كتاب Structural Steelwork - Design to Limit State Theory
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 كتاب Structural Steelwork - Design to Limit State Theory

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Structural Steelwork - Design to Limit State Theory
Second edition
T. J. MacGinley, BE, ME, C Eng, FI Struct E, MIE Aust
Formerly Associate Professor
Nanyang Technological University
T. C. Ang, BE, MSc, PE, MIES
Senior Lecturer
Nanyang Technological University

كتاب Structural Steelwork - Design to Limit State Theory  S_s_w_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface to the second edition
Preface to the first edition vm
Acknowledgements ix
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Steel structures 2
1.2 Structural elements 3
1.3 Structural design 5
1.4 Design methods 5
1.5 Design calculations and computing 6
1.6 Detailing 7
Chapter 2 MATERIALS 8
2.1 Structural steels—properties
Design considerations 9
Steel sections 11
Section properties 14
Chapter 3 LIMIT STATE DESIGN 17
3.1 Limit state design principles 17
3.2 Limit states for steel design 17
3.3 Working and factored loads 18
3.4 Stability limit states 20
3.5 Structural integrity 20
3.6 Serviceability limit states—deflection 21
3.7 Design strength of materials 21
3.8 Design methods for buildings 22
Chapter 4 CONNECTIONS 24
Types of connections 24
Ordinary bolts 25
Friction-grip bolts 39
Welded connections 45
Further considerations in design of connections 57
4.5Chapter 5 BEAMS 64
5.1 Types and uses 64
Beam loads 65
Classification of beam cross-sections 67
Bending stresses and moment capacity 67
Lateral torsional buckling 74
Shear in beams 81
Deflection of beams 83
Beam connections 84
Examples of beam design 89
Compound beams 97
Crane beams
Purlins 120
Sheeting rails 127
Chapter 6 PLATE GIRDERS 135
Design considerations 135
Behaviour of a plate girder 138
Design to BS 5950: Part 1 142
Design of a plate girder 153
Design utilizing tension field action
Chapter 7 TENSION MEMBERS 171
Uses, types and design considerations 171
End connections 173
Structural behaviour of tension members 174
Design of tension members
Design examples 181
Chapter 8 COMPRESSION MEMBERS 184
Types and uses 184
Loads on compression members
Classification of cross sections
Axially loaded compression members
Beam columns 205
Eccentrically loaded columns in buildings 213
Cased columns subjected to axial load and moment
Side column for a single-story industrial building
Crane columns 234
Column bases 243
8.10Chapter 9 TRUSSES AND BRACING 265
9.1 Trusses—types, uses and truss members
Loads on trusses
Analysis of trusses
Design of truss members
Truss connections
9.6 Design of a roof truss for an industrial building 275
9.7 Bracing 289
Chapter 10 WORKSHOP STEELWORK DESIGN EXAMPLE 302
10.1 Introduction 302
10.2 Basic design loading 303
10.3 Computer analysis data 304
10.4 Results of computer analysis 310
10.5 Structural design of members 313
10.6 Steelwork detailing 316
Chapter 11 MICROCOMPUTER APPLICATIONS 317
11.1 Application of computers in design 317
11.2 General aspects of microcomputers 319
11.3 Considerations in writing design programs
Steel beam design program 320
Column design program 326
Column-base design program
11.7 Computer programs disclaimer 335
Chapter 12 STEELWORK DETAILING 336
12.1 Drawings 336
12.2 General recommendations
12.3 Steel sections 339
12.4 Grids and marking plans
12.5 Bolts 341
12.6 Welds 343
12.7 Beams 346
12.8 Plate girders 346
12.9 Columns and bases 348
12.10 Trusses and lattice girders
12.11 Computer-aided drafting
Chapter 13 PORTAL DESIGN
13.1 Design and construction
Elastic design
13.2 35613.3 Plastic design 367
13.4 Further reading for portal design 389
References 391
Index 393393
Index
Bending
asymmetrical sections, 71
strengths for beams, 79, 110
Bolted joints
direct shear and tension, 30, 32
eccentric connections, 30
example bracket type, 37
examples, 35
failure modes, 27
in direct shear, 26
in direct tension, 28
prying forces, 28
Bolts
designating and dimensioning, 342
drilling tolerances, 342
friction-grip, 39
holding down, 244
in clearance holes, 28
in tension, 29
load capacity table, 29
ordinary, 25
single and double shear, 26
spacing, 26
specification, 341
tension capacity, 28
Bracing
design example, 291, 295
for buildings, 289
for multi-storey building, 290
for single-storey industrial building, 289
for wall, 295
general considerations, 289
longitudinal, 299
members design, 290
transverse, 297
Buckling
parameter, 79, 109
resistance moment, 80, 108, 110, 243
resistance of beam webs, 84
types of, 85
Buildings
common types of steel buildings, 2
factory, 2
multi-storey, 2, 186
multi-storey, framing plans, 296
Angle
purlin, 125
sheeting rails, 131
sheeting rails design, 127, 128, 130
tension members, 179
Angle struts
limiting proportions, 270
Base plates
design, 244
thickness, 245, 249, 260
Beam columns
code design procedure, 210
design example, 211
general behaviour, 205
local capacity check, 210, 212
moment capacity, 208
overall buckling check, 211, 212
short column failure, 208
slender column failure, 209
Beams
behaviour in bending, 72
bending about two axes, 96
bending stresses, 67
biaxial bending, 69, 73, 80
code design procedure, 78
connections, 84
conservative design approach, 80
cross-section classification, 67
design examples, 89
effective length, 76
end shear connections, 86
lateral torsional buckling, 74
loads, 65, 66
local capacity check, 81
moment capacity, 68
overall buckling check, 81
sections, 14
types and uses, 64
uniaxial bending, 67, 72
with unrestrained compression flange, 94
Bearing
resistance of beam webs, 86
web and bracket, 86394 Index
single storey, 1
steel frame, 1
Built-up columns
cross-sections classification, 200
design, 200
example, 201
Cased columns
buckling resistance, 222, 223
capacity check, 221, 223
compression resistance, 203
design example, 222
design requirements, 203
example, 204
with axial load and moment, 221
Code of practice
dead and imposed loads, 6
hot rolled section, 12
steel design, 6
weldable structural steel, 6
wind loads, 6
Column bases
design example, 248
design strength, 244
eccentrically loaded, 247
elastic analysis, 256
gusseted, 250
example, 251
types and loads, 243
Columns
construction details, 185
design, 196, 199
example, 197
for workshop, 314
eccentrically loaded, 213
moments in simple construction, 214
sections classification, 226
splices, 185
tests and design strengths, 193
Compound beams
buckling and bearing, 103
design, 99
design considerations, 97
design example, 100
flange plate curtailment, 99
moment capacity, 98
section classification, 98
Compression
resistance, 196
Compression members
axially loaded, 188
cross-section classification, 188
loads, 186
sections, 184
types and uses, 184
Compressive
strength, 202
Computer
aided drafting, 349
model of steel frame, 305
programs, 81
results for frame analysis, 310
Connections
beam to column, 42
bracket, 52, 53, 56
eccentric, 50
friction-grip bolts, 42
further consideration in design, 57
load paths and forces, 57
local stress check, 59
other design checks, 58
types of, 24
typical, 24
welded joints, 45
Constant
Perry, 193
Robertson, 193, 202
Corner columns
design example, 215
Crane
data, 304
surge, 237
surge loads, 241
wheel loads, 235, 240
Crane beams
biaxial bending check, 110
crane load data, 106
deflection, 118
design, 108
design example, 112
elastic properties, 116
loads, 106, 113
maximum wheel loads, 112
moment capacity, 110
plastic properties, 115
shear capacity, 110
types and uses, 105
Crane columns
design example, 238
design procedure, 237
loading, 234
types, 234
Crane loads
for steel workshop, 306
Deflection
at column cap, 228, 233, 243
crane columns, 238
limits, 21
of beams, 83
of crane beams, 111
of trusses, 268
portals, 376
Design
limit state, 5
methods, 5
methods for buildings, 22
preliminary , 317
rigid, 22
semi-rigid , 22
simple, 22
structural, 5Index 395
design principles, 17
serviceability , 18
stability , 20
steel design, 17
ultimate, 17
Load factors
overall , 19
Loads
application on trusses, 267
dead, 18, 197, 224, 229, 238,
Design considerations
brittle fracture, 9
corrosion protection, 10
fatigue, 9
fire protection, 10
Detailing, 7
columns and bases, 347
for beams, 345
for plate girders, 346
of steelwork, 316
stellwork , 336
trusses and lattice girders, 348
Drawings
classification, 336
general recommendations, 337
preparation, 318
266
dynamic, 19
factored , 19
imposed, 18, 197, 224, 229,
238, 266
national horizontal loads, 231
serviceability, 21
wind , 18, 187, 224, 229, 230,
237, 240, 266, 277, 291, 295
working, 18
Effective lengths
for beams, 109
for compression chords, 270
of cased columns, 203
of columns, 194, 196, 227
of crane columns, 237
of portal members, 357
table for beams, 77
Elastic
design. 5
theory for beams, 67, 74
End post
design, 150, 159, 164
double stiffeners, 151
single end plate , 151
Equivalent
slenderness, 79, 80, 213
uniform moment , 78
Friction-grip bolts
connection examples, 42
design procedure, 40
general consideration, 39
in combined shear and tension ,
Microcomputer
applications, 317
general aspects, 319
Modulus
of elasticity , 22
shear, 22
Plans
grids and marking, 340
Plastic
analysis of portals. 367
cross-section, 67
design, 5
design of portals, 367
theory for beams, 72
theory for shear in beams, 81,
83
Plate girders
behaviour of, 138
connections and splices, 137
cross-sections classification, 142
depth and flange breadth , 136
design drawing, 160, 167
design example, 153
design to BS 5950, 142
flange to web welds, 153
loads, 137
moment capacity, 143
optimum depth , 144
stresses, 138
uses and construction , 135
web design , 145, 155, 161
Plates
elastic buckling, 138
in compression, 141
in edge bending, 141
in shear , 141
post buckling strength , 140
Pocket bases
design example, 262
design theory , 261
41
in shear, 40
in tension only, 41
load capacity table, 42
Holding down bolts
design strength, 244
tension in bolts, example, 257
Index
monosymmetry , 110
torsional, 79, 109
Joints in portals. 377
eaves joint. 377
ridge joint , 379
Lateral
restraints, 76
torsional buckling, 74, 108
Limit states
deflection, 21396 Index
Portal, 353
code provisions, 356, 367
column design , 359
column stability , 373
construction , 353
effective lengths, 357
elastic design , 356
elastic example, 360
foundations, 355
plastic analysis, 367
plastic design , 367
plastic example, 380
rafter design, 360
rafter stability, 374
restraints. 373
Program
disclaimer, 334
for column base design, 330
for column design, 326
for steel beam design, 320
sample run for column design,
Slenderness
factor, 78, 79, 110
limiting, 202
modified, 110
modifying factors, 109
ratio, 109, 190, 196, 209
unstiffened web, 86
Stability for portals
column stability . 373
rafter stability. 374
sway stability. 372
Steel
sections, 338
sections classification for
columns, 226
stress-strain diagrams, 8
structural properties, 8
Steel sections
asymmetrical sections, 70
built-up sections, 13
cold rolled sections, 13
compound sections, 12
limiting proportions, 68, 188
properties, 14
rolled and formed sections, 11
unsymmetrical, 74
Stiffeners
bearing resistance, 149
buckling check , 148
buckling resistance, 148
design, 146
intermediate, 147, 157, 163
load bearing, 146, 148, 158,
329
sample run of column base,
333
sample run of steel beam, 324
source listing, 322, 326, 331
writing considerations, 319
Purlins
cold rolled, 123
design examples, 125
design to BS 5950, 123
for flat roof, 121, 125
for slooping roof , 121
in steel workshop, 303
loading, 120
types and uses, 120
164
minimum stiffness, 147
spacing, 145, 147
Strength
compressive, 193
factor, 22
for steel in design, 22
of material for design, 21
Stresses
beams bending, 67, 69, 70, 71
Roof
purlins, 120
trusses, 171
bracing, 293
Shear
in beams, 81
reduced moment capacity, 83
web area, 83
Sheeting rails
arrangement, 127
cold rolled, 129
design examples, 130
empirical design, 132
loading , 127
types and uses, 127
Side columns
design example, 228
design procedure, 226
in industrial building, 223
local capacity check, 232
overall buckling check , 233
Slab base
axially located, 245
axially loaded, example, 246
73
bearing, 86
buckling, 85
plate girder, 138
reduction factor , 202
residual, 192
shear, 81, 82
tension ans moment, 174, 175
Structural
analysis, 317
element, 4
integrity, 20
Struts
basic theory, 189
behaviour and strength, 192
eccentrically loaded, 192
in trusses, 269
slenderness, 269
with initial curvature, 191Index 397
Tension field action
for web under shear, 142
web plate design, 161
Tension members
axially loaded, 179
design considerations, 172
design examples, 181
effective area , 180
end connections, 173
structural behaviour, 174
uses and types, 171
with moments, 180
Web
bearing resistance, 86
buckling and bearing, 104, 111, 118
buckling resistance, 84
Welded joints
bracket connections, 56
direct shear connection, 53
examples, 53
torsion connection, 55
Welding
process, 45
types of welds, 45
Welds
cracks and deflects, 46
design of butt welds, 49
design of fillet welds, 47
design strength, 48
fillet and butt welds, 46, 343
strength of fillet welds, 49
% symbols, 344
test
, 47
Wind loads, 18, 187, 224, 228, 230, 237, 240,
291
, 295
data
, 304
force coefficients, 297
on roof truss, 277
on steel frame
, 307, 309
Wind pressure
coefficients
, 308
dynamic, 308
on roof and walls, 308
Workshop steelwork
basic design loading, 303
computer analysis, 304
design example, 302
frame arrangement, 302
members design, 313
Ties
effective area, 272
Torsion
joint , 50
Torsional
consant, 109
index, 79, 109
restraints, 76
Trusses
analyses, 278
analysis, 267
chords with moment, 272
connections, 273
dead and imposed loads, 306
deflection of , 268
for industrial building, 275
joints, design, 274
loads, 276
loads on , 266
members design , 269, 282, 313
members with reversal of load,
272
redundant and cross-braced,
269
rigid jointed, 268
types and uses, 265
Types, 353
stability for portals, 373
column stability. 373
rafter stability, 374
sway stability, 372


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