كتاب Structural Composite Materials
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

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 كتاب Structural Composite Materials

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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كتاب Structural Composite Materials  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Structural Composite Materials    كتاب Structural Composite Materials  Emptyالأحد 27 ديسمبر 2020, 2:35 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Structural Composite Materials
F.C. Campbell  

كتاب Structural Composite Materials  S_c_m_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xi
About the Author xv
Chapter 1 Introduction to Composite Materials 1
1.1 Isotropic, Anisotropic, and Orthotropic Materials 4
1.2 Laminates 7
1.3 Fundamental Property Relationships 8
1.4 Composites versus Metallics 10
1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Composite Materials 14
1.6 Applications 18
Chapter 2 Fibers and Reinforcements 31
2.1 Fiber Terminology 31
2.2 Strength of Fibers 32
2.3 Glass Fibers 33
2.4 Aramid Fibers 39
2.5 Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Fibers 41
2.6 Carbon and Graphite Fibers 42
2.7 Woven Fabrics 49
2.8 Reinforced Mats 52
2.9 Chopped Fibers 52
2.10 Prepreg Manufacturing 52
Chapter 3 Matrix Resin Systems 63
3.1 Thermosets 64
3.2 Polyester Resins 65
3.3 Epoxy Resins 67
3.4 Bismaleimide Resins 70
3.5 Cyanate Ester Resins 71
3.6 Polyimide Resins 72
3.7 Phenolic Resins 74
3.8 Toughened Thermosets 75
3.9 Thermoplastics 81
3.9.1 Thermoplastic Composite Matrices 82
3.9.2 Thermoplastic Composite Product Forms 87
3.10 Quality Control Methods 90
3.10.1 Chemical Testing 91
3.10.2 Rheological Testing 92
3.10.3 Thermal Analysis 94
3.10.4 Glass Transition Temperature 97
3.11 Summary 99vi / Contents
Chapter 4 Fabrication Tooling 101
4.1 General Considerations 101
4.2 Thermal Management 104
4.3 Tool Fabrication 111
Chapter 5 Thermoset Composite Fabrication Processes 119
5.0 Lay-up Processes 119
5.1 Wet Lay-Up 119
5.2 Prepreg Lay-Up 122
5.2.1 Manual Lay-Up 123
5.2.2 Flat Ply Collation and Vacuum Forming 124
5.2.3 Roll or Tape Wrapping 125
5.2.4 Automated Methods 125
5.2.5 Vacuum Bagging 131
5.2.6 Curing 133
5.3 Low-Temperature Curing/Vacuum Bag Systems 137
5.4 Filament Winding 141
5.5 Liquid Molding 146
5.5.1 Preform Technology 148
5.5.2 Resin Injection 162
5.5.3 Priform Process 164
5.5.4 RTM Curing 166
5.5.5 RTM Tooling 167
5.5.6 RTM Defects 170
5.5.7 Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding 172
5.6 Resin Film Infusion 174
5.7 Pultrusion 175
Chapter 6 Thermoplastic Composite Fabrication Processes 183
6.1 Thermoplastic Consolidation 183
6.2 Thermoforming 186
6.3 Thermoplastic Joining 192
Chapter 7 Processing Science of Polymer Matrix Composites 201
7.1 Kinetics 202
7.2 Viscosity 206
7.3 Heat Transfer 207
7.4 Resin Flow 209
7.4.1 Hydrostatic Resin Pressure Studies 214
7.4.2 Resin Flow Modeling 217
7.5 Voids and Porosity 219
7.5.1 Condensation-Curing Systems 226
7.6 Residual Curing Stresses 226
7.7 Cure Monitoring Techniques 232
Chapter 8 Adhesive Bonding 235
8.1 Theory of Adhesion 235
8.2 Surface Preparation 235
8.2.1 Composite Surface Preparation 237
8.2.2 Aluminum Surface Preparation 239
8.2.3 Titanium Surface Preparation 242
8.2.4 Aluminum and Titanium Primers 243
8.3 Epoxy Adhesives 244
8.3.1 Two-Part Room-Temperature Curing Epoxy Liquid and Paste
Adhesives 245
8.3.2 Epoxy Film Adhesives 247Contents / vii
8.4 Bonding Procedures 248
8.4.1 Prekitting of Adherends 249
8.4.2 Prefit Evaluation 249
8.4.3 Adhesive Application 250
8.4.4 Bondline Thickness Control 251
8.4.5 Bonding 252
Chapter 9 Sandwich and Integral Cocured Structure 255
9.1 Sandwich Structure 255
9.2 Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure 255
9.2.1 Honeycomb Processing 264
9.2.2 Cocured Honeycomb Assemblies 267
9.3 Foam Cores 271
9.3.1 Syntactic Core 272
9.4 Integrally Cocured Unitized Structure 273
Chapter 10 Discontinuous-Fiber Composites 285
10.1 Fiber Length and Orientation 285
10.2 Discontinuous-Fiber Composite Mechanics 287
10.3 Fabrication Methods 289
10.4 Spray-Up 289
10.5 Compression Molding 290
10.5.1 Thermoset Compression Molding 290
10.5.2 Thermoplastic Compression Molding 295
10.6 Structural Reaction Injection Molding 296
10.7 Injection Molding 297
10.7.1 Thermoplastic Injection Molding 298
10.7.2 Thermoset Injection Molding 304
Chapter 11 Machining and Assembly 307
11.1 Trimming and Machining Operations 307
11.2 General Assembly Considerations 309
11.3 Hole Preparation 311
11.3.1 Manual Drilling 311
11.3.2 Power Feed Drilling 314
11.3.3 Automated Drilling 315
11.3.4 Drill Bit Geometries 316
11.3.5 Reaming 317
11.3.6 Countersinking 317
11.4 Fastener Selection and Installation 318
11.4.1 Special Considerations for Composite Joints 320
11.4.2 Solid Rivets 322
11.4.3 Pin and Collar Fasteners 323
11.4.4 Bolts and Nuts 323
11.4.5 Blind Fasteners 326
11.4.6 Interference-Fit Fasteners 328
11.5 Sealing and Painting 329
Chapter 12 Nondestructive Inspection 333
12.1 Visual Inspection 333
12.2 Ultrasonic Inspection 335
12.3 Portable Equipment 341
12.4 Radiographic Inspection 342
12.5 Thermographic Inspection 345viii / Contents
Chapter 13 Mechanical Property Test Methods 351
13.1 Specimen Preparation 351
13.2 Flexure Testing 352
13.3 Tension Testing 353
13.4 Compression Testing 354
13.5 Shear Testing 356
13.6 Open-Hole Tension and Compression 357
13.7 Bolt Bearing Strength 358
13.8 Flatwise Tension Test 361
13.9 Compression Strength After Impact 361
13.10 Fracture Toughness Testing 362
13.11 Adhesive Shear Testing 364
13.12 Adhesive Peel Testing 364
13.13 Honeycomb Flatwise Tension 367
13.14 Environmental Conditioning 367
13.15 Data Analysis 369
Chapter 14 Composite Mechanical Properties 373
14.1 Glass Fiber Composites 374
14.2 Aramid Fiber Composites 376
14.3 Carbon Fiber Composites 379
14.4 Fatigue 383
14.5 Delaminations and Impact Resistance 388
14.6 Effects of Defects 393
14.6.1 Voids and Porosity 393
14.6.2 Fiber Distortion 397
14.6.3 Fastener Hole Defects 398
Chapter 15 Environmental Degradation 401
15.1 Moisture Absorption 401
15.2 Fluids 411
15.3 Ultraviolet Radiation and Erosion 411
15.4 Lightning Strikes 412
15.5 Thermo-Oxidative Stability 415
15.6 Heat Damage 416
15.7 Flammability 417
Chapter 16 Structural Analysis 421
16.1 Lamina or Ply Fundamentals 421
16.2 Stress-Strain Relationships for a Single Ply Loaded Parallel to the
Material Axes (θ = 0° or 90°) 425
16.3 Stress-Strain Relationships for a Single Ply Loaded Off-Axis to the
Material Axes (θ ≠ 0° or 90°) 427
16.4 Laminates and Laminate Notations 429
16.5 Laminate Analysis—Classical Lamination Theory 430
16.6 Interlaminar Free-Edge Stresses 439
16.7 Failure Theories 440
16.8 Concluding Remarks 446
Chapter 17 Structural Joints—Bolted and Bonded 449
17.1 Mechanically Fastened Joints 449
17.2 Mechanically Fastened Joint Analysis 450
17.3 Single-Hole Bolted Composite Joints 455
17.4 Multirow Bolted Composite Joints 459
17.5 Adhesive Bonding 463Contents / ix
17.6 Bonded Joint Design 464
17.7 Adhesive Shear Stress-Strain 466
17.8 Bonded Joint Design Considerations 475
17.9 Stepped-Lap Adhesively Bonded Joints 479
17.10 Bonded-Bolted Joints 481
Chapter 18 Design and Certification Considerations 489
18.1 Material Selection 489
18.2 Fiber Selection 490
18.3 Product Form Selection 491
18.3.1 Discontinuous-Fiber Product Forms 492
18.3.2 Continuous-Fiber Product Forms 493
18.4 Matrix Selection 494
18.5 Fabrication Process Selection 496
18.5.1 Discontinuous-Fiber Processes 496
18.5.2 Continuous-Fiber Processes 497
18.6 Trade Studies 498
18.7 Building Block Approach 499
18.8 Design Allowables 501
18.9 Design Guidelines 503
18.10 Damage Tolerance Considerations 508
18.11 Environmental Sensitivity Considerations 512
Chapter 19 Repair 517
19.1 Fill Repairs 517
19.2 Injection Repairs 517
19.3 Bolted Repairs 520
19.4 Bonded Repairs 523
19.5 Metallic Details and Metal-Bonded Assemblies 533
Chapter 20 Metal Matrix Composites 537
20.1 Aluminum Matrix Composites 540
20.2 Discontinuous Composite Processing Methods 542
20.3 Stir Casting 542
20.4 Slurry Casting—Compocasting 544
20.5 Liquid Metal Infiltration 545
20.5.1 Squeeze Casting 545
20.5.2 Pressure Infiltration Casting 545
20.5.3 Pressureless Infiltration 546
20.6 Spray Deposition 546
20.7 Powder Metallurgy Methods 548
20.8 Secondary Processing of Discontinuous MMCs 549
20.9 Continuous-Fiber Aluminum MMCs 550
20.10 Continuous-Fiber Reinforced Titanium Matrix Composites 554
20.11 Continuous-Fiber TMC Processing Methods 557
20.12 TMC Consolidation Procedures 560
20.13 Secondary Fabrication of TMCs 562
20.14 Particle-Reinforced TMCs 566
20.15 Fiber Metal Laminates 567
Chapter 21 Ceramic Matrix Composites 573
21.1 Reinforcements 575
21.2 Matrix Materials 578
21.3 Interfacial Coatings 580
21.4 Fiber Architectures 580x / Contents
21.5 Fabrication Methods 581
21.6 Powder Processing 581
21.7 Slurry Infiltration and Consolidation 583
21.8 Polymer Infiltration and Pyrolysis (PIP) 584
21.8.1 Space Shuttle C-C Process 585
21.8.2 Conventional PIP Processes 587
21.8.3 Sol-Gel Infiltration 588
21.9 Chemical Vapor Infiltration (CVI) 589
21.10 Directed Metal Oxidation (DMO) 592
21.11 Liquid Silicon Infiltration (LSI) 594
Appendix A Metric Conversion Factors 597
Index
Index
4,4’ methylene dianaline (MDA), 72, 74
A
A286 iron-nickel, 320, 323, 467
adhesive bonding, 193–194
adhesion, theory of, 235
advantages of, 463, 468(F)
aluminum primers, 243–244(F)
design guidelines, 506
disadvantages of, 463–464
epoxy adhesives, 244–249(F,T)
overview, 235, 236(F)
surface preparation
aluminum, 239–242(F)
composite, 237–239(F)
overview, 235–237(F)
titanium surface preparation, 242–243
adhesive bonding procedures
adherends, prekitting of, 249
adhesive application, 250–251(F)
bonding, 252–253
bondline thickness control, 251–252(F)
prefit evaluation, 249–250(F)
steps in, 248–249(T)
adhesive peel testing
climbing drum peel test (ASTM D 1781), 367, 370(F)
floating roller bell peel test (ASTM D 3167), 367, 369(F)
overview, 364, 367
adhesive shear testing
double lap shear test (ASTM D 3528), 364, 367(F)
single lap shear test (ASTM D 1002), 364, 366(F)
thick adherend test (ASTM D 5656), 364, 368(F), 369(F)
aerodynamic smoothing compounds, 517
aerospace
Airbus A380, 195
applications, 19, 21(F), 22(F), 27, 29(F)
automated drilling, 315–316(F)
Boeing 757 (weight of water per spoiler), 508
composite materials, advantages of, 14–15(F)
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 551
corrosion, 331(F), 332, 385(F)
epoxy resins, 67
F-14, 551
F-15, 551
F/A-18 fighter aircraft, 481, 483(F), 484(F)
fasteners, 307 (see also fasteners)
fluids, 411, 412(T)
imide corrosion, 71, 72(F)
lightning strikes, 412–415(F,T)
materials, fatigue properties of, 16(F)
materials, structural efficiency of, 14–15(F)
S-2 glass, 376, 377(T)
space shuttle C-C process, 585–587(F)
trade study, aircraft control surface, 498–499(F)
aluminum
A356, 542, 543
adhesive bonding primers, 243–244(F)
adhesive bonding surface preparation, 239–242(F)
adhesive shear stress-strain, 474–475
aluminum nitride (AlN), 546
autoclave curing, 103
bonded joint design considerations, 477–478
caul plates, 133
composite laminate, through-the-thickness tensile
strength versus, 11, 12–13(F)
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 550–554(F,T),
555(F)
corrosion, 262
discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA), 537,
540–541, 546
drilling, 313
form block tools, 103, 105(F)
honeycomb core, 262
imide corrosion, 71, 72(F)
integrally cocured unitized structure, 273–278(F),
279–283(F)
matrix composites, 540–542(F,T)
sealing, 331
7075-T6, 14, 15(F), 391(F)
spray deposition, 548
stir casting, 543–544
thermal management, 105, 107(F), 108–111(F)
aluminum nitride (AlN), 546, 592
American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), 351
amorphous bonding, 195
amorphous polyetherimide (PEI), 195
amorphous thermoplastic HTA, 409
anhydride curing agents, 70, 409, 410(F)
anisotropic materials, 4–7(F)600  /  Index
applications
aerospace, 19, 21(F), 22(F), 27, 29(F)
automakers, 20, 23(F)
construction, 21, 23, 26(F)
infrastructure, 21, 25(F)
marine industry, 20–21, 24(F)
metal and ceramic matrix composites, 26–27, 28(F)
overview, 18–19
sporting goods, 24–25
wind power, 23–24, 27(F)
aramid, 39, 153
aramid composites
impact performance of, 391
impact resistance, 391(F)
mechanical properties, 376–379(F,T)
standard high-speed steel (HSS) drills, 317
sustained high compressive loading, 40
ultraviolet radiation, prolonged exposure to, 41
aramid fibers, 18, 39–41(F)
aspect ratio, 1
assembly
considerations, 309–311(F)
determinant assembly, 310
fastener selection and installation (see fasteners)
hole preparation (see hole preparation)
overview, 307
painting, 332
sealing, 329, 331–332(F)
ASTM, 351
ASTM 2344 (interlaminar shear test), 357
ASTM C297 (flatwise tension test), 367, 371(F)
ASTM D 1002 (single lap shear test), 364, 366(F)
ASTM D 1781 (climbing drum peel test), 367, 370(F)
ASTM D 3039, 354
ASTM D 3167 (floating roller bell peel test), 367, 369(F)
ASTM D 3410, 354–355, 356(F)
ASTM D 3518, 356
ASTM D 3528 (double lap shear test), 364, 367(F)
ASTM D 3672 (wedge-crack propagation test),
241–242(F)
ASTM D 5379, 357
ASTM D 5528, 362
ASTM D 5656 (thick adherend test), 364, 368(F), 369(F)
ASTM D 5766, 357
ASTM D 6272 (four-point loading), 352, 356
ASTM D 6484, 357
ASTM D 6641, 355, 356(F)
ASTM D 7136, 361
ASTM D 7137, 361
ASTM D 7291, 361
ASTM D 790 (three-point loading), 352
mechanical property test methods, 351
modified ASTM D 695, 354, 355(F)
attenuation
definition of, 36
ultrasonic inspection, 335, 336, 339, 340(F), 394–395,
397(F)
autoclave curing, 133–135(F)
autoclave process, 122
autoconsolidation, 185–186, 187(F), 206
autohesion, 89–90(F), 205–206
automakers, applications for, 20, 23(F)
automated tape laying (ATL), 125–127(F), 128(F), 129(F)
average stress criteria, 455
Avimid K-III, 86, 87
Azzi-Tsai-Hill maximum work theory, 442–443(F), 444(F)
B
back counterboring, 315(F)
ballistic protection, 40
band, definition of, 31–32
barely visible impact damage, 389
biaxial strain gage, 357
biaxially oriented polyethylene teraphthalate (boPET), 120,
132
bismaleimide resins (BMIs), 70–71(F), 72(F)
Boeing
757 spoilers, average weight per spoiler, 508
787, 19, 22(F)
PAA process, 239–241(F)
resin film infusion (RFI), 174–175(F)
bolt shearing strength
double shear, 360, 361(F)
overview, 358, 360
single shear, 361, 362(F)
bond testers, 341, 343(T)
boron
aerospace applications, 537, 551
aluminum assemblies, 533
batching, 36
boron trifluoride mono ethyl amine (BF3-MEA), 68, 70,
203, 221
ceramic matrix composites, 574
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 550–552(F), 553(F),
554(F), 555(F)
continuous-fiber reinforcements, 537
epoxy resins, 68, 70
fiber, 32, 490, 551, 552
fiber selection, 490
interfacial coatings, 580
monofilament boron/aluminum composite, 555(F)
overview, 32
particle-reinforced TMCs, 567
slurry casting—compocasting, 544
Sylramic-iBN, 578
thermoplastic injection molding, 303
boron nitride (BN), 580
Borsic, 537, 552
braiding, 153–156, 157(F), 158(F), 159(F), 160(F)
broadgoods, 54, 123
B-staging, 146
building-block approach, 499–501(F)
bulk molding compounds (BMCs), 293, 305, 492–493
C
canning, 549, 591
carbon fibers
overview, 42–43(F), 44(F)Index  /  601 
PAN-based, 43–47(F)
pitch-based, 47–49
rayon-based, 43
carbon-carbon (C-C) composites, 573(F), 574–575, 577(T)
carbon/epoxy (C/E), 313, 329
carbon-nitrogen (C-N) bond, 67
carboxyl terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN)
rubber, 79
caul pad, 116–117(F)
caul plates, 117(F), 133, 142, 146
cellular polymer, 271
ceramic matrix composites
carbon-carbon (C-C) composites, 573(F), 574–575,
577(T)
chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), 589–592(F), 593(F,T)
directed metal oxidation (DMO), 592–594(F)
fabrication methods, 581
fiber architectures, 580–581, 582(F)
glass-ceramic systems, 579
interfacial coatings, 580, 581(F)
liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), 594–595(F)
matrix materials, 578–580(T)
overview, 373–375(F), 376(F), 377(T)
polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP), 584–589(F)
powder processing, 581–583(F), 584(F)
reinforcements, 575–578(T)
slurry infiltration and consolidation, 583–584(F)
certification considerations. See also design considerations
building-block approach, 499–501(F)
chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), 589–592(F), 593(F,T)
chopped fibers, 52
chopped strand mat (CSM), 375, 376(T)
chromic acid anodize (CAA), 239, 241(F), 242
cobonding, 278, 283(F), 506
cocured hats, 276, 280(F)
cocuring, 156–157, 193, 255, 267–269(F), 506, 510(T). See
also integrally cocured unitized structure
coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), 103, 226, 227–228,
229, 230, 580
coefficients of mutual influence, 424
combined loading compression (CLC) test, 355, 356(F)
combined loading test. See combined loading compression
(CLC) test
compocasting, 544
composite materials
advantages of, 14–15(F), 16(F)
anisotropic materials, 4–7(F)
applications, 18–27(T), 28(F), 29(F)
composites versus metallics, 10–14(F,T)
defined, 1
delamination, 16–18, 20(F)
disadvantages of, 15–18(F), 20(F), 27
fabrication processes, 2, 3(F)
impact damage, resistance to, 11, 15, 17–18, 20(F)
isotropic materials, 4–6(F)
laminates, 7–8(F,T), 9(F)
orthotropic materials, 6–7(F)
overview, 1–4(F)
property relationships, 8–10(F), 11(F)
reinforcement, 1–4(F)
composite mechanical properties
aramid fiber composites, 376–379(F,T)
barely visible impact damage, 389
carbon fiber composites, 379–383(F,T)
defects, effects of
effect of defects test program, 397
fastener hole defects, 398, 400(T)
fiber distortion, 397–398(F), 399(F)
fiber marcelling, 397
overview, 393
tool mark-off, 397, 398(F), 399(F)
voids and porosity, 393–397(F)
delaminations, 388–392(F), 393(F)
fatigue
overview, 383–386(F)
phase 1: matrix cracking, 386(F)
phase 2: fiber fracture, crack coupling, and delamination, 386–387(F)
phase 3: delamination growth and fracture, 386(F),
387–388(F)
glass fiber composites, 374–376(T), 377(T)
impact resistance, 389–392(F), 393(F)
overview, 373–374(T)
compression molding
discontinuous-fiber processes, 496
overview, 290(F)
thermoplastic
glass mat thermoplastics (GMTs), 295–296(F)
long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) process, 296, 297(T)
thermoset
bulk molding compound (BMC), 293
compounds, 291
overview, 290–291
preforming, 293–294(F), 295(F)
sheet molding compound (SMC), 291–293(F,T)
transfer molding, 295, 296(F)
compression strength after impact (CAI), 381, 391–392(F)
compression testing
ASTM D 3410, 354–355, 356(F)
ASTM D 6641, 355, 356(F)
modified ASTM D 695, 354, 355(F)
overview, 354
computer-aided design (CAD), 123, 131, 489
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 489
construction applications, 21, 23, 26(F)
contour tape-laying machines (CTLMs), 127
corduroy texture, 219
corrosion
advanced composites, 27
aluminum honeycomb assemblies, 262, 508
bismaleimide resins (BMIs), 71
bolted repairs, 521, 527
bolts, 323
bondline thickness control, 252
composite materials, 14
composite materials, trade-offs when selecting, 492(T)
composites versus metals comparison, 11(T)
composite-to-metal joints, 450
E-glass, 490
fatigue, 385(F)602  /  Index
corrosion (continued)
galvanic, 247 (see also galvanic corrosion)
imide, 71, 72(F)
impact damage, 391
infrastructure, 21
inhibiting primer, 242, 243–244(F), 568
marine industry, 20, 21
mechanical fastener material, 320, 326
mechanically fastened joints, 467(T)
phosphoric acid anodize (PAA) core, 262, 263(F)
radiographic inspection, 345
resistant primer, 239(F)
salt, 578
sandwich structures, 513
sealing, 329, 331(F)
thermoplastic molding compounds, 300
thermoset matrix systems, comparison of, 495(T)
coupling agents, 37–38, 47, 163(T), 197
crack coupling, 386–387
critical fiber length lc, 285–286
crosslinking
description of, 63(F)
epoxy resins, 67
polyester resins, 65–66(F)
toughened thermosets, 76, 77
crusting, 591
C-scan displays, 339–340(F)
CTBN rubbers, 79
curing
addition, 135, 136(F)
autoclave, 133–135(F)
condensation curing systems, 135–137(F)
low-temperature curing/vacuum bag (LTVB) systems,
137–141(F), 142(F), 143(F)
cyanate ester resins, 71–72, 73(F)
Cycom 5215, 381, 382(T)
Cycom 5320, 381
Cycom 977-3, 379(T)
D
damage tolerance considerations, 510–512(F)
debulking
bagging schematic, 140(F)
double-bag method, 530(F)
hot, 124, 136, 205, 275–276
vacuum, 115, 124
debulks, definition of, 152
decibels (dB), 335
defects, effects of
defects test program, effect of, 397
fastener hole defects, 398, 400(T)
fiber distortion, 397–398(F), 399(F)
overview, 393
voids and porosity, 393–397(F)
Defence Evaluation and Research Agency (UK), 556
delaminations
bearing failures, 451, 454
bond testing, 343(T)
bonded repairs, 524
bonded-bolted joints, 482, 484
composite mechanical properties, 388–392(F), 393(F)
composite surface preparation, 237
countersinking, 317
design guidelines, 503, 505(T)
edge, 333–334, 365(F), 519
fabrication tooling, 104
fastener hole defects, 398
fatigue, 386
foam cores, 272
gaps, 310–311, 323
growth and fracture, 387, 388
impact resistance and, 388–392(F), 393(F)
initiation, 387
injection repairs, 517–520(F), 521(F), 522(F)
interference-fit fasteners, 329
interlaminar free-edge stresses, 440
interlayering, 80
low-velocity impact damage (LIVID), 510
machining, 307, 308
mechanical fastening, 450
melt fusion, 195
moisture absorption, 401, 410
nondestructive inspection (NDI), 333
overview, 16–17, 20(F)
phenolic resins, 74–75
pin and collar fasteners, 323
residual curing stresses, 231
resin flow, 213
single-layer, 511
Space Shuttle nose cap, 586
stiffener, 506–507, 508(F)
tap testing, 335
thermal management, 105
thermographic inspection, 346
TMC processing defects, 563
toughened thermosets, 75, 76
ultrasonic inspection, 335
visual inspection, 333–335
denier, 37
design considerations
allowables, 501–503(F)
building-block approach, 499–501(F)
damage tolerance considerations, 508, 510–512(F)
design limit load (DLL), 503
design ultimate load (DUL), 503
environmental sensitivity considerations, 512–514(F,T)
fabric process selection
continuous-fiber processes, 497–498
discontinuous-fiber processes, 496–497
overview, 496(T)
fiber selection, 490–491
guidelines, 503–508(F,T), 509(F), 510(T)
material selection, 489
matrix selection, 494–496(T)
overview, 489
product form selection
continuous-fiber product forms, 493–494
discontinuous-fiber product forms, 492–493
overview, 491–492(F,T), 493(T)
trade studies, 498–499(F)
design limit load (DLL), 503Index  /  603 
design ultimate load (DUL), 503
determinant assembly, 310
diaminodiphenyl sulfone (DDS), 68, 69, 70, 92(F), 94
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), 94–95(F)
differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves, 203
diffusion
autoconsolidation, 186
autohesion, 89
chemical vapor infiltration (CVI), 591
dry spinning, 43
environmental sensitivity considerations, 513
Fickian (see Fickian)
moisture, 404
powder metallurgy (PM) methods, 549
reinforcements, 576–577
space shuttle C-C process, 587(F)
TMC consolidation procedures, 561
trade study, aircraft control surface, 498, 499(F)
diffusion bonding, 561–562(F)
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 551, 552, 554(F),
555(F)
continuous-fiber TMC processing methods, 557–558,
560
solid state processes, 540
superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB),
563, 564(F)
TMC consolidation procedures, 560–562(F)
TMCs, secondary fabrication of, 562–563(F)
trade study, aircraft control surface, 498, 499(F)
diglycidyl ether of Bisphenol A (DGEBA), 67–68(F,T)
dimethylactamide (DMAC), 72
dimethylformamide (DMF), 72
dimethylsufoxide (DMSO), 72
Dimox™ process, 593
directed metal oxidation (DMO), 592–594(F)
discontinuous-fiber composites
compression molding (see compression molding)
fabrication methods, 289
fiber length, 285–286(F), 287(F)
fiber orientation, 286, 288(F)
injection molding (see injection molding)
mechanics of, 287–289(F)
overview, 279–283(F), 285(T)
reaction injection molding (RIM), 296–297(F), 298(F)
reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM),
297, 298(F)
spray-up, 289–290(F)
structural reaction injection molding (SRIM),
297, 298(F)
discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA), 537,
540–541
drawing (manufacturing process), 31
dual resin bonding, 193, 195, 198(F)
dummy part, 117
dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), 99
E
Eddie-Bolt, 323, 325(F)
edge delamination, 333–334, 365(F), 519
effect of defects test program, 397
eggcrate support, 108, 111, 115
E-glass, 32, 33
batching, 36
corrosion resistance, 490
fiber selection, 490
electrical discharge machining (EDM), 564–565
elevated temperature dry (ETD), 245
elevated temperature wet (ETW), 245
end, definition of, 31
environmental degradation
diffusion, 404–405
erosion, 411
Fickian diffusion, 404
flammability, 417–418, 420
fluids, 411, 412(T), 413(T)
heat damage, 416–417, 418(F), 419(F)
indirect effects, 412, 413(F)
lightning strikes, 412–415(F,T)
moisture absorption, 401–410(F), 411(F), 412(F)
overview, 401
thermal spiking, 409–410, 411(F)
thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), 415–416(F), 417(F)
ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 411
environmental sensitivity considerations, 512–514(F,T)
epoxy adhesives
epoxy film adhesives, 247–248(T), 249(T)
overview, 244–245(T), 246(F)
two-part room-temperature curing epoxy liquid and paste
adhesives, 245, 247(T)
epoxy resins, 67–70(F,T), 71(F)
extensional mode, 380
F
fabrication tooling
general considerations, 101–104(F), 105(F)
overview, 101
thermal management, 104–111(F)
tool fabrication, 111–117(F,T)
tooling materials, properties of, 103(T)
fasteners
blind fasteners, 326–327(F), 328(F)
bolts, 323, 325, 326, 326(F), 327(F)
composite joints, 320, 322(F)
gang channels, 326(F)
hole defects, 398, 400(T)
interference-fit fasteners, 328–329(F), 330(F)
material selection, 320
nut plates, 326(F), 327(F), 523
nuts, 323, 325–326
overview, 319–321(F)
pin and collar fasteners, 323, 324(F), 325(F)
screws, 326, 327(F)
solid rivets, 322
washers, 323
fatigue
crack coupling, 387
overview, 383–386(F)
phase 1: matrix cracking, 386(F)
phase 2: fiber fracture, crack coupling, and delamination,
386–387(F)604  /  Index
fatigue (continued)
phase 3: delamination growth an fracture, 386(F),
387–388(F)
spectrum loading, 383, 385
fiber, definition of, 31
fiber areal weight (FAW), 54
fiber marcelling, 397
fiber metal laminates, 567–570(F,T)
fiber orientation angle, 421
fiber placement machine, 127–130(F)
fiber wash, 171
fibers
aramid, 39–41(F)
carbon, 42–49(F)
chopped, 52
glass, 33–34, 36–39(F)
graphite, 42–49(F)
milled, 52
overview, 31
prepreg manufacturing, 52–58(F,T), 59(F), 60(T)
reinforced mats, 52
relative costs and performance, 35(F)
strength of, 32–33, 35(F)
terminology, 31–32(F,T), 34(F), 35(F)
ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE),
41–42(F)
woven, 49–52(F), 53(F), 54(F,T)
Fickian, 404–405, 406(F)
Fickian diffusion, 404
filament, definition of, 31
filament winding
autoclave curing, 146
B-staging, 146
glass fiber composites, 375–376(T)
helical winding, 143–144
hoop winding (circumferential or circ winding), 144–145
mandrel material and design, 146
overview, 141–143, 144(F), 145(F)
polar winding, 144
resin systems, 145
towpreg winding, 146
wet winding, 145
wet-rolled prepreg winding, 145–146
film stacking, 184
finish, definition of, 47
first generation epoxies, 391
flags, 125
flammability, 417–418, 420
flat ply collation, 124–125, 126(F)
flat tape-laying machines (FTLMs), 127
flaws
bond flows, 476(F)
definition of, 37
NDI methods, 333, 334(F)
pitch-based fibers, 48–49
strength of fibers, 33
ultrasonic inspection, 335
foil-fiber-foil method, 557–558(F)
Forest Products Laboratory, FPL, 239–241(F), 242
forging, 542, 548, 550
form block tools, 103
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 91
G
galvanic corrosion
adhesive bonding, 247, 463
carbon fiber composites, as a cause of, 14, 490
Gr/Al MMCs, 553
imide linkage, mechanism for, 72(F)
lightning protection, 414, 514
mechanical fastener material, 320
sealing to prevent, 331
shim material, 311
galvanized steel, 513(T)
gang channels, 326(F)
gel coat, 120–121
gel permeation chromatography (GPC), 91
gellation, 92–93
general orthotropic lamina (θ ≠ 0° or 90°), 7
glass fibers
batching, 36
coating, 37–38
coupling agents, 38
drying/packaging, 38–39
fiberization, 36–37(F), 38(F)
melting, 36
overview, 33–34, 36
product forms, 38(F)
Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced (GLARE),
568–570(F,T)
glass mat reinforced thermoplastic, 82
glass mat thermoplastics (GMTs), 90, 295–296(F)
glass-ceramic matrix composite (GCMC), 573(F)
glass-ceramic systems, 579
glass-ceramics, 574–575, 579(T), 583
glycidyl amine, 67(F), 68(F)
glycidyl ether, 67
graphite fibers
overview, 42–43(F), 44(F)
PAN-based, 43–47(F)
pitch-based, 47–49
rayon-based, 43
green body, 549
green fiber, 48
green tape method, 551–552, 555(F), 558–559
H
heated platen press, 135
High Speed Civil Transport program, 74
High Temperature Amorphous (HTA), 409
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 91
high-speed steel (HSS) drills, 317
high-temperature/ high-temperature (HT/HT) prepregs, 115
Hi-Lok fasteners, 323, 324(F)
Hi-Nicalon, 578
HOBE, 258
hole preparation
automated drilling, 315–316(F), 317(F), 318(F)Index  /  605 
back counterboring, 315(F)
countersinking, 317–318, 319(F)
drill bit geometries, 316–317, 319(F)
high-speed steel (HSS) drills, 317
manual (freehand) drilling, 311–314(F)
numerically controlled drill jigs, 315–316(F)
overview, 311
peck drill, 314–315(F)
polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drills, 317
power feed drilling, 314–315(F)
reaming, 317
honeycomb core sandwich structure
cell configurations, 257, 260(F)
comparative properties of, 258, 261(T)
corrosion protection system, 262, 263(F)
details of, 259(F)
durability problems, 262–264(F)
fabrication methods, 257–258, 260(F)
facesheets, 255
HOBE, 258
honeycomb processing (see honeycomb processing)
materials, 256
node bond adhesive, 256
strength retention at temperature, 258, 261–262(F)
terminology, 259(F)
honeycomb processing
cleaning, 266
cocured honeycomb assemblies, 267–271(F)
core migration, 268–270(F)
crushing, 268–270(F)
drying/packaging, 266
forming, 264
honeycomb bonding, 266–267(F), 268(F)
machining, 266
overview, 264(F)
potting, 266(F)
splicing, 265–266(F)
trimming, 264
hot isostatic pressing (HIP), 549, 559–560(F), 562–563(F),
582, 584
hot pressing
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 553
continuous-fiber TMC processing methods, 558, 559
matrix materials, 579
powder metallurgy (PM) methods, 549
powder processing, 582–583, 584(F)
TMC consolidation procedures, 560
vacuum hot pressing (VHP), 558, 559
hot rolling, 542, 549–550
hot-wet condition, 512–513(F)
hybrids, 494
hygroscopic, 300
I
Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI),
354, 356(F)
imide corrosion, 71, 72(F)
impact damage
barely visible impact damage, 389
carbon fiber designs, 386
composites resistance to, 11, 13(F), 14, 15
delaminations, 389–391(F)
low-velocity, 17, 20(F), 75, 81, 389
low-velocity impact damage (LVID), 510(T)
thermographic inspection, 345
thermoplastics, 81
thin-skinned honeycomb assemblies, 507
tolerance to, 17–18
toughened thermosets, 75, 76
in situ composites, 566–567
in situ MMCs, 567
Inconel 718, 320, 323
indirect effects, 412, 413(F)
infrared (IR), 185
infrared (IR) spectroscopy, 91
infrared spectrum, 91, 92(F)
infrastructure applications, 21, 25(F)
injection molding
discontinuous-fiber processes, 496
machine, 301–303(F)
overview, 297–298
runner designs, 302(F)
schematic, 301(F)
sequence, 299(F)
thermoplastic, 298–304(T)
thermoset, 304–305
injection pultrusion, 178
in-motion x-ray, 343, 347(F)
inner moldline (IML) surface, 101, 102(F)
integrally cocured unitized structure, 273–278(F),
279–283(F)
integrated product definition (IPD) team, 489, 498
interlaminar free-edge stresses, 439–440, 441(F)
internally pressurized bag (IPB) curing, 223–225(F)
interply slip, 190, 191(F), 192(F), 194(F)
intraply slip, 190, 191(F), 192(F)
Invar 42, 115, 168, 184
Invar alloys, 103(T), 104, 170, 184
Invar/Nilo, 103(T)
Invar-type tools, 111, 115, 130
isothermal rolling, 550
isotropic materials, 4–6(F)
J
joints, mechanically fastened
advantages of, 449–450
analysis, 450–455(F)
average stress criteria, 455
disadvantages of, 450
failure modes, 451–453(F)
point stress criteria, 455
K
Kapton, 133, 184
Kevlar
adhesive bonding, 194
epoxy strength, 379(F)606  /  Index
Kevlar (continued)
honeycomb, 261
Kevlar/epoxy composites, 391
manufacturing process, 39
properties of, 32(T), 40, 41, 490
yarn weights, 153
Kevlar 29, 41, 153, 175, 178(F)
Kevlar 49
comparison: Kevlar 49 and S-2 glass epoxy, 378(T)
effect of temperature and moisture on Kevlar/ epoxy
strength, 379(T)
Kevlar honeycomb, 261
properties of, 32(T), 41, 378
weave styles in high-performance products, 54(T)
Kevlar 149, 32(T), 41
K-IIIB, 223–225(F), 227(F)
kink bands, 377
knit lines, 285–286
L
lamina, 4, 5(F), 7(F)
laminate notations, 430. See also laminates
laminates, 7–8(F,T), 9(F), 429–430
angle-ply laminates, 430
balanced laminates, 430
cross-ply laminates, 430
defined, 7
hybrid laminates, 430
lay-ups, 7(F)
other laminate notations, 430
quasi-isotropic laminate, 8, 430
symmetric laminates, 430
unidirectional laminates, 430
laser projection, 123–124, 125(F), 154, 310(F)
length-to-diameter (l/d) ratio, 1
lightning strikes, 412–415(F,T), 514
liquid metal infiltration
overview, 545(F)
pressure infiltration casting (PIC), 545–546
pressureless infiltration, 546
squeeze casting, 545(F)
liquid molding
continuous-fiber processes, 497–498
overview, 146–148(F,T)
preform technology
advantages, 156–157, 160(T)
braiding, 153–156, 157(F), 158(T), 159(F), 160(F)
disadvantages, 157, 158, 160(T)
fibers, 148–149
multiaxial warp knits (MWKs), 151–152, 153(F),
154(F), 155(F)
overview, 148(F)
preform lay-up, 158–161(F), 162(F)
random mat, 156
stitching, 152–153, 156(F)
three-dimensional woven fabrics, 149–151(F), 152(F)
woven fabrics, 149
Priform process, 164–166(F), 167(F)
resin injection, 162–164(F,T), 165(F)
RTM curing, 166–167, 168(F)
RTM defects, 170–172(F)
RTM tooling, 167–170(F)
vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM),
172–174(F)
liquid shim, 247, 310–311, 315(F), 504(T)
liquid shimming, 311
liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), 594–595(F)
Lockbolt, 323, 325(F)
long-fiber thermoplastic (LFT) process, 296,
296(F), 297(T)
low velocity impact damage (LVID), 17, 75, 81, 510
low-temperature curing/vacuum bag (LTVB) systems, 137–
141(F), 142(F), 143(F), 380–381
low-temperature/high-temperature (LT/HT) prepreg, 115
low-viscosity resins
aircraft assemblies, damaged, 247
bonded repairs, 533
comparison: low-viscosity and paste epoxy adhesives,
245–246, 247(T)
injection repairs, 517, 518–519(F)
PIP processes, 588
resin transfer molding, 497–498
RTM process, 147, 162
thermoset, 2
thermoset injection molding, 305
voids and porosity, 226
wet lay-up, 119
low–volatile organic compound coatings, 332
M
machining. See also assembly
machining, 307, 309(F)
trimming, 307–308(F), 309(F)
Malaysia, environmental exposure in, 407, 409(F)
marbles, 36
marine industry applications, 20–21, 24(F)
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), 99
matrix resin systems
bismaleimide resins (BMIs), 70–71(F), 72(F)
cyanate ester resins, 71–72, 73(F)
epoxy resins, 67–70(F,T), 71(F)
overview, 63–64(F)
phenolic resins, 74–75(F)
polyester resins, 65–67(F)
polyimide resins, 72–74(F)
quality control methods
chemical testing, 91–92(F)
glass transition temperature, 97–99(F)
overview, 90–91
rheological testing, 92–94(F)
thermal analysis, 94–96(T), 97(F)
summary, 99
thermoplastics, 81–90(F)
thermosets, 64–65(F,T)
thermosets, toughened, 75–81(F)
vinyl esters, 66–67
mechanical fastening, 194, 505–506
melt fusion, 194–195Index  /  607 
mesophase, 47
metal and ceramic matrix composites applications, 26–27,
28(F)
metal matrix composites (MMCs)
aluminum matrix composites, 540–542(F,T)
aluminum nitride (AlN), 546
compocasting, 544
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 550–554(F,T),
555(F)
continuous-fiber reinforced (TMCs), 554–557(F,T)
continuous-fiber TMC processing methods, 557–560(F)
discontinuous composite processing methods, 542(F)
discontinuous MMCs, secondary processing of, 549–550
discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA), 537, 546
fiber metal laminates, 567–570(F,T)
hot isostatic pressing (HIP), 549
liquid metal infiltration, 545–546(F)
Osprey method, 547(F)
overview, 337–340(F)
particle-reinforced TMCs, 566–567(T), 568(F)
powder metallurgy (PM) methods, 548–549(F)
rheocasting, 544
in situ MMCs, 567
slurry casting, 544
spray deposition, 546–548(F)
stir casting, 542–544(F)
TMC consolidation procedures, 560–562(F)
TMCs, secondary fabrication of, 562–566(F), 567(F)
metallics, composites versus, 10–14(F,T)
microcracking, 226, 227(F)
milled fibers, 52
Mobile Automated Ultrasonic Scanning (MAUS) system,
342, 344(F)
monolithic graphite, 103(T), 115, 116, 184, 579
monotapes, 551
multiaxial warp knits (MWKs), 151–152, 153(F), 154(F),
155(F)
Mylar, 120, 132
N
NASA Composite Wing Program, 174–175, 176(F),
177(F), 178(F)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),
74, 174–175(F)
net-resin-content prepregs, 54
Nextel, 577–578
Nicalon fibers, 578
nickel
A286 iron-nickel, 320, 323
electroformed, 103(T), 111
electroformed tools, 105, 108, 109(F), 497
galvanic series in seawater, 513(T)
iron-nickel alloys, 103 (see also Invar alloys; Nilo alloys)
MP159 (nickel-cobalt-chromium multiphase alloy), 320
MP35N (nickel-cobalt-chromium multiphase alloy),
115, 320
nickel-plated aramid fiber, 414, 467(T)
nickel tools, 112, 114(F)
Nilo alloys, 103(T), 104
N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP), 72
node bond adhesive, 256
nondestructive inspection (NDI)
bond testing, summary of, 343(T)
common core defects detected by radiography, 347(F)
damage in composite parts, potential for, 334(F)
in-motion x-ray, 343, 347(F)
Mobile Automated Ultrasonic Scanning (MAUS) system,
342, 344(F)
overview, 333, 334(F)
portable equipment, 341–342(F), 343(T), 344(F)
pulse echo inspection, 336
radiographic inspection, 342–345(F), 346(F), 347(F),
348(F), 349(F)
tap testing, 334–335
thermographic inspection, 345–346, 349(F), 350(F)
ultrasonic inspection, 335–341(F)
visual inspection, 333–334
nondestructive testing (NDT), 223
non-Fickian, 404, 409, 410(F)
nonhydroscopic, 300
novolacs, 74
numerical control (NC) machined, 105, 170
numerically controlled drill jigs, 315–316(F)
nylon, 39, 122, 123, 133, 238, 285(T), 335
O
open, definition of, 251
original equipment manufacturer (OEM), 525
orthotropic, 421
orthotropic materials, 6–7(F)
Osprey method, 547(F)
out time, 66, 71, 138, 251, 493, 494
outer moldline (OML) surface, 101, 102(F)
oxy-PAN, 44
P
PAN-based carbon fibers, 43–47(F)
peck drill, 314–315(F)
peel ply, 123, 131, 237–239, 332
PETI-5, 74
phenolic resins, 74–75(F)
phosphoric acid anodize (PAA), 239–241(F)
phosphoric acid anodize (PAA) core, 262, 263(F)
physical vapor deposition (PVD), 559
pillowing, 268(F)
pitch, definition of, 47
pitch-based carbon fibers, 47–49
plasma spraying, 559
plastic-faced plaster (PFP), 112, 113(F), 115
plasticizing unit, 301
PMR-15, 73–74(F), 136–137(F), 415(F), 416(F)
point stress criteria, 455
polyacrylonitrile (PAN), 42
polycrystalline diamond (PCD) drills, 317
polyester resins, 65–67(F)
polyetheretherketone (PEEK), 82, 83(F), 85–86, 185,
195, 382(T)608  /  Index
polyetherimide (PEI), 82, 83(F)
polyetherketoneketone (PEKK), 82, 83(F), 382(T)
polyimide resins, 72–74(F)
polymer foam, 271
polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP)
conventional processes, 587–588
overview, 584–585(F)
sol-gel infiltration, 588–589
space shuttle C-C process, 585–587(F)
polymer matrix composites
cure monitoring techniques, 232–233
heat transfer, 207–209(F)
kinetics, 202–206(F)
overview, 201–202(F)
residual curing stresses, 226–232(F)
resin flow
hydrostatic resin pressure studies, 214–217(F), 218(F)
overview, 209–214(F)
resin flow modeling, 217–219
thermoset cure model framework, 201(F)
viscosity, 206–207(F), 208(F)
voids and porosity
condensation-curing systems, 226, 227(F)
overview, 219–226(F)
polymeric monomer reactants, 72
polymethylmethacrylimides, 272
polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), 82, 83(F)
polypropylene (PP), 82, 83(F)
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) film, 252
polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam, 262, 272
porosity (use of term), 219, 393. See also voids and
porosity
pot, definition of, 251
pot life, 247
powder coating, 88
powder metallurgy (PM) methods, 7, 548–549(F)
prepreg lay-up
automated methods
automated tape laying (ATL), 125–127(F),
128(F), 129(F)
fiber placement, 127–131(F)
overview, 125
curing
addition curing, 135, 136(F)
autoclave, 133–135(F)
condensation curing systems, 135–137(F)
flat ply collation and vacuum forming, 124–125, 126(F)
manual lay-up, 123–124(F), 125(F)
overview, 122–123
roll wrapping, 125
tape wrapping, 125
vacuum bagging, 131–133(F)
prepreg manufacturing
advanced composite manufacturing, 54, 56(F)
fiber areal weight (FAW), 54
hot melt impregnation, 57, 58(F)
net-resin-content prepregs, 54
overview, 52
prepreg rovings or tows, 54–56(F)
resin filming process, 57, 59(F)
resins, 52–54, 55(F)
solvent impregnation, 57–58, 60(F)
pressure bag process, 122
pressure infiltration casting (PIC), 545–546
Priform process, 164–166(F), 167(F)
principal material axes system, 421
principal material coordinate system, 6
process control test specimens, 90–91
pulling (manufacturing process), 31
pull-winding process, 177
pulse echo inspection, 336
pultrusion, 175–181(F), 375–376(T), 498
pultrusion die, 178–179(F)
pyrolysis, 585–587, 588
Q
quartz fibers, 32(T), 33–34, 36
quasi-isotropic laminate, 8
R
race tracking, 164
ratcheting, 329
rayon-based carbon fibers, 43
reaction injection molding (RIM), 296–297(F), 298(F),
374, 496–497
reaction injection pultrusion, 178
reinforced carbon-carbon-0 (RCC-0), 586
reinforced mats, 52
reinforced reaction injection molding (RRIM), 297, 298(F),
374–375(T), 497
reinforcements, 575–578(T). See also fibers
relative humidity (RH), 368, 378
repairs
aerodynamic smoothing compounds, 517
bolted, 520–521, 523(T), 524(F), 525(F), 526(F), 527(F)
bonded, 523–533(F), 534(F)
fill, 517
injection, 517–520(F), 521(F), 522(F)
metal-bonded assemblies, 533
metallic details, 533
method selection, 523(T)
overview, 517, 518(F)
resin film infusion (RFI), 174–175, 176(F), 177(F),
178(F), 179(F)
resin injection, 162–164(F,T)
resin transfer molding (RTM)
bismaleimides (BMIs), 71
continuous-fiber processes, 498
curing, 166–167, 168(F)
defects, 170–172(F)
process, 146–148(F,T)
resin injection, 162–164(F,T), 165(F)
tooling, 167–170(F)
voids, 171–172
resins. See also matrix resin systems
epoxy, 67–70(F,T), 71(F)
prepreg manufacturing, 52–54, 55(F)
resin filming process, 57, 59(F)Index  /  609 
resistance spot welding, 566
resoles, 74
rheocasting, 544
rheological testing, 92–94(F)
rivets, 322
roll wrapping, 125
room temperature dry (RTD), 245
rosette strain gage, 357
roving, definition of, 31
rovings, 37, 39
RTM curing, 166–167, 168(F)
RTM defects, 170–172(F)
RTM tooling, 167–170(F)
rubber elastomer system, 79
rubbers, 79–80
rule of mixtures, 8
S
S-2 glass
advantages of, 18, 33
aerospace applications, 376, 377(T)
batching, 36
costs, 32
fiber metal laminates, 568
fiber selection, 490
Glass Laminate Aluminum Reinforced (GLARE),
568(F)
impact resistance, 391(F)
overview, 33
wet lay-up, 119
sandwich cocured structure
foam cores, 271–273(F,T)
honeycomb core (see honeycomb core sandwich
structure)
overview, 255
structure, 255, 256(F), 257(F), 258(F)
syntactic core, 272–273(F)
sandwich structure
guidelines for design of, 510(T)
honeycomb core, 255–264(F,T)
impact damage, 507, 510(T)
moisture ingression, 507, 510(T)
overview, 255
PVC foams, 272
radiographic inspection, 345
repairs, 508
self-forming technique (SFT), 568–570(F)
shear testing
± 45-degree tensile test, 356, 357(F)
interlaminar shear test, 357, 360(F)
Iosipescu shear test, 357, 359(F)
overview, 356
rail shear test, 356–357, 358(F)
short beam shear, 357, 360(F)
sheet molding compounds (SMCs), 291–293(F,T),
374(T), 492
shims, 310–311
short beam shear, 357, 360(F)
shot size, 299
Sigma, 556–557(F)
size, 47
sizing, 37, 38, 47
slurry casting—compocasting, 544
sol-gel infiltration, 588–589
sol-gel process, 577–578
sonotrode, 196
SP Resin Infusion Technology (SPRINT), 175
space shuttle C-C process, 585–587(F)
specially orthotropic lamina (θ = 0° or 90°), 7
specially orthotropic ply, 424
spectrum loading, 383, 385
sporting goods applications, 24–25
spray deposition, 546–548(F)
spray-up, 289–290(F), 496
spring in, 276, 279(F)
squeeze casting, 545(F)
stainless steel, 71, 407, 467(T), 513(T), 560
stair-step ply terminations, 130
steel
adhesively bonded joints, guidelines for, 486(T)
autoclave curing, 103
caul plates, 133
composite design, guidelines for, 504(T)
continuous-fiber aluminum MMCs, 554
countersinking cutters, 318
dies, 168
discontinuous-fiber processes, 497
fabrication tooling, 101, 103(T)
fasteners, 320
fiber placement, 130
4330 steel, 391(F)
galvanic series in seawater, 513(T)
galvanized, 513(T)
laminate distortion, effects of tool material, orientation,
and thickness on, 170, 231, 232(F)
matched metal dies, thermoplastic production runs, 303
matched metal molds, 168
mechanically fastened joints, guidelines for, 467(T)
preforming, 294
pultrusion die, 178–179(F)
RTM tooling, 168
standard high-speed steel (HSS) drills, 317
structural reaction injection molding (SRIM), 297
thermal management, 104, 108–111(F)
TMC, generating holes in, 565
tool fabrication, 111, 112(F), 115
stir casting, 542–544(F)
stitch bonding, 151
stitching, 152–153, 156(F)
strand, definition of, 31
stress-strain curves, 11, 12(F), 32, 34(F), 468–469, 470–
471, 472(F)
structural analysis
coefficients of mutual influence, 424
failure theories
Azzi-Tsai-Hill maximum work theory, 442–443(F),
444(F)
maximum strain theory, 442
maximum stress criterion, 440, 442610  /  Index
structural analysis (continued)
overview, 440
Tsai-Wu failure criterion, 443–444, 445(F)
fiber orientation angle, 421
interlaminar free-edge stresses, 439–440, 441(F)
lamina fundamentals, 421–425(F)
laminate analysis—classical lamination theory
example 16.3, 433–437(F)
example 16.4, 437–439(F)
overview, 430–433(F)
laminate failure, predicting
limited discount method, 445
overview, 444–446
residual property method, 445
total discount method, 444
laminates and laminate notations, 429–430
overview, 421
ply fundamentals, 421–425(F)
principal material axes system, 421
specially orthotropic ply, 424
stress-strain relationships for a single ply loaded off-axis
to the material axes (θ = 0° or 90°), 427–429(F)
stress-strain relationships for a single ply loaded parallel
to the material axes (θ = 0° or 90°), 425–427
structural joints—bolted and bonded
adhesive bonding, 463–464, 468(F)
adhesive shear stress-strain, 466, 468–475(F)
bonded joint design, 464, 466, 469(F), 470(F)
bonded joint design considerations, 475–479(F),
480(F), 481(T)
bonded-bolted joints, 481–482, 484–486(F,T)
failure modes, 451–453(F)
mechanically fastened joint analysis, 450–455(F)
mechanically fastened joints, 449–450, 467(T)
multirow bolted composite joints, 459, 461–463(T),
464–465(F), 466(F), 467(F)
overview, 449
single-hole bolted composite joints, 455–459(F,T),
460(F)
stepped-lap adhesively bonded joints, 479–481, 482(F),
483(F), 484(F)
structural reaction injection molding (SRIM), 297,
298(F), 497
stump Lockbolts, 323
superplastic forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB), 563
Suppliers of Advanced Composites Manufacturers Association (SACMA), 351
SACMA SRM-3, 357
SACMA SRM-5, 357
SACMA SRM-7, 356
SACMA SRM-8, 357
SACMA SRM-13, 354
Supral sheet, 192
Sylramic, 578
T
tackifier, 160–161
tagalong test specimens, 91
tap testing, 334–335
tape, definition of, 32
tape casting, 559
tape wrapping, 125
Tedlar, 132
Teflon, 132
test methods, mechanical property, 355
adhesive peel testing, 364, 367, 369(F), 370(F)
adhesive shear testing, 364, 365–366(F), 367(F), 368(F),
369(F)
bolt shearing strength, 358, 360–361(F), 362(F)
compression strength after impact, 361–362, 363(F)
compression testing, 354–355(F), 356(F)
data analysis, 369–371(T)
double cantilever beam test, 362, 364, 365(F)
environmental conditioning, 367–369, 372(F)
flatwise tension test, 361, 362(F)
flexure testing, 352–353(F)
fracture toughness testing, 362, 364(F), 365(F)
honeycomb flatwise tension, 367, 371(F)
open-hole compression testing, 357–358
open-hole tension test, 357, 360(F)
overview, 351
shear testing, 356–357(F), 358(F), 359(F), 360(F)
specimen preparation, 351–352(F)
tension testing, 353–354(F)
tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), 587
tetraglycidyl methylene dianiline (TGMDA), 67, 68(F), 70,
92(F), 94, 95
tetraglycidyl-4,40-diaminodiphenylmethane (TGGDM), 67,
68(F)
tex, 37
Thermabond process, 195
thermal analysis, 94–96(F), 97(F)
thermal mechanical analysis (TMA), 97–99(F)
thermal spiking, 409–410, 411(F), 416
thermoforming
continuous consolidation process, 192, 196(F)
diaphragm forming, 191, 195(F)
dies for, 188
heating methods, 188
interply slip, 190, 191(F), 192(F), 194(F)
intraply slip, 190, 191(F), 192(F)
press, 189, 190(F)
resin percolation, 189, 191(F), 192(F)
roll forming process, 192, 197(F)
rubber block forming, 188–189(F)
setup, 186–188(F)
springs, 191, 194(F)
transverse squeeze flow, 189–190, 191(F),
192(F), 193(F)
thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 96
thermo-oxidative stability (TOS), 415–416(F), 417(F)
thermoplastic composite fabrication processes
thermoforming (see thermoforming)
thermoplastic consolidation, 183–186(F), 187(F)
thermoplastic joining (see thermoplastic joining)
thermoplastic consolidation, 183–186(F), 187(F)
thermoplastic joining
adhesive bonding, 193–194
dual resin bonding, 195, 198(F)Index  /  611 
induction welding, 197–198, 200(F)
mechanical fastening, 194
melt fusion, 194–195
overview, 192–193
resistance welding, 195–196, 199(F)
ultrasonic welding, 196–197
thermoplastics
overview, 81–82
thermoplastic composite matrices, 82–87(F), 88(F)
thermoplastic composite product forms, 87–90(F)
thermoset composite fabrication processes
filament winding, 141–146(F)
lay-up processes
overview, 119
prepreg lay-up (see prepreg lay-up)
wet lay-up, 119–122(F)
liquid molding (see liquid molding)
low-temperature curing/vacuum bag (LTVB) systems,
137–141(F), 142(F), 143(F)
overview, 119
pultrusion, 175–181(F)
resin film infusion (RFI), 174–175, 176(F), 177(F),
178(F), 179(F)
thermosets, 64–65(F,T)
thermosets, toughened
interlayering, 80–81(F)
network alteration, 76–77, 78(F)
overview, 75–76(F), 77(F)
rubber elastomer second phase toughening, 77–80(F)
thermoplastic elastomeric toughening, 80(F)
thixotropy, 120–121
titanium
adhesive bonding primers, 243–244(F)
adhesive bonding surface preparation, 242–243
drilling, 313
Ti-6Al-4V, 14, 15(F), 313, 320, 557, 566, 567(T)
Ti-6Al-4V pin, 322, 323
Ti-15Mo-2.8Nb-3Al-0.2Si, 557
Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15- 3-3-3), 557
titanium matrix composites (TMCs)
consolidation procedures, 560–562(F)
continuous-fiber reinforced (TMCs), 554–557(F,T)
continuous-fiber TMC processing methods, 557–560(T)
particle-reinforced, 566–567(T), 568(F)
secondary fabrication of, 562–566(F), 567(F)
in situ composites, 566–567
tool mark-off, 397, 398(F), 399(F)
tow placement machine, 127–130(F)
tows, 31, 49
tracer yarns, 51–52
trade studies, 498–499(F)
transfer molding, 295, 296(F)
triglycidyl derivative of p-aminophenol (TGAP), 68, 69(F)
trimming
abrasive water jet trimming, 308, 309(F)
edge trimming, 307
manual edge-trimming, 307–308(F)
Tsai-Wu failure criterion, 443–444, 445(F)
turbostatic graphite, 45
Tyranno, 577(T), 578
U
ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE),
41–42(F), 490
ultrasonic horn, 196
ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 411
Upilex, 184
Upilex-R, 192
Upilex-S, 192
V
V50 parameter, 391
vacuum bag process, 122
vacuum bagging, 131–133(F), 528
vacuum bags, 121, 133, 173, 529, 531(F)
vacuum debulk, 115, 124, 140. See also debulking
vacuum forming, 124–125, 126(F)
vacuum hot pressing (VHP), 559–560(F)
vacuum pressure
bonded repairs, 523, 526
condensation curing systems, 136
continuous-fiber processes, 497
honeycomb bonding, 267
LTVB systems, 139
pressure infiltration casting (PIC), 546
resin injection, 163
sol-gel infiltration, 589
VARTM, 170, 172, 173
vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), 166,
170, 172–174(F), 498
veil, 490
verifilm, 249
viscosity
addition curing thermoset composites, 135, 136(F)
anhydride curing agents, 70
autohesion, 90
comparison: low-viscosity and paste epoxy adhesives,
247(T)
comparison: toughened and untoughened epoxy, 166(F)
condensation curing systems, 135
cure monitoring techniques, 232
DGEBA resins, 67–68(T)
epoxy resins, 67, 68(T)
high-viscosity thixotropic epoxy adhesives, 517
injection repairs, 518–519(F)
low-temperature curing/vacuum bag (LTVB) systems, 139
LTVB systems, 139
matrix resin systems, 63
polyester resins, 66
polymer matrix composites, 206–207(F), 208(F)
powder processing, 582
prepreg manufacturing, 57
resin, 162–163(T)
resin viscosity, determinant of, 121
RFI process, 174
rheological testing, 92–94(F)
shear thinning, 88
slurry casting—compocasting, 544
sol-gel infiltration, 589612  /  Index
viscosity (continued)
stir casting, 543, 544
thermal analysis, 95–96
thermoplastic composite matrices, 87
thermoplastic elastomeric toughening, 80
thermoplastics, 81
thermoset injection molding, 305
VARTM, 173
wet winding, 145–146
whiskers, 582
voids (use of term), 219, 393. See also voids and porosity
voids and porosity
carbon fiber composites, 383
composite mechanical properties, 393–397(F)
condensation curing systems, 135
continuous-fiber processes, 497
filament winding, 146
heat transfer, 209
matrix selection, 495
polyimide resins, 72, 74
polymer matrix composites, 219–226(F)
resin flow, 213, 214
resin injection, 162, 163, 164
thermosets, 65
void submodel, 201
wet lay-up, 122
W
warp, 49
washers, 320, 323
weaves
basket, 50
leno/mock leno, 50–51
overview, 49
plain, 49–50
satin, 50
styles, 54(T)
twill, 50
welding
induction welding, 197–198, 200(F)
resistance welding, 195–196, 199(F)
ultrasonic welding, 196–197
wet lay-up, 496, 497
bonded repairs, 523
composite tool fabrication, 115
continuous-fiber processes, 496
fabrication process selection, 496
glass fiber composites, 375
laminates, 503
low-temperature curing/vacuum bag (LTVB) systems,
138, 141
thermoset composite fabrication processes,
119–122(F)
vacuum bag cures, 531
wet lay-up patches, 523, 527, 530(F)
whiskers. See also reinforcements
ceramic matrix composites, 575, 577(T)
discontinuous MMCs, secondary processing of, 549
MMCs, 537
PAA process, 239, 240(F), 241
PIP processes, 588
powder metallurgy (PM) methods, 548(F), 549
powder processing, 582
reinforcements, 31
silicon carbide, 539(F), 542
slurry casting—compocasting, 544
stir casting, 543(F)
wind power applications, 23–24, 27(F)
winding. See filament winding
working life, 251
woven cloth, definition of, 32
woven fabrics, 49–52(F), 53(F), 54(F,T), 149
three-dimensional, 149–151(F), 152(F)
Y
yarn, 31, 39


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