كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health

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كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health    كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health  Emptyالخميس 28 يناير 2021, 2:31 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health
Second Edition
Charles D. Reese
James Vernon Eidson  

كتاب Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health  H_b_o_13
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Construction Industry . 1
Construction as a Business . 4
Contractor Liability 4
Management/Professional Positions . 6
Supervisors . 6
The Competent Person(s) . 6
Women in Construction . 7
The Construction Trades 7
Unions of the Building and Construction Trades Department 11
Why the Hazards 12
Cost of Accidents/Incidents . 13
Why do Accidents Occur . 13
Construction Deaths . 14
Construction Injuries 15
Construction Illnesses . 16
Construction Hazards . 17
Construction’s Relationship to OSHA . 19
Intent of this Book . 19
References . 20
Chapter 2 Perceptions in the Construction Industry . 21
Survey . 22
Agreement . 24
Disagreement 25
Contractors and Mixed Views . 26
Other Areas . 26
How to Use this Survey . 26
Example 26
Using the Results 27
Summary . 27
Chapter 3 The People Issue in Construction Safety and Health 29
Setting the Stage . 29
Defining Motivation . 30
Summary of the Principles of Motivation . 30
The Motivational Environment 31
Structuring the Motivational Environment 31
Reacting to the Motivational Environment . 33
Motivational Environment — Examples . 34
Goal Setting 35
Goals and You 35
Rationale behind Goals 35
Goals and Their Many Forms 36xiv Table of Contents
Self-motivation . 36
You are the One . 36
People are Amazing . 37
Losing the Self in Motivation 37
Dealing with People Along the Continuum . 37
The People Issue 37
Changing Values 38
Needs Move Mountains and People 39
Motivational Leadership . 40
Describing Leadership 40
Role Models . 41
Leadership Characteristics . 41
Applying Leadership 41
The Key Person 43
The Ever-Changing Motivational Plan 43
The Plan 43
Feedback/Reinforcement 44
Criticism . 44
Modifying or Changing Behavior 45
Supervisory Motivational Initiatives 47
Different Approaches . 47
Joint Labor/Management Committees . 47
Committee Makeup 48
Recordkeeping 49
Do’s and Don’ts of L/M Committees 49
Organizing a Joint Committee . 50
Expectations . 50
Outcomes 51
Joint Labor/Management Occupational Safety and Health Committees 51
Summary . 52
Peer Pressure 53
Family Pressure 53
The Worker Challenge . 54
Rewards 54
Motivational Techniques 55
Training 55
More about Rewards 55
Reinforcement 56
Incentives as Rewards 56
Incentive Programs . 56
Safety Incentive Program for XYZ Contractor . 57
Special Emphasis 58
Contests 58
Gimmicks and Gadgets 59
Visuals 59
Conferences/Seminars 60
Nonfinancial Incentives 60
Summary . 60
References . 63Table of Contents xv
Chapter 4 Construction Safety and Health Programs . 65
Reasons for a Comprehensive Safety Program . 67
Building a Safety and Health Program 67
Rules . 68
Communications . 68
Training 70
Accident Investigation 71
Evaluation . 73
Explaining the Requirements and Elements of OSHA Guidelines for a
Safety and Health Program 74
Management Commitment and Leadership . 74
Assignment of Responsibility 75
Identification and Control of Hazards . 75
Training and Education 76
Recordkeeping and Hazard Analysis . 77
First Aid and Medical Assistance 77
Emergency and Firefighting Procedures 78
Model Construction Safety and Health Program . 78
Management Safety and Health Policy Statements . 78
Accountability and Responsibility . 80
Discipline Policy 80
Supervisory Involvement . 81
Employee Responsibility 82
Jobsite Inspections 82
Accident Investigations 83
Recordkeeping 83
Training 83
First Aid and Medical Availability 85
Emergency Procedures and Response . 87
Safety and Health Program Evaluation 87
Evaluation of Your Responses . 87
Other Required Written Programs . 90
References . 96
Chapter 5 Analyzing Construction Hazards and Accidents/Incidents . 97
Preconstruction Conference 97
Worksite Hazard Analysis 100
Accident/Incident Analysis 102
Accidents: Why They Happen .102
Analyzing Accidents/Incidents 104
Direct Causes 104
Indirect Causes .104
Basic Causes .105
Job Safety Analysis 108
Management Controls 110
Establishing a Method for Selecting Jobs .110
Selection of Tasks for Analysis .110xvi Table of Contents
Prioritization of Tasks 111
Conducting a Job Safety Analysis .112
Considering Human Problems in the JSA Process .113
Hazards Elimination or Control .114
Methods of Performing a JSA .115
Review the Analysis and Potential Solutions 117
Implementing the JSA in an Operational System .117
Monitoring a JSA Program 117
Hazard Analysis 118
Analyzing Accident Data .118
Summary .120
References .120
Chapter 6 Construction Accident Prevention Techniques . 121
Safety and Health Management .121
Communications .122
Toolbox Talks .122
Training .123
Hazard Identification 123
Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) 125
When an Engineer is Needed .128
Focused Inspections .128
Identify the Need for an Engineer .129
Engineer Requirements 129
Stated Engineering Requirements 129
Implied Engineering Requirements .131
Consensus Standards 132
Inconsistent Reference to Engineers 133
Special Programs 135
Preventive Maintenance Programs .135
Fleet Safety Program 137
Accident Investigation 138
Purpose of Accident Investigations .138
Potential Risks 139
Investigations Benefit the Supervisor 141
Reporting Accidents .141
Ten Reasons for Not Reporting Accidents 141
Good Accident Investigations 143
Determining Accident Types .144
Designing a Report/Investigation Form .144
Organizing/Assigning Responsibilities 144
Explaining Accident Investigations .145
Controlling and Follow-Up 145
Sources of Information .146
The Interview Process 146
Reenacting Accidents .148
The Accident Report 148Table of Contents xvii
Job Safety Observations .149
Benefits of Job Safety Observations 150
Planned Safety Observations .151
Frequency and Extent of Observations 152
The Incidental Safety Observation 153
Indirect Types of Unsafe Procedures 154
The Planned Safety Observation .155
Supervisory Preparation for Job Safety Observations .156
Making the Observation .158
Recording the Observation .159
Post-observation Conference 159
Follow-up Procedures 160
Dealing with Unsafe Performance .161
Safety and Health Audits .162
References .165
Chapter 7 Construction Safety: A through H . 167
Abrasive Grinding (1926.303) .167
Aerial Lifts (1926.556) .168
Air Receivers (1926.306) .169
Alarms (1926.159 and .602) 170
Arc Welding and Cutting (1626.351) 171
Barricades (1926.202) 173
Barriers .173
Batteries (1926.441) .174
Change Rooms (1926.51) .174
Compressed Air, Use of (1926.302) 174
Compressed Air, Working Under .175
Compressed Gas Cylinders (1926.350) .176
Compressed Gas Welding 178
Concrete Construction (1926.701) .179
Concrete Cast-in-Place (1926.703) 181
Confined Spaces (1910.146 and 1926.21) .183
Construction Masonry (1926.706) .188
Conveyors (1926.555) 188
Cranes and Derricks (1926.550) 189
Rated Loads 189
Hand Signals 190
Crane Inspections .190
Wire Rope 190
Guarding .194
Fueling 195
Electrical Concerns 195
Modifications 196
Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes 196
Hammerhead Tower Cranes .196
Overhead and Gantry Cranes .196xviii Table of Contents
Derricks 197
Floating Cranes and Derricks 197
Crane- and Derrick-Suspended Personnel Platforms 197
Platform Operations .197
Platform Specifications 198
Rigging .198
Inspection and Proof Test 199
Work Practices .199
Traveling .200
Prelift Meeting 200
Demolition (1926.850) .200
Chutes (1926.852) 201
Removal of Materials through Floor Openings (1926.853) 201
Removal of Walls, Masonry Sections, and Chimneys (1926.854) .201
Manual Removal of Floors (1926.855) .202
Removal of Walls, Floors, and Material with Equipment (1926.856) .202
Storage (1926.857) .202
Removal of Steel Construction (1926.858) .202
Mechanical Demolition (1926.859) .203
Selective Demolition by Explosives (1926.860) .203
Disposal Chutes (1926.252) .203
Diving (1926.1071) 204
Drinking Water .208
Eating and Drinking Areas (1926.51) 208
Egress (1926.34) .208
Electrical (1926.400) 208
General Requirements (1926.403) .208
Working Distances .209
Guarding Electrical Equipment 211
Conductors Exceeding 600 Volts 211
Installations Accessible to Unqualified Persons 212
Lighting Outlets 213
Wiring Design and Protection (1926.404) .213
Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupters 213
Assured Grounding Program .213
Requirements for Outlets .216
Outdoor Conductors .216
Disconnects .217
Overcurrent Protection .217
Fuses and Circuit Breakers 218
Grounding .218
Separately Derived Systems .218
Portable- and Vehicle-Mounted Generators 219
Neutral Conductor Bonding .219
Ground Connections .219
Supports and Enclosures for Conductors 220
Nonelectrical Equipment 221
Effective Grounding .221
Bonded Conductors 221Table of Contents xix
Made Electrodes .221
Grounded High Voltage .221
Wiring Methods, Components, and Equipment for General Use (1926.405) 222
General Requirements 222
Temporary Wiring 222
General Requirements for Temporary Wiring 222
Receptacles Must be of the Grounding Type 222
Temporary Lights .223
Boxes 223
Flexible Cords and Cables .223
Guarding .224
Cabinets, Boxes, and Fittings 225
Knife Switches .225
Switchboards and Panelboards .225
Wet or Damp Locations .225
Conductors 225
Fixtures .226
Receptacles .226
Appliances 226
Motors .227
Transformers .228
Fire Protection 228
Transformer Guidelines 228
Capacitors .228
Specific Purpose Equipment and Installation (1926.406) .228
Elevators, Escalators, and Moving Walks .229
Electric Welder Disconnects 229
X-ray Equipment 229
Hazardous (Classified) Locations (1926.407) .230
Special Systems (1926.408) .231
Installations Emerging from the Ground .231
Interrupting and Isolating Devices .232
Mobile and Portable Equipment 232
Guarding Live Parts .232
Tunnel Installations 232
Classification: Class 1, Class 2, or Class 3 Remote Control, Signaling, or
Power-Limited Circuits 233
Communications Systems 233
Electrical Work Practices (1926.416) 234
Lockout/Tagging of Circuits (1926.417) .234
Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations .235
Maintenance of Equipment (1926.431) .235
Environmental Deterioration of Equipment (1926.432) .235
Employee Emergency Action Plans (1926.35) 236
Excavations/Trenches (1926.650) 236
Specific Excavation Requirements (1926.651) .237
Utilities .237
Egress Ramps and Runways 237
Equipment and Loads .238xx Table of Contents
Hazardous Atmospheres .239
Water Accumulation 239
Below Level Excavations .240
Loose Materials 240
Inspections 240
Walkways and Barriers 241
Requirements for Protective Systems (1926.652) .241
Slopes .241
Support, Shield, and Other Protective Systems .242
Shield Systems .244
Explosives and Blasting (1926.900) 244
Blaster Qualifications (1926.901) 245
General Provisions .245
Transporting Explosives (1926.902) 246
Use of Explosives (1926.904 and 905) .247
Electrical Blasting (1926.906) .248
Safety Fuse (1926.907) 249
Using Detonating Cord (1926.908) .250
Firing a Blast (1926.909) .250
Handling Misfires (1926.911) 251
General Guidelines .251
Eye and Face Protection (1926.102) 251
Fall Protection (1926.500–503) .252
Scope, Application, and Definitions Applicable to This Subpart (1926.500) 252
Duty to Have Fall Protection (1926.501) 253
Fall Protection Systems Criteria and Practices (1926.502) .255
Guardrail Systems 255
Safety Nets .257
Personal Fall Arresting System .258
Warning Lines 261
Safety Monitoring System .263
Covers .263
Overhead Protection .263
Fall Protection Plan 265
Training Requirements (1926.503) 266
Fire Protection and Prevention (1926.150) 266
Fire Prevention — Storage (CFR 1926.151) .269
Flammable and Combustible Liquids (1926.152) .270
Flagperson (1926.201) 273
Floor and Wall Openings (1926.501) 273
Food Handling (1926.51) .273
Foot Protection (1926.96) 273
Hand Protection 274
Hand and Power Tools/Guarding (1926.300) 274
Hand Tools (1926.301) 275
Hazard Communications (1926.59) .276
Written Hazard Communication Program .277
Information Provided by the Employer .277
Training Provided by the Employer 277Table of Contents xxi
Multiple Employer Sites 278
Owner’s/Contractor’s Responsibilities 278
Hazardous Waste Operations (1926.65) 278
Written Safety and Health Program 279
Site Safety and Health Plan .280
Site Evaluation .280
Site Control 282
Training 282
Medical Surveillance 284
Hazard Controls 285
Personal Protective Equipment 286
Monitoring 286
Handling and Transporting Hazardous Materials 287
Lab Packs .288
Drum or Container Staging 288
Decontamination .288
Emergency Response Plan .289
Sanitation 290
New Technologies 290
RCRA .290
Emergency Response .291
Emergency Response Training 294
Head Protection (1926.100) .294
Hearing Protection — Occupational Noise Exposure (1926.52) 295
Heating Devices (Temporary) (1926.154) .296
Heavy Equipment, Preventing Slips and Falls 296
Helicopters (1926.551) .297
Hoist, Base-Mounted Drum (1926.553) 299
Hoists, Material (1926.552) .299
Hoist, Overhead (1926.554) .301
Hoist, Personnel 301
Housekeeping (1926.25) .303
Chapter 8 Construction Safety: I through W . 305
Illumination (1926.56) 305
Jacks (1926.305) .305
Ladders (1926.1053) .306
Fixed Ladders .307
Rules for All Ladders .309
Lift-Slab Construction (1926.705) .313
Liquid-Fuel Tools (1926.302) 314
Liquid Petroleum Gas (1926.153) 314
Lockout/Tagout (1910.147) 315
Energy Control Program 316
Lockout/Tagout Devices 317
Periodic Inspections .317
Training and Communications .318
Energy Isolation .319xxii Table of Contents
Established Procedure 319
Lockout or Tagout Device Application .319
Stored Energy .319
Release from Lockout or Tagout .320
Testing or Positioning 320
Outside Personnel (Subcontractors, etc.) .320
Group Lockout or Tagout 321
Shift or Personnel Changes 321
Marine Equipment (1926.605) .321
Material Handling and Storage (1926.250) .322
Material Handling Equipment (1926.602) .323
Medical Services and First Aid (CFR 1926.23 and .50) .326
Motor Vehicles and Mechanized Equipment (1926.601) 327
Nonpotable Water (1926.51) 328
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (1926.95) .328
Pile Driving (1926.603) .328
Pneumatic Tools (1926.302) 330
Potable Water (1926.51) 331
Powder-Actuated Guns (1926.302) 331
Power Tools (1926.300) .333
Power Tools, Electrical (1926.302) .333
Power Tools, Fuel Driven (1926.302) .334
Power Tools, Hydraulic (1926.302) .334
Power Transmission and Distribution (1926.950) .335
Tools and Protective Equipment (1926.951) .335
Mechanical Equipment (1926.952) 336
Material Handling (1926.953) 336
Grounding for Protection of Employees (1926.954) .336
Overhead Lines (1926.955) 337
Metal Tower Construction .337
Stringing and Removing De-energized Conductors 338
Stringing Adjacent to Energized Lines 338
Live-Line Bare-Hand Work .339
Underground Lines (1926.956) 339
Construction in Energized Substations (1926.957) .340
External Load Helicopters (1926.958) .340
Lineman’s Body Belts, Safety Straps, and Lanyards (1926.959) .340
Precast Concrete (1926.704) 340
Process Chemical Safety Management (1926.64) .341
Requirements 342
Process Hazard Analysis 343
Employer Responsibility 344
Contractor Responsibility .345
The Process 345
New Operations 346
Hot Work 346
Management Change 346
Emergency Action Plan .347
Compliance Certification .347
Radiation, Ionizing (1926.53) 347Table of Contents xxiii
Radiation, Nonionizing (Lasers) (1926.54) .347
Rigging (1926.251) .348
Rigging Equipment for Material Handling (1926.251) .348
Welded Alloy Steel Chains (1926.251) .349
Wire Ropes (1926.251) 350
Synthetic Rope (1926.251) 352
Web Slings (1926.251) 353
Shackles and Hooks (1926.251) 354
Rollover Protective Structures (1926.1000) 355
Safety Harness 356
Safety Nets (1926.105 and 502) 356
Scaffolds (1926.450) 357
General Requirements (1926.451) .358
Platforms .358
Scaffold Components .359
Supporting Scaffolds 360
Suspension Scaffolds 361
Accessing Scaffolds .363
Stairrails 364
Stairways and Ramps .364
Integrated Scaffold Access .364
Access During Erecting or Dismantling 365
Other Scaffold Rules 365
Fall Protection 366
Falling Object Protection .368
Additional Requirements Applicable to Specific Types of Scaffolds (1926.452) .369
Pole Scaffolds .369
Tubular and Coupler Scaffolds 370
Fabricated Frame Scaffolds .371
Plasterers’, Decorators’, and Large Area Scaffolds 371
Bricklayers’ Square Scaffolds 371
Horse Scaffolds 371
Form Scaffolds and Carpenters’ Bracket Scaffolds 372
Roof Bracket Scaffolds 372
Outrigger Scaffolds 372
Pump Jack Scaffolds 373
Ladder Jack Scaffolds 373
Window Jack Scaffolds 374
Crawling Boards (Chicken Ladders) .374
Step, Platform, and Trestle Ladder Scaffolds .374
Single-Point Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds 374
Boatswains’ Chair 374
Two-Point Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds (Swing Stages) .375
Multipoint Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds, Stonesetters’ Multipoint
Adjustable Suspension Scaffolds, and Masons’ Multipoint Adjustable
Suspension Scaffolds 375
Catenary Scaffolds .375
Float (Ship) Scaffolds 375
Interior Hung Scaffolds 376
Needle Beam Scaffolds 376xxiv Table of Contents
Multi-Level Suspended Scaffolds 376
Mobile Scaffolds 376
Repair Bracket Scaffolds .377
Stilts 378
Training Requirements (1926.454) 378
Signs, Signals, and Barricades .379
Accident Prevention Signs/Tags 379
Site Clearance (1926.604) 380
Slips, Trips, and Falls .381
Stairways (1926.1052) 383
Steel Erection (1926.750) .385
Site Layout, Site-Specific Plan and Construction Sequence (1926.752) 387
Approval to Begin Steel Erection 387
Commencement of Steel Erection .387
Site Layout .387
Pre-planning of Overhead Hoisting Operations 387
Site-specific Erection Plan .387
Hoisting and Rigging (1926.753) 388
Pre-shift Visual Inspection of Cranes 388
Working under Loads .388
Multiple Lift Rigging Procedure .389
Structural Steel Assembly (1926.754) .389
Walking/Working Surfaces 389
Plumbing-up .390
Hoisting, Landing and Placing of Metal Decking Bundles 390
Covering Roof and Floor Openings 390
Installation of Metal Decking 391
Derrick Floors 391
Column Anchorage (1926.755) 391
General Requirements for Erection Stability 391
Repair, Replacement or Field Modification of Anchor Rods
(Anchor Bolts) 392
Beams and Columns (1926.756) 392
General .392
Diagonal Bracing 392
Double Connections at Columns and/or at Beam Webs over a Column .392
Column Splices 392
Perimeter Columns .392
Open Web Steel Joists (1926.757) 393
General .393
Field-Bolted Joists 393
Attachment of Steel Joists and Steel Joist Girders .394
Erection of Steel Joists .394
Erection Bridging .395
Landing and Placing Loads .396
System-Engineering Metal Buildings (1926.758) .396
Falling Object Protection (1926.759) 397
Securing Loose Items Aloft .397
Protection from Falling Objects other than Materials Being Hoisted 397Table of Contents xxv
Fall Protection (1926.760) .397
General Requirements 397
Connectors 397
Controlled Decking Zone (CDZ) .397
Criteria for Fall Protection Equipment 398
Custody of Fall Protection .398
Training (1926.761) .398
Training Personnel .398
Fall Hazard Training 398
Special Training Programs .399
Temporary Sleeping Quarters (1926.51) .399
Tire Cages (1926.600) 399
Toeboards .399
Toilets (1926.51) 399
Transportation .400
Tunnels/Shaft (Underground Construction) (1926.800) 401
Underground Construction (1926.800) 401
Egress and Access 402
Check-In/Check-Out .402
Communications .402
Emergencies .402
Gassy Operations 403
Air Quality 404
Hydrogen Sulfide .404
Flammable Gases .405
Ventilation 405
Illumination 406
Fire Prevention .406
Unstable Formations 407
Explosives and Blasting .408
Drilling .410
General Guidelines .410
Power Haulage .410
Electrical Safety .411
Cranes .411
Caissons (1926.801) .414
Cofferdams (1926.802) 414
Compressed Air (1926.803) .414
Medical Requirements 414
Medical Lock 415
Identifying Workers .415
Communications .416
Signs and Records 416
Compression .416
Decompression .417
Manlocks 417
Special Decompression Chamber 418
Compressor Plant and Air Supply .418
Compressed Air Ventilation and Air Quality 419xxvi Table of Contents
Sanitation 420
Fire Prevention .420
Bulkheads and Safety Screens .421
Vermin Control (1926.51) 421
Washing Facilities (1926.51) .421
Welding (1926.350) 422
Fire Prevention (1926.352) 422
Ventilation and Protection in Welding, Cutting, and Heating (1926.353) .424
Welding, Cutting, and Heating of Preservative Coatings (1926.354) 425
Woodworking Tools (1926.304) 426
Working over Water (1926.106) 427
Chapter 9 Industrial Hygiene Activities in Construction 429
Background .429
Construction Industrial Hygiene 431
Physical Hazards 431
Ergonomic Hazards 432
Noise .433
The Ear .434
Biological Effects of Noise Exposure .436
Heat Stress 436
Cold Stress 441
Radiation .442
Health Hazards .444
Acute Health Effects 445
Chronic Health Effects .447
Chronic Disease 448
Birth Defects/Infertility 448
Biological Hazards .449
Routes of Entry and Modes of Action .450
The Cell 450
Eyes 450
Eye Hazards 450
Lungs and Inhalation 451
Respiration 453
Natural Defenses 454
Skin Absorption 455
Ingestion .456
Personal Exposure Guides .457
Chemical Exposure Guidelines 458
Time-Weighted Average (TWA) .459
Short-Term Exposure Limits (STELs) 460
Ceiling Limit 460
Skin Absorption Notation 460
Types of Airborne Contaminants .461
Dusts .461
Fumes .462
Gases .463Table of Contents xxvii
Mists .464
Vapors .464
Typical Hazardous Chemicals in Construction .465
Solvents 465
Cleaners 466
Acids and Bases .466
Adhesives and Sealants 468
Fuels .468
Wood 470
Exposure Monitoring 471
Biological Monitoring 475
Medical Questionnaire .475
Pulmonary Function Tests .476
Electrocardiogram 476
Chest X-rays .477
Known Cancer-Causing Chemicals and Hazardous Construction Materials 478
Construction Training Requirements .478
Chapter 10 Personal Protective Equipment 489
Introduction .489
Protective Equipment for Noise .489
Eye Protection 490
Head Protection 491
Foot Protection .491
Hand Protection 492
Chemical-Protective Equipment Standards 492
Chemical-Protective Clothing 497
Protective-Clothing Applications .498
The Clothing Ensemble 499
Level of Protection .500
EPA Levels of Protection 500
Ensemble Selection Factors .503
Chemical Hazards 503
Physical Environment 503
Duration of Exposure .504
Protective Clothing .504
Classification of Protective Clothing .504
Performance 505
Design .506
Service Life 508
Protective Clothing Selection Factors 508
Clothing Design 508
Design Considerations 508
Material Chemical Resistance 508
Permeation 509
Degradation 510
Penetration 510
Sources of Information .510xxviii Table of Contents
Physical Properties .511
Ease of Decontamination .511
Cost .511
General Guidelines .511
Decide if the Clothing Item is Intended to Provide Vapor, Liquid-Splash,
or Particulate Protection .511
Determine if the Clothing Item Provides Full Body Protection .512
Evaluate Manufacturer Chemical Resistance Data Provided with the Clothing 512
Obtain and Examine the Manufacturer’s Instruction or Technical Manual .514
Obtain and Inspect Sample Clothing Item Garments 514
Field Selection of Chemical-Protective Clothing 514
Management Program 515
Written Management Program .515
Program Review and Evaluation .515
Types of Standard Operating Procedures 515
Selection of Protective Clothing Components 516
Clothing Donning, Doffing, and Use .516
Donning the Ensemble .516
Doffing an Ensemble .517
Sample Donning Procedures 517
Sample Doffing Procedures .518
User Monitoring and Training .519
Work Mission Duration .519
Decontamination Procedures 519
Definition and Types 519
Prevention of Contamination .520
Contamination Due to Permeation .520
Decontamination Methods .521
Testing the Effectiveness of Decontamination 521
Decontamination Plan 522
Decontamination for Protective Clothing Reuse .522
Emergency Decontamination .523
Inspection, Storage, and Maintenance .523
Inspection .523
Records .524
Storage 525
Maintenance .525
Training .525
Heat Stress Due to Clothing 526
Body Water Loss 527
Respiratory Protection 527
Respiratory Protection Physical Limitations .527
Air-Purifying Respirators .528
Limitations of Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) .529
Respirator Fit 529
Qualitative Fit Testing .529
Quantitative Fit Testing .530
Routine Personal Fit Tests .530
Medical Fitness to Wear a Respirator .530Table of Contents xxix
Facial Hair and Respiratory Protection .530
Care and Cleaning of Respirators 531
Inspection .531
Cleaning and Disinfecting 531
Repairs 532
Storage 532
Respirator Program 532
NIOSH Recommendation 533
Chapter 11 Ergonomics in Construction . 535
Back Injury Prevention 535
Back Injury — Background .535
Preventive Actions .539
Good Health and a Healthy Back 541
Anatomy of Back Structure .542
Back Injury Management .543
First Aid: Taking Care of Your Own Back .544
Warm-Up and Stretching Exercises .545
Use of Back Belts 545
Preventing Back Injuries 546
Back Injury Prevention Program .546
Summary .547
Cumulative Trauma Disorders in Construction .548
Preventing CTDs 552
Construction Tasks and Ergonomic Risks .552
Tools and Their Design 556
Hand Tool Design to Reduce CTDs 556
Existing Equipment/Tools and Their Applications .560
Conducting Ergonomics Assessments .562
Ergonomics Regulations .563
Ergonomics Programs 563
Summary .563
References .563
Chapter 12 Construction Safety and Health Manual . 565
Cover .565
Safety and Health Policy 567
Table of Contents or Index 567
Responsibility and Accountability .567
Company Policies and Procedures .568
Parking Facilities and Site Access .568
Identification .568
Driving Rules .568
Security .569
Employment .569
Hours of Work .569
Checking in and out .569
Payday 569xxx Table of Contents
A Full Day’s Work 569
Issuing, Care, and Use of Materials and Equipment .570
Visits to the Doctor 570
Coffee, Smoking, and Vending Machines .570
Drinking Water .570
Sanitary Facilities .570
Remaining in the Work Area .570
Absence from Work .570
A Category-One Violation .571
A Category-Two Violation 571
Some Cardinal Safety and Health Rules .571
Special Emphasis Programs and Permit-Required Procedures/Initiatives 572
Special Section on First Aid 572
Other Sections 573
Rules and SOPs for Construction-Specific Tasks .573
Reference Materials, Diagrams, and Illustrations 583
Acknowledgment of Receipt of S&H Handbook/Manual .583
Chapter 13 OSHA Compliance . 585
OSHA Standards 586
Protections Under the OSHAct 587
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) .588
Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission (OSHRC) 590
Employer Responsibilities Under the OSHAct .591
Workers’ Rights and Responsibilities Under the OSHAct .591
Discrimination Against Workers 592
Right to Information .593
Assuring a Safe and Healthy Workplace .593
Workers’ Complaints 594
OSHA Inspections 594
Workers’ Complaints and Requests for Inspections .596
Citations, Penalties, and other Enforcement Measures .596
State OSHA Plans 598
Worker Training .599
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses .599
Medical and Exposure Records .605
Posting 607
What to do When OSHA Comes Knocking 607
Inspection Process 609
Mitigating the Damage .609
Closing Conference 610
After the Inspector Leaves .610
Make the Inspection a Positive Experience .610
Focused Inspections in Construction .611
Specific Guidelines 613
Multi-Employer Worksites .615
Summary .616
References .616Table of Contents xxxi
Chapter 14 Construction Standards . 619
Federal Laws 619
OSHAct .619
The Content of the OSHAct 619
The Regulatory Process 622
The Federal Register 624
The Code of Federal Regulations 624
Regulation Paragraph Numbering System .626
29 CFR 1926 — Safety and Health Regulations for Construction 628
Subpart A — General 628
Subpart B — General Interpretations 628
Subpart C — General Safety and Health Provisions 629
Subpart D — Occupational Health and Environmental Controls .630
Subpart E — Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment 632
Subpart F — Fire Protection and Prevention 633
Subpart G — Signs, Signals, and Barricades 634
Subpart H — Materials Handling, Storage, Use, and Disposal 634
Subpart I — Tools: Hand and Power 635
Subpart J — Welding and Cutting 636
Subpart K — Electrical 637
Subpart L — Scaffolding .639
Subpart M — Fall Protection 640
Subpart N — Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Elevators, and Conveyors 641
Subpart O — Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations 642
Subpart P — Excavations 643
Subpart Q — Concrete and Masonry Construction 644
Subpart R — Steel Erection 645
Subpart S — Tunnels, Shafts, Caissons, Cofferdams, and Compressed Air .646
Subpart T — Demolition .647
Subpart U — Blasting and Use of Explosives 648
Subpart V — Power Transmission and Distribution 649
Subpart W — Rollover Protective Structures, Overhead Protection 650
Subpart X — Stairways and Ladders 651
Subpart Y — Commercial Diving Operations 652
Subpart Z — Toxic and Hazardous Substances 653
More Detailed and Other Sources of Regulatory Information 654
Chapter 15 Workers’ Compensation 655
Employers’ Liability .655
Workers’ Compensation as an Exclusive Remedy 656
Covered Employment .657
Covered Events .657
Selecting the Physician 658
Benefits .659
Cash Benefits 659
Benefits for Total Disability 660
Benefits for Partial Disability 661
Survivor Benefits 661xxxii Table of Contents
Medical Benefits .662
Rehabilitation 662
Background .662
Medical Rehabilitation .662
Vocational Rehabilitation .663
Administration 663
Risk Management .664
Insurance .664
Loss Control .665
Summary .666
References .666
Chapter 16 Resources and Information Access 667
The Computer .668
Professional Organizations and Agencies 668
Federal Government Sources .670
Construction-Related Associations 671
Electronic Sources (Internet) 674
Government 675
Other Sources .675
Consultants .675
Construction Organizations 676
Books 676
Selecting Consultants .677
Chapter 17 Construction Terms and Slang . 679
Construction Terms 679
Construction Slang .714
Reference 719
Chapter 18 Summary . 721
Planning the Safety and Health Initiative 722
The People in Construction Safety and Health .722
Construction Workers 722
Supervisors .723
The Supervisor’s Ten Commandments of Safety .724
Safety and Health Professionals 725
Contractors .725
People .726
Programs .726
Hazards .727
OSHA/Regulations .727
This Book is for You .728
Incorporate Safety and Health .728
Appendix A NAICS versus SIC 729Table of Contents xxxiii
Appendix B Construction Training Requirements . 733
Appendix C Sample of Written Hazard Communication Program . 755
Company Policy .755
Company Commitment 755
Employee Responsibility 756
Program Manager/Coordinator .756
Chemical Inventory 756
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Policy 756
Container Labeling Policy 757
Employee Information 757
Hazardous Nonroutine Tasks .758
Emergency Procedures .758
Multi-Employer Jobsites 758
Appendix D 29 CFR 1926 Construction Standards — Jobsite Audit Instruments 759
Safety-Related Work Practices 767
Safety-Related Maintenance and Environmental Considerations .767
Safety Requirements for Special Equipment .767
Appendix E Electrical Hazardous Location Classification 777
Appendix F Rigging — The Crosby User’s Lifting Guide 783
Appendix G Jobsite Rules 795
Appendix H Ergonomics Program Survey Instruments 799
Appendix I OSHA Regional Offices and Offices of State-Approved Plans . 817
Appendix J 29 CFR 1926 Key Words 823
Appendix K Definitions for Subparts of 29 CFR 1926 831
Appendix L Crane Illustrations 873
Appendix M Scaffolds and Aerial Lift Illustration 881  


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