كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions
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 كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions

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كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions    كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions  Emptyالخميس 04 فبراير 2021, 2:42 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions
Overcoming Technical and Material-Specific Issues
Robert W. Messler, Jr.  

كتاب A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions  A_p_g_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xi
1 Introduction 1
Further Reading 6
2 Categorization of Welding and Weld Problems 7
2.1 What Is Welding? 7
2.2 Microstructural Zones of Welds 13
2.3 Origin of Problems in Welding and Welds 19
2.4 How Problems Can Be Logically Categorized? 20
References 21
Further Reading 21
Part I Manifestation of Problems with Welds and
Weldments 23
3 Problems with Joint Setup and Weld Joints 25
3.1 Joint Efficiency 25
3.2 Weld Joint Types and Weld Configurations 26
3.3 Joint Setup Problems 31
3.4 Problems with Weld Profile 35
3.5 Troubleshooting Guide 42
References 45
Further Reading 45
4 Shape Distortion, Dimensional Shrinkage, and Geometric
Instability 47
4.1 Thermal Versus Mechanical Stresses in a Structure 47
4.2 Residual Stresses Versus Distortion 48
4.3 Origin and Effect of Volumetric Shrinkage 48
4.4 Origin and Effect of Thermal Contraction 52
4.5 Problems from Nonuniform Thermal Contraction and CTE
Mismatches 57vi Contents
4.6 Problems from Distortion and from Residual Stresses 60
4.7 Distortion Control and Residual Stress Reduction 60
4.8 Troubleshooting Guide 65
References 65
Further Reading 66
5 Porosity 67
5.1 The Most Common Problem in Welds 67
5.2 Types of Weld Porosity 70
5.3 Gases in Molten Weld Metal 73
5.4 The Many Possible Causes of Porosity in Welds 79
5.5 Attempting to Minimize Porosity Formation in Fusion Welds 84
5.6 Troubleshooting Porosity Problems in Welds 85
References 87
Further Reading 87
6 Cracks 89
6.1 The Most Dreaded Defect in Welds 89
6.2 Classification of Cracking and Cracks in Welds and Welding 90
6.3 Hot Cracking and Cracks 91
6.4 Cold Cracking and Cracks 98
6.5 Other Weld-Related Cracking and Cracks 101
6.6 Crack-Prone Metals and Alloys 102
6.7 Troubleshooting Cracking Problems in Welds 105
References 106
Further Reading 107
7 Nonmetallic and Metallic Inclusions 109
7.1 Solid Versus Gas Inclusions 109
7.2 Nonmetallic Inclusions in Welds 110
7.3 Metallic Inclusions in Welds 114
7.4 Troubleshooting Problems with Inclusions in Welds 115
References 116
Further Reading 116
8 Weld Appearance 117
8.1 Can You Judge a Book by Its Cover? Is Beauty Only Skin Deep? 117
8.2 Weld Crown Bead Faults 118
8.3 Weld Root Bead Faults 121
8.4 Fillet Weld Faults 123
8.5 Reading Weld Ripple Marks 124
8.6 Weld Spatter 126
8.7 Arc Strikes 128
8.8 Weld Heat Tint 129
8.9 Troubleshooting Weld Appearance Problems 132
References 133
Further Reading 134Contents vii
Part II Location of Problems in Welds 135
9 Fusion Zone of Fusion Welds 137
9.1 A Refresher on Microstructural Zones in and Around Welds 137
9.2 Gas Porosity in the Fusion Zone of Welds 141
9.3 Cracking in the Fusion Zone of Welds 143
9.4 Inclusions in the Fusion Zone of Welds 151
9.5 Macrosegregation in the Fusion Zone of Welds 152
9.6 Troubleshooting Problems in the Fusion Zone of Welds 153
References 155
Further Reading 156
10 Partially Melted Zone of Fusion Welds 157
10.1 Origin and Location of the PMZ in Fusion Welds 157
10.2 Conventional Hot Cracking in the PMZ 161
10.3 Constitutional Liquation Cracking in the PMZ 161
10.4 Cold Cracking in the PMZ 164
10.5 Overcoming Cracking Problems in the PMZ 166
10.6 Troubleshooting Problems in the PMZ 167
References 167
Further Reading 168
11 Heat-Affected Zone of Fusion Welds 169
11.1 Origin and Location of the HAZ for Fusion Welds 169
11.2 Manifestation of Problems in the HAZ of Fusion Welds 170
11.3 Precipitation-Hardening Alloy HAZ Problems 171
11.4 Sensitization in the HAZ of Austenitic Stainless Steels 176
11.5 Transformation-Hardening Steel HAZ Problems 179
11.6 Reheat Cracking 183
11.7 Troubleshooting Problems in the HAZ of Fusion Welds 186
References 187
Further Reading 188
12 Unaffected Base Metal Cracking Associated with Welding 189
12.1 Weld-Related Problems in the Unaffected Base Metal 189
12.2 Lamellar Tearing in Thick Steel Weldments 189
12.3 Corrosion Cracking Caused by Fusion Welding 192
12.4 Fatigue Cracking Outside Fusion Welds 195
12.5 Troubleshooting Weld-Related Problems in the Unaffected Base
Metal 199
References 200
Further Reading 201
13 Discontinuities in Multi-pass Welds 203
13.1 Needs for Multi-pass Welding and Welds 203
13.2 Various Functions of Multi-pass Welding and Welds 205viii Contents
13.3 Defects Found in Multi-pass Welds 207
13.4 Composition Adjustment with Multi-pass Welding 210
13.5 Property Alteration with Multi-pass Welding 213
13.6 Troubleshooting Problems in Multi-pass Welding and Welds 216
References 217
Further Reading 217
14 Problems with Non-fusion Welding and Non-fusion
Welds 219
14.1 Non-fusion Welding Processes Versus Fusion Welding
Processes 219
14.2 Overview of Non-fusion Processes 220
14.2.1 Pressure Welding Processes 222
14.2.2 Friction Welding Processes 222
14.2.3 Diffusion Welding Processes 222
14.2.4 Solid-State Deposition Welding 223
14.3 Problems with Non-fusion Welds and Non-fusion Welding
Processes 223
14.4 Inspection and Repair Challenges with Non-fusion Welds 229
14.5 Troubleshooting Problems with Non-fusion Welds 230
References 230
Further Reading 231
Part III Material-Specific Weld-Related Problems 233
15 Embrittlement of Carbon and Low- and Medium-alloy
Steels 235
15.1 The Importance of Steel 235
15.2 Four Causes of Embrittlement in Carbon and Low- and Medium-alloy
Steels 238
15.3 Hydrogen Embrittlement: A Misnomer in Steels 239
15.4 Secondary Hardening in Steels 240
15.5 Ductile-to-Brittle Transition in Steels 241
15.6 Compromise of Fatigue and Impact Behavior by Residual Stresses in
Steels 243
15.7 Troubleshooting Problems from Embrittlement of Steels by
Welding 244
References 245
Further Reading 245
16 Sensitization or Weld Decay and Knife-line Attack in Stainless
Steels 247
16.1 A Primer on the Metallurgy of Stainless Steels 247
16.2 Sensitization of Austenitic Stainless Steels by Welding 249
16.3 Sensitization of Other Grades of Stainless Steel 252Contents ix
16.4 Knife-line Attack in Stabilized Austenitic Stainless Steels 252
16.5 Troubleshooting Problems from Sensitization or Knife-line
Attack 254
References 255
Further Reading 255
17 Stress Relief Cracking of Precipitation-Hardening Alloys 257
17.1 Different Names, Same Phenomenon 257
17.2 Stress Relief Cracking in Ferritic Alloy Steels 260
17.3 Stress Relaxation Cracking in Stainless Steels 265
17.4 Strain-age Cracking in Ni-Based Superalloys 267
17.5 Troubleshooting Problems from Stress Relief or Strain-age
Cracking 270
References 271
Further Reading 271
18 Loss of Properties in Cold-Worked Metals and Alloys 273
18.1 Cold Work, Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth 273
18.2 Cold-Worked Metals and Alloys in Engineering 278
18.3 Avoiding or Recovering Properties Loss from Fusion Welding 281
18.4 The Worked Zone in Pressure-Welded Metals and Alloys 284
18.5 Troubleshooting Welding Problems in Cold-Worked Metals and
Alloys 285
References 285
Further Reading 286
19 Embrittlement with High-chromium Contents 287
19.1 Phase Formation and Structure 287
19.2 Adverse Effects of σ-Phase 291
19.3 Susceptible Alloys 291
19.4 Guidelines for Avoiding or Resolving Problems from σ-Phase 293
19.5 Troubleshooting Problems with σ-Phase Associated with
Welding 294
References 295
Further Reading 295
20 Weld Dilution and Chemical Inhomogeneity 297
20.1 The Designer’s Druthers 297
20.2 Chemical Inhomogeneity in Welds 300
20.3 Weld Dilution 302
20.4 The Unmixed Zone in the Weld Metal 304
20.5 Impurities in the Weld Metal 307
20.6 Troubleshooting Problems from Weld Dilution and Chemical
Inhomogeneity 307
References 308
Further Reading 308x Contents
21 Dissimilar Metal and Alloy Welding 309
21.1 Joining Dissimilar Materials 309
21.2 The Need for Welding Dissimilar Metals and Alloys 311
21.3 Chemical Incompatibility 311
21.4 Mechanical Incompatibility 315
21.5 Thermal Incompatibility 315
21.6 Troubleshooting Problems with Dissimilar Metal and Alloy
Welding 318
References 318
Further Reading 319
Closing Thoughts 321
Index 323
323
Index
a
Abnormal grain growth 18
Acceptable welds/good welds 3, 19,
117, 120, 123–124
Adhesive bonding 26
Age-hardening alloys see
Precipitation-hardening alloys
Allotropic transformations 138
Alloying (defined) 15
Alpha case (in titanium alloys) 106
Aluminum alloy cracking (due to
welding) 103, 147
Angular distortion/bowing 51
Angular misalignment see
Joint set-up problems
Annealing (defined) 276
Appearance see Weld appearance
Arc blow 72
Arc strike(s) 128, 129
Atomic bonding
covalent bonding 9, 10
dipole bonding (see
Secondary bonding)
fluctuating dipole bonding (see
Secondary bonding)
induced dipole bonding (see
Secondary bonding)
ionic bonding 9, 10
metallic bonding 9, 10
mixed bonding 10
permanent dipole bonding (see
Secondary bonding)
primary bonding 9, 10
secondary bonding 9, 10
van der Waals bonding 9, 10
Austenitic stainless steel see
Stainless steels
Autogenous welding (defined) 148,
211, 302
b
Back-up bars, strips or tape
(for welding) 34
Backward problem-solving approach 5
Bad welds see
Unacceptable welds (bad welds)
Baking welding electrodes 84
Banded microstructure (in steels) 191
Base metal(s)/base material(s) 25
Beachmarks see Fatigue fracture features
Bead-on-plate (BOP) welds 55
Bead-shape-induced cracking see
Centerline or longitudinal cracks
Bevel angle 31
Blind welds (partial-penetration welds)
see Weld joint configurations
Bowing see Angular distortion/bowing
Brazing 10, 169, 311
Buffer layers 203, 315
Build-up layers see Multi-pass
/Multiple-pass welding or welds
Burn-through (defect) 34, 38, 121
Buttering (butter layers) 191 see also
Multi-pass/Multiple-pass
welding or welds
c
Carbon equivalent (Ceq) 100, 180–182
Carbon steels see Steels
A Practical Guide to Welding Solutions: Overcoming Technical and Material-Specific Issues,
First Edition. Robert W. Messler, Jr.
© 2019 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2019 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.324 Index
Casting 14
Categorization of problems (in
welding/welds) 7, 20
Causes of porosity in welds
air/atmosphere contamination 82
contamination by defective
equipment 82
contamination from base metal 83
contamination by improper welding
procedure 82
contamination of joint elements
80–81
hydrocarbon contamination 81
tarnish layers 80–81
water contamination 81
zinc galvanize 81
Centerline or longitudinal cracks see
Hot cracks/hot cracking
Ceramic welding 8
CGHAZ/FGHAZ/ICHAZ 184–185,
262, 265
Chemical compatibility/incompatibility
311–312
Cladding (by welding) see
Multi-pass/Multiple-pass
welding or welds; Welding
(defined)
Classification (of welding processes)
12
Close-packed crystal structure
(of metals) 50
Coalescence (defined) 9
Co-based superalloys 267
Cold cracks/cold cracking 150
cross cracking or check cracking 92,
95–96
hydrogen cracking (see
Hydrogen-assisted/induced
cracking)
root cracks/cracking 92, 98
toe cracks/cracking 92, 98
transverse cracks/cracking 92
underbead cracks/cracking 92, 98
Cold work/cold working 273–276
Cold-worked 274
Cold worked metals and alloys
278–281
effect of welding on 282
weld HAZ in 282
welding of 283–284
Codes (welding codes) 69, 89
Configuration of welds see
Weld joint configurations
Consistency (defined) 297–298
Constitutional liquation cracking see
Hot cracks/hot cracking
Constitutional supercooling 305
Constitution diagrams see DeLong
(constitution) diagram,
Schaeffler (constitution)
diagram, WRC diagram
Continuity (for creating a weld) see
Metallic (or material) continuity
Convection (in weld pools) see Weld
pool convection (forces and
effects)
Convection forces (in welds) 153
Cooling curves (solidification) 157
Copper alloy cracking (due to welding)
103–104
Corrosion cracks/cracking (due to
welding) 102, 192
Crack(s) (defined) 89, 143–144
cold cracks 91, 98, 150 (see also
Cold cracks/cold cracking)
corrosion cracks 91
effect of cracks 90
fatigue cracks 91, 102 (see also
Fatigue cracks/fatigue cracking)
hot cracks 91, 143–146 (see also Hot
cracks/hot cracking)
Crater cracks see Hot cracks/hot
cracking
Crater pipe (discontinuity) 68–69
Cr-depleted zone (or Cr denuded zone)
249–250
Creep 258–259
Creep limit 260
Creep-resistant PH alloys 258
Crown bead see Weld crown bead/weld
bead crownIndex 325
CTE (effect of temperature) 58
CTE mismatch 59, 315, 317
CTEs of metals and alloys 316
Cushion layers see Multi-pass/
Multiple-pass welding or welds
d
Decohesion (defined) 260
Defects (in welds) see Discontinuities
Deformation-induced martensite 247
Deformation processing 14
Degree of dilution 303
Delamination (defect) 191, 192
Delayed cracking see Hydrogen-assisted
or induced cracking
DeLong (constitution) diagram 83, 106
Diffusion welding see Non-fusion
welding
Digging arcs 118
Dilution (in fusion welds) 150, 210,
212, 302, 304, 312
Dimensional shrinkage (in welding) 36
thermal contraction 34–35
volumetric shrinkage 34
Discontinuities 35–36 see also Joint
discontinuities
Dislocations 15, 273–274
edge dislocations 16
mixed dislocations 16
screw dislocations 16
Dissimilar materials 309–310
Dissimilar metal and alloy welding
311
Distortion (warpage) 29, 48, 57–58,
60, 61
Ductile-to-brittle transition and DBTT
241–242
Dynamic recrystallization (during hot
working) 273
e
Effective liquidus temperature 157
Effective solidus temperature 157
Effects of gases in metals 76
Effects of porosity see Porosity
Elastic limit(defined) 274
Embrittling phases 287
Environmentally-assisted cracking see
Hydrogen-assisted or induced
cracking
f
Failure to fit (defined) 19
Failure to function (defined) 20
Fatigue cracks/cracking (due to welding)
102, 196
Fatigue cracks/fatigue cracking 185
Fatigue failure(s) 195–196
Fatigue fracture features
beachmarks 197
striations 196, 198
terminal overload area 197
thumbnails origins 197
Faying surfaces (defined) 221
Fe-Cr phase diagram 248, 288
Fe-Fe
3C phase diagram 129
Ferritic alloy steels 260–261
Filler metal(s) (defined) 302 see also
matching/matched filters,
overmatching or overmatch
filter, undermatched or
undermatching filter
Fillet weld face/weld face 118
Fillet welds 123
Fisheyes (in hydrogen cracking) 99
Fixturing (weldments) 61
Flame-straightening (heat straightening)
61–62
Flux (defined) 110, 111
Flux inclusions see Solid inclusions
Foreign debris or inclusions see Solid
inclusions
Forging laps 191
Fracture mechanics 70
Fracture toughness 89
Freezing range (of alloys) 50, 157
Friction stir welding (FSW) 224–225
excess flash 226–228
heat-affected zone (HAZ) 225
kissing bonds 226–228
lazy-S defect 226–228
nugget collapse 226–228326 Index
Friction stir welding (FSW) (contd.)
oxide-induced defects 226–228
ribbon flask 226–228
stir zone 225
surface galling 226–228
thermomechanically-affected zone
(TMAZ) 225
tunnels (defects) 226–227
unaffected zone 225
Friction welding, see Non-fusion
welding
Full-penetration welds see
Weld joint configurations
Fusing (glass welding) 8
Fusion welding 17
g
Gamma loop/????-loop see
Fe-Cr phase diagram
Gases found in various welding
processes 79, 80
Gas impurities see Impurities (in welds)
Gas inclusions/gas porosity (in welds)
109
Gas(es) in molten weld metal73-76–79
141–142
Germination see Abnormal grain growth
Ghost boundaries (in the PMZ) 164
Glass welding see Fusing
Good welds see Acceptable welds/good
welds
Grain growth (after cold work and
recrystallization) 273
Growth structure in welds (control of)
125, 148–150
h
Hardenability (of steels) 100, 127
Hard-facing see
Multi-pass/Multiple-pass
welding or welds, Welding
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) 158, 169
discontinuities 170
Heat flow (factors affecting) 159
Heat input/weld heat input 141
Heat solid (Portevin-Severin) 140
Heat-straightening see Flame
straightening (heat straightening)
Heat tint see Weld heat tint
Heterogeneous (defined) 300
Heterogeneous welding or filler 302
High-alloy (tool or stainless steels) see
Steel(s)
High-energy-density welding 63
High-frequency electromagnetic
vibration (of welds) 305
High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels
261
Homogeneity (defined) 300
Homogeneous welding 302
Hot cracks/hot cracking 91, 147–148
centerline cracks/cracking 93, 94,
144
constitutional liquation cracking 93,
97, 163
crater cracks/cracking 93–95, 144
fusion-line cracks/cracking 93
liquation cracking 93, 97, 162 (see
also Constitutional liquid
cracking)
longitudinal cracks/cracking 93, 144
reheat cracks/cracking 93, 181,
183–184
strain-age cracking (reheat cracking)
5, 21, 92, 170, 183–187, 257, 258,
261, 267–270
transverse cracks 144, 315
Hot working (defined) 277
Hybrid structures 305
Hydrogen-assisted or induced cracking
99, 109, 182, 239
Hydrogen embrittlement 99
i
Immiscibility 313
Impurities (in welds) 307
foreign-matter inclusions 307
gas impurities 307
non-metallic impurities 307
Impurity elements 307 see also
Residual stresses or locked-in
stressesIndex 327
Included (joint) angle 31
Inclusions see Solid inclusions
Incomplete or insufficient penetration
see Discontinuities
Ingel’s equation for stress concentration
90
Inhomogeneity (in welds) 300
Integral mechanical attachment 310
Intergranular corrosion 250
Intergranular corrosion cracking 177
Intergranular or interdendritic cracking
91, 92
Intermetallic compound (defined) 288
Interpass temperature(s) 262
Iron-carbon phase diagram see Fe-Fe3C
phase diagram
j
Joint discontinuities
cold seam (see Weld bead overlap)
convexity (excessive) 39, 41
excessive reinforcement 35, 39
incomplete or insufficient penetration
35–37
lack of fusion or incomplete fusion
36–38
undercut 41–42
underfill 38–39
weld bead overlap (or cold seam) 39,
41, 42
Joint efficiency (defined) 25
Joint geometry see Weld joint types
Joint permanency 1
Joint set-up problems 25, 31
angular misalignment 31–33
linear misalignment (mismatch) 31,
32
Joint types (welding) 13
butt joints 13
corner joints 13
edge joints 13
lap joints 13
tee or T joints 13
k
Knife-line attack 252–253
l
Lack of fusion or incomplete fusion see
Joint discontinuities
Lamellar tearing 189, 190
Larsen-Miller parameter (in creep)
259
Limiting property 299
Linear misalignment see Joint set-up
problems
Liquation cracks/cracking see Hot
cracks/hot cracking
Liquid-metal-induced embrittlement
(LME) 313–314
Liquidus temperature 50, 157
Location of problems in welds see
Problems in welds (defined), and
Part 2
Locked-in stresses see Residual stresses
Longitudinal cracks/cracking see Hot
cracks/hot cracking
Longitudinal (residual) stresses see
Residual stresses
Low-alloy steels see Steel(s)
Low-C grades of stainless steels see
Stainless steels
m
Machining 14
Macrosegregation (in welds) 152–153,
300, 312
Manifestation of weld problems see
Problems in welds (defined), and
Part 1
Martensite (ferrous) 100, 127–128,
150–151, 182
Martensitic transformation *in steels
179
Matching/matched filler 211, 302–303
Material specificity of welding problems
see Problems in welds (defined),
and Part 3
Mechanical fastening 26, 310
Mechanical incompatibility 315
Mechanical joining 310
Mechanical stresses 47
Medium-alloy steels see Steel(s)328 Index
Melting point (defined) 50, 157
Melting temperature (defined) 157
Metallic (or material) continuity 9, 10,
169, 219
Metallic inclusions see Solid inclusions
Metallurgical notches (stress risers)
196
Microfissuring (in the PMZ) 165
Microsegregation (during solidification)
96, 152, 300
Microstructural zones (in welds) 13,
14, 17–18, 137–141
fusion zone (FZ) 17
heat-affected zone (HAZ) 17
partially-melted zone (PMZ) 18
unaffected base metal (UBM) 17
unmixed zone 137
weld zone (WZ) 17, 137
Mild steels see Steel(s)
Mismatch (joint) see Joint set-up
problems
Modulus of elasticity for metals and
alloys 316
Multi-pass/Multiple-pass welding or
welds 203, 205
buffering layers (same as cushion
layers)
build-up layers 203
buttering layers 203, 210
clad layers/cladding (by welding)
206, 211
cover pass 204
cushion layers 203
defects 207–211
fill pass 204
hard-facing 210
hot pass 204
overlapping heat effects and/or HAZs
213
property alteration 213
root pass 204
temper beads/temper bead technique
205–206, 214–215
transition layers 210, 211, 213
underlayers 203, 216
Mushy zone (MZ) 159
n
Ni-based superalloys 267
Nickel alloy cracking (due to welding)
104
Nitrogen-enhanced alloys 85
Non-close-packed crystal structure
(of metals) 50
Non-equilibrium 157
Non-fusion welding 10, 18–19, 26, 63,
219
advantages of 220
diffusion welding 220, 222–223
friction stir welding see Friction stir
welding
friction welding 220, 222
pressure welding 210, 222
processes (various) 221
shortcomings of 220
solid-state deposition 223
worked zone (in pressure welds) 284
Non-metallic impurities see Impurities
Non-metallic inclusions see Solid
inclusions
Non-uniform thermal contraction 58
o
OEM (Original Equipment
Manufacturing) welding 13
Offset (joint offset) see Joint set-up
problems
Ordered phase(s) (defined) 288, 291
Overmatching or overmatch filler 25,
96, 302–303
Oxide inclusions see Solid inclusions
p
Partially-melted zone (PMZ) 157–160
cold cracking (hydrogen-induced)
164–165
constitutional liquation cracking
161–164
hot cracking (conventional) 161
liquation cracking 162
microfissuring 165
Partial-penetration welds see Weld joint
configurationsIndex 329
Passivation/passivating layer 248
Peening (hammer or shot) see Stress
relief, Mechanical
PH stainless steels see Stainless steels
Pipes (pipe defects in welds) 191
Plain carbon steels see Steel(s)
Planishing see Stress relief, mechanical
Plastic welding/polymer welding see
Thermal bonding
Plug welding see Weld joint
configurations
Porosity (origin) 67, 143
causes of porosity in welds 80
cavity (see Wormhole porosity)
cluster porosity 68, 72
crater pipe 68–69
distributed porosity (see Uniform
porosity)
effects of 69–70
globular porosity (see Spherical
porosity)
internal porosity 68, 143
linear porosity 68, 72
piping porosity 68
random porosity (see Uniform
porosity)
removal of porosity 83–84
sources of porosity 77–80
spherical porosity 68
subsurface (see Internal porosity
above)
surface-breaking porosity 67–68,
143
uniform porosity 68, 70–72
wormhole porosity 68, 72–73
Post-weld heat-treatment (PWHT) 33,
60, 63, 91, 100–101, 183, 198,
243–244, 261, 262, 267
Precipitation-hardening alloys 171
aging response (curves) 173
heat treatment process 172
phase diagram (generic) 171
prerequisites for precipitation
hardening 172
reversion/reversion zone 172
welding effect on microstructure
172–173
welding effect on properties
172–173
welding procedures for 174–176
Predictability (defined) 292
Preheat/preheating 96, 100, 182–183
Preheat temperatures 262
Pre-setting joint elements (to reduce
distortion) 61
Pressure welding see Non-fusion
welding
Problems in welding (categorization)
20
Problems in welds (defined) 19
location (see Part 2) 20
manifestation (see Part 1) 20
material specificity (see Part 3)
21
q
Quench cracking 182, 287
r
Recovery (after cold work) 273, 276
Recrystallization (after cold work) 273,
276–278
Recrystallization anneal 276
Recrystallization temperature(s) 278
Refractoriness (defined) 305
Reheat cracks/cracking see Hot
cracks/hot cracking
Removing porosity see Porosity
Repair welding 13
Residual stresses (locked-in stresses)
33, 48, 54–57, 60–63
Reversion/reversion zone see
Precipitation-hardening alloys
Ripple marks/weld ripple marks 118,
121, 124–126
Root bead see Weld root bead
Root-bead suck-back see Suck-back
Root cause (defined) 80
Root face 31
Root gap 31, 33330 Index
s
Schaeffler (constitution) diagram 83,
106, 293
Secondary bonding 10
Secondary hardening (in steels) see
Steel(s)
Second-phase strengthening 171
Segregation-induced cracking see
Centerline under Hot cracks
Sensitization (in stainless steels) 101,
177, 249, 252
Sensitization cracks/cracking (in SS)
101
Sensitization range 177, 249
Shape welding 207
Shrinkage (during welding) see
Dimensional shrinkage
Shrinkage cavities 191
Sievert’s law (of gas solubility in welds)
73, 142
Sigma (????) phase 287–290
appearance in microstructure 290
avoiding 293, 294
effects of 291
Gow and Harder ratio factor
prediction 293
Hull Creq prediction 294
identification 293
kinetics of formation 290–291, 293
morphologies 289
susceptibility 291, 292
susceptible alloys 291–293
unit cell 289
Woodyatt electron vacancy number
prediction 294
Slag (defined) 111
Slag inclusions see Solid inclusions
Slot welds see Weld joint configurations
Slumping (weld slumping) 34
Soldering 10, 169, 311
Solidification (defined) 52
Solidification growth (in welds) see
Growth structure in welds
Solid inclusions 109, 151
flux inclusions 109, 112
foreign debris 109
metallic inclusions 109, 114, 151,
152
non-metallic inclusions 109, 110,
151, 185
oxide inclusions 109, 113–114
slag inclusions 109, 112–113,
151–152
sulfide inclusions 114
Solid metal embrittlement 313
Solid-state deposition welding see
Non-fusion welding
Solidus temperature 50, 157
Solute partitioning (during
solidification) 300
Spatter 118, 126, 127
Stabilized grades of stainless steels
101–102, 179, 251
Stainless steels 247
austenitic Mn-steels (Hadfield steels)
247, 266
austenitic stainless steels 249
knife-line attack 252–253
low-C grades 251
PH stainless steels 263, 266
sensitization (see Sensitization)
solutionizing treatment/solution
anneal 252
stabilized grades 251
weld decay 21, 177, 179, 247–254
start and stop tabs (for welding) see
Tabs
Stainless steel cracking (due to welding)
105–106
Steel(s) 235–237
blue brittleness (temper
embrittlement) 240
carbon (plain C or mild) steels 238
embrittlement of 238, 239
forms of product 237
high-alloy steels 238, 247
hydrogen cracking of (see
Hydrogen-assisted or induced
cracking)
low-and medium-alloy steels 238
residual stress effects in 243
secondary hardening 240Index 331
stainless steels 239
temper embrittlement (blue
brittleness) 240
tool steels 239
varieties of 237
Steel cracking (due to welding)
104–105
Strain-age cracking 257, 267–269 see
also Hot cracks/hot cracking
Strain-hardening (also work-hardening)
274–275
Strengthening mechanisms 14–17,
170
Stress concentration 90
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 190,
193–195
Stress raiser(s)/stress riser(s) 89–90,
196
Stress relaxation cracking 257, 265
Stress relief, mechanical 198–199
Stress relief, thermal (after welding) see
Post-weld heat treatment
Stress relief cracking 257, 262–264
Striations see Fatigue fracture features
Stringers (non-metallic) 189, 190
Structure-property-processing
interrelationship14 213
Sub-solidus liquation cracking 161
Suck-back 39
Sulfide inclusions see Solid inclusions
Sugaring 122
Superalloys 267
Surface profile-induced cracking see
Centerline under Hot cracks
Surface welding see Welding (defined);
Weld joint configurations
t
Tabs (welding start and stop tabs) 54,
95
Tack welding/tack welds/tacking
34–35, 61, 62
Taxonomy (of welding processes) see
Classification
Temper beads/Temper bead technique
see Multi-pass/Multiple-pass
welding or welds
Temper colors (heat tint) 129
Temper embrittlement 240
Tempering 18, 240–2413
Terminal overload area see Fatigue
fracture features
Thermal bonding (plastic welding) 7,
8, 311
Thermal incompatibility 315, 317
Thermally-induced stresses 47, 52, 185
due to CTE mismatch 52
due to thermal expansion/contraction
47, 185
due to volumetric shrinkage 47, 48,
51, 52, 185
Thermal stress relief see Post-weld heat
treatment
Thermophysical properties
(of materials) 51, 59
Thumbnail origins see Fatigue fracture
features
Titanium alloy cracking (due to welding)
106
Toughness (defined) 273
Transition layers see
Multi-pass/Multiple-pass
welding or welds
Transition pieces (for dissimilar
welding) 317
Transverse (residual) stresses see
Residual stresses
Troubleshooting 5, 20
Types of weld joints see Weld joint types
Types of welds see Weld types
u
Ultrasonic vibration (of welds) 305
Unacceptable welds (bad welds) 1, 3,
19, 117, 120, 123–124
Unaffected base metal (UBM) 189
Undermatched or undermatching filler
302–303
Uniformity (definition) 298–299
Unmixed zone (UMZ) 304–306332 Index
w
Warpage see Distortion (warpage)
Weakest link concept 298–299
Weld (defined) 19
Weldability(defined) 102
Weld appearance 117
Weld contour 118
Weld cracks see Cracks (defined)
Weld crown bead/weld bead crown
118, 119
Weld decay see Sensitization in stainless
steel
Weld dilution see Dilution (in fusion
welds)
Weld heat input see Heat input/weld
heat input
Weld heat tint 129–131
Welding (defined) 7, 9, 13
clad welding 13
fusion welding (see Fusion welding)
hard-facing 13
non-fusionwelding (see Non-fusion
welding)
OEM welding 13
pressure welding (see Non-fusion
welding)
repair welding 13
surface welding 13, 27–28
Weld joint configurations 27–28
bevel grooves/bevel welds 29, 30
blind welds (partial-penetration
welds) 27
full-penetration welds 27
groove welds 28
J-grooves 30
K-joints 30
partial-penetration welds (blind
welds) 27
plug welds 27–28
slot welds 28
square/straight butt welds 28, 30
U-grooves (single or double) 30
V-grooves (single or double) 30
Weld joint problems 25
Weld joint types 27
Weldment (defined) 19
Weld pool convection (forces and
effects) 84–85, 301
Weld profile (weld shape) 31, 35, 40,
41, 119
Weld ripple marks see Ripple
marks/weld ripple marks
Weld root bead/weld root 121
Weld shape see Weld profile (weld
shape)
Weld spatter see Spatter
Weld types 13
Weld width 118
Weld zone (WZ) see Microstructural
zones (in welds)
Worked zone (in pressure welds) 284
Work-hardening (also strain hardening)
273–274
WRC diagram 83
Wrought (products and microstructure)
25
y
Yield point, Upper-and Lower-(in steels)
279
z
Zones (of microstructure in welds) see
Microstructural zones (in welds)


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