كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications   كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications Emptyالسبت 24 أكتوبر 2020, 1:28 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Industrial High Pressure Applications
Edited by Rudolf Eggers
Processes, Equipment and Safety  

كتاب Industrial High Pressure Applications I_h_p_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface XIII
List of Contributors XV
Part One Introduction 1
1 Historical Retrospect on High-Pressure Processes 3
Rudolf Eggers
References 6
2 Basic Engineering Aspects 7
Rudolf Eggers
2.1 What are the Specifics of High-Pressure Processes? 7
2.2 Thermodynamic Aspects: Phase Equilibrium 9
2.3 Software and Data Collection 10
2.4 Phase Equilibrium: Experimental Methods and Measuring Devices 10
2.5 Interfacial Phenomena and Data 12
2.6 Material Properties and Transport Data for Heat and Mass Transfer 20
2.7 Evaporation and Condensation at High Pressures 37
2.7.1 Evaporation 37
2.8 Condensation 43
References 46
Part Two Processes 49
3 Catalytic and Noncatalytic Chemical Synthesis 51
Joachim Rüther, Ivo Müller, and Reinhard Michel
3.1 Thermodynamics as Driver for Selection of High Pressure 51
3.1.1 Chemical Equilibrium: Law of Mass Action 51
3.1.2 Reaction Kinetics 53
3.1.3 Phase Equilibria and Transport Phenomena 55
3.2 Ammonia Synthesis Process 55
3.2.1 Basics and Principles 56
3.2.2 History of the Ammonia Process 57
3.2.3 Development of Process and Pressure 58
V3.2.4 Special Aspects 63
3.3 Urea Process 64
3.3.1 Basics and Principles 65
3.3.2 History of Urea Process 67
3.3.3 Integration of Ammonia and Urea Processes 71
3.3.4 Special Construction Materials 71
3.4 General Aspects of HP Equipment 72
3.4.1 Multilayered Vessels 73
3.4.2 Recommendations to Vessel Design 73
3.4.3 Gaskets and Bolting 74
References 75
4 Low-Density Polyethylene High-Pressure Process 77
Dieter Littmann, Giulia Mei, Diego Mauricio Castaneda-Zuniga,
Christian-Ulrich Schmidt, and Gerd Mannebach
4.1 Introduction 77
4.1.1 Historical Background 77
4.1.2 Properties and Markets 77
4.1.3 Polyethylene High-Pressure Processes 78
4.1.4 Latest Developments 78
4.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics 78
4.2.1 Initiation 79
4.2.2 Propagation 79
4.2.3 Chain Transfer 80
4.2.4 Termination 81
4.2.5 Reaction Kinetics 81
4.3 Process 82
4.3.1 General Process Description 82
4.3.2 Autoclave Reactor 84
4.3.3 Tubular Reactor 85
4.3.4 Safety 88
4.4 Products and Properties 89
4.4.1 Blown Film 89
4.4.2 Extrusion Coating 90
4.4.3 Injection Molding 90
4.4.4 Wire and Cable 90
4.4.5 Blow Molding 90
4.4.6 Copolymers 91
4.5 Simulation Tools and Advanced Process Control 91
4.5.1 Introduction 91
4.5.2 Off-Line Applications 91
4.5.2.1 Flow Sheet Simulations 91
4.5.2.2 Steady-State Simulation of the Tubular Reactor 92
4.5.2.3 Dynamic Simulation of the Process 92
4.5.3 Online Application 93
VI Contents4.5.3.1 Soft Sensors 93
4.5.3.2 Advanced Process Control 94
References 96
5 High-Pressure Homogenization for the Production of Emulsions 97
Heike P. Schuchmann, Née Karbstein, Lena L. Hecht,
Marion Gedrat, and Karsten Köhler
5.1 Motivation: Why High-Pressure Homogenization for
Emulsification Processes? 97
5.2 Equipment: High-Pressure Homogenizers 98
5.2.1 Principal Design 98
5.2.2 Disruption Systems for High-Pressure Homogenization 98
5.2.2.1 Valves 98
5.2.2.2 Orifices and Nozzles 99
5.2.3 Flow Conditions 100
5.2.3.1 Flow Conditions in the Disruption System 100
5.2.3.2 Effect of Flow Conditions in Homogenization Valves on Emulsion
Droplets 101
5.2.4 Simultaneous Emulsification and Mixing (SEM) Systems 101
5.3 Processes: Emulsification and Process Functions 103
5.3.1 Droplet Disruption in High-Pressure Valves 103
5.3.2 Droplet Coalescence in Homogenization Valves 104
5.3.3 Droplet Agglomeration in Homogenization Valves 107
5.4 Homogenization Processes Using SEM-Type Valves 107
5.4.1 Dairy Processes 107
5.4.2 Pickering Emulsions 109
5.4.3 Melt Homogenization 111
5.4.4 Emulsion Droplets as Templates for Hybrid (Core–Shell) Nanoparticle
Production 112
5.4.5 Submicron Emulsion Droplets as Nanoreactors 114
5.4.6 Nanoparticle Deagglomeration and Formulation of Nanoporous
Carriers for Bioactives 116
5.5 Summary and Outlook 117
References 118
6 Power Plant Processes: High-Pressure–High-Temperature Plants 123
Alfons Kather and Christian Mehrkens
6.1 Introduction 123
6.2 Coal-Fired Steam Power Plants 125
6.2.1 Thermodynamics and Power Plant Efficiency 125
6.2.2 Configuration of Modern Steam Power Plants 127
6.3 Steam Generator 130
6.3.1 Steam Generator Design 130
6.3.2 Membrane Wall 134
6.3.3 Final Superheater Heating Surface 135
Contents VII6.3.4 Final Superheater Outlet Header and Live Steam
Piping 136
6.4 High-Pressure Steam Turbines 138
6.4.1 Configuration of Modern Steam Turbines 138
6.4.2 Design Features of High-Pressure Steam Turbines 139
6.5 Summary and Outlook 142
References 142
7 High-Pressure Application in Enhanced Crude Oil Recovery 145
Philip T. Jaeger, Mohammed B. Alotaibi, and Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din
7.1 Introduction 145
7.1.1 Principal Phenomena in Oil and Gas Reservoirs 145
7.1.2 Reservoir Conditions 145
7.2 Fundamentals 147
7.2.1 Miscibility at Elevated Pressures 147
7.2.2 Physical Chemical Properties of Reservoir Systems at Elevated
Pressures 148
7.2.2.1 Density 148
7.2.2.2 Rheology 150
7.2.2.3 Interfacial Tension 151
7.2.2.4 Wetting 151
7.2.2.5 Diffusivity 153
7.2.2.6 Permeability 154
7.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery 155
7.3.1 Water Flooding 157
7.3.2 Chemical Injection 158
7.3.3 Thermal Recovery 158
7.3.4 Gas Injection 159
7.3.5 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) in EOR 160
7.3.6 Combustion 160
7.4 Oil Reservoir Stimulation 161
7.5 Heavy Oil Recovery 161
7.6 Hydrates in Oil Recovery 162
7.7 Equipment 163
7.7.1 Pumps 163
7.7.2 Pipes 164
7.7.3 Seals 164
7.7.4 Separators 165
References 166
8 Supercritical Processes 169
Rudolf Eggers and Eduard Lack
8.1 Introduction 169
8.2 Processing of Solid Material 172
8.2.1 Isobaric Process 174
VIII Contents8.2.2 Single or Cascade Operation with Multistep Separation 174
8.2.3 Cascade Operation and Multistep Separation 175
8.2.4 Extractable Substances 175
8.2.4.1 Selective Extraction 176
8.2.4.2 Total Extraction 176
8.2.5 Pretreatment of Raw Materials 176
8.2.6 Design Criteria 177
8.2.7 Design with the Use of Basket 178
8.2.8 Thermodynamic Conditions 179
8.2.9 Mass Transfer 179
8.2.10 Hydrodynamics 182
8.2.11 Energy Optimization 182
8.2.12 Pump Process 182
8.2.13 Compressor Process 183
8.2.14 Some Applications of Supercritical Extraction
of Solids 184
8.2.14.1 Decaffeination of Green Coffee Beans 184
8.2.14.2 Production of Hops Extract 184
8.2.14.3 Extraction of Spices and Herbs 186
8.2.14.4 Extraction of Essential Oils 186
8.2.14.5 Production of Natural Antioxidants 188
8.2.14.6 Production of High-Value Fatty Oils 189
8.2.14.7 Extraction of c-Linolenic Acid 189
8.2.14.8 Cleaning and Decontamination of Cereals Like Rice 189
8.2.14.9 Impregnation of Wood and Polymers 190
8.2.14.10 Cleaning of Cork 193
8.2.14.11 Economics – Especially Investment Cost for Multipurpose
Plants 193
8.3 Processing of Liquids 194
8.4 Future Trends 202
8.4.1 Drying of Aerogels 202
8.4.2 Treating of Microorganisms 203
8.4.3 Use of Supercritical Fluids for the Generation of Renewable
Energy 204
8.4.4 Gas-Assisted High-Pressure Processes 205
References 206
9 Impact of High-Pressure on Enzymes 211
Leszek Kulisiewicz, Andreas Wierschem, Cornelia Rauh, and Antonio Delgado
9.1 Introduction 211
9.2 Influence of Pressure on Biomatter 212
9.3 Influence of Pressure on the Kinetics of Enzyme Inactivation 215
9.4 Technological Aspects 218
9.5 Summary 226
References 227
Contents IX10 High Pressure in Renewable Energy Processes 235
Nicolaus Dahmen and Andrea Kruse
10.1 Introduction 235
10.2 Thermochemical Processes 236
10.2.1 Pyrolysis 237
10.2.2 Liquefaction 238
10.2.3 Gasification 240
10.2.3.1 Fixed Bed Gasifier 242
10.2.3.2 Fluidized Bed Gasifiers 243
10.2.3.3 Entrained Flow Gasifiers 244
10.3 Hydrothermal Processes 248
10.3.1 Hydrothermal Carbonization 250
10.3.2 Hydrothermal Liquefaction 251
10.3.3 Hydrothermal Gasification 253
10.3.3.1 Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification 253
10.3.3.2 Supercritical Hydrothermal Gasification 254
References 256
11 Manufacturing Processes 257
Andrzej Karpinski and Rolf Wink
11.1 Autofrettage: A High-Pressure Process to Improve
Fatigue Lifetime 260
11.2 Waterjet Cutting Technology 265
11.2.1 Generation of Waterjets 265
11.2.2 Cutting Process and Parameters 267
11.2.3 High-Pressure Pumps 269
11.2.4 Waterjet Cutting with 6000 bar 272
11.2.5 Cutting Devices 273
11.2.6 New Trends in the Waterjet Cutting 276
11.2.6.1 Abrasive Water Suspension Jet 276
11.2.6.2 Microcutting 276
11.2.6.3 Medical Applications 277
References 278
Part Three Process Equipment and Safety 283
12 High-Pressure Components 285
Waldemar Hiller and Matthias Zeiger
12.1 Materials for High-Pressure Components 285
12.1.1 Steel Selection Criteria 286
12.1.2 High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel 287
12.1.3 Weldable Fine-Grain and High-Temperature Structural
Steels 287
12.1.4 High-Strength High-Alloy Steels 287
12.1.5 Austenitic Stainless Steels 288
X Contents12.1.6 Austenitic–Ferritic Duplex Steels 288
12.1.7 Chromium–Molybdenum Hydrogen-Resistant Steels 288
12.1.8 Fatigue and Fracture Properties of High-Strength Steels 289
12.2 Pressure Vessels 290
12.2.1 Leak Before Burst 292
12.2.2 Welded Pressure Vessels 292
12.2.3 Nonwelded Pressure Vessels 294
12.2.4 Prestressing Techniques 298
12.2.5 Sealing Systems 300
12.3 Heat Exchangers 301
12.4 Valves 303
12.5 Piping 304
References 309
13 High-Pressure Pumps and Compressors 311
Eberhard Schluecker
13.1 Selection of Machinery 311
13.2 Influence of the Fluid on Selection and Design of the Machinery 313
13.3 Design Standards for High-Pressure Machines 314
13.4 Materials and Materials Testing 316
13.5 High-Pressure Centrifugal Pumps and High-Pressure
Turbocompressors 317
13.6 Rotating Positive Displacement Machines 319
13.6.1 Discharge Rate 319
13.6.2 Gear Pumps 320
13.6.3 Screw Pumps 321
13.6.4 Progressing Cavity Pump 323
13.7 Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines 323
13.7.1 Drive Technology for Reciprocating Positive Displacement
Machines 324
13.7.2 Flow Behavior of Reciprocating Positive Displacement Machines 325
13.7.3 Pulsation Damping 327
13.7.4 Design Versions 328
13.7.4.1 Vertical Pump Head for 70 MPa 328
13.7.4.2 Horizontal Pump Head with Y-Piece for 300 MPa 329
13.7.4.3 Diaphragm Pump Heads 329
13.7.4.4 Piston Compressor for 30 MPa at the Maximum 330
13.7.4.5 Compressor for 300 MPa 332
13.7.4.6 Piston Compressor for 1400 MPa 333
References 334
14 High-Pressure Measuring Devices and Test Equipment 335
Arne Pietsch
14.1 Introduction 335
14.2 Process Data Measuring – Online 336
Contents XI14.2.1 Sensor Choice and Installation 337
14.2.2 Pressure and Differential Pressure 338
14.2.3 Temperature 341
14.2.4 Flow 343
14.2.5 Fluid Level 350
14.2.6 Density 351
14.2.7 Viscosity 351
14.2.8 Concentration – Solute in High-Pressure Gases and Fluids 352
14.2.9 Concentration – Gas Traces Dissolved in Liquids 358
14.3 Lab Determination – Additional Offline Test Equipment 359
14.3.1 Phase Equilibrium 359
14.3.2 Magnetic Sorption Balance 362
14.3.3 Interfacial Tension and Wetting 362
14.3.4 Gas Hydrates 363
14.3.5 Other Properties Online 364
14.4 Safety Aspects 364
14.5 Future 366
References 367
15 Sizing of High-Pressure Safety Valves for Gas Service 369
Jürgen Schmidt
15.1 Standard Valve Sizing Procedure 369
15.2 Limits of the Standard Valve Sizing Procedure 371
15.3 Development of a Sizing Method for Real Gas Applications 372
15.3.1 Equation of State and Real Gas Factor 375
15.3.2 Isentropic Exponent 378
15.3.3 Critical Pressure Ratio 379
15.4 Sizing of Safety Valves for Real Gas Flow 380
15.5 Summary 382
Appendix 15.A Calculation of Sizing Coefficient According
to EN-ISO 4126-1 and a Real Gas Nozzle Flow Model 383
15.A.1 Inlet Stagnation Conditions 383
15.A.2 Property Data and Coefficients for Ethylene 383
15.A.3 Calculation of Flow Coefficient According to EN-ISO 4126-1 384
15.A.4 Calculation of Flow Coefficient Accounting for Real Gas Effects 385
15.A.5 Approximation of Mass Flux by an Analytical Method (Averaging
Method) 386
Appendix 15.B List of Symbols 387
Subscripts 388
References 389
Appendix: International Codes and Standards for High-Pressure Vessels 391
Index 397
Index
a
absorption 19, 35, 128, 173, 174, 195, 206, 327
adiabatic nozzle 373
advanced process control (APC) 94, 95
– MFI and MFR trend 95
– utility 95
aerogels, supercritical drying 202, 203
– process, flow sheet 203
ammonia synthesis process 55
– ammonia content in equilibrium 57
– basics and principles 56
– chemical and physical hydrogen attack 64
– development, of process and pressure
58–63
– disadvantage of turbo compressors 63
– history, ammonia process 3–6, 57, 58
– material selection 63
– metal dusting 63, 64
– nitriding 64
– stress corrosion cracking 64
– world ammonia production 56
angle control valve 304
anthracite 125
antisolvent 174
Archimedes number 34
Austenitic–ferritic duplex steels 288
autoclave reactor 84–85
– safety requirements 88–89
autofrettage 5, 259, 260, 262, 264, 273, 298,
299, 314, 317
– to improve fatigue lifetime 260–264
b
Bauschinger effect 298
benzaldehyde 77
binary diffusion coefficient 22, 28
biodiesel 235
bioethanol 235
biogas 235
biogenic waste 236
biomass 235, 236
– fuel conversion, technologies 236
– hydrothermal conversion 236–237
biomatter, influence of pressure 212–215
bolted cover 296
Bourdon gauge 339
c
Cahn–Hillliard theory 14
capillary pressure 15, 16
carbonates 146
carbon capture storage technology (CCS)
30, 123
carbon dioxide, as miscible fluid 148
Carnot’s efficiency 127
cellulose, hydrothermal decomposition
254
centrifugal pumps 311
chemical equilibrium 51, 55, 212
chemical polymerization 77
cinematic viscosity 34, 35
coal-fired steam power plant 123, 125
– evolution of steam parameters 124
– net efficiency 124
– power plant efficiency 125–127
– thermal efficiency of Rankine cycle 126
– thermodynamics 125–127
coal for power generation 123
CO2 emissions 123
cold bending process 307
cold pasteurization 211
combustion 5, 6, 20, 127, 156, 160, 246,
247, 367
compression shock 370
compressors 3, 6, 68, 82, 155, 184,
260, 311
– centrifugal 63
– diaphragm 332
j397
Industrial High Pressure Applications: Processes, Equipment and Safety, First Edition. Edited by Rudolf Eggers.
 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2012 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.– influence of fluid on selection and
design 313, 314
– piston-type 63, 323, 330
– screw 319, 322
– turbo 63, 314
condensation processes 43–45
– average heat transfer coefficient 44
– deviation of real velocity profile 44
– dispatching of condensate film 45
– enhancement factor 45
– impact of high pressures on 45
– in inert gases 45
– shear stress, evaluation of 44, 45
conical pipe connection 307
core–shell nanoparticles (CSN) 112, 113
corrosion 64, 71, 72, 111, 136, 191, 287, 288,
294, 298, 340, 342, 358
critical heat flux qmax 38
cutting devices 273–275
d
dairy processes 107–109
density profile of CO2 13, 21
diffusion coefficients 22, 35
– calculation of 36
– of CO2 in oil 35
double pipe heat exchanger 302
drag coefficients, of droplets in high-pressure
atmosphere 20
droplet
– agglomeration 107
– coalescence 104–107
– disruption 103, 104
e
elastic stress 291
elastomer O-rings 300
emulsification, and process functions
103–107
– droplet disruption 103, 104
– homogenization valves
– – droplet agglomeration in 107
– – droplet coalescence in 104–107
enhanced oil recovery (EOR) 148, 150,
155–157, 162
– carbon dioxide capture and storage
(CCS) in 160
– chemical injection 158
– gas injection 159, 160
– thermal recovery 158, 159
– water flooding 157, 158
enthalpy 17, 22, 125
entropies 127
enzyme activity 212, 215, 216, 222, 224
enzyme inactivation kinetics, influence of
pressure 215–218
– adiabatic process 219
– Arrhenius equation 217
– biphasic/multiphasic behavior 216, 217
– comparison of temperature fields 221
– down-flow velocity 219
– Eyring equation 217
– factors 218
– first-order kinetics 216, 222
– heterogeneous temperature field in
autoclave 221
– at higher temperatures 223
– industrial inactivation 219
– inhomogeneous inactivation 225
– lipoxygenase (LOX), activity of 223
– particle tracks of enzymes 224
– polyphenoloxidase (PPO), activity of 223
– size of autoclaves, significant effect on 224
– technological aspects 218–226
– temperature stratification in
autoclave 222
– thermal heterogeneities
– – effect of packaging on 225
– – quality indicators, need of 226
EOR. See enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
ethylene
– approximation equations 379
– coefficients for 383
– compression 77
– copolymers 82
– decomposition 88
– hydrate 363
– isentropic exponent 379
– polymerization 79
– real gas factor 377
– total ethylene flow 86
evaporation process 17, 37–43
– burn out point 38
– convective boiling 40
– critical heat flux 39
– – dependent on 43
– dry out point 40
– film boiling (upflow of water in
a tube) 42
– forced convection boiling 40
– heat transfer
– – in case of flow boiling 38
– – regime of nucleate boiling 39
– limits of validity 42
– nucleation regime 38
– qualitative course of boiling
curve 38
– regime of nucleate boiling 41
398j Indexf fi
lm thickness 18
– laminar 18
– turbulent 18, 19
film velocity 18, 19
flange pressure 370
flow coefficient calculation 384
fluid dynamic critical pressure 379, 384, 386
fluid saturation in reservoir rocks 145
forced convective mass transport 35
forged vessels 294
forgings 294
fossil fuels 123
free convective transfer 30, 35, 37
– heat and mass transfer, general equation 24
– at high pressures in CO2 and N2 34
frettage 298
Froude number 197, 198
g
gas-assisted high-pressure extraction 205,
206
– gas-assisted pressing of oilseed 205
gas, caloric and thermal properties 372, 373
gas extraction effect, industrial
application 169
gas hydrates 363
gasification 235, 240–242
– entrained flow gasifiers 244–248
– fixed bed gasifier 242, 243
– fluidized bed gasifiers 243, 244
gasket 295
geometries 26
Gibbs energy 53
graphite 303
Grashof number 23, 25, 30, 34
Grayloc clamped pipe connection 306
h
Haber–Bosch process 55, 63
Hagen-Poiseuille equation 320
heat capacity 26
heat conductivity 21
heat exchangers
– double pipe 302
– high-pressure 302, 303
– vessels/piping elements 301
heat flux 37–40, 42
heat transfer
– coefficients, for liquid flow 30
– correlations applicable for high-pressure
processes 31, 32
– enhancement 29
– in near-critical pressure 30
heavy oil recovery 161, 162
high-pressure bends, fabrication 307
high-pressure centrifugal pumps 317–319
high-pressure components 285
– austenitic–ferritic duplex steels 288
– austenitic stainless steels 288
– chromium–molybdenum hydrogenresistant steels 288, 289
– heat exchangers 301–303
– high-strength high-alloy steels 287, 288
– high-strength low-alloy steel 287
– high-strength steels
– – fatigue and fracture properties 289
– materials 285
– piping 304–309
– pressure vessels 290–301
– – leak before burst 292
– – nonwelded pressure vessels 294–298
– – prestressing techniques 298–300
– – sealing systems 300, 301
– – welded pressure vessels 292–294
– steel selection criteria 286
– steel selection guide 286
– valves 303–304
– weldable fine-grain/high-temperature
structural steels 287
high-pressure (HP) equipment 72, 163
– bolting 74
– design standards 314–316
– flexible tube, design 164
– gaskets 74
– influence of fluid
– – on selection and design 313, 314
– materials testing 316, 317
– multilayered/multiwall vessels 73
– – external frame-supported end
closures 297
– – externally clamped end closure 296
– pipes 164
– pumps 163
– seals 164–165
– selection of materials for 316, 317
– separators 165–166
– vessel design, recommendations 73, 74
– – external frame-supported end
closures 297
– – externally clamped end closure 296
high-pressure fuel injection 6
high-pressure–high-temperature
plants 123
high-pressure homogenizers (HPHs) 97
– design 98
– disruption systems 98
– – nozzles 99, 100
Indexj399– – orifices 99, 100
– – valves 98, 99
– flow conditions 100
– – in disruption system 100, 101
– – homogenization valves on emulsion
droplets, effect on 101
– – simultaneous emulsification and mixing
(SEM) system 101, 102
high-pressure machines. See high-pressure
(HP) equipment
high-pressure phase equilibrium 8
– data collection 10
– experimental methods 10
– measuring devices 10–12
– software 10
– thermodynamic aspects 9
high-pressure processes
– milestones 3–5
– realization 285
– working pressures 5
high-pressure pumps 3, 269–272, 311
– influence of fluid on selection and
design 313, 314
high-pressure safety valves sizing
– real gas applications
– – critical pressure ratio 379, 380
– – equation of state 375–378
– – isentropic exponent 378, 379
– – real gas flow, safety valves sizing
380–382
– – sizing method, development 372–375
– standard valve sizing procedure 369–371
– – limits of 371, 372
high-pressure steam turbines 138
– design features 139–142
– longitudinal section of 140
– modern steam turbines, configuration
138, 139
– three-dimensional view 140
high-pressure turbocompressors 317–319
high-pressure vessels 4, 5, 30, 170, 200, 202,
288, 290, 297, 299, 362
– advantages 73
– instrumentation of 336
highstrength low-alloy (HSLA) steel 287, 288
homogenization processes, using SEM-type
valves 107
– dairy processes 107–109
– emulsion droplets as templates 112–114
– formulation of nanoporous carriers for
bioactives 116, 117
– melt homogenization 111, 112
– nanoparticle deagglomeration 116, 117
– pickering emulsions 109–111
– submicron emulsion droplets as
nanoreactors 114–116
homogenization valves
– droplet agglomeration in 107
– droplet coalescence in 104–107
hot bending processes 309
HPHs. See high-pressure homogenizers
(HPHs)
HTC. See hydrothermal carbonization (HTC)
hydrates in oil recovery 162, 163
– phase diagram 163
hydraulic valve 305
hydroforming 257, 258
hydrostatic pressures 15
hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) 248–250
– char and coke obtained after 251
hydrothermal gasification 253
– catalytic 253
– supercritical 254–256
hydrothermal liquefaction 251–252
hydrothermal processes 235, 248–250
hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) 251
i
ideal/real gases, property data 374
interfaces in high-pressure processes 12
interfacial tension 15, 16, 17, 362, 363
– principle of measurement 363
– of system CO2–H2O 15
internal thread end closure 295
isentropic coefficient for ideal gases 385
isentropic exponent 370, 378, 379
isostatic pressing 258, 259
j
Joule–Thomson effect 372, 373
k
Kelvin equation 16, 17
l
law of chemical affinity 51
law of mass action 51, 52
LDPE. See low-density polyethylene (LDPE)
leak before burst (LBB) 292
le Chatelier–Braun principle 52
lens ring gasket 300
lens ring seal 300
lignin 251
lignite 125
linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) 78
lipoxygenase (LOX) 223
liquefaction 5, 21, 238–240, 248, 343
– hydrothermal 250
400j Indexliquid natural gas (LNG) 6
liquids processing, with supercritical
fluids 194
LLDPE. See linear low-density polyethylene
(LLDPE)
low-density polyethylene (LDPE) 77
– applications 89
– – blow molding 90, 91
– – in blown film 89, 90
– – copolymers 91
– – extrusion coating 90
– – injection molding 90
– – wire and cable 90
– chain transfer 80–81
– free radical polymerization process for 78
– high-pressure process
– – historical background 77
– – latest developments 78
– – polyethylene high-pressure processes 78
– – polyethylene resin 77
– – reaction kinetics and
thermodynamics 78–81
– homopolymer resins 89
– – applications 89–91
– initiation 79
– markets 77
– overall process description 82–84
– – flow sheet, industrial process 82
– – steps/process units 82
– plant
– – off-line applications 91–93
– – online application 93–95
– – training simulator image for 93
– propagation 79–80
– properties 77
– reaction
– – kinetics 56, 78–81
– – steps 78
– reactor (See autoclave reactor; tubular reactor)
– termination 81
– thermodynamics 78–81
lower heating value (LHV) 123
Lurgi multipurpose gasification (MPG)
technology 248
m
Mach number 372
magnetic coupled sorption balances 362
– principle 362
mass flow rate 373
mass flux approximation 386
mass transfer 20
– correlations relevant for free and forced
convection 33
material properties 20, 21
melt homogenization 111–112
MFR soft sensors 94
microorganisms, treatment of 203
– action of CO2 on microorganisms 204
– hydrostatic high-pressure process
203, 204
minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) 147
– determination, methods for 147
– efficiency 148
– equipment 148
miscibility at elevated pressures 147–148
molecule distances 8
n
near-critical cinematic viscosity data 26
near-critical dynamic viscosity data 25
near-critical heat conductivities 24
nonpseudocritical pressure range, for
turbulent flow 28
nozzle flow model 369, 370
nozzle throat 373, 375, 387
– pressure 375
Nusselt number 24, 30
o
off-line applications 91
– dynamic simulation of process 92, 93
– flow sheet simulations 91, 92
– steady-state simulation of tubular
reactor 92
Ohnesorge number 19
oil reservoir stimulation 161
online application 93
– advanced process control 94, 95
– soft sensors 93–94
online measurements 336
– density determination 351, 355
– differential pressure measurements
338–340
– flow quantification 343–350
– – Coriolis-type flow sensor 350, 352
– – HP flow detection sensors 344–349
– fluid level detection 350, 351, 353
– – gamma densitometer 353
– – using load cell 353
– gas traces dissolved in liquids 358, 359
– high-pressure level gauges for 354
– parameters 337
– pressure measurements 338–340
– – sensors selection 338, 340
– safety aspects 364–366
– sensor choice and installation 337
– – checklist 337
Indexj401– solute concentration measurements
352, 358
– temperature detection 341
– – industrial T-sensor installation 342
– – mounting methods of temperature
sensors 342
– – rating of HP temperature sensors 343
– – resistance temperature detectors
(RTDs) 341
– – seal 342
– – thermocouples for HP temperature
measurement 343
– viscosity determination 351, 356, 357
original oil in place (OOIP) 146, 156, 157
p
particle-stabilized emulsions (PSE) 109
PCSAFT equation 9
PE. See phase equilibrium (PE)
Peng-Robinson equations 376
petaval gauges 335
petroleum
– factors influencing migration 146
– reservoir 145
phase equilibrium (PE) 55, 359
– analytical
– – dynamic measurement up to 100 MPa 361
– – measurement column with floating
piston 361
– – measurement stirred vessel. 360
– principles for measurement with one
fluid 359
phase inversion temperature (PIT)
method 97
pickering emulsions 109–111
piezoelectric effect 335
pipe connection, with lens ring gasket 306
piping system 304–309
plate layered vessels
– disadvantages 294
– limitations 294
plug flow reactor (PFR) 85
polyethylene high-pressure processes 78
polymer properties 77
poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) 113
polyphenoloxidase (PPO) 223
power generation 123
Prandtl numbers 25, 28, 30
– for CO2 28
pressure vessels
– expansion energy 293
– external frame-supported end closures 297
– externally clamped end closure 296
– fabrication 292
pressure–volume–temperature (PVT)
test 147
prestressing techniques 299
propylene (P) 164
pseudocritical temperature 21
pyrolysis 235, 237, 238
q
quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) 363
r
reaction kinetics 53–55
real gas behavior 382
real gas factor 27, 370, 374, 377, 378
real gas nozzle flow model, sizing
coefficient 382, 383
– EN-ISO 4126-7, flow coefficient 384
– ethylene, property data/coefficients
383, 384
– flow coefficient 385–386
– inlet stagnation conditions 383
– mass flux by analytical method 386, 387
reciprocating positive displacement
machines 323, 324
– design versions 328
– diaphragm pump heads 329, 330
– drive technology 324, 325
– flow behavior 325–327
– high-pressure piston pump heads 329
– horizontal pump head 329
– piston compressors 330–333
– pulsation damping 327, 328
– vertical pump head 328, 329
Redlich–Kwong equation of state 376
reservoirs
– conditions 145–147
– hydrocarbon 146
– petroleum 145
– PVT tests for reservoir fluid 147
reservoir systems, at elevated pressures
– physical chemical properties 148
– – density 148–150
– – diffusivity 153, 154
– – interfacial tension 151
– – permeability 154, 155
– – rheology 150, 151
– – wetting 151–153
Reynolds number 19, 25, 30, 372
rising bubble apparatus (RBA) 147
rotating positive displacement machines 319
– discharge rate 319, 320
– gear pumps 320, 321
– progressing cavity pump 323
– screw pumps 321–323
402j Indexrotor–stator machine (RSM) 106
rupture disk assembly 305
s
safety instrumentation, of clamp-closure HP
vessel 366
safety valves 304
– contour of flow 371
– narrowest flow cross section of 384
– sizing criteria 369
sandstones 146
Schmidt number 25
sealing element 300
sealing systems 300, 301
seat cross-sectional area of a safety valve
Aseat 369
self-diffusion coefficient 36
SEM valves 108, 109
– geometric modification 110
– operational modes for production of o/w
emulsions in 102
sensors 335, 338
– choice for high-pressure applications 337
– – checklist 337
– for differential pressure 339
– industrial specialty sensors 364
– safety aspects 364–366
shear stress 18
Sherwood number 24
simulation tools 91
sizing coefficient
– for ethylene 381
– real gas service, nozzle 380
– vs. reduced inlet stagnation pressure 381
sludge-to-oil reactor system (STORS) 252
Soave–Redlich–Kwong equations 376,
380, 383
solid hydrocarbon 162
solids–like polymers 35
Spray formation 19
static wetting angle 17
steam-assisted gravity drainage
(ES-SAGD) 160
steam generator 130
– cross-sectional view 131
– design 130–133
– development of materials used in 133, 134
– final superheater heating surface 135, 136
– final superheater outlet header
– – and live steam piping 136–138
– HP system 131
– membrane wall 134, 135
– tube configuration 132
steam power plants
– configuration 127–129
steel, strength-toughness 289
Stokes–Einstein equation 35
supercritical extraction of solids, applications
of 184
– cleaning and decontamination of cereals like
rice 189, 190
– cleaning of cork 193
– decaffeination of green coffee beans 184
– economics 193, 194
– extraction of essential oils 186, 188
– extraction of c-linolenic acid 189
– extraction of spices and herbs 186, 187
– impregnation of wood and polymers
190–192
– production
– – high-value fatty oils 189
– – hops extract 184, 185
– – natural antioxidants 188
– yield in carnosolic acid 188
supercritical fluids 169
– critical conditions 170
– deacidification of vegetable oil, pilot
plant 196
– efficiency, in high-pressure separation
process 198
– Froude number and Reynolds number of
liquid phase 198
– for generation of renewable energy 204
– high-pressure column processes 195
– – designing 195
– high-pressure nozzle extraction 200
– high-pressure spray processes using
198, 199
– – advantages 198, 200
– hydrodynamic behavior of countercurrent
flow 197
– – equation, prediction of flooding point 197
– interfacial tension at high pressures 198
– problem in calculating rate of mass
transfer 197
– processing of liquids with 194–202
– thin film extraction (TFE) process 200
– – application 202
– – design of prototype pilot plant 200, 201
– – TFE pilot unit 201
– viscous materials 200
– – for continuous processing 201, 202
supercritical processing 169, 170
– classification of 171
– compressor process 183, 184
– design
– – criteria 177
– – with use of basket 178, 179
Indexj403– energy optimization 182
– hydrodynamics 182
– mass transfer 179–182
– mass transfer kinetics 171
– phase equilibrium data 171
– pressure range 172
– pretreatment of raw materials
176, 177
– processing of solid material 172–174
– pump process 182, 183
– separation of dissolved substances 173
– – extractable substances 175
– – isobaric process 174
– – selective extraction 176
– – single/cascade operation 174, 175
– – total extraction 176
– solubility in supercritical CO2 173
– thermodynamic conditions 179
– typical trend of extraction lines 172
surface tension 14, 203
t
tangential stress 290
tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) 164
TFEP (AFLAS) copolymer 164
thermal expansion coefficient 30, 34
thermodynamic critical point 381
thermodynamic critical pressure,
gases 377
thermodynamics, second law 385
thermophysical data at high pressures,
correlations for 27
transport
– coefficients 21
– data 20, 21
– phenomena 55
– processes 20
tubular reactor 85–88, 86
– configurations
– – multiple feed reactor 86
– – single ethylene feed/S-Reactor 86
– multiple cold ethylene feed points 86
– multiple feed tubular reactor
– – temperature profile 87
– product properties, affected by 88
– safety requirements 88–89
– steady-state simulation of 92
turbocompressors 311
turbomachines 311, 313
– in multistage design 313
twister separator, design 165
u
urea synthesis 64
– basics and principles 65–67
– history of urea process 67–71
– integration with ammonia processes 71
– material selection 71, 72
v
vanishing interfacial tension (VIT) 147
vapor pressure 16, 17
vessel wall 295
viscosity 19, 22, 27, 30, 45, 101, 107,
112, 156, 159, 197, 221, 313, 320,
322, 349, 362
volumetric pumping behavior 312
von Mises criterion 291
w
water alternating gas injection (WAG) 160
waterjet cutting technology 259, 260
– advantages 265
– with 6000 bar 272, 273
– cutting process, and parameters 267–269
– – abrasive, influence on cutting results 268
– – material surface after AIWJ cutting 269
– – successive phases of stock removal
during 268
– generation of waterjets 265–267
– new trends 276
– – abrasive water suspension jet 276
– – medical applications 277, 278
– – microcutting 276, 277
Weber number 19
welded pressure vessels 293
– heating and cooling 294
– steels, economical importance 287
welding 73, 74, 134, 257, 287, 292, 294, 302,
304, 342
wetting angle
– pressure dependence of 18
– solid surfaces 16
– water and oil on flat steel surface 16, 17
y
Young equation 16, 17
Young–Laplace equation 15


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