dimensioning . 78
Change in volume . 51
Character sizes . 64
Character types . 64
Chemicals used in metal technology 119
Chlorepoxypropane rubber (COl 185
Circle, area 10. 27
Circle, circumference 27
Circle, finding the center of . 60
Circlips . 269
Circuit diagrams 354
Circuit diagrams, hydraulic 365, 367
Circuit diagrams, pneumatic 365, 366
Circuits, elec1rical . 351- 354
Circular movements of CNC machines . 384. 385
Circularring (annulus), area 28
Circular sector, area 28
Circular segment, area 28
Circumferential velocity, calculating . 34, 35
Clearance fit . 102
Clearance holes for bolts . 211
Clevis pins . 238
Closed loop control, general terms 346
Closed Substance Cycle and Waste
Management Act . 197
Coarse threads . 204
Coefficient of linear expansion . 116, 117
c
Coeffocient of thermal conductivity 111
Coefficient of volumetric expansion . 116, 117
Coeffocients of friction . 41
Cold work steels 135
Cold work steels. heat treatment 155
Combination signs 341
Combined dimensioning . 82
Composite materials . 177
Compressed-gas cylinders 324
Compressed'iJaS cylinders, color coding . 332
Compression springs 245
Compressive load . 45
Compressive stress . 45
Conductor resistance 53
Cone. surface area and volume . 30
Conical seats 250
Conical spring washers 235
Continuous controllers . 348
Contribution margin 286
Control charact.ers of computers 394
Control dimensions 81
Controlled systems 349
Controllers . 346- 349
Coordinate axes in programming 381
Coordinate dimensioning . 82
Coordinate systems of CNC machines . 381
Copper-tin alloys . 175
Copper-zinc alloys . 175
Corrosion . 196
Corrosion protection 196
Cosine 11.13
Cost accounting . 284
Cost calculation . 284
Cost comparison method . 286
Cotangent . 12, 13
Cotter pins . 232
Counterbores for cap screws and
hexagon head bolts 225
Counter nut 222
Countersink depth, calculating . 225
Countersinking, productive time . 289
Countersinks for countersunk head screws 224
Countersinks for screws . 224, 225
Countersunk head screws, slotted 217
Countersunk screws, hexagon socket 216
CR (chloroprene rubber) 185
Cross-section area 73
CSM (chlorosulfonated polyethylene elastomers) . 185
Cube root 15
Current density . 54
Currents . 356
Cutting data, drilling . 301Subject index 419
Subject index
Cun ing data, grinding 308, 311
Cuning data, honing 312
Cuning date. milling . 305
Cuning data, reaming . 302
Cunlng data, tapping 302
Cunlng data, turning . 303
Cunlng force . 46
Cutting force. drilling 298
D.contro llers 348
Danger critena . 342
Danger symbols . 342
Data processong, graphical symbols . 403. 404
Deceleration force . 36
Decimal system 393
Deep drawing force . 321
Deep drawing, blank diameters 320
Deep drawing, deep drawing force . 321
Deep drawing. drawing gap 320
Deep dr11wing, drawing ratio . 321
Deep drawing, drawing steps 321
Deep drawing, tool radii . 320
Deep groove ball bearings 265
Deep-drawing. hold-down force 321
Defect che n . 281
Deflection . 47
Density, values 116. 117
Description of hazards 342
Detent edged ring 222
Deviations . 102
Diame ter, dime nsioning . 78
Diametric projection . 69
Die clearance 316
Die dimensions 316
EC Directive on Hazardous Substances . 198, 199
Effective length of bent pans . 318, 319
Elastomers . 179, 185
Electric current . 53, 54
Electrical circuit symbols . 351, 352
Electrical circuits 353, 354
Electrical conductance . 53
Electrical engineering, fundamentals . 53- 55
Electricity, quantities and units . 22
Electrochemical series . 196
Electrohydraulic controls . 367
Electropneumatic controls 366
Ellipse. area . 28
Ellipse, constructing 60
Embedding matenals (matrix) for plastics . 187
Energy of position 38
D
E
Cuning force, face milling 300
Cuning force, specifoc 299
Cuning force, turning 298
Cuning power in face milling . 300
Cuning power, drilling 298
Cutting power, turning . 298
Cuning speed, calcula ting 35
Cutting tool materi&ls . 294, 295
Differential indexing . 307
Digital controllers 349
Dimension lines 76
Oomension num bers 76
Dimensioning rules .n
Dimensioning systems 75
Direct costing . 286
Direct costs . 284
Direct Current lOCI 55, 351
Direct indexing 307
Disoontinuous controllers . 349
Disk springs . 246
Disposal of substances . 197
Dividing head . 307
Divisions. dimensioning . 79
Drain plugs . 219
Dnll bushings 247
Drilling cycles 389
Drilling screws . 210
Drilling, cuning data . 301
Drilling, cutting force and cutting powe r . 299
Drilling. problems 306
Drilling, productive time . 289
Dry machining . 293
Energy. kinetic . 38
Energy, potential . 38
EPA (ethylene propylene rubber, EPOM) 185
Equations, solving . 15
Equipment. electrical 353
Erichsen cupping test 191
Escape route and rescue signs 340
Euclidean theorem . 23
Eutectic . 153
Eutectoid 153
EXCEL. commands . 406
Exlension lines . 76
Exlrusion . 186
Eye bolls 219
Eye nuts 231420 Subject index
Subject index
F110e milling. cutting fOFBtlgue test 189
Feather l!c tapered keys, overview . 239
Feather keys . 240
Feod rato, calculating . 35
Felt rings . 270
Ferrite . 153
Ferritic steels 137
Fiberglass . 187
Filler metals 334
Fillers lind reinforcing materi11ts for plutics 180
Fine thre11ds 204
Fire elCllngulshlng lines, identification
marking . 343
Fire protection symbols 340
Fits, ISO system . 102
Fits, recommended . 1t1
Fixed costs . 286
Flame-cuning, dimensional tolerances . 330
Flamo-cuning, standard values . 329
Flat head countersunk screws, cross recessed 217
Flat head countersunk 111pping screw . 217
Flat steel bllr, bright . 145
Flat steel bllr, hoHolled 144
Flip-nop elements . 350, 352
Flow rates 371
FluorOCIIoutchouc IFKMI 185
Fluted knobs . 249
Flux for brazing 334
Gage pressure . 42
Gas cylinders, color coding . 331
Gas cylinders, identification . 331
Gas shielded me111l arc welding . 325, 326
Gas welding rods . 324
Gaseous materials, characteristics 117
Gear winch 39
General tolerances 110
General tolerances, weldments 322
Geometric tolerancing . 112- 114
Geometrical areas. calculating . 26-28
Geometrical areas, centroid 32
Geometrical areas. units . 20
Gib-head keys 239
Golden Rule of Mechanics 38. 39
Handling systems. job safety 380
Hard milling 293
Hard turning . 293
Hardening . 153, 154
F
G
H
Flux for soldering 334
Foam materials . 185
Folded joints. representation . 96
Fonts . 64
Force diagram, calculation . 36
Forces 36
Forces, adding and resolving 36
Forces, representation . 36
Fom~ and positional tolerances 112- 114
Fotm deviations 98
Fom~ing gas UCI cyhnders, color coding 332
Foundry technology . 162. 163
Free cuning steels . 134
Free cutting steels, heat treatment . 157
Freezing temperature 117
Frequency, relative . 277
Friction 41
Friction power . 41
Frictional moment . 41
Frictional work . 38
Function block language (FBU . 373, 374
Function chans 358-360
Function diagrams 361,362
Fundamental deviations 102
Fundamental deviations for holes 105
Fundamental deviations for shafts 104
Fundamental tolerance grades 102, 103
Fundamental tolerances 103
Fuses 356
GRAFCET, graphical design language
for sequential control . 358
Graphical symbols for data processing . 403, 404
Graphs 62, 63
Greek alphabet . 64
Grinding . 308-311
Grinding wheels. selection . 310
Grinding. cutting data 308, 311
Grinding. maximum allow11ble peripheral velocity . 308
Grinding. prod1Jctive time . 291
Grippers . 380
Grooved drive studs . 238
Grooved pins 238
Grub screws with thrust point 248
Hardness limits . 97
Hardness penetration depth 97
Hardness specifications in drawings 97
Hardness test . 188-195Subject index 421
Subject index
Hardness values, conversion table 194
Hatching, represenl81ion . 73
Hatchings, material dependent . 75
H&zardous gases and substances . 198
Hazardous materials, gases . 198
Hazardous substances . 198- 200
Hazardous waste 197
Headed drill bushings . 247
Heat fluK 52
Heat of combustion 52
Heat of fusion 52
Heat of vaporizatoon 52
Heat transfer . 22
Heat transmission 52
Heat tr&nsmission coeffident 52
Heat treatment . 153-157
Heat treatment information 97
Heat treatmenl of steels 153- 157
Helical line, constructing . 61
Helium cylinders, color coding 332
He)(adocimal numbering sys1em . 401
HeKagon he&d bolts & screws 212- 214
HeKagon head bolts with reduced shank 213
HeKagon head bolts, heavy . 214
He)(agon nuts . 228- 231
He)(agon, constructing 59
HeKagonal acorn nuts . 231
HeKagonal fit bolts with long threaded stem 214
l·beams, medium w idth 149
l·beams, wide . 149, 150
1-controller 348
Ideal gas 18w . 42
Imperial threads . 203
Incline, dimensioning . 78
Inclined plane 39
lnde)(ing . 307
Industrial robots 378, 379
lnen gas 325
Information signs . 341
Information technology 401- 406
Injection molding . 186
Keys. feather keys, woodruff keys . 239
Kinetic energy . 38
Knurled nuts . 232
Labels for hazardous goods 331
Ladder diagram LAD 374
Laminate materials 184
I, J
K
L
He)(agonal fit bolts, heavy 214
Hexagonal steel bers, bright 145
High-grade cast zinc alloys 176
High-performance grinding 311
High-speed machining . 293
High-speed steels 135
High·speed steels, heat treatment 155
High-temperature plastics . 187
Histogram 277
Hoisting winch 39
Hold-down force in deep drawong operations . 321
Hollow cylinder, surface area and volume 29
Hollow taper shanks 243
Homogenizing anneal 153
Honing. cutting values . 312
Honing, productive tome . 289
Honing. selection of honing stones 312
Hooke's law . 36
Hot work steels . 135
Hot work steels. heat treatment 155
HSC (High speed cutting) 293
Hydraulic drcuit symbols 363, 364
Hydraulic fluids . 368
Hydraulic oils . 368
Hydraulic press 370
Hydraulics . 363-372
Hydrostatic pressure 42
Hyperbola, constructing . 61
Injection pressure . 186
Instruction list IL 373, 375
Interference fit 102
Intersection line, representation . 73
Involute curve, constructing 61
lA (isoprene rubber) . 185
Iron-Carbon phase diagram . 153
ISOfots 104-109
lsobutene-isoprene rubber . 185
Isometric projectioo 69
Job ti me ace. to AEFA (German association
for work time studies) 282
Jointing, productive time . 289
Knurls . 91
Kryptoo cylinders. color coding . 332
laser beam cutting, dimensional tolerances 330
laser beam cutting, standard values 330
Latent heat of fusion . 116, 117422 Subject index
Subject index
Law of cosines 14
Law of sines 14
Leader lines 77
Ledeburite . 153
Left-hand threads 202
Length, calculating . 24, 25
Length, effective . 25
Length, units . 20
Lever . 37
Lever principle 37
Lifting worlc . 38
Limit dimensions for threads 208
Limits . 102
Linear expansion . 51
Linear function . 16
Linear movements of CNC machines . 384, 385
Machine capability 281
Machine hourly rates 285
Machined plates for press tools and fixtures . 251
Machining coolants . 292
MAG (Metal active gas) welding. standard values 326
Magnesium. cast alloys 172
Magnesium, wrought alloys . 172
Magnetism . 22
Malleable cast iron 159, 161
Mandatory signs 340
Manufacturing costs 284
Martens hardness . 194
Martensitic steels 137
Mass moment of inertia . J8
Mass. calculation 31
Mass, linear mass density and area
mass density . 31, 152
Material characteristics 116, 117
Material removal processes, productive time 313
Material removal rate, standard values 313
Material science . 115-200
Material testing . 188- 195
Material testing, overview . 188- 189
Mathematical symbols 19
Mathematics . 9-32
Matrix materials for plastics . 187
Maximum clearance . 102
Maximum dimension 102
Maximum interterence . 102
Mean value. arithmetical . 278
Mean value. standard deviation chart . 279
Mechanical strength properties 44, 45
Mechanics, quantities and units . 20, 21
L
M
Lines in technical drawings . 67, 68
Lines, centroid . 32
Liquid materials, characteristics . 117
Load cases 43
Load types 43
Lock nuts 231
Lock nuts for roller bearings . 268
Lock washers for bolts and screws 222
Lock w ashers lor roller bearing slotted nuts . 268
Lock washers. slotted nuts 231
Lock wire lor screws 222
Locki ng edge washer 222
Locking fasteners 222
Lubricants 272
Lubricating greases . 272
Lubricating oils . 271
Melting temperature . 116, 117
Memory [f lip-flop) . 350, 352
Metric ISO screw threads . 204
Metric tapers 242, 243
MF (melamine formaldehyde) resin . 181
Microstructures of carbon steel 153
MIG (Metal-inert-gas) welding, standards . 326
Milling, cutting data . 305
Milling, cutting force and cutting power 300
Milling, cycles ace. to PAL
(German association) 392-400
Milling, problems . 306
Milling, productive time . 290
Minimum clearance . 102
Minimum dimension 102
Minimum engagement depth for screws 211
Minimum interterence . 102
Minimum quantity of machining coolant 293
Module series for spur gears 257
Modulus of elasticity . 46
Molding materials, thermoplastic 183
Molding materials, thermosetting 184
Molecular groups . 119
Morse taper . 242, 243
Motion, accelerated . 34
Motion, circular 34
Motion. uniform . 34
Multiple start threads . 202Subject index 423
Subject index
NAND o pera tion 350
Narrow V·bells . 254
Nassi·Shnelderman diagrams 395
Needlo bearings 268
Neon gas cylinders. color coding . 332
Net calorific valuo . 52
Nitriding . 154
Nitridlng stee ls . 134
Nitriding steels, heat treatment 157
Noiso . 344
Noise Protootoon Regulations (German) 344
Noise. d11meges to health 344
Nominal d imensions . 102
Non-ferrous metals . 164- 176
Non·ferrous metals, m aterial numbers . 165, 174
Non·fcrrous metals. systematic designation . 165, 174
O·rlngs 270
Ohm's law 53
Open loop control. general tenms 346, 347
OR operation 350
PA (polyamide) plastics 180-182
PAL drilling cycles (German association) . 389
PAL m illing cycles !German association! 392- 400
PAL turning cycles (German association! . 389- 391
Parabola, constructing . 61
Parallel circuit . 54
Paralle l dimensioning . 82
Paralle logram area 26
Pareto diagra m . 281
Panial views in drawings 71
Path Ootreclion in CNC machining . 383
Panems. color coding . 162
PC lpolycarbonatel plastics 180, 181
PC & ABS plastics . 187
PC & PET plastics 187
PO controller . 348
PE (polyethylene) plastics 180- 182
PE molding materials 183
Pearlite 153
Percentage, calculating 18
Periodic table ofthe elements . 118
Pf (phenol fonmaldehydel resin . 181
Pf PMC molding materials . 184
Pf molding materials 184
pH value . 119
Pheno lic molding materials 184
Phenolic plastic molding materials 184
Physics . 33-56
N
0
p
NOR operation . 350
Normal d istribution . 278
Normalizing 153, 154
NOT operation 350
Notched-bar impact bending tost , . 191
NPSM threads 203
NPT threads 203
NPTF threads 203
NR (natural rubber) 185
Numerical control technology 381- 400
Nuts 226-232
Nuts lor T·slots . 250
Nuts, designation 227
Nuts. overview . 226, 227
Nuts, properly classes . 228
Orientation tolerance 113
Overhead . 284
Oxygen cylinders, colo r coding 332
PI Cf>ropoPIO (Proportional-integral-differential) controller . 348
Pillar presses . 252
Pins 236-238
Pins. locating . 249
Pins, overview 236
Pins, seating 249
Pipe lines, identification 343
Pipe threads 206
Piston speeds 371
Plain bearing . 261,262
Plain bearing bushings 262
Plain bearing materials 261
Plasma cuning, standard values 329
Plastic prooessing, settings . 186
Plastic processing, tolerances . 186
Plastics 179-187
Plastics testing 195
Plastics, cuning . 301-305
Plastics, distinguishing characteristics 181
Plastics, hardness test 195
Plastics, identification 181
Plastics, material testing . 195
Plastics. tensile load . 195
Plastics, thermal behavior 179
Plateau honing . 312
Plates for pillar presses 251
PLC. controls . 373- 377424 Subject index
Subject index
PLC. programming . 373-376
PLC. programming languages 373- 376
PMMA lpolymethylmethacrylatel plastics 181, 182
Pneumatic circuit symbols 363, 364
Pneumatic cylinders, air consumption . 369
Pneumatic cylinders, dimensions . 369
Pneumatic cylinders, piston forces 369
Pneumatics . 362- 371
Polar coordinate system 63
Polar coordinates in drawings . 82
Polyblends 187
Polyetherctherketone (PEEK) . 187
Polygon. constructlng . 59
Polygon, irregular 27
Polygon, regular 27
Polyimide (PII resin 187
Polyoxidemethylcne (POM, polyacetall resin . 181, 182
Polyphcnyleno sulfide IPPSI plastics . 187
Polystyrene plastics . 180-182
Polysulfone iPSUI plastics 187
Position lolerances 114
Positional dimensions in drawings 81
Positional tolerances 114
Potable water lines, identification marking 343
Potential energv 38
Pour point . 368
Power factor . 56
Power, electrical 56
Power, mechanical 40
Powers lexponentiationl . 15
PP lpolypropylenel plastics 181, 182
PP molding materials 183
PPE & PS plastics . 187
Precision steel1ubes for hydraulic and
pneumatic applications 372
Precision steel tubes, seamless . 142
Preferred numbers 65
Pressed joints, representation . 96
Pressure 42
Pressure intensifoer 370
Pressure units 42
Primary profile IP profile) 98
Prime cost . 284
Probability . 276
Quadratic function . 16
Quality and process capability 281
Quality control 276
Quality control chan . 279
Quality control circle . 276
Quality inspection and testing 276
Quality management . 274-281
a
Pr~bility network . 277
Process capability . 281
Process steps . 280
Production COSts 284
Production engineering 273- 344
Productive time, countersinking 289
Productive time, drilling , . 289
Productive time, grinding 291
Productive time, honing 289
Productive time. material removal processes 313
Productive time, milling . 290
Productrve tome, reaming . 289
Productive time, thread aming 287
Productive lime, 1uming . 287
Productive lime, lurning W1th V consL 288
Program flowchan 404
Program structure of CNC machines . 382
Programmable logic conlroiiPLCI . 373- 377
Prohibitive signs 338
Projec1ion methods . 69, 70
Property classes of bolts and screws . 211
Proportion, calculatmg 18
Proportional conuoller . , . 348
PrOieelive measuresagainst dangerous currents . 356
Proximity sensors . 355
PTFE .181, 187
Pulley, fixed . 39
Pulley, movable 39
Pumping capacity . 371
Pumps, power 371
Punch dimensions 316
Punch holder shanks 251
Punch holder shanks, loc111ion 317
Punches . 251
PUR (polyurethane) foam 185
PUR lpolyurethane) plaslics . 181
Pure aluminum . 164, 166
PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plastics . 181, 182
PVC·Pplastics (plasticized PVC! . 182
Pyramid. slant height . 29
Pyramid, volume . 29
Pythagorean theorem 23
Pythagorean theorem of heigh! 23
Oualil)' management. definitions . 275
Quality management, standards . 274
Quality planning 276
Quantity of heat 51
Quenched and 1empered steels . 133
Quenched and tempered steels. heatlreatmenl 156
Quenching and tempering 154Subject index 425
Subject index
A-Phrases lnformatOfY notes on possible hazards
and nslts. 11oc. to the German Hazardous
Substances Regulations IGefStoffV) 199
Radial seals (rotary shaft seals! 270
Radius 65
Radius, dimensioning . 78
Raisod head countersunk screws 217
Raised head countersunk tapping screws . 217
Raised he&d tapping screws 218
Random sample tests, 111tribute testing 280
Random samples . 278
Range (ol samples! 278
Rawdata 277
R11w data chart 279
Reaming, cutting data . 302
Reaming, productive time 289
Recommended safety measures . 200
Recrystallization annealing 153
Rectangle, area . 26
Reference lines . 77
Reference po1nts ol CNC machines 381
Reinforcing fibers . 187
Retaining rings . 269
Retaining rings, representation . 87
Rhomboid, area 26
Rhombus. area . 26
Safety colors 338
Safety factors 44
Safety measures lor robot systems 380
Safety signs 338- 341
Sales price . 284
SAN (styrene-acrylonitrilel copolymers 181, 182
S8 (Styrene-butadiene! copolymers . 180-182, 187
SBA (Styrene-butadiene! rubber . 185
Scales . 65
SCAAA robots . 379
Screw joints, calculation . 221
Screw joints, representation 90
Screw thread standards ofvarious countries 203
Screw threads 202- 208
Seals, representation 86
Second moment olinertia 49
Sectional views 73, 74
Sections, comparison of load capacity . 50
Selection of fits 111
Sensors 355
Sequential charts 359
Sequential control 358. 360, 367
Series circuit 54
Serrated lock washers 222
R
s
Robot axes . 378
Rockwell hardness test . 193
Rod electrodes, designatron 327
Roller bearing fits . 110
Roller bearings 263- 268
Roller bearings, designation 264
Roller bearings, dimension series 264
Roller bearings, overview 263
Roller bearings, representation 85
Roller bearings, selection 263
Rolling friction . 41
Roman numerals . 64
Roots, extracting 15
Rotation, kinetic energy 38
Rough dimensions in drawings . 81
Roughness depth in turning operations . 303
Roughness parameters . 98
Roughness profile (A·prolilel 98
Round bar steels. bright , . 145
Round bar steels, polished . 145
Round steel bar, hot-rolled 144
AS flip-flop 350, 352
Rubbers . 185
Rule-of-ten (for costS) . 276
Run-out tolerances 114
Running dimensioning 82
Serrations, representation 87
Set screws, hexagon socket . 220
Set suews, slotted . 220
Shape dimensions . 81
Shear cutting Ioree . 315
Shearcutting work . 315
Shear load . 46
Shear strength 46
Shear stress 46
Shear test 191
Shearing . 316, 317
Shearing, design of press . 315
Shearing, die dimensions . 316
Shearing, edge width . 3 16
Shearing,edgewidth . 316
Shearing, location of clamping pin . 317
Shearing, punch dimensions . 316
Shearing, utilization of strip stock . 317
Shearing. web width . 316
Sheet and strip metal, overview 139
Sheet metal. cold-rolled 140
Sheet metal, hoi-dip galvanized 141
Sheet metal. hot-rolled . 141
Sheet. hOI·dip galvanized 141426 Subject index
Subject index
Shewhllrt quality control chart 279
Shore hardness test . 195
Shrinkage 51
Shrinkage etlowances 163
Shrinkage chucks 243
Sl quantities and units . 20
Silicone rubber (SIR) . 185
Simple Indexing 307
Sino 11. 13
Simored metals 178
Size factor . 48
Sliding fri<:tion .41
Slip type jig bushong . 247
Slot tenons 250
Slo15, dimensioning . 79
Software con1rollers . 349
Soldering . 335
Solders . 333. 334
Solid lubricants 272
Solids, characteristics 116, 117
Sound level 344
Sound, definitions . 344
SPC (statistical process control) . 279
Special characters, CNC machines 382
Special characters, computers 402
Speciroc cuning force standard values . 298
Specific heat 116, 117
Speed graph . 260
Speeds of machines . 35
Sphere, dimensioning . 78
Sphere, surface area and volume . 30
Spherical segment, surface area and volume 30
Spherical washers . 250
Spiral, construction . 60
Spllned shaft joints 241
Splines, representation 87
Spreadsheets . 406
Spring back in bending 319
Spring force .36
Spring lodt washers 222
Spring pins 237
Spring rate . 244, 245
Spring steel wire 138
Spring steel, hot-rolled . 138
Spring washers 222
Springs, representation 87
Springs: tension, compression, disk 244-246
Sprockets, representation 84
Spur gears, calculating 256, 257
Square prism, area . 29
Square prism, volume . 29
Square root 10, 15
Square steel bar, hot-rolled 144
Square, area . 26
Square, dimensioning .n
Stainless steels . 136, 137
Standard deviation 2'78
Standardization, regulation body . 8
Star knob 249
Static friction 41
Statistical analysis 2n
Statistical process control . 279
Steel bars, bright 145
Steel bars, hot-rolled . 144
Steel channel 146
Steel sections. hot·rolled 143
Steel sheet . 139-141
Steel tubes . 142, 372
Steel tubes, hot·rolled 151
Steel tubes, seamless 142, 372
Steel tubes, welded . 151
Steel wire for springs, patented drawn . 138
Steels for name and induction hardening . 134
Steels, alloying elements . 129
Steels, classification . 120
Steels, identifiCIItion codes 122-125
Steels, numbering system . 121
Steels, overview . 126, 127
Steep tape< shanks . 242
Strength of mat.erials . 43- 50
Stress concentration 48
Stress limits 43
Stress relief anneal 153, 154
Stress. allowable 41, 48
Strip steel, cold-rolled . 139, 140
Strip stock utilization in shearing . 317
Structural steels. carbon . 130
Structural steels, quenched and tempered 131
Structural steels. selecting . 128, 129
S1ructural tee steel, equal legs 146
Structured tex1 (ST) . 373, 374
Stub-Aane screw threads 203
Studs . 219
Sub-dividing lengths 24
Surface profile . 98
Surface areas. calculation 29, 30
Surface condition factor . 48
Surface finish 99
Surface indications . 99, 100
Surface pressure, stress . 45
Surface protection . 196
Surface roughness, attainable . 101
Switching controllers 349
Symbols. mathematical 19-22
Syrochronous belts 255
Synchronous pulleys 255
Systems for rots . 103Subject index 427
Subject index
T·slots . 250
Tally sheet 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 2n
Tangent 12
Top hole diameter for tapping screws 218
Tap holes. drill . 204
Taper pins . 237
Taper turning 304
Tapered keys . 239
Tapered roller bearings . oo oo 267
Tapered threads . 205
Tapers, dimensioning . 00 78
Tapers, nomenclature . 00 304
Tapping drill holes, diameter 204
Tapping screw threads 00 00 00 . 00 00 00 00 . 202
Tapping screws 00 00 00. 00 00. 00. 00 00 . 00. 217, 218
Technical drawing . 57-114
Temperature 0 0 51
Theorem of Intersecting lines . 14
Thermal conduction 52
Thermal conductivity, definition . 52
Thermal conductivity, values . 116, 117
Thermodynamic temperature (Kelvin! . 51
Thermodynamics 00 00 . 00 . 00 00 00 22. 51, 52
Thermoplastics 00 00 00 . 00 00. 179, 182, 183
Thermoplastics, amorphous 179
Thermoplastics, semi~alline 179
Thermoset molding materials . 184
Thermoset plastics 00 00. 00 . 00 oo 00.00 00 179
Thread cunlng, productive time 287
Thread forming screws . 218
Thread molding, cuning data 302
Thread runouts . 89
Thread topping, cuning data . 00 . 302
Thread tolerance 0 208
Thread types, overview 202. 203
Thread undercuts 0 00 0 00 0 89
Threads, dimensioning 0 . 79
Threads, multiple start 0 00 . 202
Threads, representation 0 0 . 0 0 0 . 90
Three steps for direct proportions 18
Three·phase current 55
UF (urea formaldehyde) resin . 180, 181
UF molding materials . 184
UF PMC molding materials 00 0 00 00 00 00 184
UF/MF-PMC plastics o. 0 0 0 0 184
UNC screw threads . 00 00 00 00. 00. 00 00 . 203
Undercuts 00 00 92
UNEF screw threads . 0 00 0. 0 0 0 00 00 0 0 0 . 0 00. 203
UNF screw threads 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 00 203
Unit prefixes 0. 0 0 0 . 0 . 0 0 00 . 17, 22
T
u
Three-phase power . 00 00 00 . 00 00 00 00 56
Three-point controller , . 00 349
Thrust pads 0 248
litle block in drawings . 00 00 00 00 66
Tolerance class . 00 00 0 00 102
Tolerance grade . , . 102
Tolerance lnd~ations in drawings , . 80
Tolerancesofform oooooooooo oo oo oo o 113
Tolerances of POSition 00 00 00 00 00 00 114
Tolerances, dimensioning 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 80
Tolerances. ISO system 00 00. 00 00 00 00 103
Tool holders for inde)(able tnserts 297
Torque 0 0 . 37
Torsion, loading 00 00 00 00 00 . 0 00 00 0 47
Total run-out tolerances . 114
Transformers . 56
Transition fir 00 00 00 00 . 00 00 102
Transmission ratios 259
Trapezoid, area . 26
Trapezoidal screw threads . 207
Triangle, area 26
Triangle, constructing circumscribed circle 0 60
Triangle. constructing inscribed circle . 60
Triangle. equilateral . 00 0 27
Truncated cone, surface area and volume 30
Truncated pyramid, volume . 30
Tubes . 142, 151
Turning cycles . 0. 0 0 388- 391
Turning with v= const productive rime 288
Turning, cuning data . 00 00 00 00 00 00 303
Turning. cuning force and cuning power 0 0 0 0 0 298
Turning, cycles ace. to PAL
(German association) . 388- 391
Turning, problems . 0 306
Turning, pmductive time 00 00 00 00 00. 00 00. 00 00 287
Turning, roughness depch 00. 00 00 00. 00 00 0 00 303
Types of adhesives 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 336
Units of measurement 0 20
UNS screw threads 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 203
UP (unsaturated polyester resin) 0 0 0 0 180, 181
UPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride! . 181, 182
Urea fonnaldehyde molding materials 184
Urea{melamine IOmaterials 00 0 0 0 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 184
Utilization time ace. to REFA
(German association for work time studies) . 283428 Subject index
Subject index
V·bolt , , . 253, 254
V·belt pulleys 254
Variable costs 286
Velocity . 34, 308
V1bration tost . 222
Vickers hardness test . 193
Views in drawings . 71, 72
Warning signs . 339
Washers . 233- 235
Washers for cap screws 234
Washers for channels and 1-beams 235
Washers for clevis p4ns . 235
Washers for hexagon bolts and nuts . 233. 234
Washers for steel st ructures 234. 235
Waste Disposal Act (Germani 197
Web width in shear cutting . 316
Wedge as en Inclined plane 39
Weight 36
Weld design for arc welding . 328
Weld nuts, hexagonal . 232
Weld preparation . 323
Weldable fine-grain structural steels . 131
Welding . 322- 330
Welding and soldering, dimensioning 95, 96
Welding and soldering, graphical symbols . 93- 95
Welding and soldering, representation . 93- 95
Welding fillers for aluminum . 326
Welding methods . 322
Xenon cylinders. color coding 332
v
w
X
V1scosity grade . 271
VISCOSity, kinematic 368
Voltage 53. 54
Vohage drop . 54
Volume of compound solids 31
Volume. calculaling 31
Volume, units 20
Welding pOSotlons . 322
Welding, general tolerances . 322
White cast iron . 159
Widths across Rats. dimension series 223
Widths across Rats. dimensioning . n
Wire electrodes . 325
Wire, electrical . 353
Woodruff keys 240
Word processing 405
Work. electrical 56
Work. mechanical . 38
Worm drive. calculating 258
Worm drive, transmission ratio 259
Wrought aluminum alloys, designation . 165
Wrought aluminum alloys, heat treatable . 167
Wrought aluminum alloys, matenal codes . 165
Wrought aluminum alloys, non-heat treatable . 166
Wrought capper-aluminum alloys 176
Wrought copper-nickel-zinc alloys . 176
Wrought titanium alloys


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