كتاب Industrial Instrumentation and Control
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
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 كتاب Industrial Instrumentation and Control

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Industrial Instrumentation and Control
Third Edition
S. K. SINGH
Head Maintenance Service Group
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كتاب Industrial Instrumentation and Control  I_i_a_11
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Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
.X f l l
PART I
MEASI KKMKM CONCEPTS
L . Basic Cunccpls unit Qualifies of Mcasurccm' iil
1.1 Introduction /
1.2 Measure mein and its Aim /
13 The Functional Elements of tin Instrument 2
1.4 Perforinance Characterislics 4
1.5 Statistical Analysis / 0
Seif -check Quiz II
Review Questions 12
I
PART it
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENTS
2. I nits and Standards of Measurements
2.1 Introduction 13
22 Units of Measurement 13
23 Standards of Measurement I ft
2A Time Standards and Automatic Frequency 21
Scif-check Quiz 21
Review Questinns 23
3. Electrical Measuring Instruments
3.1 Introduction 24
3.2 Classification 24
33 Essentials of Instruments 25
3.4 Types of Electrical Instruments 23
3.5 Moving-Inset Instruments 2 S
3.<> Moving-Coil Instruments 33
13
24xvi Gorf tent
3.7 Hot-W i re lustrumen ts 41
3.$ Induction Instruments 4.i
3,9 Electrostatic Instruments 47
3. SO Insulation Testing Merger 5 /
3.11 Instrument Traustbnner 52
3.12 Potentiometer 56
Worked Exunip!'es 68
Self-check Quiz 70
Review Questions 72
4. Mower and Energy Measurements
4.1 Introduction 74
4.2 Fowar Measu re menl 74
Energy Measurement 90
Self checht Quiz 97
Rewiew Questions 99
5. M agiiet ip MLMS II rpments
5.1 Introduction 100
5.2 Ballistic Galvanometer 191
5.3 Flux Meter 102
5.4 Determination of B-H Curve U)4
5.5 Dclcnn [nation of Hysteresis Loop 1 / 0
Worked Examples / 14
Self-check Quiz i / 8
Review Questions } 19
74
4.3
mo
PART 111
PROCESS PA RAMETER MEASL!RE VI E\TS
d, Electronic Measurements
Introduction 12 /
Analog Electronic Voltmeter 122
Digital Electronic Voltmeter ( DVM) 155
Digilal Mu Elimeter (DMM ) 14 /
Virtual Multimeter (VMM) 142
Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) / 44
Frequency Measurement / 58
Phnse Angle Measurement / 70
Signal Generator 174
F u net ion Genora (or / 79
Wave Analyzer ISl
Distortion Measurement 1.84
{)'Factor Measurement IRS
Worked Examples / 91
Seif check Quiz ( 96
Review Questions 198
m
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
61
6.H
6.9
6.10
6 , i L
6.12
6.13Content XV LK
tm ta- rn m m m m t m m jm m a B a a
7. Displacement Forr 7r| introduction 20 /
7.2 Mfas EI rement oH )isplaceinen t 20 /
7.3 Measure men! of Force 20A
7 A Measurement uf Torque 214
7.5 Measurement ScIf-check Quiz 225
/Review Questions 222
M. Dimension Measurement
8.1 introduction 225
8.2 Thickness Measurement 225
8.3 Laser-based Length Measurement 256
8.4 Camera-based Width Measurement 258
8.5 Laser Diameter Gauge 259
Self-check Oniz 240
Review Questions 242
9, Density^ Viscosity and f i l l Measurements
9.1 introduction 245
9.2 Density Measurement 245
9.3 Viscosity Measurement 27 i
9.4 pH Measurement 279
Self-check Quiz 287
Review Questions 289
It), Level Measurement
10.1 Introduction 290
10.2 Methods of Liquid Level Measurement 290
10.3 Direet Mel hods 290
10.4 Hook-Type Level Indicator 290
10.5 Sight Class 29 f
10.6 Float-Typf 1 eye I 1 ndicator 293
10.7 l >isplacer L evel De tectors 295
10.8 indirect Methods 297
10.9 Hydrostatic Pressure Type 297
10.10 Pressure Gauge Method 297
10.11 Air bellows 298
10.12 Air Purge System 299
10.13 I.iquid Purge System 500
lp.J4 Electrical Methods JOf
] 0.15 Cnpac i tance Leve I 1ndicalor 301
10.16 Rctdialion Level Detector 302
10.17 Laser Level Sensors 505
10.18 Microwave Level Switches 506
10.19 Oplieal Level Detectors 309
10.20 Ultrasonic Level Detectors 310
201
225
243
338Eli
XVII!- GMteflt
JB M.
10.21 Eddy Current Level Measureme nt Sen SOTS 31i
10.22 Servian,£ of Lfyel Measuring Instruments $13
10.23 Selection of Level Sensors 514
Self-check Quiz 314
Review Omsfivtis 519
11. Flow Measurftntent
Introduction 321
Methods of Flow Measurement 321
Inferential Flow Measurements 322
Qua nt i ty FIow meters 347
Mass Flowmeters 354
Calibration of Flowmeters '355
Selee tion oI" Flow motors 359
$$If-cfack Quiz JrfJ
Review Questinns 365
12
- Pressure Measurement
Introduction 366
Pressure 366
Methods of Pressure Measurement 368
Manometers 368
Elastic Pressure Transducers
Mcasu rein ent of Vacuum 377
Force-balance Pressure Gauges 332
Electrical Pressure Transducers 385
Pressure Switches 393
12.10 Calibration of Pressure Measuring Instruments 394
12.1! Maintenance and Repair ol Pressure Measuring Instruments 395
12.12 Troubleshooting 396
Saif-check Quiz 460
Review Onestinits 4it2
i l l
JH
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
1IJ6
11.7
36 h
12.1
12.2
12.3
124
12.5 372
12.6
12.7
E2.M
\2.1)
33. Temperature Measurement
Introduction 464
Temperature 464
Temperature Scales 405
Methods of Temperature Measurement 408
Expansion Thermometers 468
Filled-s ystcm Therm ometers 413
Electrical Temperature Instruments 426
Pyrometers 432
tr
Fiber-optic Temperature Measurement Systems 436
13.10 Ultrasonic Thermometers 438
13. IE Calibration of Thermometers 446
13- 12 Femperature Measurement Consideration 441
Seif-check Quiz 448
Review Questions 450
404
IV]
13.2
13.3
134
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8
13.4Content xix
n « eii 9ses?4a«4 w (TW ««« f? a WH1?! (TW* «sea V^!R irn 9V4BW H-4"H PI"« w n B w w w wins u*i nv^ 9 irn sn e PB4
PART IV
AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS
5 4, Automatic Process Control Systems and Controller)
Introduction 452
History of Process Control Systems 455
Examples of Process Consul Systems 455
Block Diagram Representation of Process Control Systems 450
Transfer Functions of Control. System 453
ITansfer Functions of Physical Systems 459
F>iiTerenlial Equations 412
Laplace Transform 415
Types of Process Control Systems 479
14.10 Application, Based Classification of Control Systems 494
14.1! Automatic Controllers 496
14.12 Classification of Controllers 504
14,0 Control Objectives 524
14.14 EJenefits of Process Control Systems 529
14.15 Process Control La^rs 530
14.16 Levels uf Process Control System
Self-check Quiz 531
Revisw QuesHans 533
452
14.1
14.2
14.2
14.4
145
146
14.7
14.fi
14,9
530
PART V
CO31PL11 EK-AIDl|> COM ROL
15. Sensors and TrsnulucEn
Introduction 554
Sensors 534
Transducers 538
Primary Sensing Elerijetijpi 540
Electrical Transducer* 542
Selection of Transducers 543
Transmission Lines 547
Final Control Elements 547
Self-check Quiz 543
Review Questions 550
16, Transmitters, Telemetry Systems and Recorder*
Introduction 551
Transmitters 551
Telemetry Systeins 565
Recorders 577
Scif-check Quiz 537
Review Qu&ttions 533
534
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6
15.7
L 5.S<
551
Id l
16.2
L 6.3
16.4xx Content
17. Computer-aided Measurement and fruuirnl Systems
Introduction 590
17.2 Role of Computers m Measurement and Control
(Proeess Control)
17.3 Elements of Computer-aided Measurement and Control :> £>.?
17.4 Computer-aided Process Control Architecture 595
17.5 Man machine Interface ( MM 3 ) 600
17.6 Computer-aided Process Control Hardwire 601
17.7 Proeess-rclaied Interfaces 609
17.8 Communication and Networking 622
17.6 [ ndustria 3 Cornffiiinication Sysiems 631
17.10 DtUa Transfer TeehniQucs 634
17.1 E Computer-aided Process fjontrol Software 636
17.12 Real’time Operating System ( RTOS) 640
17.13 Real-time Application Software for Process Control 648
17.14 Software Fault Tolerance 652
17.15 Computer-based Data Acquisition (DAQ) System 65$
17.16 Economics of Computer-aided Process Control 662
S&if*check Quiz 662
Review Questions 665
56ft
17.1
PART VI
INSTRUMENT SELECTION AND COMMISSIONING
IK. Prugramiirable Lu^ to Coni mile rs
EnLroditcliiun to Mic recoin puiers 66?
18.2 Programmable Controllers 66 ft
L 8.3 P rngrumm ab le Lay io Contml lers { P L Cs ) 66 ft
18.4 PLC Programming 672
18.5 Ladder Diagram 674
18.6 PLC Communications arid fcfetworking 677
18.7 PLC Selection 677
18.8 PLC Inslulialion 679
18.9 Advantages of Using PLCs 6 ft0
Saif-check Quiz 680
Review Questions 6 ft 1
667
18.1
16. Distributed Control System
164 Introduction 6 ft2
16.2 Overview of Distribuied Control 682
16.3 DCS Soilware Configuration 688
16.4 DCS Commirnieution 690
16.5 DCS Stipervisory Computer Tttsks 693
16.6 DCS integration with PLCs and Computers 696
16.7 Features oM'JCS 69 ft
16.8 Advantages of DCS 698
682Content
_
-s.
_ _.L_

_ _
— — — ir L — — — !.-rr -i — - — *! — «* — — —
_ < a.
-L
Self-check Quiz 699
Review Questions 700
20, Application of Control Systems
Introduction 701
Basic Principle 701
Electrical Control Systems 706
r
Hydraulic Control Systems 70 fl
Pneumatic Control Systems 770
Electric Oven Temperature Control 772
Thickne&ss and Fldness Control System for Metal Rollmu 7 / V
Automat to Control of Metal Width and IliLekneiis 777
Photoelectric Control System 720
Self-check Quiz 726
Review Questions 727
Till
20.1
202
203
2Q.4
203
20.0
20.7
20.K
20.9
Append i\ 729
Abbreviations 729
Greek Alphabets 737
References 732
Indei 735Index
A Automatic Gauge Control ( AGQ 718
Automatic Width Control (AVVQ "18
A RL 11 L i.! U i . i ‘ i ri ; u :in tf r M 5
r
l_ k] LLjd -filEcd Thorniojn etors 414
Mercury-fit Led Thermometers 415
A .C -electronic voltmeter
(ACEVM) m
Avs rage-rtspond i ng a _c. electr*mic
voltmeter 125
Peak-responding a.c, electronic
voltmeters L22
RMS-responding a .c . electronic
voltmeter 129
Absolute instrumerits 24
Absolute units 15
Accuracy 4
Limit of error 4
Analog electnjnic voltmeters 122
A nalpg-to-d ig Ita I Con verlers
( ADC) 61U
Arithmetic mean 10
Audio Frequency t Automatic Controllers 496
Controllers 504
Dertvativ? control action 50I
Electronic controllers 5IS
Hydraulic mntmllers 513
Integral {]) control inside 500
On-ot'f control action 497
(PID) control 502
Pneumatic Controllers 504
Proportional (P) controller 49V
Proportional-p I us-d erivati vfl (FD)
control 5t)2
P roporliona L-pJ us-in tegra l ( PI )
control 502
B
ttrif curves 104
Backlash 6
Ballistic galvanometer
bus In terrace 606
Analog interfaces 610
EISA Bus 608
ISA AT Bus 608
ISA Bus 607
MCA Bus 608
MU-Bus 608
S- IUd Bus 607
EO ]
c
Calibration 4
Calibration of Thermometers 440
Calibration of Thermocouples 440
Calibration of liquid flowmeters 355
Selection of Flowmeters 359
Calibration of Pressure 594
Capacitive transducer 207
Cathode ray oscilloscope
(CRO) 144
Analog ( Dual-trace) CKO 150
CaLhode ray tube (CRT) 144, 145.. 146
Digital CRO 153
Wavimeter 160
Centralized Computer C-untroJ
Systems 595
CCS System of Units 15
CGS Electrostatic svstem 15
CCS Electromagnetic system 15736 index
Characteristics, performance 4
Composition Control 704
Computer-aided process control 593
Csfttralj^ed Computer Control
Systems 595
Distributed: Computer Control
Systems 595
I tierarchicnl Computer Control
System 597
Man-machine 600
Digital electronic voltmeter,
Continuous-balancing DVM 138
integrating-type DVM 1.37, 138
Ramp-type DVM 135
S ticcessi v e-a pprox i in ation
DVM 139
Digital Interfaces 619
RS-232C Interfile 621
RS-422A In terface 621
RS-485 Interface 621
digital mo I ti meter (DMM ) 141
Digital-to-a n a I Ug <’(>0VCittrS
{DAC) 613
Dispin cement 201
Ponded strain gauge 2Q3
Resistance strain gauge 201
Unbonded strain gauge 204
Distort Lem 184
Eieciric distortion
measurements 186
\ 1armoteasuremuni [88
Spectrum analyzer 182
Distributed control system (DCS} 682
Drift 5
Dynamic Error 8
Dynamic Response 8
'Zero-order instrument 8
F i rst-orderinstrument 9
Second-order pnsirumerit 9
I Vi
D
Lie: , electrunic voltmeter 130
Chopper-type d .c. amplifier 132
Chopper-type tic. amplifier
electronic voltmeter 132
Direct-erupted d .c. amplifier d .e.
electronic voltmeter 131
Damping torque 25
Data acquisition ( DAQ) system 653
Pata-presentattoin element 2
Data-transmission element 2
Dead zone 6
Density 243
Tuning fork densitometers 257
Density Measurement 243
r'
Balance type densitometers 263
Coriolis densitometer 253
Density 243
Cas density measure ment 248
Hydrostatic densitometers 262
6T
Liquid density measurement 247
Magnetic methods of density
Measurement 251
Pvcnometric densitometer 260
K
Solid density in tii'j n rOme rt t 246
Vibrating cylinder
denst tometer 256
Vibrating Tube Densitometer 354
Vibrational Methods of Density
Measurement 253
Weight Method of Density
Measurement 266
Derived qua n ti ties 14
Deviation \([
Average deviation id
standard deviation 11
Diameter gauge 239
Differential equations 472
E
Eddy current level measurement
sensor 311
Electrical Pressure Iransducui's 385
Capacitive Pressure
Transducers 388
FotentioTnetric Pressure
Transducers 387
Reluctance Pressure
Transducers 390
Strain gauge 385
Electrical control systems 706
Electrical temperature instruments 420
Resistance Thermometer 420
Thermistors 430
Thermocouples 422
Electronic voltmeter 122
Electrostatic instruments 47Index
737
Strain gauge load cell 21J
Force-balance Pressure Gauges 382
]?tn]1 type of pressure gauge 384
Dead -iveig h t piston 382
Ring balance gauge 383
Frequency 15 ft
Frequency Meters 162
Frequency Rioniters 164
Function generator .ITS
Fundamental quE^iiLilic;^ L4
Quadrant Atitect^d-di type &c electrometer electrometer*4.247
Energy meters 90
AC. induction-type energy
meters 94
Elihu-Thoitison Commuta for Motor
Meter 92
Ferranti mercury motor meter 90
Phase errors 95
Single phase energy 94
ThreE?-phase energy meb&tp 95
English system of units 17
Expansion thermometers 408
Bimetallic Thermometers 409
Gas Thermometers 417
Liquid - in-glass thermometer 4\ l
Liquid - in -metal thermometer 4.12
H
heterodyne frequency meter 162
Hitt- Wire Instruments 41
Hydraulic Control Systems 70ft
Hydrometers 265
Radiation densitometer# 268
Refraetbmetric densitometers 269
Hysteresis 2 30
F
Fi\l i r-ei p tic it nt pe r atu m
measurement 436
Fidelity fi
I 'i el J - b uses 632
Modbus 633
Profi-Bus 633
Rack -bus 633
Smart Ertinemitters 632
[ 'inbil contrchi elements 547
Mow Control 704
Flotv measurements 321
Annubar lube 330
hall tube 328
Differential Flowmeters 322
Elbow laps 331
Flow nozzles 327
Flume 332
Orifice plates 324
Vifitur: tube 326
Pi to l tubes 329
Rotameter 332
Variable Area Flowmeters 332
Weirs 331
Flu* density 134
Flux motor 1U2
Grassut flu* meter L03
Force 208
Electric force transducers 211
Hydraulic force meter 21Sft
Pneumatic force meter 209
Press cl uctor load cells 213
I
Indicating instruments, 25
CjmtroEling (ttr resithring)
torque 25
Controlling torque 25
Damping torque 25, 27
Deflecting ^or operatmg) torque 25
Deflecting Torque 25
Induction type instruments 4.3
Ferraris-Type Induction
Instrument 44
Shaded -Pole Type Induction
Instrument 45
Instrument transformers 52
Current transformers 54
Potential transformers 54
Instrumentation 1
Insulation testing megger 51
International System (SI) of
Units US
Interrupt 636
ISO Reference Model 629
L
Ladder diagrams 674
Lag 8
[ dp]irK' -p trarisforrns- 473
Laser-based length measurement 23673B index
Laser doppler Vttlocimetef
{LDV) 236
Level meretirement 290
Air bellows 298
Air purge 299
Capacitance level indicator 30 ]
Displacer Level Detectors 295
Float-Type Level Indicator 293
Hook-type level indicator 291
Laser Level Sensors 303
Liquid ptirgL- system 300
.Microwave level detectors 306
Pressure Cange Method 297
Radiation level detectors 302
Ranges 292
Sight glass 291
Linear variable-differential
transformer (LVDT) 205
Liquid-level Control 70S
Local area Metwork ( LAN ) 627
instruments 28
Double’vane type moving-iron
instrument 29
Multiplexing 616
O
Opera lhig system 640
Real-time operating system 640
Optical level detectors 309
Fiber -optic Level Detectors 310
Oscilloscope 144
F
Parallel Transmiss Lon 625
Performance characteristics !
pH Measurement 279
Glass PlectrLide pi I
Measurement 2H4
Phase angle 170
Phase-Difference Meters 171
Photoelectric Control System 720
PLC Frogramining 672
Pneumatic control system 710
Polling 636
Potentiometer 56
A.C’. pUhTitiLnnt'ter 65
Brooks DeJlvLitiun
Potentiometer 62
Crompton Potentiometer 59
D.C. potentiometers 57
Polar-type Potentiometer 65
Rectangular co-ordinate type
potentiometer 67
Self -halancing Potentiometer 63
Vernier potentiometer 60
Power measu remerits 74
Bolometer 77
Calorimeter method 79
Dynamometer Wattmeter 81
Induction Wattmeters 82
One-wattmeter method 89
1'h roe-watt meter ritethod of power
measureincm 88
Two-wattmeter method of power
measurement 89
Wattmeter Method 81
Precision 4
Con formi ty 5
Significant figures a
M
Magnetic Flowmeters 335
Magnetic flowmeters 335
Magnetic measurements 100
Magnetizing force 107
Mar^Machfne interface ( V f M i j 696
Manometer 368
Barometer 37U
Inclined tube manometer 370
Micromanometer 370
U-tube Manometer 3.-GJ8
WeII- type Manometer 369
Mass flowmeters 354
Cali bra tion of flowmeters 355
Measurement 2
Memory Management 647
Mistakes 6
MKS System of Units 1&
Modem 618
Moving-coil instruments 53
Dflubb-VShe type nlOviiig-iron
instrument 33
Dynamometer-Type (or Llcctrody -
namk) Moving Coil
instrument 37
[Yrmantn! magnet moving-coil
instrument 3.3
Moving-iron instruments 28
Attraction-type moving-ironIndex
739
Pressure 366
Pressure Transducers 372
BeUows-type gauges 375
C'-type Bourdon Tube Pressure
GttUge 372
Diaphragm Pressure
Transducers 374
Pressure Control "04
Pressure switch 393
Process 452
Process conlrol 453
Process Conlrol Laws 534)
Process control systems 479
Analog and Digital Control
Systems 487
Cascade control system 484
Closed -loop or Feedback Control
System 480
Computed Variable Conlrol
Systems 4&H
Feedforward control system 483

f . inenr and Kon -linear Control
Systems 487
Numerical C"< jutrc>] System 495
m
Open-loop control system , 479
Optimizing Control Systems 492
Override Control Systems 490
Jr
Ratio control system 486
Si: L|uentLLtl control system 494
Servo control system 493
Valve position control ( VPC) 492
Programmable logic «)nfro 11ers
(PLCsJ 668
Protocol 631
MAP 631
TOP protocol 632
Pulse Amplitude modulation
( PAM ) 571
Pulse Juration modulation (PJJM ) 572
Pulse Frequency modulation
( PFM ) 372
Pulse position modulation (PPM ). 573
Digital pulse lelemelry 573
Fiber-optic Telemetry 574
Radio telemetry 576
Pyrometers 432
Fiber-optic temperature
measurement 436
Optical pyrometers 434
Radiation pyrometer 432
Q -Q
Factor 1H8
Quantity flpwrj^lerfc 347
R
Kamdom errors 7
Recorders 577
Circular-chart recorders 582
Graphic recorders 578
Mu[tipoint recorders 584
Strip-chart recorders 578
X-Y recorder 586
Repealability 5
Reproducibility 5
Resolution 6
s
Secondary instruments 24
Indicating instruments 25
Jutegrating instruments 25
Recording instruments 25
Sensing Llements 540
Electrical Transducers 542
Sensitivity 5
Sensor 457
, 534
Active transducer 539
Analog transducers 539
Composition analyzers 538
Digital transducers 539
Electrical transducer 540
Flow Sensors 537
Mechanical transducers 54U
Passive transducer 539
Pressure Sensors 536
Primary transdLKL’rH 538
Secondary transducers, 539
Temperature sensors 535
Serial Transmission 624
Signal generator 174
Random noise signal
generator 178
Sweep-frequency Signal
Generator 176
Software 636
Application software 638
System software 637
J
Speed 2IS
Magnetic-drag type of
tachometer 220740 index
Resonance tachometer 219
Revolution counter 218
Speed of Response &
Standard
IE HE Standards w
International standards 1 St
Trimary ( nr basic) standards 19
Seconda ry stanc I a r<3s 19
Working standards 19
Standard of measurement Lti
Standard Prefixes 20
Time standard 21
Static characteristics 4
Static error 6
Stalist tea l a na l vsis J tl
J
Synchronous Transmission 626
Systematic errors 6
Instrumental errors di
Environmental errors 7
measurement 222
Nun -eon tact type thick ness
gauge 231
Ultrasonic thickness gauge 229
X-ray fluorescence thickness
Gauge 235
Torque 214
In-line rotating torque sensor 214
In-line stationary torque sensor 216
Proximity Torque Sensors 217
Transducer 538
Primary transducers 538
Secondary transducers 539
Passive transducer 339
Active transducer 539
Arising transducers 539
Digital transduces 539
Mechanical transducers 540
Eleclrcal transducer 540
Transducers 654
Transfer function 458
Transmission lines 547
Transmitter 457
,
, 551
Force-balance transmitters 555
Motion-balance trails mi L ter 556
Pneumatic transmitter 557
Turbine Flowmeters 336
Target Flowmeters 340
Thermal Flowmeters 341
Turbine Flowmeters 338
L
, 18
T
Tachometer 472
lachornetc r generator 221
A.C. tachometer 221
D.C tachometer 222
Task Management 646
Telemetry, 565
Analog pulse telemetry 571
Current telemetry 568
Electrical telemetry systems 567
Frequency telemetry systems 570
Impulse telemetry systems 570
Pneumatic telemetry system 566
Pulse telemetry 571
U
Ultrasonic Flowmeters 346
Doppler flowmeter 347
Ultrasonic flowmeters, 346
Ultrasonic level detectors 310
Ultrasonic thermometer.1-- 4.36
Unit uf measurement 13
Voltage telemetry 567
Temperature 404
Temperature Control 705
Temperature scales 4D5
Thickness Measurement 225
beta-h neks-L'a tte r t h ick n < 's-s
g^tige 235 V
Capacitance gauges 23.L
Capacitive method of thickness
Vacuum pressures 377
Capsule Gauges 377
ionization gauge 381
McLeod gauge 377
Thermal-conductivity gauges 379
Variable-conversion element 2
Vnriiihie-mnnipubition element 2
Virtual multimeters (VMMs) 142
measurement 228
Con± jet-1y pe tfijekness
measurement 225
Di fferen L i aI He t a-1ransm ission
Thickness Gauge 234
Inductive methods of thicknessIndex
741
Viscosity 221
Capillary viscometers 274
Ft tin* cup viscometer!; 273
Industrial viscometers 277
Rotational viscometers 2/6
Vortex Flowmeters 343
analyzer 182
Fleterodyne wave analyzers 183
Wavemeters 160
Width measuremen ( system 238
W
Wave analyzer 181
Frequency -selective wave


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