كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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 كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum

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كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum    كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum  Emptyالثلاثاء 02 مارس 2021, 10:47 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum
Fourth Edition
James G. Speight
CD&W Inc.
Laramie, Wyoming

كتاب The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum  T_c_a_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Table of Contents
Part I
History, Occurrence, and Recovery
Chapter 1
History and Terminology
1.1 Historical Perspectives
1.2 Modern Perspectives
1.3 Definitions and Terminology
1.4 Native Materials
1.4.1 Petroleum
1.4.2 Heavy Oil
1.4.3 Bitumen
1.4.4 Wax
1.4.5 Asphaltite
1.4.6 Asphaltoid
1.4.7 Bituminous Rock and Bituminous Sand
1.4.8 Kerogen
1.4.9 Natural Gas
1.5 Manufactured Materials
1.5.1 Wax
1.5.2 Residuum (Residua)
1.5.3 Asphalt
1.5.4 Tar and Pitch
1.5.5 Coke
1.5.6 Synthetic Crude Oil
1.6 Derived Materials
1.6.1 Asphaltenes, Carbenes, and Carboids
1.6.2 Resins and Oils
1.7 Oil Prices
1.7.1 Pricing Strategies
1.7.2 Oil Price History
1.7.3 Future of Oil
1.7.4 Epilog
References
Chapter 2
Classification
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Classification Systems
2.2.1 Classification as a Hydrocarbon Resource
2.2.2 Classification by Chemical Composition
2.2.3 Correlation Index
2.2.4 Density2.2.5 API Gravity
2.2.6 Viscosity
2.2.7 Carbon Distribution
2.2.8 Viscosity–Gravity Constant
2.2.9 UOP Characterization Factor
2.2.10 Recovery Method
2.2.11 Pour Point
2.3 Miscellaneous Systems
2.4 Reservoir Classification
2.4.1 Identification and Quantification
2.4.2 Future
References
Chapter 3
Origin and Occurrence
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Origin
3.2.1 Abiogenic Origin
3.2.2 Biogenic Origin
3.2.2.1 Deposition of Organic Matter
3.2.2.2 Establishment of Source Beds
3.2.2.3 Nature of the Source Material
3.2.2.4 Transformation of Organic Matter into Petroleum
3.2.2.5 Accumulation in Reservoir Sediments
3.2.2.6 In Situ Transformation of Petroleum
3.2.3 Differences between the Abiogenic Theory and the Biogenic Theory
3.2.4 Relationship of Petroleum Composition and Properties
3.3 Occurrence
3.3.1 Reserves
3.3.2 Conventional Petroleum
3.3.3 Natural Gas
3.3.4 Heavy Oil
3.3.5 Bitumen (Extra Heavy Oil)
References
Chapter 4
Kerogen
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Properties
4.3 Composition
4.4 Classification
4.5 Isolation
4.6 Methods for Probing Kerogen Structure
4.6.1 Ultimate (Elemental) Analysis
4.6.2 Functional Group Analysis
4.6.3 Oxidation
4.6.4 Thermal Methods
4.6.5 Acid-Catalyzed Hydrogenolysis
4.7 Structural Models4.8 Kerogen Maturation
References
Chapter 5
Exploration, Recovery, and Transportation
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Exploration
5.2.1 Gravity Methods
5.2.2 Magnetic Methods
5.2.3 Seismic Methods
5.2.4 Electrical Methods
5.2.5 Electromagnetic Methods
5.2.6 Radioactive Methods
5.2.7 Borehole Logging
5.3 Drilling Operations
5.3.1 Preparing to Drill
5.3.2 Drilling Rig
5.3.3 Drilling Rig Components
5.3.4 Drilling
5.4 Well Completion
5.5 Recovery
5.5.1 Primary Recovery (Natural Methods)
5.5.2 Secondary Recovery
5.5.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
5.6 Products and Product Quality
5.7 Transportation
References
Chapter 6
Recovery of Heavy Oil and Tar Sand Bitumen
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Oil Mining
6.2.1 Tar Sand Mining
6.2.2 Hot-Water Process
6.2.3 Other Processes
6.3 Nonmining Methods
6.3.1 Steam-Based Processes
6.3.2 Combustion Processes
6.3.3 Other Processes
References
Part II
Composition and Properties
Chapter 7
Chemical Composition
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Ultimate (Elemental) Composition7.3 Chemical Components
7.3.1 Hydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.1.1 Paraffin Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.2 Cycloparaffin Hydrocarbons (Naphthenes)
7.3.1.3 Aromatic Hydrocarbons
7.3.1.4 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
7.3.2 Nonhydrocarbon Constituents
7.3.2.1 Sulfur Compounds
7.3.2.2 Oxygen Compounds
7.3.2.3 Nitrogen Compounds
7.3.2.4 Metallic Constituents
7.3.2.5 Porphyrins
7.4 Chemical Composition by Distillation
7.4.1 Gases and Naphtha
7.4.2 Middle Distillates
7.4.3 Vacuum Residua (10508Fþ)
References
Chapter 8
Fractional Composition
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Distillation
8.2.1 Atmospheric Pressure
8.2.2 Reduced Pressures
8.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
8.3 Solvent Treatment
8.3.1 Asphaltene Separation
8.3.1.1 Influence of Solvent Type
8.3.1.2 Influence of the Degree of Dilution
8.3.1.3 Influence of Temperature
8.3.1.4 Influence of Contact Time
8.3.2 Fractionation
8.4 Adsorption
8.4.1 Chemical Factors
8.4.2 Fractionation Methods
8.4.2.1 General Methods
8.4.2.2 ASTM Methods
8.5 Chemical Methods
8.5.1 Acid Treatment
8.5.2 Molecular Complex Formation
8.5.2.1 Urea Adduction
8.5.2.2 Thiourea Adduction
8.5.2.3 Adduct Composition
8.5.2.4 Adduct Structure
8.5.2.5 Adduct Properties
8.6 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 9
Petroleum Analysis
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Petroleum Assay
9.3 Physical Properties
9.3.1 Elemental (Ultimate) Analysis
9.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
9.3.3 Viscosity
9.3.4 Surface and Interfacial Tension
9.3.5 Metals Content
9.4 Thermal Properties
9.4.1 Volatility
9.4.2 Liquefaction and Solidification
9.4.3 Carbon Residue
9.4.4 Aniline Point
9.4.5 Specific Heat
9.4.6 Latent Heat
9.4.7 Enthalpy or Heat Content
9.4.8 Thermal Conductivity
9.4.9 Pressure–Volume–Temperature Relationships
9.4.10 Heat of Combustion
9.4.11 Critical Properties
9.5 Electrical Properties
9.5.1 Conductivity
9.5.2 Dielectric Constant
9.5.3 Dielectric Strength
9.5.4 Dielectric Loss and Power Factor
9.5.5 Static Electrification
9.6 Optical Properties
9.6.1 Refractive Index
9.6.2 Optical Activity
9.7 Spectroscopic Methods
9.7.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
9.7.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
9.7.3 Mass Spectrometry
9.8 Chromatographic Methods
9.8.1 Gas Chromatography
9.8.2 Simulated Distillation
9.8.3 Adsorption Chromatography
9.8.4 Gel Permeation Chromatography
9.8.5 Ion-Exchange Chromatography
9.8.6 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
9.8.7 Supercritical Fluid Chromatography
9.9 Molecular Weight
9.10 Use of the Data
ReferencesChapter 10
Structural Group Analysis
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Methods for Structural Group Analysis
10.2.1 Physical Property Methods
10.2.1.1 Direct Method
10.2.1.2 Waterman Ring Analysis
10.2.1.3 Density Method
10.2.1.4 n.d.M. Method
10.2.1.5 Dispersion–Refraction Method
10.2.1.6 Density–Temperature Coefficient Method
10.2.1.7 Molecular Weight–Refractive Index Method
10.2.1.8 Miscellaneous Methods
10.2.2 Spectroscopic Methods
10.2.2.1 Infrared Spectroscopy
10.2.2.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
10.2.2.3 Mass Spectrometry
10.2.2.4 Electron Spin Resonance
10.2.2.5 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy
10.2.2.6 X-Ray Diffraction
10.2.3 Heteroatom Systems
10.2.3.1 Nitrogen
10.2.3.2 Oxygen
10.2.3.3 Sulfur
10.2.3.4 Metals
10.3 Miscellaneous Methods
References
Chapter 11
Asphaltene Constituents
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Separation
11.3 Composition
11.4 Molecular Weight
11.5 Reactions
11.6 Solubility Parameter
11.7 Structural Aspects
References
Chapter 12
Structure of Petroleum
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Molecular Species in Petroleum
12.2.1 Volatile Fractions
12.2.2 Resin Constituents
12.2.2.1 Composition
12.2.2.2 Resins (Structure)
12.2.2.3 Molecular Weight12.2.3 Nonvolatile Oils
12.2.3.1 Composition
12.2.3.2 Structure
12.2.3.3 Molecular Weight
12.3 Chemical and Physical Structure of Petroleum
12.4 Stability or Instability of the Crude Oil System
12.5 Effects on Recovery and Refining
12.5.1 Effects on Recovery Operations
12.5.2 Effects on Refining Operations
References
Chapter 13
Instability and Incompatibility
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Instability and Incompatibility in Petroleum
13.3 Factors Influencing Instability and Incompatibility
13.3.1 Elemental Analysis
13.3.2 Density and Specific Gravity
13.3.3 Volatility
13.3.4 Viscosity
13.3.5 Asphaltene Content
13.3.6 Pour Point
13.3.7 Acidity
13.3.8 Metals (Ash) Content
13.3.9 Water Content, Salt Content, and Bottom Sediment
and Water (BS&W)
13.4 Methods for Determining Instability and Incompatibility
13.5 Effect of Asphaltene Constituents
References
Part III
Refining
Chapter 14
Introduction to Refining Processes
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Dewatering and Desalting
14.3 Early Processes
14.4 Distillation
14.4.1 Historical Development
14.4.2 Modern Processes
14.4.2.1 Atmospheric Distillation
14.4.2.2 Vacuum Distillation
14.4.2.3 Azeotropic and Extractive Distillation
14.5 Thermal Methods
14.5.1 Historical Development
14.5.2 Modern Processes14.5.2.1 Thermal Cracking
14.5.2.2 Visbreaking
14.5.2.3 Coking
14.6 Catalytic Methods
14.6.1 Historical Development
14.6.2 Modern Processes
14.6.3 Catalysts
14.7 Hydroprocesses
14.7.1 Historical Development
14.7.2 Modern Processes
14.7.2.1 Hydrofining
14.8 Reforming
14.8.1 Historical Development
14.8.2 Modern Processes
14.8.2.1 Thermal Reforming
14.8.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
14.8.2.3 Catalysts
14.9 Isomerization
14.9.1 Historical Development
14.9.2 Modern Processes
14.9.3 Catalysts
14.10 Alkylation Processes
14.10.1 Historical Development
14.10.2 Modern Processes
14.10.3 Catalysts
14.11 Polymerization Processes
14.11.1 Historical Development
14.11.2 Modern Processes
14.11.3 Catalysts
14.12 Solvent Process
14.12.1 Deasphalting
14.12.2 Dewaxing
14.13 Refining Heavy Feedstocks
14.14 Petroleum Products
14.15 Petrochemicals
References
Chapter 15
Refining Chemistry
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Cracking
15.2.1 Thermal Cracking
15.2.2 Catalytic Cracking
15.2.3 Dehydrogenation
15.2.4 Dehydrocyclization
15.3 Hydrogenation
15.3.1 Hydrocracking
15.3.2 Hydrotreating
15.4 Isomerization
15.5 Alkylation15.6 Polymerization
15.7 Process Chemistry
15.7.1 Thermal Chemistry
15.7.2 Hydroconversion Chemistry
15.7.3 Chemistry in the Refinery
15.7.3.1 Visbreaking
15.7.3.2 Hydroprocessing
References
Chapter 16
Distillation
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Pretreatment
16.3 Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation
16.3.1 Atmospheric Distillation
16.3.2 Vacuum Distillation
16.4 Equipment
16.4.1 Columns
16.4.2 Packings
16.4.3 Trays
16.5 Other Processes
16.5.1 Stripping
16.5.2 Rerunning
16.5.3 Stabilization and Light End Removal
16.5.4 Superfractionation
16.5.5 Azeotropic Distillation
16.5.6 Extractive Distillation
16.5.7 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
References
Chapter 17
Thermal Cracking
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Early Processes
17.3 Commercial Processes
17.3.1 Visbreaking
17.3.2 Coking Processes
17.3.2.1 Delayed Coking
17.3.2.2 Fluid Coking
17.3.2.3 Flexicoking
17.3.3 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
17.3.3.1 Aquaconversion
17.3.3.2 Asphalt Coking Technology (ASCOT) Process
17.3.3.3 Comprehensive Heavy Ends
Reforming Refinery (Cherry-P) Process
17.3.3.4 Decarbonizing
17.3.3.5 ET-II Process
17.3.3.6 Eureka Process
17.3.3.7 Fluid Thermal Cracking (FTC) Process
17.3.3.8 High Conversion Soaker Cracking (HSC) Process17.3.3.9 Mixed-Phase Cracking
17.3.3.10 Naphtha Cracking
17.3.3.11 Selective Cracking
17.3.3.12 Shell Thermal Cracking
17.3.3.13 Tervahl T Process
17.3.3.14 Vapor-Phase Cracking
References
Chapter 18
Catalytic Cracking
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Early Processes
18.3 Commercial Processes
18.3.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
18.3.2 Fluid-Bed Processes
18.3.2.1 Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.2 Model IV Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking Unit
18.3.2.3 Orthoflow Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.4 Shell Two-Stage Fluid-Bed Catalytic Cracking
18.3.2.5 Universal Oil Products (UOP) Fluid-Bed
Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3 Moving-Bed Processes
18.3.3.1 Airlift Thermofor Catalytic Cracking
(Socony Airlift TCC Process)
18.3.3.2 Houdresid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.3 Houdriflow Catalytic Cracking
18.3.3.4 Suspensoid Catalytic Cracking
18.3.4 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
18.3.4.1 Asphalt Residual Treating (ART) Process
18.3.4.2 Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking (HOC) Process
18.3.4.3 Heavy Oil Treating (HOT) Process
18.3.4.4 R2R Process
18.3.4.5 Reduced Crude Oil Conversion (RCC) Process
18.3.4.6 Shell FCC Process
18.3.4.7 S&W Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process
18.4 Catalysts
18.4.1 Catalyst Treatment
18.4.1.1 Demet
18.4.1.2 Met-X
18.5 Process Parameters
18.5.1 Reactor
18.5.2 Coking
18.5.3 Catalyst Variables
18.5.4 Process Variables
18.5.5 Additives
ReferencesChapter 19
Deasphalting and Dewaxing Processes
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Commercial Processes
19.2.1 Deasphalting Process
19.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
19.2.2.1 Deep Solvent Deasphalting Process
19.2.2.2 Demex Process
19.2.2.3 MDS Process
19.2.2.4 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction
(ROSE) Process
19.2.2.5 Solvahl Process
19.2.2.6 Lube Deasphalting
19.3 Dewaxing Processes
References
Chapter 20
Hydrotreating and Desulfurization
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Process Parameters and Reactors
20.2.1 Hydrogen Partial Pressure
20.2.2 Space Velocity
20.2.3 Reaction Temperature
20.2.4 Catalyst Life
20.2.5 Feedstock Effects
20.2.6 Reactors
20.2.6.1 Downflow Fixed-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.2 Upflow Expanded-Bed Reactor
20.2.6.3 Demetallization Reactor (Guard Bed Reactor)
20.3 Commercial Processes
20.3.1 Autofining
20.3.2 Ferrofining
20.3.3 Gulf-HDS
20.3.4 Hydrofining
20.3.5 Isomax
20.3.6 Ultrafining
20.3.7 Unifining
20.3.8 Unionfining
20.3.9 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
20.3.9.1 Residuum Desulfurization and Vacuum
Residuum Desulfurization Process
20.3.9.2 Residfining Process
20.4 Catalysts
20.5 Biodesulfurization
20.6 Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Polishing
ReferencesChapter 21
Hydrocracking
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Commercial Processes
21.2.1 Process Design
21.2.1.1 Single-Stage and Two-Stage Options
21.2.2 Process Options for Heavy Feedstocks
21.2.2.1 Asphaltenic Bottom Cracking (ABC) Process
21.2.2.2 CANMET Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.3 H-Oil Process
21.2.2.4 Hydrovisbreaking (HYCAR) Process
21.2.2.5 Hyvahl F Process
21.2.2.6 IFP Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.7 Isocracking Process
21.2.2.8 LC-Fining Process
21.2.2.9 MAKfining Process
21.2.2.10 Microcat-RC Process
21.2.2.11 Mild Hydrocracking Process
21.2.2.12 MRH Process
21.2.2.13 RCD Unibon (BOC) Process
21.2.2.14 Residfining Process
21.2.2.15 Residue Hydroconversion (RHC) Process
21.2.2.16 Tervahl-H Process
21.2.2.17 Unicracking Process
21.2.2.18 Veba Combi Cracking Process
21.3 Catalysts
References
Chapter 22
Hydrogen Production
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Processes Requiring Hydrogen
22.2.1 Hydrotreating
22.2.2 Hydrocracking
22.3 Feedstocks
22.4 Process Chemistry
22.5 Commercial Processes
22.5.1 Heavy Residue Gasification and Combined
Cycle Power Generation
22.5.2 Hybrid Gasification Process
22.5.3 Hydrocarbon Gasification
22.5.4 Hypro Process
22.5.5 Pyrolysis Processes
22.5.6 Shell Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process
22.5.7 Steam–Methane Reforming
22.5.8 Steam–Naphtha Reforming
22.5.9 Synthesis Gas Generation
22.5.10 Texaco Gasification (Partial Oxidation) Process22.6 Catalysts
22.6.1 Reforming Catalysts
22.6.2 Shift Conversion Catalysts
22.6.3 Methanation Catalysts
22.7 Hydrogen Purification
22.7.1 Wet Scrubbing
22.7.2 Pressure-Swing Adsorption Units
22.7.3 Membrane Systems
22.7.4 Cryogenic Separation
22.8 Hydrogen Management
References
Chapter 23
Product Improvement
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Reforming
23.2.1 Thermal Reforming
23.2.2 Catalytic Reforming
23.2.2.1 Fixed-Bed Processes
23.2.2.2 Moving-Bed Processes
23.2.2.3 Fluid-Bed Processes
23.3 Isomerization
23.3.1 Butamer Process
23.3.2 Butomerate Process
23.3.3 Hysomer Process
23.3.4 Iso-Kel Process
23.3.5 Isomate Process
23.3.6 Isomerate Process
23.3.7 Penex Process
23.3.8 Pentafining Process
23.4 Alkylation
23.4.1 Cascade Sulfuric Acid Alkylation
23.4.2 Hydrogen Fluoride Alkylation
23.5 Polymerization
23.5.1 Thermal Polymerization
23.5.2 Solid Phosphoric Acid Condensation
23.5.3 Bulk Acid Polymerization
23.6 Catalysts
23.6.1 Reforming Processes
23.6.2 Isomerization Processes
23.6.3 Alkylation Processes
23.6.4 Polymerization Processes
References
Chapter 24
Product Treating
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Commercial Processes
24.2.1 Caustic Processes
24.2.1.1 Dualayer Distillate Process24.2.1.2 Dualayer Gasoline Process
24.2.1.3 Electrolytic Mercaptan Process
24.2.1.4 Ferrocyanide Process
24.2.1.5 Lye Treatment
24.2.1.6 Mercapsol Process
24.2.1.7 Polysulfide Treatment
24.2.1.8 Sodasol Process
24.2.1.9 Solutizer Process
24.2.1.10 Steam Regenerative Caustic Treatment
24.2.1.11 Unisol Process
24.2.2 Acid Processes
24.2.2.1 Nalfining Process
24.2.2.2 Sulfuric Acid Treatment
24.2.3 Clay Processes
24.2.3.1 Alkylation Effluent Treatment
24.2.3.2 Arosorb Process
24.2.3.3 Bauxite Treatment
24.2.3.4 Continuous Contact Filtration Process
24.2.3.5 Cyclic Adsorption Process
24.2.3.6 Gray Clay Treatment
24.2.3.7 Percolation Filtration Process
24.2.3.8 Thermofor Continuous Percolation Process
24.2.4 Oxidative Processes
24.2.4.1 Bender Process
24.2.4.2 Copper Sweetening Process
24.2.4.3 Doctor Process
24.2.4.4 Hypochlorite Sweetening Process
24.2.4.5 Inhibitor Sweetening Process
24.2.4.6 Merox Process
24.2.5 Solvent Processes
24.2.5.1 Deasphalting
24.2.5.2 Solvent Refining
24.2.5.3 Dewaxing
References
Chapter 25
Gas Processing
25.1 Introduction
25.1.1 Gas Streams from Crude Oil
25.1.2 Gas Streams from Natural Gas
25.2 Gas Cleaning
25.3 Water Removal
25.3.1 Absorption
25.3.2 Solid Adsorbents
25.3.3 Use of Membranes
25.4 Liquids Removal
25.4.1 Extraction
25.4.2 Absorption
25.4.3 Fractionation of Natural Gas Liquids25.5 Nitrogen Removal
25.6 Acid Gas Removal
25.7 Enrichment
25.8 Fractionation
25.9 Claus Process
References
Chapter 26
Products
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Gaseous Fuels
26.2.1 Composition
26.2.2 Manufacture
26.2.3 Properties and Uses
26.3 Gasoline
26.3.1 Composition
26.3.2 Manufacture
26.3.3 Properties and Uses
26.3.4 Octane Numbers
26.3.5 Additives
26.4 Solvents (Naphtha)
26.4.1 Composition
26.4.2 Manufacture
26.4.3 Properties and Uses
26.5 Kerosene
26.5.1 Composition
26.5.2 Manufacture
26.5.3 Properties and Uses
26.6 Fuel Oil
26.7 Lubricating Oil
26.7.1 Composition
26.7.2 Manufacture
26.7.2.1 Chemical Refining Processes
26.7.2.2 Hydroprocessing
26.7.2.3 Solvent Refining Processes
26.7.2.4 Catalytic Dewaxing
26.7.2.5 Solvent Dewaxing
26.7.2.6 Finishing Processes
26.7.2.7 Older Processes
26.7.3 Properties and Uses
26.8 Other Oil Products
26.8.1 White Oil
26.8.2 Insulating Oil
26.8.3 Insecticides
26.9 Grease
26.9.1 Lime Soap
26.9.2 Soda Soap
26.9.3 Lithium and Barium Soap
26.9.4 Aluminum Soap
26.9.5 Cold Sett Grease26.10 Wax
26.10.1 Composition
26.10.2 Manufacture
26.10.3 Properties and Uses
26.11 Asphalt
26.11.1 Composition
26.11.2 Manufacture
26.11.3 Properties and Uses
26.12 Coke
26.13 Sulfonic Acids
26.14 Acid Sludge
26.15 Product Blending
References
Chapter 27
Petrochemicals
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Chemicals from Paraffins
27.2.1 Halogenation
27.2.2 Nitration
27.2.3 Oxidation
27.2.4 Alkylation
27.2.5 Thermolysis
27.3 Chemicals from Olefins
27.3.1 Hydroxylation
27.3.2 Halogenation
27.3.3 Polymerization
27.3.4 Oxidation
27.3.5 Miscellaneous
27.4 Chemicals from Aromatics
27.5 Chemicals from Acetylene
27.6 Chemicals from Natural Gas
27.7 Inorganic Petrochemicals
27.8 Synthesis Gas
References
Part IV
Environmental Issues
Chapter 28
Environmental Aspects of Refining
28.1 Introduction
28.2 Definitions
28.3 Environmental Regulations
28.3.1 Clean Air Act Amendments
28.3.2 Water Pollution Control Act (The Clean Water Act)
28.3.3 Safe Drinking Water Act
28.3.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
28.3.5 Toxic Substances Control Act28.3.6 Comprehensive Environmental Response,
Compensation, and Liability Act
28.3.7 Occupational Safety and Health Act
28.3.8 Oil Pollution Act
28.3.9 Hazardous Materials Transportation Act
28.4 Process Analysis
28.4.1 Gaseous Emissions
28.4.2 Liquid Effluents
28.4.3 Solid Effluents
28.5 Epilog
References
Chapter 29
Refinery Wastes
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Process Wastes
29.2.1 Desalting
29.2.2 Distillation
29.2.3 Thermal Cracking and Visbreaking
29.2.4 Coking Processes
29.2.5 Fluid Catalytic Cracking
29.2.6 Hydrocracking and Hydrotreating
29.2.7 Catalytic Reforming
29.2.8 Alkylation
29.2.9 Isomerization
29.2.10 Polymerization
29.2.11 Deasphalting
29.2.12 Dewaxing
29.2.13 Gas Processing
29.3 Types of Waste
29.3.1 Gases and Lower Boiling Constituents
29.3.2 Higher Boiling Constituents
29.3.3 Wastewater
29.3.4 Solid Waste
29.4 Waste Toxicity
29.5 Refinery Outlook
29.5.1 Hazardous Waste Regulations
29.5.2 Regulatory Background
29.5.3 Requirements
29.6 Management of Refinery Waste
References
Chapter 30
Environmental Analysis
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Petroleum and Petroleum Products
30.3 Leachability and Toxicity
30.4 Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons
30.4.1 Gas Chromatographic Methods
30.4.2 Infrared Spectroscopy Methods30.4.3 Gravimetric Methods
30.4.4 Immunoassay Methods
30.5 Petroleum Group Analysis
30.5.1 Thin Layer Chromatography
30.5.2 Immunoassay
30.5.3 Gas Chromatography
30.5.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography
30.5.5 Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
30.6 Petroleum Fractions
30.7 Assessment of the Methods
References
Conversion Factors
Glossary
Conversion Factors
1 acre ¼ 43,560 sq. ft.
1 acre foot ¼ 7758.0 bbl
1 atmosphere ¼ 760 mm Hg ¼ 14.696 psi ¼ 29.91 in. Hg
1 atmosphere ¼ 1.0133 bars ¼ 33.899 ft. H2O
1 barrel (oil) ¼ 42 gal ¼ 5.6146 cu. ft.
1 barrel (water) ¼ 350 lb. at 608F
1 barrel per day ¼ 1.84 cu. cm=sec
1 Btu ¼ 778.26 ft.-lb.
1 centipoise 2.42 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-h), viscosity
1 centipoise 0.000672 ¼ lb. mass=(ft.-sec), viscosity
1 cubic foot ¼ 28,317 cu. cm ¼ 7.4805 gal
Density of water at 608 F ¼ 0l.999 g=cm3 ¼ 62.367 lb.=cu. ft. ¼ 8.337 lb.=gal
1 gallon ¼ 231 cu. in. ¼ 3,785.4 cm3 ¼ 0.13368 cu. ft.
1 horsepower-hour ¼ 0.7457 kWh ¼ 2544.5 Btu
1 horsepower ¼ 550 ft.-lb.=sec ¼ 745.7 W
1 inch ¼ 2.54 cm
1 meter ¼ 100 cm ¼ 1000 mm ¼ 106 mm ¼ 1010 A˚ (D)
1 ounce ¼ 28.35 g
1 pound ¼ 453.30 g ¼ 7000 grains
1 square mile ¼ 640 acres
SI METRIC CONVERSION FACTORS
(E 5 EXPONENT; I.E. E 1 03 5 103)
Acre-foot 1.233482 E þ 03 ¼ meter cube
Barrels 1.589873 E  01 ¼ meter cube
Centipoises 1.00000 E  03 ¼ pascal seconds
Darcy 9.869233 E  01 ¼ micrometer square
Feet 3.048000 E  01 ¼ meters
Pounds=acre-foot 3.677332 E  04 ¼ kilograms=meter cube
Pounds=square inch 6.894757 E  00 ¼ kilopascals
Dyne=cm 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ mN=m
Parts per million 1.000000 E þ 00 ¼ milligrams=kilogramsGlossary
The following list represents a selection of definitions that are commonly used with reference to refining
operations (processes, equipment, and products) and will be of use to the reader. Older names, as may
occur in many books, are also included for clarification.
ABN separation a method of fractionation by which petroleum is separated into acidic, basic, and
neutral constituents.
Absorber see Absorption tower.
Absorption gasoline gasoline extracted from natural gas or refinery gas by contacting the absorbed gas
with an oil and subsequently distilling the gasoline from the higher-boiling components.
Absorption oil oil used to separate the heavier components from a vapor mixture by absorption of the
heavier components during intimate contacting of the oil and vapor; used to recover natural
gasoline from wet gas.
Absorption plant a plant for recovering the condensable portion of natural or refinery gas, by absorbing
the higher-boiling hydrocarbons in an absorption oil, followed by separation and fractionation
of the absorbed material.
Absorption tower a tower or column which promotes contact between a rising gas and a falling liquid so
that part of the gas may be dissolved in the liquid.
Acetone–benzol process a dewaxing process in which acetone and benzol (benzene or aromatic naphtha)
are used as solvents.
Acid catalyst a catalyst having acidic character; the aluminas are examples of such catalysts.
Acid deposition acid rain; a form of pollution depletion in which pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides and
sulfur oxides, are transferred from the atmosphere to soil or water; often referred to as
atmospheric self-cleaning. The pollutants usually arise from the use of fossil fuels.
Acidity the capacity of an acid to neutralize a base, such as a hydroxyl ion (OH).
Acidizing a technique for improving the permeability (q.v.) of a reservoir by injecting acid.
Acid number a measure of the reactivity of petroleum with a caustic solution and given in terms of
milligrams of potassium hydroxide that are neutralized by one gram of petroleum.
Acid rain the precipitation phenomenon that incorporates anthropogenic acids and other acidic chemicals from the atmosphere to the land and water (see Acid deposition).
Acid sludge the residue left after treating petroleum oil with sulfuric acid for the removal of impurities; a
black, viscous substance containing the spent acid and impurities.
Acid treatment a process in which unfinished petroleum products, such as gasoline, kerosene, and
lubricating-oil stocks, are contacted with sulfuric acid to improve their color, odor, and other
properties.
Acoustic log see Sonic log.
Acre-foot a measure of bulk rock volume, where the area is one acre and the thickness is one foot.
Additive a material added to another (usually in small amounts) in order to enhance desirable properties
or to suppress undesirable properties.
Add-on control methods the use of devices that remove refinery process emissions after they are generated
but before they are discharged to the atmosphere.
Adsorption transfer of a substance, from a solution to the surface of a solid, resulting in relatively high
concentration of the substance at the place of contact; see also Chromatographic adsorption.Adsorption gasoline natural gasoline (q.v.) obtained by the adsorption process from wet gas.
Afterburn the combustion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2); usually in the cyclones of
a catalyst regenerator.
After flow flow from the reservoir into the wellbore that continues for a period after the well has been
shut in; after-flow can complicate the analysis of a pressure transient test.
Air-blown asphalt asphalt produced by blowing air through residua at elevated temperatures.
Air injection an oil recovery technique using air to force oil from the reservoir into the wellbore.
Airlift Thermofor catalytic cracking a moving-bed continuous catalytic process for conversion of heavy
gas oils into lighter products; the catalyst is moved by a stream of air.
Air pollution the discharge of toxic gases and particulate matter introduced into the atmosphere,
principally as a result of human activity.
Air sweetening a process in which air or oxygen is used to oxidize lead mercaptides to disulfides, instead
of using elemental sulfur.
Air toxics hazardous air pollutants.
Albertite a black, brittle, natural hydrocarbon possessing a conchoidal fracture and a specific gravity of
approximately 1.1.
Alicyclic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has a cyclic structure
(e.g., cyclohexane); also collectively called naphthenes.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon a compound containing carbon and hydrogen only, which has an open-chain
structure (e.g., as ethane, butane, octane, butene) or a cyclic structure (e.g., cyclohexane).
Aliquot the quantity of material of proper size for measurement of the property of interest; test portions
may be taken from the gross sample directly, but often preliminary operations such as mixing or
further reduction in particle size are necessary.
Alkaline a high pH, usually of an aqueous solution; aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium
orthosilicate, and sodium carbonate are typical alkaline materials used in enhanced oil recovery.
Alkaline flooding see EOR process.
Alkalinity the capacity of a base to neutralize the hydrogen ion (Hþ).
Alkali treatment see Caustic wash.
Alkali wash see Caustic wash.
Alkanes hydrocarbons that contain only single carbon–hydrogen bonds. The chemical name indicates
the number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ane’’.
Alkenes hydrocarbons that contain carbon–carbon double bonds. The chemical name indicates the
number of carbon atoms and ends with the suffix ‘‘ene’’.
Alkylate the product of an alkylation (q.v.) process.
Alkylate bottoms residua from fractionation of alkylate; the alkylate product which boils higher than the
aviation gasoline range; sometimes called heavy alkylate or alkylate polymer.
Alkylation in the petroleum industry, a process by which an olefin (e.g., ethylene) is combined with a
branched-chain hydrocarbon (e.g., iso-butane); alkylation may be accomplished as a thermal or
as a catalytic reaction.
Alkyl groups a group of carbon and hydrogen atoms that branch from the main carbon chain or ring in a
hydrocarbon molecule. The simplest alkyl group, a methyl group, is a carbon atom attached to
three hydrogen atoms.
Alpha-scission the rupture of the aromatic carbon–aliphatic carbon bond that joins an alkyl group to an
aromatic ring.
Alumina (Al2O3) used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) the official organization in the United States for
designing standard tests for petroleum and other industrial products.
Amine washing a method of gas cleaning, whereby acidic impurities such as hydrogen sulfide and
carbon dioxide are removed from the gas stream by washing with an amine (usually an
alkanolamine).
Analytical equivalence the acceptability of the results obtained from the different laboratories; a range of
acceptable results.
Analyte the chemical for which a sample is tested, or analyzed.
Antibody a molecule having chemically reactive sites specific for certain other molecules.Aniline point the temperature, usually expressed in 8F, above which equal volumes of a petroleum
product are completely miscible; a qualitative indication of the relative proportions of paraffins
in a petroleum product which are miscible with aniline only at higher temperatures; a high
aniline point indicates low aromatics.
Antiknock resistance to detonation or pinging in spark-ignition engines.
Antiknock agent a chemical compound such as tetraethyl lead which, when added in small amount to the
fuel charge of an internal-combustion engine, tends to lessen knocking.
Antistripping agent an additive used in an asphaltic binder to overcome the natural affinity of an
aggregate for water, instead of asphalt.
API gravity a measure of the lightness or heaviness of petroleum which is related to density and specific
gravity.
API ¼ ð141:5=spgr @ 60FÞ 131:5
Apparent bulk density the density of a catalyst as measured; usually loosely compacted in a container.
Apparent viscosity the viscosity of a fluid, or several fluids flowing simultaneously, measured in a porous
medium (rock), and subject to both viscosity and permeability effects; also called effective
viscosity.
Aquifer a subsurface rock interval that will produce water; often the underlay of a petroleum reservoir.
Areal sweep efficiency the fraction of the flood pattern area that is effectively swept by the injected fluids.
Aromatic hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon characterized by the presence of an aromatic ring or condensed
aromatic rings; benzene and substituted benzene, naphthalene and substituted naphthalene,
phenanthrene and substituted phenanthrene, as well as the higher condensed ring systems;
compounds that are distinct from those of aliphatic compounds (q.v.) or alicyclic compounds
(q.v.).
Aromatization the conversion of nonaromatic hydrocarbons to aromatic hydrocarbons by: (1) rearrangement of aliphatic (noncyclic) hydrocarbons (q.v.) into aromatic ring structures; and
(2) dehydrogenation of alicyclic hydrocarbons (naphthenes).
Arosorb process a process for the separation of aromatics from nonaromatics by adsorption on a gel
from which they are recovered by desorption.
Asphalt the nonvolatile product obtained by distillation and treatment of an asphaltic crude oil; a
manufactured product.
Asphalt cement asphalt, especially prepared as to quality and consistency, for direct use in the manufacture of bituminous pavements.
Asphalt emulsion an emulsion of asphalt cement in water containing a small amount of emulsifying
agent.
Asphalt flux an oil used to reduce the consistency or viscosity of hard asphalt to the point required for
use.
Asphalt primer a liquid asphaltic material of low viscosity which, upon application to a nonbituminous
surface, waterproofs the surface and prepares it for further construction.
Asphaltene (asphaltenes) the brown to black powdery material produced by treatment of petroleum,
petroleum residua, or bituminous materials with a low-boiling liquid hydrocarbon, e.g., pentane
or heptane; soluble in benzene (and other aromatic solvents), carbon disulfide, and chloroform
(or other chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents).
Asphaltene association factor the number of individual asphaltene species which associate in nonpolar
solvents as measured by molecular weight methods; the molecular weight of asphaltenes in
toluene divided by the molecular weight in a polar nonassociating solvent, such as dichlorobenzene, pyridine, or nitrobenzene.
Asphaltic pyrobitumen see Asphaltoid.
Asphaltic road oil a thick, fluid solution of asphalt; usually a residual oil. See also Nonasphaltic road
oil.
Asphaltite a variety of naturally occurring, dark brown to black, solid, nonvolatile bituminous material
that is differentiated from bitumen, primarily by a high content of material insoluble in npentane (asphaltene) or other liquid hydrocarbons.Asphaltoid a group of brown to black, solid bituminous materials of which the members are differentiated from asphaltites by their infusibility and low solubility in carbon disulfide.
Asphaltum see Asphalt.
Associated molecular weight the molecular weight of asphaltenes in an associating (nonpolar) solvent,
such as toluene.
Atmospheric residuum a residuum (q.v.) obtained by distillation of a crude oil under atmospheric
pressure and which boils above 3508C (6608F).
Atmospheric equivalent boiling point (AEBP) a mathematical method of estimating the boiling point at
atmospheric pressure of nonvolatile fractions of petroleum.
Attainment area a geographical area that meets NAAQS criteria for air pollutants (see also Nonattainment area).
Attapulgus clay see Fuller’s earth.
Autofining a catalytic process for desulfurizing distillates.
Average particle size the weighted average particle diameter of a catalyst.
Aviation gasoline any of the special grades of gasoline suitable for use in certain airplane engines.
Aviation turbine fuel see Jet fuel.
Back mixing the phenomenon observed when a catalyst travels at a slower rate in the riser pipe than the
vapors.
BACT best available control technology.
Baghouse a filter system for the removal of particulate matter from gas streams; so called because of the
similarity of the filters to coal bags.
Bank the concentration of oil (oil bank) in a reservoir that moves cohesively through the reservoir.
Bari-Sol process a dewaxing process which employs a mixture of ethylene dichloride and benzol as the
solvent.
Barrel the unit of measurement of liquids in the petroleum industry; equivalent to 42 US standard
gallons or 33.6 imperial gallons.
Base number the quantity of acid, expressed in milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of sample
that is required to titrate a sample to a specified end-point.
Base stock a primary refined petroleum fraction into which other oils and additives are added (blended)
to produce the finished product.
Basic nitrogen nitrogen (in petroleum) which occurs in pyridine form
Basic sediment and water (bs&w, bsw) the material which collects at the bottom of storage tanks, usually
composed of oil, water, and foreign matter; also called bottoms, bottom settlings.
Battery a series of stills or other refinery equipment operated as a unit.
Baume´ gravity the specific gravity of liquids expressed as degrees on the Baume´ (8Be´) scale; for liquids
lighter than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 140=ð130 þ Be´Þ
For liquids heavier than water:
Sp gr 60F ¼ 145=ð145 Be´Þ
Bauxite mineral matter used as a treating agent; hydrated aluminum oxide formed by the chemical
weathering of igneous rock.
Bbl see Barrel.
Bell cap a hemispherical or triangular cover placed over the riser in a (distillation) tower to direct the
vapors through the liquid layer on the tray; see Bubble cap.
Bender process a chemical treating process using lead sulfide catalyst for sweetening light distillates by
which mercaptans are converted to disulfides by oxidation.
Bentonite montmorillonite (a magnesium–aluminum silicate); used as a treating agent.
Benzene a colorless aromatic liquid hydrocarbon (C6H6).
Benzin a refined light naphtha used for extraction purposes.
Benzine an obsolete term for light petroleum distillates covering the gasoline and naphtha range; see
Ligroine.Benzol the general term which refers to commercial or technical (not necessarily pure) benzene; also the
term used for aromatic naphtha.
Beta-scission the rupture of a carbon–carbon bond that is; two bonds removed from an aromatic ring.
Billion 1  109
Biocide any chemical capable of killing bacteria and biorganisms.
Biogenic material derived from bacterial or vegetation sources.
Biological lipid any biological fluid that is miscible with a nonpolar solvent. These materials include
waxes, essential oils, chlorophyll, etc.
Biological oxidation the oxidative consumption of organic matter by bacteria by which the organic
matter is converted into gases.
Biomass biological organic matter.
Biopolymer a high molecular weight carbohydrate produced by bacteria.
Bitumen a semisolid to solid hydrocarbonaceous material found filling pores and crevices of sandstone,
limestone, or argillaceous sediments.
Bituminous containing bitumen or constituting the source of bitumen.
Bituminous rock see Bituminous sand.
Bituminous sand a formation in which the bituminous material (see Bitumen) is found as a filling in veins
and fissures in fractured rock or impregnating relatively shallow sand, sandstone, and limestone
strata; a sandstone reservoir that is impregnated with a heavy, viscous black petroleum-like
material that cannot be retrieved through a well by conventional production techniques.
Black acid(s) a mixture of the sulfonates found in acid sludge which are insoluble in naphtha, benzene,
and carbon tetrachloride; very soluble in water, but insoluble in 30% sulfuric acid; in the dry, oilfree state, the sodium soaps are black powders.
Black oil any of the dark-colored oils; a term now often applied to heavy oil (q.v.).
Black soap see Black acid.
Black strap the black material (mainly lead sulfide) formed in the treatment of sour light oils with doctor
solution (q.v.) and found at the interface between the oil and the solution.
Blown asphalt the asphalt prepared by air blowing a residuum (q.v.) or an asphalt (q.v.).
Bogging a condition that occurs in a coking reactor when the conversion to coke and light ends is too
slow, causing the coke particles to agglomerate.
Boiling point a characteristic physical property of a liquid at which the vapor pressure is equal to that of
the atmosphere and the liquid is converted to a gas.
Boiling range the range of temperature, usually determined at atmospheric pressure in standard laboratory apparatus, over which the distillation of an oil commences, proceeds, and finishes.
Bottled gas usually butane or propane, or butane–propane mixtures, liquefied and stored under pressure
for domestic use; see also Liquefied petroleum gas.
Bottoms the liquid which collects at the bottom of a vessel (tower bottoms, tank bottoms) during
distillation; also the deposit or sediment formed during storage of petroleum or a petroleum
product; see also Residuum and Basic sediment and water.
Bright stock refined, high-viscosity lubricating oils, usually made from residual stocks by processes such
as a combination of acid treatment or solvent extraction with dewaxing or clay finishing.
British thermal unit see Btu.
Bromine number the number of grams of bromine absorbed by 100 g of oil which indicates the
percentage of double bonds in the material.
Brown acid oil-soluble petroleum sulfonates found in acid sludge which can be recovered by extraction
with naphtha solvent. Brown-acid sulfonates are somewhat similar to mahogany sulfonates, but
are more water-soluble. In the dry, oil-free state, the sodium soaps are light-colored powders.
Brown soap see Brown acid.
Brønsted acid a chemical species which can act as a source of protons.
Brønsted base a chemical species which can accept protons.
BS&W see Basic sediment and water.
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers.
Btu (British thermal unit) the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by 18F.Bubble cap an inverted cup with a notched or slotted periphery to disperse the vapor in small bubbles
beneath the surface of the liquid on the bubble plate in a distillation tower.
Bubble plate a tray in a distillation tower.
Bubble point the temperature at which incipient vaporization of a liquid in a liquid mixture occurs,
corresponding with the equilibrium point of 0% vaporization or 100% condensation.
Bubble tower a fractionating tower so constructed that the vapors rising pass up through layers of
condensate on a series of plates or trays (see Bubble plate); the vapor passes from one plate to
the next above by bubbling under one or more caps (see Bubble cap) and out through the liquid
on the plate, where the less volatile portions of vapor condense, overflow to the next lower plate,
and ultimately back into the reboiler, thereby effecting fractionation.
Bubble tray a circular, perforated plates having the internal diameter of a bubble tower (q.v.), set at
specified distances in a tower to collect the various fractions produced during distillation.
Buckley–Leverett method a theoretical method of determining frontal advance rates and saturations
from a fractional flow curve.
Bumping the knocking against the walls of a still occurring during distillation of petroleum or a
petroleum product which usually contains water.
Bunker C oil see No. 6 Fuel oil.
Burner fuel oil any petroleum liquid suitable for combustion.
Burning oil an illuminating oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) suitable for burning in a wick lamp.
Burning point see Fire point.
Burning-quality index an empirical numerical indication of the likely burning performance of a furnace
or heater oil; derived from the distillation profile (q.v.) and the API gravity (q.v.), and generally
recognizing the factors of paraffin character and volatility.
Burton process a older thermal cracking process in which oil was cracked in a pressure still and any
condensation of the products of cracking also took place under pressure.
Butane dehydrogenation a process for removing hydrogen from butane to produce butenes and, on
occasion, butadiene.
Butane vapor-phase isomerization a process for isomerizing n-butane to iso-butane using aluminum
chloride catalyst on a granular alumina support and with hydrogen chloride as a promoter.
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 fractions a common way of representing fractions containing a preponderance of
hydrocarbons having 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 carbon atoms, respectively, and without reference to
hydrocarbon type.
CAA Clean Air Act; this act is the foundation of air regulations in the United States
Calcining heating a metal oxide or an ore to decompose carbonates, hydrates, or other compounds often
in a controlled atmosphere.
Capillary forces interfacial forces between immiscible fluid phases, resulting in pressure differences
between the two phases.
Capillary number Nc, the ratio of viscous forces to capillary forces, and equal to viscosity times velocity
divided by interfacial tension.
Carbene the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene but which is
soluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine); a type of rifle used for hunting bison.
Carboid the pentane- or heptane-insoluble material that is insoluble in benzene or toluene and which is
also insoluble in carbon disulfide (or pyridine).
Carbonate washing processing using a mild alkali (e.g., potassium carbonate) process for emission
control by the removal of acid gases from gas streams.
Carbon dioxide augmented waterflooding injection of carbonated water, or water and carbon dioxide, to
increase water flood efficiency; see immiscible carbon dioxide displacement.
Carbon dioxide miscible flooding see EOR process.
Carbon-forming propensity see Carbon residue.
Carbonization the conversion of an organic compound into char or coke by heat in the substantial
absence of air; often used in reference to the destructive distillation (with simultaneous removal
of distillate) of coal.
Carbon–oxygen log information about the relative abundance of elements such as carbon, oxygen,
silicon, and calcium in a formation; usually derived from pulsed neutron equipment.Carbon rejection upgrading processes in which coke is produced, e.g., coking.
Carbon residue the amount of carbonaceous residue remaining after thermal decomposition of petroleum, a petroleum fraction, or a petroleum product in a limited amount of air; also called the
coke- or carbon-forming propensity; often prefixed by the terms Conradson or Ramsbottom in
reference to the inventor of the respective tests.
CAS Chemical Abstract Service.
Cascade tray a fractionating device consisting of a series of parallel troughs arranged in stair-step
fashion, in which liquid from the tray above enters the uppermost trough and liquid thrown
from this trough by vapor rising from the tray below impinges against a plate and a perforated
baffle, and liquid passing through the baffle enters the next longer of the troughs.
Casinghead gas natural gas which issues from the casinghead (the mouth or opening) of an oil well.
Casinghead gasoline the liquid hydrocarbon product extracted from casinghead gas (q.v.) by one of three
methods: compression, absorption, or refrigeration; see also Natural gasoline.
Catagenesis the alteration of organic matter during the formation of petroleum that may involve
temperatures in the range of 508C (1208F) to 2008C (3908F); see also Diagenesis and Metagenesis.
Catalyst a chemical agent which, when added to a reaction (process) will enhance the conversion of a
feedstock without consumed in the process.
Catalyst selectivity the relative activity of a catalyst with respect to a particular compound in a mixture,
or the relative rate in competing reactions of a single reactant.
Catalyst stripping the introduction of steam, at a point where spent catalyst leaves the reactor, in order
to strip, i.e., remove, deposits retained on the catalyst.
Catalytic activity the ratio of the space velocity of the catalyst under test to the space velocity required
for the standard catalyst to give the same conversion as the catalyst being tested; usually
multiplied by 100 before being reported.
Catalytic cracking the conversion of high-boiling feedstocks into lower boiling products by means of a
catalyst which may be used in a fixed bed (q.v.) or fluid bed (q.v.).
Cat cracking see Catalytic cracking.
Catalytic reforming rearranging hydrocarbon molecules in a gasoline-boiling-range feedstock to produce
other hydrocarbons having a higher antiknock quality; isomerization of paraffins, cyclization of
paraffins to naphthenes (q.v.), dehydrocyclization of paraffins to aromatics (q.v.).
Catforming a process for reforming naphtha using a platinum–silica–alumina catalyst which permits
relatively high space velocities and results in the production of high-purity hydrogen.
Caustic consumption the amount of caustic lost from reacting chemically with the minerals in the rock,
the oil, and the brine.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Caustic wash the process of treating a product with a solution of caustic soda to remove minor
impurities; often used in reference to the solution itself.
Ceresin a hard, brittle wax obtained by purifying ozokerite; see Microcrystalline wax and Ozokerite.
Cetane index an approximation of the cetane number (q.v.) calculated from the density (q.v.) and
midboiling point temperature (q.v.); see also Diesel index.
Cetane number a number indicating the ignition quality of diesel fuel; a high cetane number represents a
short ignition delay time; the ignition quality of diesel fuel can also be estimated from the
following formula:
Diesel index ¼ ðaniline point ðFÞ  API gravityÞ100
CFR Code of Federal Regulations; Title 40 (40 CFR) contains the regulations for protection of the
environment.
Characterization factor the UOP characterization factor K, defined as the ratio of the cube root of the
molal average boiling point, TB, in degrees Rankine (8R ¼ 8F þ 460), to the specific gravity at
608F=608F:
K ¼ ðTBÞ1=3=sp grThe value ranges from 12.5 for paraffin stocks to 10.0 for the highly aromatic stocks; also called
the Watson characterization factor.
Cheesebox still an early type of vertical cylindrical still designed with a vapor dome.
Chelating agents complex-forming agents with the ability to solubilize heavy metals.
Chemical flooding see EOR process.
Chemical octane number the octane number added to gasoline by refinery processes or by the use of
octane number (q.v.) improvers, such as tetraethyl lead.
Chemical waste any solid, liquid, or gaseous material discharged from a process and that may pose
substantial hazards to human health and environment.
Chlorex process a process for extracting lubricating-oil stocks in which the solvent used is Chlorex
(b–b-dichlorodiethyl ether).
Chromatographic adsorption selective adsorption on materials such as activated carbon, alumina, or
silica gel; liquid or gaseous mixtures of hydrocarbons are passed through the adsorbent in a
stream of diluent, and certain components are preferentially adsorbed.
Chromatographic separation the separation of different species of compounds according to their size and
interaction with the rock as they flow through a porous medium.
Chromatography a method of separation based on selective adsorption; see also Chromatographic
adsorption.
Clarified oil the heavy oil which has been taken from the bottom of a fractionator in a catalytic cracking
process and from which residual catalyst has been removed.
Clarifier equipment for removing the color or cloudiness of an oil or water by separating the foreign
material through mechanical or chemical means; may involve centrifugal action, filtration,
heating, or treatment with acid or alkali.
Clay silicate minerals that also usually contain aluminum and have particle sizes less than 0.002 micron;
used in separation methods as an adsorbent and in refining as a catalyst.
Clay contact process see Contact filtration.
Clay refining a treating process in which vaporized gasoline or any other light petroleum product is
passed through a bed of granular clay, such as Fuller’s earth (q.v.).
Clay regeneration a process in which spent coarse-grained adsorbent clays from percolation processes
are cleaned for reuse by deoiling them with naphtha, steaming out the excess naphtha, and then
roasting in a stream of air to remove carbonaceous matter.
Clay treating see Gray clay treating.
Clay wash light oil, such as kerosene (kerosine) or naphtha, used to clean Fuller’s earth after it has been
used in a filter.
Clastic composed of pieces of preexisting rock.
Cleanup a preparatory step following extraction of a sample media designed to remove components that
may interfere with subsequent analytical measurements.
Cloud point the temperature at which paraffin wax or other solid substances begin to crystallize or
separate from the solution, imparting a cloudy appearance to the oil when the oil is chilled under
prescribed conditions.
Coal an organic rock.
Coalescence the union of two or more droplets to form a larger droplet and, ultimately, a continuous phase.
Coal tar the specific name for the tar (q.v.) produced from coal.
Coal tar pitch the specific name for the pitch (q.v.) produced from coal.
COFCAW an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process (q.v.) that combines forward combustion and water
flooding.
Cogeneration an energy conversion method by which electrical energy is produced along with steam
generated for EOR use.
Coke a gray to black solid carbonaceous material produced from petroleum during thermal processing;
characterized by having a high carbon content (95%þ by weight) and a honeycomb type of
appearance; it is insoluble in organic solvents.
Coke drum a vessel in which coke is formed and which can be isolated from the process for cleaning.
Coke number used, particularly in Great Britain, to report the results of the Ramsbottom carbon residue
test (q.v.), which is also referred to as a coke test.Coker the processing unit in which coking takes place.
Coking a process for the thermal conversion of petroleum in which gaseous, liquid, and solid (coke)
products are formed.
Cold pressing the process of separating wax from oil by first chilling (to help form wax crystals) and then
filtering under pressure in a plate and frame press.
Cold settling processing for the removal of wax from high-viscosity stocks, wherein a naphtha solution
of the waxy oil is chilled and the wax crystallizes out of the solution.
Color stability the resistance of a petroleum product to color change due to light, aging, etc.
Combustible liquid a liquid with a flash point in excess of 37.88C (1008F), but below 93.38C (2008F).
Combustion zone the volume of reservoir rock wherein petroleum is undergoing combustion during
enhanced oil recovery.
Composition the general chemical make-up of petroleum.
Completion interval the portion of the reservoir formation placed in fluid communication with the well
by selectively perforating the wellbore casing.
Composition map a means of illustrating the chemical make-up of petroleum using chemical and physical
property data.
Con Carbon see Carbon residue.
Condensate a mixture of light hydrocarbon liquids obtained by condensation of hydrocarbon vapors:
predominately butane, propane, and pentane with some heavier hydrocarbons and relatively
little methane or ethane; see also Natural gas liquids.
Conductivity a measure of the ease of flow through a fracture, perforation, or pipe.
Conformance the uniformity with which a volume of the reservoir is swept by injection fluids in area and
vertical directions.
Conradson carbon residue see Carbon residue.
Contact filtration a process in which finely divided adsorbent clay is used to remove color bodies from
petroleum products.
Contaminant a substance that causes deviation from the normal composition of an environment.
Continuous contact coking a thermal conversion process in which petroleum-wetted coke particles move
downward into the reactor in which cracking, coking, and drying take place to produce coke,
gas, gasoline, and gas oil.
Continuous contact filtration a process to finish lubricants, waxes, or special oils after acid treating,
solvent extraction, or distillation.
Conventional recovery primary and secondary recovery.
Conversion the thermal treatment of petroleum which results in the formation of new products by the
alteration of the original constituents.
Conversion cost the cost of changing a production well to an injection well, or some other change in the
function of an oilfield installation.
Conversion factor the percentage of feedstock converted to light ends, gasoline, other liquid fuels, and
coke.
Copper sweetening processes involving the oxidation of mercaptans to disulfides by oxygen in the
presence of cupric chloride.
Core floods laboratory flow tests through samples (cores) of porous rock.
Co-surfactant a chemical compound, typically alcohol, that enhances the effectiveness of a surfactant.
Cp (centipoise) a unit of viscosity.
Craig–Geffen–Morse method a method for predicting oil recovery by water flood.
Cracked residua residua that have been subjected to temperatures above 3508C (6608F) during the
distillation process.
Cracking the thermal processes by which the constituents of petroleum are converted to lower molecular
weight products.
Cracking activity see Catalytic activity.
Cracking coil equipment used for cracking heavy petroleum products consisting of a coil of heavy pipe
running through a furnace, so that the oil passing through it is subject to high temperature.
Cracking still the combined equipment-furnace, reaction chamber, fractionator for the thermal conversion of heavier feedstocks to lighter products.Cracking temperature the temperature (3508C; 6608F) at which the rate of thermal decomposition of
petroleum constituents becomes significant.
Criteria air pollutants air pollutants or classes of pollutants regulated by the Environmental Protection
Agency; the air pollutants are (including Volatile organic compounds): ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and lead.
Cross-linking combining of two or polymer molecules by use of a chemical that mutually bonds with a
part of the chemical structure of the polymer molecules.
Crude assay a procedure for determining the general distillation characteristics (e.g., distillation profile,
q.v.) and other quality information of crude oil.
Crude oil see Petroleum.
Crude scale wax the wax product from the first sweating of the slack wax.
Crude still distillation (q.v.) equipment in which crude oil is separated into various products.
Cumene a colorless liquid [C6H5CH(CH3)2] used as an aviation gasoline blending component and as an
intermediate in the manufacture of chemicals.
Cut point the boiling-temperature division between distillation fractions of petroleum.
Cutback the term applied to the products from blending heavier feedstocks or products with lighter oils
to bring the heavier materials to the desired specifications.
Cutback asphalt asphalt liquefied by the addition of a volatile liquid such as naphtha or kerosene which,
after application and on exposure to the atmosphere, evaporates leaving the asphalt.
Cutting oil an oil to lubricate and cool metal-cutting tools; also called cutting fluid, cutting lubricant.
Cycle stock the product taken from some later stage of a process and recharged (recycled) to the process
at some earlier stage.
Cyclic steam injection the alternating injection of steam and the production of oil from the same well or wells.
Cyclization the process by which an open-chain hydrocarbon structure is converted to a ring structure,
e.g., hexane to benzene.
Cyclone adevicefor extractingdustfromindustrialwastegases.Itisintheformofaninverted coneintowhich
the contaminated gas enterstangential fromthe top; the gas ispropelled down a helical pathway, and
the dust particles are deposited by means of centrifugal force onto the wall of the scrubber.
Deactivation reduction in catalyst activity by the deposition of contaminants (e.g., coke, metals) during a
process.
Dealkylation the removal of an alkyl group from aromatic compounds.


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