كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

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الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 16972
التقييم : 29916
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى

كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3    كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3  Emptyالسبت 14 نوفمبر 2020, 11:07 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3
Polymer Matrix Composites
Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis
Department of Defense Handbook  

كتاب Composite Materials Handbook Volume 3  C_m_h_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword Ii
Summary of Changes Xvii
Chapter 1 General Information . 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Purpose, Scope, and Organization of Volume 3 1
1.3 Symbols, Abbreviations, and Systems of Units 2
1.3.1 Symbols and abbreviations 2
1.3.1.1 Constituent properties 7
1.3.1.2 Laminae and laminates . 8
1.3.1.3 Subscripts 9
1.3.1.4 Superscripts . 10
1.3.1.5 Acronyms . 10
1.3.2 System of units 12
1.4 DEFINITIONS . 13
CHAPTER 2 MATERIALS AND PROCESSES - THE EFFECTS OF VARIABILITY ON COMPOSITE
PROPERTIES 1
2.1 INTRODUCTION 1
2.2 PURPOSE 1
2.3 SCOPE . 1
2.4 CONSTITUENT MATERIALS 1
2.4.1 Fibers . 1
2.4.1.1 Carbon and graphite fibers 1
2.4.1.1.1 Carbon vs. graphite . 2
2.4.1.1.2 General material description . 4
2.4.1.1.3 Processing 4
2.4.1.1.4 Typical properties 6
2.4.1.2 Aramid . 6
2.4.1.3 Glass 8
2.4.1.3.1 Chemical description . 8
2.4.1.3.2 Physical forms available . 9
2.4.1.3.3 Advantages and disadvantages 12
2.4.1.3.4 Common manufacture methods and variable . 14
2.4.1.4 Boron . 15
2.4.1.5 Alumina 17
2.4.1.6 Silicon carbide . 19
2.4.1.7 Quartz 21
2.4.1.8 Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene . 26
2.4.2 Resins 29
2.4.2.1 Overview 29
2.4.2.2 Epoxy . 30
2.4.2.3 Polyester (thermosetting) 30
2.4.2.4 Phenolic . 30
2.4.2.4.1 Resoles . 31
2.4.2.4.2 Novolacs . 31
2.4.2.5 Bismaleimide . 31
2.4.2.6 Polyimides . 32
2.4.2.7 Thermoplastic materials 32
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
iv
2.4.2.7.1 Semi-crystalline . 32
2.4.2.7.2 Amorphous 34
2.4.2.8 Specialty and emerging resin systems 36
2.4.2.8.1 Silicone 36
2.5 PROCESSING OF PRODUCT FORMS 36
2.5.1 Fabrics and preforms . 36
2.5.1.1 Woven fabrics 36
2.5.1.1.1 Conventional woven fabrics 36
2.5.1.1.2 Stitched or knitted fabrics 38
2.5.1.1.3 Specialty fabrics 38
2.5.2 Preimpregnated forms . 38
2.5.2.1 Prepreg roving . 38
2.5.2.2 Prepreg tape 38
2.5.2.2.1 Conventional unidirectional tapes . 38
2.5.2.2.2 Two-step unidirectional tapes . 39
2.5.2.2.3 Supported unidirectional tapes . 39
2.5.2.2.4 Coated unidirectional tapes 39
2.5.2.2.5 Preplied unidirectional tapes . 39
2.5.2.3 Prepreg fabric 39
2.5.2.4 Preconsolidated thermoplastic sheet . 39
2.6 SHIPPING AND STORAGE PROCESSES . 40
2.6.1 Packaging 40
2.6.2 Shipping . 40
2.6.3 Unpackaging and storage 40
2.7 CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES . 40
2.7.1 Hand lay-up 40
2.7.2 Automated tape placement/automated tape lamination 41
2.7.2.1 Background 41
2.7.2.2 Benefits/capabilities . 41
2.7.2.3 Sources of variability 41
2.7.3 Automated tow placement/fiber placement . 42
2.7.3.1 Background 42
2.7.3.2 Fiber placement process flow 43
2.7.3.3 Benefits/capabilities . 43
2.7.3.4 Material product forms . 44
2.7.3.5 Special considerations . 45
2.7.4 Braiding 47
2.7.5 Filament winding 48
2.7.6 Pultrusion . 49
2.7.7 Sandwich construction . 49
2.7.8 Adhesive bonding 50
2.7.9 Prebond moisture 52
2.8 CURE AND CONSOLIDATION PROCESSES 52
2.8.1 Vacuum bag molding . 52
2.8.2 Oven cure 53
2.8.3 Autoclave curing processing 53
2.8.3.1 General description 53
2.8.3.2 Sources of variability 54
2.8.4 Press molding 54
2.8.5 Integrally heated tooling . 54
2.8.6 Pultrusion die cure and consolidation 55
2.8.7 Resin transfer molding (RTM) 55
2.8.8 Thermoforming 58
2.9 ASSEMBLY PROCESSES . 58
2.10 PROCESS CONTROL . 59
2.10.1 Common process control schemes . 59
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
v
2.10.1.1 Empirical methods . 59
2.10.1.2 Active sensor-based control 59
2.10.1.3 Passive model-based control 59
2.10.2 Example - autoclave cure of a thermoset composite 59
2.10.2.1 Degree of cure . 60
2.10.2.2 Viscosity . 60
2.10.2.3 Resin pressure . 62
2.10.2.4 Void prevention 63
2.10.2.5 Flow . 63
2.11 PREPARING MATERIAL AND PROCESSING SPECIFICATIONS . 64
2.11.1 Types of specifications . 64
2.11.1.1 Material specifications . 64
2.11.1.2 Process specs - controls end product . 64
2.11.2 Format for specifications 64
2.11.2.1 Scope . 64
2.11.2.2 Applicable documents 64
2.11.2.3 Technical requirements/process controls 65
2.11.2.4 Receiving inspection and qualification testing . 65
2.11.2.5 Delivery 65
2.11.2.6 Notes . 65
2.11.2.7 Approved sources and other . 65
2.11.3 Specification examples 66
2.11.3.1 Industry 66
2.11.3.2 Military 66
2.11.4 Configuration management . 66
CHAPTER 3 QUALITY CONTROL OF PRODUCTION MATERIALS AND PROCESSES . 1
3.1 INTRODUCTION 1
3.2 MATERIAL PROCUREMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE PROCEDURES 1
3.2.1 Specifications and documentation . 1
3.2.2 Receiving inspection 1
3.3 PART FABRICATION VERIFICATION . 2
3.3.1 Process verification 2
3.3.2 Nondestructive inspection 5
3.3.3 Destructive tests 6
3.3.3.1 Background 6
3.3.3.2 Usage 6
3.3.3.3 Destructive test approaches 7
3.3.3.4 Implementation guidelines . 7
3.3.3.5 Test types . 8
3.4 STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL 8
3.4.1 Introduction 8
3.4.2 Quality tools . 8
3.4.3 Gathering and plotting data . 8
3.4.4 Control charts . 8
3.4.5 Process capability 9
3.4.6 Troubleshooting and improvement 9
3.4.6.1 Process feedback adjustment . 9
3.4.6.2 Design of experiments 11
3.4.6.3 Taguchi 20
3.4.7 Lot acceptance . 20
3.5 MANAGING CHANGE IN MATERIALS AND PROCESSES . 20
3.5.1 Introduction 20
3.5.2 Qualification of new materials or processes 20
3.5.2.1 Problem statement . 20
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
vi
3.5.2.2 Business case 22
3.5.2.3 Divergence and risk . 22
3.5.2.4 Technical acceptability . 22
3.5.2.5 Allowables development and equivalency validation 22
3.5.2.6 Production readiness . 22
3.5.2.7 Lessons learned 22
3.5.3 Divergence and risk . 22
3.5.3.1 Divergence . 24
3.5.3.2 Risk assessment 25
3.5.3.3 Risk analysis 26
3.5.4 Production readiness . 26
CHAPTER 4 BUILDING BLOCK APPROACH FOR COMPOSITE STRUCTURES . 1
4.1 INTRODUCTION AND PHILOSOPHY . 1
4.2 RATIONALE AND ASSUMPTIONS 4
4.3 METHODOLOGY . 5
4.3.1 General approach 5
4.4 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS 6
4.4.1 Aircraft for prototypes 6
4.4.1.1 PMC composite allowables generation for DOD/NASA prototype
aircraft structure . 6
4.4.1.2 PMC composites building block structural development for
DOD/NASA prototype aircraft 10
4.4.1.3 Summary of allowables and building block test efforts for
DOD/NASA prototype composite aircraft structure . 15
4.4.2 Aircraft for EMD and production 15
4.4.2.1 PMC composite allowables generation for DOD/NASA EMD and
production aircraft structure . 15
4.4.2.2 PMC composite building block structural development for
DOD/NASA EMD and production aircraft 19
4.4.2.3 Summary of allowables and building block test efforts for
DOD/NASA EMD and production composite aircraft structure 24
4.4.3 Commercial aircraft 24
4.4.3.1 Introduction 24
4.4.3.2 The building block approach 24
4.4.3.2.1 Certification approaches . 25
4.4.3.2.2 Allowables versus design values 26
4.4.3.2.3 Lamina vs. laminate derived allowables for predicting strength . 26
4.4.3.2.4 Product development 27
4.4.3.3 Composite road map . 27
4.4.3.3.1 Criteria . 28
4.4.3.3.2 Regulations . 28
4.4.3.4 Commercial building block approach . 29
4.4.3.5 Group A, material property development . 29
4.4.3.5.1 Block 1 - material screening and selection . 30
4.4.3.5.2 Block 2 - material and process specification development . 30
4.4.3.5.3 Block 3 - allowables development 30
4.4.3.6 Group B, design-value development . 31
4.4.3.6.1 Block 4 - structural element tests 31
4.4.3.6.2 Block 5 - subcomponent tests . 33
4.4.3.7 Group C, analysis verification 33
4.4.3.7.1 Block 6 - component test 34
4.4.3.8 Boeing 777 aircraft composite primary structure building block
approach 34
4.4.3.8.1 Introduction . 34
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
vii
4.4.3.8.2 Coupons and elements . 35
4.4.3.8.3 Subcomponents 36
4.4.3.8.4 Components 38
4.4.3.8.5 777 pre-production horizontal stabilizer test . 38
4.4.3.8.6 Fin root attachment test 40
4.4.3.8.7 777 horizontal stabilizer tests 40
4.4.3.8.8 777 vertical stabilizer test 41
4.4.3.8.9 Future programs . 41
4.4.4 Business and private aircraft . 41
4.4.4.1 High performance 41
4.4.4.1.1 Introduction . 41
4.4.4.1.2 Typical building block program 42
4.4.4.2 Lightweight and kit . 46
4.4.5 Rotorcraft . 46
4.4.5.1 Design allowables testing 48
4.4.5.1.1 Airframe . 48
4.4.5.1.2 Rotor system . 48
4.4.5.1.3 Drive system . 49
4.4.5.2 Design development testing 50
4.4.5.2.1 Airframe . 50
4.4.5.2.2 Rotor system . 51
4.4.5.2.3 Drive system . 51
4.4.5.3 Full scale substantiation testing . 52
4.4.5.3.1 Airframe . 53
4.4.5.3.2 Rotor system . 53
4.4.5.3.3 Drive system . 54
4.4.6 Spacecraft 55
4.5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATION AND VARIANCES FOR SPECIFIC PROCESSES AND
MATERIAL FORMS 55
4.5.1 Room Temperature 55
CHAPTER 5 DESIGN AND ANALYSIS 1
5.1 INTRODUCTION 1
5.2 BASIC LAMINA PROPERTIES AND MICROMECHANICS . 1
5.2.1 Assumptions 2
5.2.1.1 Material homogeneity 2
5.2.1.2 Material orthotropy . 2
5.2.1.3 Material linearity . 2
5.2.1.4 Residual stresses 2
5.2.2 Fiber composites: physical properties . 2
5.2.2.1 Elastic properties . 3
5.2.2.2 Viscoelastic properties . 7
5.2.2.3 Thermal expansion and moisture swelling 9
5.2.2.4 Thermal conduction and moisture diffusion . 12
5.2.3 Fiber composites: strength and failure . 13
5.2.3.1 Axial tensile strength 14
5.2.3.1.1 Weakest link failure . 14
5.2.3.1.2 Cumulative weakening failure . 14
5.2.3.1.3 Fiber break propagation failure . 15
5.2.3.1.4 Cumulative group mode failure . 15
5.2.3.2 Axial compressive strength 15
5.2.3.3 Matrix mode strength . 17
5.2.4 Strength under combined stress 17
5.2.5 Summary 21
5.3 ANALYSIS OF LAMINATES . 21
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
viii
5.3.1 Lamina stress-strain relations 21
5.3.2 Lamination theory 27
5.3.3 Laminate properties . 31
5.3.3.1 Membrane stresses . 31
5.3.3.2 Bending 34
5.3.3.3 Thermal expansion 37
5.3.3.4 Moisture expansion 40
5.3.3.5 Conductivity . 40
5.3.4 Thermal and hygroscopic analysis 41
5.3.4.1 Symmetric laminates . 42
5.3.4.2 Unsymmetric laminates . 43
5.3.5 Laminate stress analysis . 43
5.3.5.1 Stresses due to mechanical loads . 43
5.3.5.2 Stresses due to temperature and moisture . 44
5.3.5.3 Netting analysis . 45
5.3.5.3.1 Netting analysis for design of filament wound pressure vessels 46
5.3.5.4 Interlaminar stresses . 49
5.3.5.5 Nonlinear stress analysis . 49
5.3.6 Summary 49
5.4 LAMINATE STRENGTH AND FAILURE 50
5.4.1 Sequential ply failure approach . 50
5.4.1.1 Initial ply . 50
5.4.1.2 Subsequent failures . 53
5.4.2 Fiber failure approach (laminate level failure) . 53
5.4.3 Laminate design 55
5.4.4 Stress concentrations 56
5.4.5 Delamination 59
5.4.5.1 Compression 60
5.4.6 Damage and failure modes 61
5.4.6.1 Tension 61
5.4.6.1.1 Matrix cracks . 62
5.4.6.2 Compression 63
5.4.7 Summary 64
5.5 COMPLEX LOADS 65
5.5.1 Biaxial in-plane loads . 65
5.5.2 Out-of-plane loads . 65
5.6 LAMINA TO LAMINATE CONSIDERATIONS 65
5.6.1 Residual stresses and strains 65
5.6.2 Thickness effects . 65
5.6.3 Edge effects . 66
5.6.4 Effects of transverse tensile properties in unidirectional tape . 67
5.6.5 Laminate stacking sequence effects 68
5.6.5.1 Introduction 68
5.6.5.2 Design guidelines 68
5.6.5.2.1 Strong recommendations 69
5.6.5.2.2 Recommendations 70
5.6.6 Lamina-to-laminate statistics . 71
5.6.7 Summary 71
5.7 COMPRESSIVE BUCKLING AND CRIPPLING 71
5.7.1 Plate buckling and crippling . 71
5.7.1.1 Introduction 71
5.7.1.2 Initial buckling 72
5.7.1.3 Uniaxial loading - long plate with all sides simply supported 72
5.7.1.4 Uniaxial loading - long plate with all sides fixed 74
5.7.1.5 Uniaxial loading - long plate with three sides simply supported
and one unloaded edge free 75
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
ix
5.7.1.6 Uniaxial and biaxial loading - plate with all sides simply
supported . 75
5.7.1.7 Uniaxial loading - plate with loaded edges simply supported and
unloaded edges fixed . 76
5.7.1.8 Stacking sequence effects in buckling . 76
5.7.2 Compressive postbuckling and crippling . 79
5.7.2.1 Analytical models . 86
5.7.2.2 Fatigue effects . 88
5.7.2.3 Crippling curve determination 89
5.7.2.4 Stiffener crippling strength determination 89
5.7.2.5 Effects of corner radii and fillets . 92
5.7.2.6 Slenderness correction 93
5.7.3 Summary 93
5.8 CARPET PLOTS 93
5.9 CREEP AND RELAXATION . 93
5.10 FATIGUE 94
5.11 VIBRATION 94
5.11.1 Introduction 94
5.11.2 Stacking sequence effects . 94
5.12 OTHER STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES . 94
5.13 COMPUTER PROGRAMS . 94
5.14 CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS 94
CHAPTER 6 STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF JOINTS 1
6.1 INTRODUCTION 1
6.2 ADHESIVE JOINTS . 2
6.2.1 Introduction 2
6.2.2 Joint design considerations . 3
6.2.2.1 Effects of adherend thickness: adherend failures vs. bond
failures . 3
6.2.2.2 Joint geometry effects 4
6.2.2.3 Effects of adherend stiffness unbalance 5
6.2.2.4 Effects of ductile adhesive response . 5
6.2.2.5 Behavior of composite adherends . 7
6.2.2.6 Effects of bond defects 8
6.2.2.7 Durability of adhesive joints . 9
6.2.3 Stresses and structural behavior of adhesive joints .11
6.2.3.1 General .11
6.2.3.2 Adhesive shear stresses . 12
6.2.3.3 Peel stresses . 17
6.2.3.4 Single and double lap joints with uniform adherend thickness 19
6.2.3.4.1 Joint behavior with elastic response of the bond layer . 19
6.2.3.4.2 Thermal stress effects . 29
6.2.3.4.3 Effect of ductility on joint stresses . 31
6.2.3.4.4 Transverse shear and stacking sequence effects in composite
adherends . 34
6.2.3.5 Tapered and multi-step adherends 36
6.2.3.6 Finite element modeling 46
6.2.4 Mechanical response of adhesives . 48
6.2.5 Mechanical response of composite adherends . 49
6.2.6 Adhesive joint conclusions . 49
6.3 MECHANICALLY FASTENED JOINTS 49
6.3.1 Introduction 49
6.3.2 Structural analysis 49
6.3.2.1 Load sharing in a joint 49
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
6.3.2.2 Analysis of local failure in bolted joints 51
6.3.2.3 Failure criteria 59
6.3.3 Design considerations . 60
6.3.3.1 Geometry . 60
6.3.3.2 Lay-up and stacking sequence 60
6.3.3.3 Fastener selection . 60
6.3.4 Fatigue . 61
6.3.4.1 Influence of loading mode . 62
6.3.4.2 Influence of joint geometry 62
6.3.4.3 Influence of attachment details 63
6.3.4.4 Influence of laminate lay-up . 63
6.3.4.5 Influence of environment . 63
6.3.4.6 Influence of specimen thickness 63
6.3.4.7 Residual strength . 63
6.3.5 Test verification 64
CHAPTER 7 DAMAGE RESISTANCE, DURABILITY, AND DAMAGE TOLERANCE . 1
7.1 OVERVIEW AND GENERAL GUIDELINES 1
7.1.1 Principles . 1
7.1.2 Composite-related issues 1
7.1.3 General guidelines . 2
7.1.4 Section organization 4
7.2 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE TOLERANCE 4
7.2.1 Evolving military and civil aviation requirements . 5
7.2.2 Methods of compliance to aviation regulations 10
7.2.2.1 Compliance with static strength requirements (civil aviation) .11
7.2.2.2 Compliance with damage tolerance requirements (civil aviation) . 12
7.2.2.3 Deterministic compliance method (civil aviation example) 15
7.2.2.4 Probabilistic or semi-probabilistic compliance methods (civil
aviation) . 19
7.2.2.5 Comparison of deterministic and probabilistic methods 24
7.2.2.6 Full-scale tests for proof of structure (civil aviation) 25
7.3 TYPES, CHARACTERISTICS, AND SOURCES OF DAMAGE 26
7.3.1 Damages characterized by stage of occurrence . 27
7.3.1.1 Manufacturing 27
7.3.1.2 Service . 27
7.3.2 Damages characterized by physical imperfection . 28
7.3.3 Realistic impact energy threats to aircraft 30
7.4 INSPECTION FOR DAMAGE 33
7.4.1 Aircraft inspection programs 33
7.4.2 Recommendations for damage inspection data development 34
7.4.2.1 Goals . 35
7.4.2.2 Inspection techniques 35
7.5 DAMAGE RESISTANCE 36
7.5.1 Influencing factors 36
7.5.1.1 Summary of results from previous impact studies . 37
7.5.1.2 Through-penetration impacts . 38
7.5.1.3 Material type and form effects . 41
7.5.1.4 Depth of damage . 43
7.5.1.5 Laminate thickness effects 43
7.5.1.6 Structural size effects . 46
7.5.1.7 Sandwich structure 48
7.5.2 Design issues and guidelines 50
7.5.2.1 Use of impact surveys for establishing critical damages . 50
7.5.2.2 Structural arrangement and design details 50
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
7.5.2.3 Ground hail 51
7.5.2.4 Lightning 51
7.5.2.5 Handling and step loads 52
7.5.2.6 Exposed edges 52
7.5.3 Test issues . 52
7.5.4 Analysis methods - description and assessment . 52
7.6 DURABILITY (DAMAGE INITIATION) . 52
7.6.1 Introduction 52
7.6.2 Life factor approach . 53
7.6.3 Load enhancement factor approach 55
7.6.4 Ultimate strength approach 56
7.6.5 Spectrum truncation . 57
7.6.6 Durability certification . 57
7.6.7 Influencing factors 57
7.6.8 Design issues and guidelines 57
7.6.9 Test issues . 58
7.6.10 Analysis methods - description and assessment . 58
7.7 DAMAGE GROWTH UNDER CYCLIC LOADING . 58
7.7.1 Influencing factors 58
7.7.2 Design issues and guidelines 60
7.7.3 Test issues . 60
7.7.4 Analysis methods - description and assessment . 60
7.7.4.1 Large through-penetration damage . 60
7.7.4.2 Single delaminations and disbonds . 60
7.7.4.2.1 Delamination growth . 60
7.7.4.3 Impact damages 60
7.7.4.4 Cuts and gouges 60
7.8 RESIDUAL STRENGTH . 61
7.8.1 Influencing Factors 61
7.8.1.1 Relationships between damage resistance and residual strength 61
7.8.1.2 Structure with impact damage . 61
7.8.1.2.1 Material effects 61
7.8.1.2.2 Interlaminar toughness effects 62
7.8.1.2.3 Stacking sequence effects 62
7.8.1.2.4 Laminate thickness effects 64
7.8.1.2.5 Through-thickness stitching 64
7.8.1.2.6 Sandwich structure . 64
7.8.1.2.7 Impact characteristic damage states 64
7.8.1.2.8 Residual strength - compressive/shear loads 68
7.8.1.2.9 Residual strength - tensile loads 69
7.8.1.2.10 Stiffened panels . 69
7.8.1.3 Structure with through-penetration damage 71
7.8.1.3.1 Stitched skin/stiffener panels 82
7.8.2 Design issues and guidelines 82
7.8.2.1 Stacking sequences . 82
7.8.2.2 Sandwich structure 82
7.8.3 Test issues . 83
7.8.3.1 Impact tests on coupons 83
7.8.3.2 Impact tests on stiffened panels 83
7.8.3.3 Impact tests on sandwich panels . 83
7.8.3.4 Tests for large through-penetration damage to stiffened panels . 84
7.8.3.5 Tests for large through-penetration damage to sandwich panels 84
7.8.4 Analysis methods - description and assessment . 84
7.8.4.1 Large through-penetration damage . 84
7.8.4.1.1 Reduced singularity (Mar-Lin) model 92
7.8.4.1.2 Strain softening laws . 103
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
7.8.4.1.3 LEFM - based methods . 109
7.8.4.1.4 R-curves .110
7.8.4.2 Single delaminations and disbonds 113
7.8.4.2.1 Fracture mechanics approaches 114
7.8.4.2.2 Sublaminate buckling methods 114
7.8.4.3 Impact damages .115
7.8.4.3.1 Sublaminate buckling methods 115
7.8.4.3.2 Strain softening methods .119
7.8.4.4 Cuts and gouges 121
7.9 APPLICATIONS/EXAMPLES . 121
7.9.1 Rotorcraft (Sikorsky) 122
7.9.1.1 Damage . 122
7.9.1.2 Environment . 122
7.9.1.3 Test loading conditions related to critical failure modes 122
7.9.1.4 Test loads - load enhancement factor (LEF) . 122
7.9.1.5 Spectrum - truncation 123
7.9.1.6 Residual strength test 124
7.9.2 Commercial aircraft (Boeing 777 empennage torque boxes) 124
7.9.2.1 Durability - environmental 124
7.9.2.2 Durability - mechanical loads . 125
7.9.2.3 Damage . 125
7.9.2.4 Damage tolerance - "no growth" tests . 125
7.9.2.5 Damage tolerance - residual strength . 127
7.9.2.6 Inspection plan . 127
7.9.3 General aviation (Raytheon Starship) 127
7.9.3.1 Introduction 127
7.9.3.2 Damage tolerance evaluation 128
7.9.3.2.1 Regulatory basis . 128
7.9.3.2.2 Typical damage scenarios and related requirements . 128
7.9.3.2.3 Damage source and modes 128
7.9.3.2.4 Element testing . 129
7.9.3.2.5 Test results 130
7.9.3.2.6 Full scale tests 134
7.9.3.2.7 Continued airworthiness inspections 135
7.9.3.3 Service experience 135
7.9.3.4 Conclusions . 136
7.9.4 Military aircraft 136
CHAPTER 8 SUPPORTABILITY 1
8.1 INTRODUCTION 1
8.2 DESIGN FOR SUPPORTABILITY . 2
8.2.1 In-service experience . 2
8.2.2 Inspectability 5
8.2.2.1 General design guidelines . 5
8.2.2.2 Accessibility for inspection . 7
8.2.3 Material selection . 7
8.2.3.1 Introduction 7
8.2.3.2 Resins and fibers . 7
8.2.3.3 Product forms 9
8.2.3.4 Adhesives 9
8.2.3.5 Supportability issues 9
8.2.3.6 Environmental concerns 9
8.2.4 Damage resistance, damage tolerance, and durability 11
8.2.4.1 Damage resistance .11
8.2.4.2 Damage tolerance . 12
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
8.2.4.3 Durability 12
8.2.5 Environmental compliance . 13
8.2.5.1 Elimination/reduction of heavy metals . 13
8.2.5.2 Consideration of paint removal requirements 13
8.2.5.3 Shelf life and storage stability of repair materials 13
8.2.5.4 Cleaning requirements . 14
8.2.5.5 Non-destructive inspection requirements 14
8.2.5.6 End of life disposal considerations 14
8.2.6 Reliability and maintainability . 14
8.2.7 Interchangeability and replaceability . 15
8.2.8 Accessibility . 15
8.2.9 Repairability . 15
8.2.9.1 General design approach 16
8.2.9.2 Repair design issues . 19
8.3 SUPPORT IMPLEMENTATION . 20
8.3.1 Part Inspection . 20
8.3.1.1 Visual . 21
8.3.1.2 Tap testing . 22
8.3.1.3 Ultrasonics . 22
8.3.1.4 Radiography 24
8.3.1.5 Shearography 25
8.3.1.6 Thermography . 25
8.3.2 Damage assessment for composite repairs 26
8.3.2.1 General 26
8.3.2.2 Mandate of the assessor . 27
8.3.2.3 Qualification of the assessor . 27
8.3.2.4 Information for damage assessment . 27
8.3.2.5 Dependence on repair location 28
8.3.3 Repair design criteria . 29
8.3.3.1 Part stiffness 30
8.3.3.2 Static strength and stability 30
8.3.3.3 Durability 31
8.3.3.4 Damage tolerance . 31
8.3.3.5 Related aircraft systems 31
8.3.3.6 Aerodynamic smoothness . 32
8.3.3.7 Weight and balance . 32
8.3.3.8 Operating temperatures . 32
8.3.3.9 Environment . 32
8.3.3.10 Surrounding structure 33
8.3.3.11 Temporary repair 33
8.3.4 Repair of composite structures 34
8.3.4.1 Introduction 34
8.3.4.2 Damage removal and site preparation 34
8.3.4.3 Bolted repairs . 35
8.3.4.3.1 Repair concepts 35
8.3.4.3.2 Repair materials 37
8.3.4.3.3 Repair analysis 37
8.3.4.3.4 Repair procedures . 38
8.3.4.3.5 Example of a bolted repair 39
8.3.4.4 Bonded repairs 39
8.3.4.4.1 Repair concepts 39
8.3.4.4.2 Repair materials 41
8.3.4.4.3 Repair analysis 42
8.3.4.4.4 Repair procedures . 43
8.3.4.4.5 Bonded repair examples . 46
8.3.4.5 Sandwich (honeycomb) repairs . 47
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
8.3.4.5.1 Repair concepts 47
8.3.4.5.2 Core restoration 48
8.3.4.5.3 Repair procedures . 50
8.3.4.5.4 Sandwich repair example 50
8.3.4.6 Repair inspection . 51
8.3.4.6.1 In-process quality control 51
8.3.4.6.2 Post-process inspection 51
8.3.4.7 Repair validation 51
8.4 COMPOSITE REPAIR OF METAL STRUCTURE (CRMS) . 52
8.5 LOGISTICS REQUIREMENTS 53
8.5.1 Training 53
8.5.2 Spares 54
8.5.3 Materials 54
8.5.4 Facilities . 55
8.5.5 Technical data 56
8.5.6 Support equipment 56
8.5.6.1 Curing equipment 56
8.5.6.2 Cold storage rooms . 57
8.5.6.3 Sanding/grinding booths 58
8.5.6.4 NDI equipment . 58
CHAPTER 9 STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY . 1
9.1 INTRODUCTION 1
9.2 FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURAL RELIABILITY . 1
9.2.1 Static strength 1
9.2.2 Environmental effects 2
9.2.3 Fatigue . 2
9.2.4 Damage tolerance . 3
9.3 RELIABILITY ENGINEERING 3
9.4 RELIABILITY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4
9.5 RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT AND DESIGN . 5
9.5.1 Background 5
9.5.2 Deterministic vs. Probabilistic Design Approach . 6
9.5.3 Probabilistic Design Methodology . 7
9.5.4 Data Requirements 8
9.5.5 Summary 8
9.6 RELIABILITY BASED STRUCTURAL QUALIFICATION . 10
9.6.1 Analysis 10
9.6.2 Testing 10
9.7 LIFE CYCLE REALIZATION 10
9.7.1 Manufacturing 10
9.7.2 Operational 10
CHAPTER 10 THICK-SECTION COMPOSITES . 1
10.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF THICK-SECTION . 1
10.2 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES REQUIRED FOR THICK-SECTION COMPOSITE THREEDIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS 2
10.2.1 2-D composite analysis 3
10.2.2 3-D composite analysis 3
10.2.2.1 Unidirectional lamina 3-D properties . 4
10.2.2.2 Oriented orthotropic laminate 3-D properties 4
10.2.3 Experimental property determination . 5
10.2.3.1 Uniaxial tests . 6
10.2.3.2 Multiaxial tests . 16
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
10.2.3.2.1 Lineal test specimens/techniques . 19
10.2.3.2.2 Cylindrical test specimens/techniques 20
10.2.4 Theoretical property determination 21
10.2.4.1 3-D lamina property determination 21
10.2.4.2 3-D laminate property determination . 22
10.2.5 Test specimen design considerations 29
10.3 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS METHODS FOR THICK-SECTION COMPOSITES . 29
10.4 PHYSICAL PROPERTY ANALYSIS REQUIRED FOR THICK-SECTION COMPOSITE
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS . 29
10.5 PROCESS ANALYSIS METHODS FOR THICK-SECTION COMPOSITES . 29
10.6 FAILURE CRITERIA 29
10.7 FACTORS INFLUENCING THICK-SECTION ALLOWABLES (I.E., SAFETY MARGINS) 29
10.8 THICK LAMINATE DEMONSTRATION PROBLEM 29
CHAPTER 11 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT 1
11.1 INTRODUCTION 1
11.1.1 Scope . 1
11.1.2 Glossary of recycling terms . 1
11.2 RECYCLING INFRASTRUCTURE 4
11.2.1 Recycling infrastructure development models . 4
11.2.2 Infrastructure needs . 4
11.2.3 Recycling education . 5
711.3 ECONOMICS OF COMPOSITE RECYCLING 5
11.4 COMPOSITE WASTE STREAMS . 6
11.4.1 Process waste . 7
11.4.2 Post consumer composite waste . 8
11.5 COMPOSITE WASTE STREAM SOURCE REDUCTION . 8
11.5.1 Just-in-time and just enough material delivery 8
11.5.2 Electronic commerce acquisition management . 9
11.5.3 Waste minimization guidelines 9
11.5.3.1 Prepreg 9
11.5.3.2 Resin 9
11.5.3.3 Fiber . 9
11.5.3.4 Curing agents 9
11.5.3.5 Autoclaving materials . 9
11.5.3.6 Packaging materials 10
11.5.4 Lightweighting 10
11.6 REUSE OF COMPOSITE COMPONENTS AND MATERIALS 10
11.6.1 Reuse of composite components 10
11.6.2 Machining to smaller components . 10
11.7 MATERIALS EXCHANGE 10
11.7.1 Reallocation of precursors 11
11.7.2 Composite materials exchange services 11
11.7.2.1 Care of unused materials .11
11.7.2.2 Packaging .11
11.7.2.3 Documentation of care 11
11.7.2.4 Description of unused materials .11
11.7.2.5 DOD resale restrictions .11
11.8 RECYCLING OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS 12
11.8.1 Design for disassembly and recycling . 12
11.8.1.1 Fasteners . 12
11.8.1.2 Adhesives 12
11.8.1.3 Hybrid composites . 12
11.8.2 Recycling logistics . 12
11.8.2.1 Collection and transportation . 13
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
11.8.2.2 Identification of fibers and matrices . 13
11.8.2.2.1 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy . 13
11.8.2.2.2 Densitometry . 13
11.8.2.2.3 Coding of components 14
11.8.2.2.4 Routing of waste streams . 14
11.8.3 Processing of composite recyclate 14
11.8.3.1 Size reduction 14
11.8.3.2 Matrix removal . 14
11.8.3.3 Fiber reuse . 15
11.8.3.4 Products of matrix removal 15
11.8.3.5 Other recycling and processing methods 15
11.8.4 Recycling of waste prepreg . 16
CHAPTER 12 LESSONS LEARNED . 1
12.1 INTRODUCTION 1
12.2 UNIQUE ISSUES FOR COMPOSITES . 1
12.2.1 Elastic properties . 1
12.2.2 Tailored properties and out-of-plane loads 2
12.2.3 Damage tolerance . 4
12.2.4 Durability 4
12.2.5 Environmental sensitivity . 5
12.2.6 Joints 6
12.2.6.1 Mechanically-fastened joints . 6
12.2.6.2 Problems associated with adhesive bonding to peel-ply
composite surfaces 6
12.2.7 Design 8
12.2.8 Handling and storage . 9
12.2.9 Processing and fabrication 9
12.2.9.1 Quality control 10
12.3 LESSONS LEARNED .11
12.3.1 Design and analysis 11
12.3.1.1 Sandwich design 14
12.3.1.2 Bolted joints . 15
12.3.1.3 Bonded joints . 18
12.3.1.4 Composite to metal splice joints 20
12.3.1.5 Composite to metal continuous joints 21
12.3.1.6 Composite to composite splice joints 21
12.3.2 Materials and processes 21
12.3.3 Fabrication and assembly 22
12.3.4 Quality control 24
12.3.5 Testing 25
12.3.6 Certification 26
12.3.7 In-service and repair 26
INDEX . I-1
Volume 3, Foreword / Table of Contents
SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Chapter Section Title Change type
All All The entire volume has been reorganized revision
1 1.1 Introduction revision
2 2.4.1.1. Carbon Fibers new
2 2.4.1.8 Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene new
2 2.7.1 Automated Tape Placement new
2 2.7.2 Fiber Placement/Automated Tow Placement new
2 2.7.8 Adhesive Bonding revision
2 2.8.7 Resin Transfer molding revision
3 3.4 Statistical Process Control revision
3.5 Managing Change in Materials and Processes new
4 All sections Design and Analysis (Rev E),
Building Block Approach for Composite Structures
(Rev F)
Now is Chapter 5, with new and
revised material
5 All sections Structural Behavior of Joints (Rev E)
Design and Analysis (Rev F)
Now is Chapter 6, with new and
revised material
6 All sections Structural Reliability (Rev E)
Structural Behavior of Joints (Rev F)
Now is Chapter 9, with new and
revised material
7 All sections Thick Section Composites(Rev E)
Damage Resistance, Durability, and Damage
Tolerance (Rev F)
Now is Chapter 10, with new
and revised material
8 All sections Supportability revised
9 All sections Lessons Learned (Rev E)
Structural Reliability (Rev F)
Now is Chapter 12, with new
and revised material
10 All sections Thick Section Composites Refer to Chap 7 entry
11 All sections Environmental Management new
12 All sections Lessons Learned Refer to Chap 9 entry
Volume 3,
Index
Abbreviations . Ch 1-2, 4, 8
Acronyms . Ch 1-10
Adherends Ch 6-7, 18
Adhesive bonding Ch 2-40, 50, 52, 64
Allowable Ch 4-6, 16, 30
Alumina Ch 2-8, 17, 18
Aramid Ch 2-6, 7, 8, 12, 17, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34, 38, 50
Aramid fiber . Ch 2-10, 17, Ch 12-5
Autoclave cure . Ch 2-53
Bagging Ch 8-44
Barely visible impact damage (BVID) Ch 7-3, 8, 16
Bearing . Ch 7-1, 49, 50, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, Ch 12-6, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 23, 24
Bearing/bypass Ch 7-51, 58
Bending .Ch 6-22, 27, 30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 42, 50, 52, 53, 55, 56, 60, 61, 64, 66, 68, 70,
76, 78, 86, 88, 89, 93, 94
Beam . Ch 5-35
Bismaleimide Ch 2-31
Bonding Ch 2-7, 27, 35, 40, 49, 50, 51, 52, 64, 66
Boron . Ch 2-10, 15, 17
Boron fiber Ch 2-15, 17, Ch 5-9
Boron/epoxy . Ch 5-10, 16
Braiding . Ch 1-15, 16, 18, 21, 24, Ch 2-9, 14, 47, 48
Buckling Ch 6-1, 15, 17, 18, 31, 61, 63, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 86, 88, 89,
92, 93, 94, 114, 116
Stacking sequence effects . Ch 6-76
Building block approach Ch 4-1, 3, 4, 29, 34, Ch 7-25
Carbon fiber . Ch 2-2, 6
Carbon/epoxy .Ch 5-11, 12, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 54, 56, 79, 81, 82, 85, 88, 89, Ch 6-5, 29, 30,
31, 35, 46
Carpet plot Ch 5-55, Ch 12-2, 3
Certification Ch 1-1
Characteristic damage state Ch 7-65, 68, 69
Cobonding Ch 2-51
Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) . Ch 8-16
Composite cylinder assemblage (CCA) . Ch 5-4, 13
Compression after impact Ch 6-68
Computer programs . Ch 5-86, 94
Coupon Ch 4-35, 48, 49
Creep . Ch 6-1, 7, 8, 9, 55, 69
Crippling .Ch 6-70, 71, 72, 78, 79, 80, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93
Damage Ch 7-14, 20, 46, 49, 50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 63, 69, 70, 71, 99, 121, 122, 135,
Ch 8-35, 48
Damage resistance Ch 7-71
Damage tolerance .Ch 7-52, 54, 58, 69, 70, 71, 84, Ch 8-1, 2, Ch 9-3, Ch 12-1, 4, 25
Defects . Ch 7-2, 3, 8, 16
Definitions Ch 1-13, 35
Delamination Ch 5-55, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 70, 71, 79, 92, 28, 36, 60, 114, Ch 12-4, 6,
12, 26
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I-2
Design Ch 5-1, 42, 43, 46, 48, 49, 50, 55, 60, 66, 68, 69, 71, 76, 78, 79, 88, 92, 94, Ch 6-1, 2,
3, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 31, 39, 42, 45, 49, 50, 51, 59, 60, 61, 64, 64, Ch 7-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
7, 8, Ch 8-1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 16, 21, 23, 29, Ch 12-1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15,
16, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26
Design for repair Ch 8-2
Design of experiments (DOE) .Ch 3-11
Design value Ch 4-26
Destructive tests Ch 3-6, 7
Doublers . Ch 8-53
Durability Ch 5-1, 69, Ch 6-1, 31, Ch 8-1, 4, 17, 19, 24
Edge effects . Ch 5-56, 61, 67
Effective elastic moduli Ch 5-4
Effective elastic relations . Ch 5-3
Elastic properties Ch 5-3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 22, 32, 34, 35, 54, Ch 12-1, 2
Engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) Ch 4-15
Environment . Ch 6-61, 63
Environmental effects Ch 6-2, 6
Epoxy .Ch 2-6, 7, 9, 14, 17, 19, 20, 24, 25, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 51, 52, 55, 66, Ch 5-9, 10, 11, 12, 16,
26, 32, 33, 35, 36, 39, 42, 46, 54, 56, 65, 79, 81, 83 88, 89, 98, Ch 12-5, 6, 7, 9, 16,
17, 19, 26
Fabrication Ch 12-1, 4, 9, 11, 22, 67
Fabrics . Ch 2-6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 21, 23, 27, 31, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 55
Factor-of-safety Ch 9-2
Failure
Lamina . Ch 5-21
Laminate . Ch 5-56, Ch 10-1
Failure criteria .Ch 5-1, 17, 18, 20, 21, 50, 51, 52, 55, 60, 64, 48, 59, 60, Ch 10-1, 6, 19
Failure modes Ch 5-17, 18, 20, 61, 63, Ch 6-8, 53, 59, 60, Ch 10-1
Fasteners Ch 6-7, 49, 50, 51, 60, 61, 63, Ch 12-4, 6, 12, 15, 17, 18, 23
Fatigue Ch 5-1, 13, 50, 55, 70, 88, Ch 6-10, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 Ch 9-2
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Ch 4-28, Ch 7-10
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) . Ch 4-29
Fiber failure Ch 5-14, 19, 52, 53, 61, 63, 64
Fiber placement . Ch 2-36, 38, 40, 42
Finite element method Ch 6-46, 54, Ch 7-92
First ply failure Ch 5-50, 52
Fracture Ch 7-84, 86
Tensile . Ch 7-85, 87
Generalized self consistent scheme (GSCS) Ch 5-5
Glass Ch 2-1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 19, 21, 26, 29, 31, 33, 34, 36, 38, 50, 58, 60
Glass fiber Ch 5-9, 16
Glass/epoxy . Ch 5-10, 16
Graphite fiber . Ch 2-3
Homogeneity Ch 5-2, 34
Inspection Ch 3-1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 29, Ch 8-14, 21, 22, 24, 26, 51, 52
Interlaminar stresses Ch 5-49, 55, 59, 66, 67, 88
Joint flexibility . Ch 6-50
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I-3
Joints Ch 12-6, 8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25
Bolted Ch 6-2, 49, 51, 61, 62
Bonded Ch 6-2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 16, 31
KevlarTM Ch 2-6
Knitted fabrics Ch 2-38
Lamina properties Ch 5-1, 2, 21, 35, 40
Stress-strain relations Ch 5-21
Laminate properties . Ch 5-31, 65, 71
Bending . Ch 5-34
Laminate stacking sequence . Ch 5-35, 42, 59, 60, 61, 68, 69, 76, 53, 82
Lamination theory .Ch 5-27, 29, 30, 35, 36, 44, 47, 50, 61, 77, Ch 12-2
Limit load Ch 5-17, Ch 7-14, 18, Ch 9-1
Linearity . Ch 5-2
Load enhancement factor (LEF) Ch 7-55, 56
Load sharing Ch 6-49, 51
Loading mode Ch 6-61, 62
Mechanically fastened joints Ch 6-1, 2, 51, 60
Membrane stresses . Ch 5-31
Micromechanics . Ch 5-1, 2
Moisture conductivity . Ch 5-41
Moisture diffusion . Ch 5-12, 41, 42
Moisture diffusivity . Ch 5-13
Moisture expansion Ch 5-40, 43, 63, 66
Netting analysis Ch 5-45, 46, 49, 53
Nondestructive inspection (NDI) . Ch 3-5, Ch 8-21
Nonlinear stress analysis . Ch 5-49
Orthotropy Ch 5-2
Out-of-plane loads Ch 12-2, 11
PEEK . Ch 2-33
Peel stresses .Ch 6-2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 10, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39
PEKK . Ch 2-33
Phenolic . Ch 2-9, 30, 31, 35
Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) . Ch 2-4
Polyamide Ch 2-6
Polyamideimide Ch 2-34, 35
Polyarylate . Ch 2-34
Polyarylketone . Ch 2-33
Polyester Ch 2-9, 30, 31, 32, 38, 51, 55
Polyether sulfone . Ch 2-34
Polyetherimide . Ch 2-34, 51
Polyethylene Ch 2-26, 27, 32
Polyimide . Ch 2-19, 20, 26, 32
Polyphenylene sulfide Ch 2-33, 34
Polyphenylene sulfide sulfone . Ch 2-34
Polyphenylsulfone Ch 2-34
Polypropylene Ch 2-33
Polystyrene Ch 2-34
Polysulfone Ch 2-34
Postbuckling . Ch 5-71, 79, 82, 86, 87, 88
Pressure vessels Ch 5-46
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I-4
Probabilistic methods . Ch 9-5, 7
Process verification Ch 3-2
Processing Ch 10-1, 2, 4, Ch 12-1, 8, 9, 10, 22
Pull-thru strength Ch 6-61
Quality assurance Ch 3-2, 7
Quality control .Ch 12-1, 10, 11, 24
Quartz Ch 2-21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 33
Receiving . Ch 3-1, 2
Reliability Ch 9-1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8
Repair Ch 8-1, 7, 11, 15, 20, 27, 32, 33, Ch 12-4, 10, 11, 15, 16, 18, 21, 26
Analyses Ch 8-37
Repair design . Ch 8-29, 34
Residual strength . Ch 6-61, 63
Residual stresses Ch 5-2, 43, 52, 54, 63, 65, Ch 10-1
Resin Ch 2-29, 60
Viscosity Ch 2-60
Resin pressure . Ch 2-62
Resin transfer molding . Ch 2-30, 31, 55, 56
Response surface methodology (RSM) Ch 3-11
Rovings Ch 2-6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 21, 31, 36, 38, 39
Sandwich Ch 8-20, Ch 12-14, 15, 26
Sandwich construction . Ch 2-40, 49, 60
Sandwich structure Ch 8-42, 47, 50
Satin weave . Ch 2-36
Sequential ply failure . Ch 5-50
Shear-out Ch 6-53, 59, Ch 12-6
Silicon carbide Ch 2-19, 20
Silicone Ch 2-9, 36
Specifications . Ch 3-1, 2, 4, 5
Stacking sequence Ch 5-30, 31, 34, 35, 36, 37, 42, 43, 50, 55, 56, 58, 63, 64, 68, 71, 76, 79, 89,
93, 94
Stacking sequence effects . Ch 5-31, 37, 43, 56, 58, 68, 76, 79, 89, 94
Beam bending . Ch 5-35
Buckling . Ch 5-76
Delamination . Ch 5-60
Free edge effects . Ch 5-67
Hygroscopic analysis . Ch 5-42
Lamination theory Ch 5-30
Notched strength . Ch 5-58
Thermal analysis . Ch 5-42
Vibration Ch 5-94
Statistical process control (SPC) . Ch 3-8, 9
Strength Ch 9-1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8
Compressive . Ch 5-16
Lamina . Ch 5-21
Laminate Ch 5-56
Tensile . Ch 5-14
Stress concentration Ch 6-1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 37, 49, 53, 54, 55
Stress concentrations Ch 5-14, 52, 56
Stress-strain relations . Ch 5-21, Ch 12-1
Supportability . Ch 8-1, 7, 8, 9
Symbols Ch 1-2, 4, 7, 8, Ch 5-72
Symmetric laminates Ch 5-1, 27, 31, 34, 39, 42, 44, 45, 50
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Volume 3, Index
I-5
Tack Ch 12-9, 22, 23
Terminology Ch 1-13, 19
Test methods
Thick-section . Ch 10-6
Testing Ch 12-1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 25
Thermal conduction . Ch 5-12, 42
Thermal conductivity Ch 5-3
Thermal expansion . Ch 5-2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 38, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 54, 64, Ch 12-5
Thermoforming . Ch 2-33, 35, 59
Thermoplastic Ch 2-6, 7, 8, 27, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 40, 52, 53, 59, 61
Amorphous Ch 2-15, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53
Condensation cure Ch 2-32, 35
Semi-crystalline . Ch 2-32, 33, 34, 35
Thickness Ch 6-2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 20, 23, 26, 27, 28, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41,
43, 44, 45, 49, 59, 61, 63
Thickness effects . Ch 5-65, 66
Thick-section
Property prediction Ch 10-21
Thick-section composites Ch 10-1, 2, 6, 16, 23, 29
Three-dimensional analysis . Ch 10-2, 3, 29
Transverse tensile properties . Ch 5-67
UHMWPE . Ch 2-27, 29
Ultimate load . Ch 4-6, Ch 7-11, Ch 8-12, 18, 30, Ch 9-1
Unidirectional . Ch 5-7, 9, 17, 32, 33, 34, 36, 38, 39, 47, 66
Units . Ch 7-2, 12, 21, 26, 27, 32, 35
Conversion Ch 1-12
Unsymmetric laminates . Ch 5-31, 41, 43, 50, 70
Vacuum assisted resin transfer molding Ch 2-57
Vacuum bag molding . Ch 2-52
Vibration . Ch 5-1, 94, 95
Viscoelastic properties . Ch 5-3, 7, 9
X-ray inspection . Ch 8-6  


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