كتاب Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design - Methods & Applications
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 كتاب Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design - Methods & Applications

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Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design - Methods & Applications
Timothy W. Simpson Jianxin (Roger) Jiao Zahed Siddique
Katja Hölttä-Otto Editors  

كتاب Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design - Methods & Applications  A_i_p_11
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Contents
1 A Review of Recent Literature in Product Family Design
and Platform-Based Product Development . 1
Zhila Pirmoradi, G. Gary Wang, and Timothy W. Simpson
Part I Platform Planning and Strategy
2 Crafting Platform Strategy Based on Anticipated
Benefits and Costs 49
Bruce G. Cameron and Edward F. Crawley
3 Multidisciplinary Domains Association in Product
Family Design . 71
Hoda ElMaraghy and Tarek AlGeddawy
4 Modular Function Deployment: Using Module Drivers
to Impart Strategies to a Product Architecture . 91
Mark W. Lange and Andrea Imsdahl
5 Emphasizing Reuse of Generic Assets Through Integrated
Product and Production System Development Platforms 119
Hans Johannesson
6 Quantifying the Relevance of Product Feature
Classification in Product Family Design . 147
Conrad S. Tucker
7 Platform Valuation for Product Family Design . 179
Seung Ki Moon and Timothy W. Simpson
xiPart II Platform Architecting and Design
8 A Proactive Scaling Platform Design Method
Using Modularity for Product Variations 201
Keith Hirshburg and Zahed Siddique
9 Architectural Decomposition: The Role of Granularity
and Decomposition Viewpoint 221
Katja Ho¨ltta¨-Otto, Noemi Chiriac, Dusan Lysy, and Eun Suk Suh
10 Integrated Development of Modular Product Families:
A Methods Toolkit . 245
Dieter Krause, Gregor Beckmann, Sandra Eilmus,
Nicolas Gebhardt, Henry Jonas, and Robin Rettberg
11 Solving the Joint Product Platform Selection and Product
Family Design Problem: An Efficient Decomposed
Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm with
Generalized Commonality . 271
Aida Khajavirad, Jeremy J. Michalek, and Timothy W. Simpson
12 One-Step Continuous Product Platform Planning:
Methods and Applications . 295
Achille Messac, Souma Chowdhury, and Ritesh Khire
13 Defining Modules for Platforms: An Overview
of the Architecting Process . 323
Katja Ho¨ltta¨-Otto, Kevin N. Otto, and Timothy W. Simpson
14 A QFD-Based Optimization Method for Scalable
Product Platform 343
Xinggang Luo, Jiafu Tang, and C.K. Kwong
15 Cascading Platforms for Product Family Design 367
Jiju A. Ninan and Zahed Siddique
Part III Product Family Development and Implementation
16 Global Product Family Design: Simultaneous Optimal
Design of Module Commonalization and Supply Chain
Configuration . 393
Kikuo Fujita
17 Architecture-Centric Design Approach
for Multidisciplinary Product Development 419
A.A. Alvarez Cabrera, H. Komoto, T.J. van Beek,
and T. Tomiyama
xii Contents18 Product Family Commonality Selection
Using Optimization and Interactive Visualization . 449
Ritesh Khire, Jiachuan Wang, Trevor Bailey, Yao Lin,
and Timothy W. Simpson
19 Developing and Assessing Commonality Metrics
for Product Families 473
Michael D. Johnson and Randolph E. Kirchain
20 Managing Design Processes of Product Families
by Modularization and Simulation . 503
Qianli Xu and Roger J. Jiao
21 Design Principles for Reusable Software Product Platforms . 533
Carlos O. Morales
22 Considering Human Variability When Implementing
Product Platforms . 559
Christopher J. Garneau, Gopal Nadadur, and Matthew B. Parkinson
Part IV Applications and Case Studies
23 Building, Supplying, and Designing Product Families 589
David M. Anderson
24 Modular Function Deployment Applied to a Cordless
Handheld Vacuum . 605
Fredrik Bo¨rjesson
25 Optimal Commonality Decisions in Multiple Ship Classes . 625
Michael J. Corl, Michael G. Parsons, and Michael Kokkolaras
26 A Heuristic Approach to Architectural Design
of Software-Intensive Product Platforms 647
Carlos O. Morales
27 Customer Needs Based Product Family Sizing Design:
The Viper Case Study . 683
Cassandra Sotos, Gu¨l E. Okudan Kremer, and Gu¨ls¸en Akman
28 Product Family Design and Recovery for Lifecycle 707
Minjung Kwak and Harrison Kim
29 Application of the Generational Variety Index:
A Retrospective Study of iPhone Evolution 737
Gopal Nadadur, Matthew B. Parkinson, and Timothy W. Simpson
Contents xiii30 Designing a Lawn and Landscape Blower Family
Using Proactive Platform Design Approach 753
Keith Hirshburg and Zahed Siddique
Epilogue . 777
Timothy W. Simpson, Roger J. Jiao, Zahed Siddique,
and Katja Ho¨ltta¨-Otto
References . 789
Index .
Index
A
ABC. See Activity-based costing (ABC)
Accommodation
equal variability scheme, 567, 572–573
performance, 560
target user population, 560
Activity-based costing (ABC), 24, 480–481
Adaptive systems, 297, 307
Adjustability
preferred seat locations, 1,000-member
virtual population, 569
sizing and the allocation, 582
specification, 564–565
Aerodynamic particle separators
data mining-driven product family design,
167–168
engineering design optimization (see
Engineering design)
market segments, 167, 168
methods, 167
particulate matter (PM)/particle
pollution, 167
temporal market-driven preferences,
168–169
AHP. See Analytical hierarchy process (AHP)
AM. See Architecture model (AM)
Analytical hierarchy process (AHP), 694
Analytical network process (ANP)
consistency verification, 694
and QFD
consistency test, 703
construction, clusters and nodes,
702, 703
element, 703
matrix limitation, 703–704
weighted super matrix, 703, 704
Analytical target cascading (ATC), 275
ANP. See Analytical network process (ANP)
APFD model. See Associated product family
design (APFD) model
Apple®, 100
Apple iOS, 748–749
Apple iPhone
compution, GVI values, 746
construction, QFD matrices
customer needs, 742
engineering metric target values,
742, 744
GVI process, 742, 743
design process and measures, 741
estimation, engineering metric target
values, 744, 745
evolutionary and revolutionary changes, 741
generational variety index, 742
GVI
analysis, 747
matrix creation, 746
market life assessment, 742
normalized target value matrix, 745
predicting changes, customer needs, 745
user feedback, 741–742
Application Programming Interface (API), 653
Applied Research Laboratory’s Trade Space
Visualizer (ATSV), 458, 459, 469
Architecting
activity
clustering methods, 425
embodiments/building blocks, 426
function modeling, 425
knowledge base, computer tools, 427
software design, 426
system architects, 425
system-level specifications, 424–425
V-model, 424–425
T.W. Simpson et al. (eds.), Advances in Product Family and Product Platform
Design: Methods & Applications, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-7937-6,
# Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014
793Architecting (cont.)
design, software-intensive product
platforms (see Software-intensive
product platforms)
process, product platforms
assets and modular platforms, 323
commonality assignment, 337–338
component-based approach, 332–333
customer needs gathering, 328–329
development, 325
functional requirements, 331
generic system, 333–334
market segment (see Market segments)
methods and techniques, 324–325
modules boundary (see Module)
module sizing and down selection,
338–339
roadmap, 336–337
system requirements, 329–331
Architectural code generation, 661
Architectural decomposition. See
Decomposition
Architecture
map knowledge, 659–660
objects to design patterns mapping, 660
Architecture-centric design approach
AM, 422
architectural model, 422–423
complexity-related issues, 420
conceptual model, architectural description,
422, 423
connectivity information, 421
definition, 419–420
development activities, 423
domain-specific methods, 422
elements, product and system
architecture, 421
FBS model, 421–422
model views, product (platform)
development, 422
modularization and definition, interfaces,
431–437
platform designs, 423
platform development, 420
production context, 420
product platform development, 424–431
prototype tools, 445
stage of development, 445
structure of the product, 420
system architecture, 422
system architecture models, 437–446
Architecture model (AM)
architectural descriptions, 439–440
development activities, 440–441
entities “E” and functions “F”, 438, 439
FBS model, 422
information reuse and model-based
paradigm, 441–445
information spectrum and design
questions, 439
modeling conventions, objects and
relations, 440
standard, 422, 423
Assembly decomposition, 226
Associated product family design (APFD)
model
algorithm, 85–87
cladistic analysis, 82
customer requirements, 87
demonstration and application, 87
and DSMs, 76
IDEF0 representation, 75
liaison graphs, 83
market segments and process plans, 75
parsimony analysis, 81
primary product components, 76–77
ATC. See Analytical target cascading (ATC)
Automotive
and aerospace businesses, 127
industry, 135, 409
“small car platform,” enterprise, 122
Axiomatic design, 26, 132, 504
B
BACS. See Building air conditioning system
(BACS)
Benefits, commonality
aircraft manufacturer, 58
broad firm cost structures, 58, 59
categories, 53, 54
comprehensive list, 54–56
cost saving, 54
design phase, 57
development cost, 59
firm’s flexibility, 54
management literature, 53
manufacturing cost, 59–60
manufacturing phase, 57
operation phases, 57, 58
proactive, 54
reuse, 54
works cited, 53
Bicycle saddle height
adjustability, 568–569
equal accommodation sizing, 572–573
equal variability sizing, 570–572
42-member sample, 568
794 Indexresidual variance, 568
sizing, 569–570
Bill of material (BOM), 25, 26, 77, 120, 226
Black-box reuse profile, 555, 677
Body size and shape, 279, 560–562, 581, 582
BOM. See Bill of material (BOM)
Building air conditioning system (BACS)
Customer Intimacy, 111, 113
initial distribution, 112
The Middle East and Africa, 111
Operational Excellence, 111
Bulk purchasing, 60, 65, 66, 630, 643
C
CAP. See Carryover Assignment Plan (CAP)
Carpal tunnel syndrome, 573
Carryover Assignment Plan (CAP), 257, 260
Carryover Chart (CoC), 258, 265
Case study
platform valuation
additional strategy cost, 190, 192
binomial lattice, 194
current and expected market
segments, 192
design quality, 192–193
feature and component matrix, 190, 191
market analysis, 193
market segmentation, 190
mobile product family, 189
Nokia N70 series products, 189
option value, 194–196
platform design strategy, 189
tactile key marker, 190, 192
vision accessible, 189
Viper Case (see Viper Case study)
CCM. See Configurable Component Modeler
(CCM)
CCs. See Configurable components (CCs)
CERs. See Cost estimating relationships
(CERs)
CI. See Commonality index (CI)
Cladistics
APFD model, 81
application, 72–73
biology, 73, 74
cladogram, 81–82
classification tool, 73
hypotheses, 73
modules identification and process
planning, 84
product modules, 82
Cladogram
APFD model (see Associated product
family design (APFD) model)
components, 82
construction process, 82
definition, 81
interspecies co-speciation, 74
product family, 83, 84
tanglegrams, 73
CMC. See Comprehensive metric for
commonality (CMC)
CNC machine tools. See Computer numerically
controlled (CNC) machine tools
CNs. See Customer needs (CNs)
CoC. See Carryover Chart (CoC)
Code division multiple access (CDMA),
658, 741
Code reuse evaluation, 675–676
Code reuse, product platforms vs. traditional
approach
application
dependent components, 675
independent components, 674–675
cost savings, 678–679
effects, 679–680
evaluation, 675–676
implementation, 673–674
methodology, 676–678
microelectromechanical system (MEMS)
devices, 673
observations, 679
PATF
black-box reuse, 677
compound reuse, 677, 678
product, 673
white-box reuse, 677, 678
Commonality
assignment, architecting process, 337–338
benefits (see Benefits, commonality)
challenges, 33–34
characteristics, 12–14
CMC, CDI and TCI indexs, 14–16
costs
design premium, 60
drawbacks and risks, 60, 61
individual variants, 62–63
investment, platforms, 62
multiproduct strategy, 60
realistic projections, 60–61
upfront variant, 62
and diversity, 26
and DSMs, 87
Index 795Commonality (cont.)
and metrics, 12
modularity, 11–12
PCI, 11
and PFD, 74
PFEG, 25
product platform, 72, 73
selection and modularity, 18–20
vs. variety, family/platform design, 11, 25
Commonality index (CI)
characteristics, 12, 13
definition, 12, 348
and measures, 73
and metrics, 12
standard, 318
Commonality metrics
blocks, 304, 306
diagnostic value, 498
early-stage measures, 496
fabrication weighting, 498
investment-weighted metric, 498
IP beam comparison (see Instrument panel
(IP) beam product families)
limitations, 498–500
modeling and assessment methods (see
Modeling)
platforming decisions, 474
and platform literature, 475–476
shared components and type, product, 497
small-n case study, 474
total vs. fixed cost, 497
and variables, 303
Commonality premium, 60, 62, 65
Commonality selection
decision-making process, 466–467
design space exploration process, 469
engineering design practices, 469
interactive visualization methods (see
Interactive visualization methods)
method 2, 467, 468
optimization, product family, 450
platform optimization approaches, 469
product complexity and competitive
pressure, 450
product family design (see Product family
design)
product optimization and visualization
method, 469
product platform, 450
UTC product family, 467, 468
Commonality strategy
canonical, 66
diffuse low-order, 66
realistic projections creation, costs, 60, 62
technical feasibility, 53
Complexity
decomposition scheme, 288–290
encapsulation, 133, 134
robust optimization approaches, 34–35
Component sharing
all-or-none restriction, 276
and commonality decisions, 26–27
end-of-life management, 714
optimization, 164
product family sharing level, 170
ranking, 497
ROI, 728
Comprehensive metric for commonality
(CMC)
CDI and TCI index, 15–16
commonality and variety, 25
commonality indices, 12–14
Comprehensive product platform planning
(CP3) model
application, electric motors family, 317–318
definition, generalized product platform, 305
design variables, 306
features, 300
formulation
commonality matrix blocks, 304
commonality variables, 302–303
design variable, 300–301
general product family, 302
modular product families, 303–304
modular-scaling families, 304
PFD, 301
product architecture, 305
generalized MINLP problem, 307
one-step approaches (see One-step
approaches)
optimization process, 299
sample product family, 305
scale-based/module-based product
families, 300
and SIO outcomes, 318–319
Computer numerically controlled (CNC)
machine tools
design, 599
fabrication and assembly tools, 598
machining setup elimination, 593–594
product/process design, 598
Concurrent engineering, 27, 96, 781
Configurable Component Modeler (CCM)
description, 137
FR and C objects, 138
PMC system, 140
796 IndexConfigurable components (CCs)
CCM, 137, 138, 140
composition, 136–137
definition, 120, 130
and design rational (DR), 135, 138
PDM system, 138
system family, 135
and TEC, 139, 140
Configuration
2D, commonality chromosome, 278
design, 202
family, 27
platform and optimaization (see Platform
configuration and optimization)
platform and product family, 10–11
Constraints and adaptability
code division multiple access (CDMA), 658
design knowledge, family product
platform, 657
dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF)
generator, 658
flow balance, product lifecycle
components, 718–719
core availability, 720
cores, 716–717
demand satisfaction and avoidance,
720–721
environmental regulations, 720
intermediates, 717
refurbished cores, 719–720
refurbished intermediates, 719
variable condition, 721
working and nonworking cores, 716–717
network protocol, 658
social environment changes, 659
Construction equipment accessory
modular function deployment, 114
module indication matrix, 114
practice, 115
“strategic suppliers”, 114
value disciplines, 114–115
Control devices, industrial trucks
CoC, 265
modular product programs, 263
module variants, 265–266
VAM, 264, 265
Cordless handheld vacuum
conceptual modules, 617, 620
CVR (see Customer value rating (CVR))
description, 610–611
DPM, 614, 616
exploded view, 12 V unit, 610, 612
market segments (see Market segments)
MIM, 616–617
module generation, 617, 618
QFD, 614, 615
specifications, 611–612
Cost estimating relationships (CERs), 633
Cost modeling
ABC, 480–481
cost savings metric calculation, 483
exclusive cost, 483
fixed costs, 403
PBCM, 481–482
process-based, 481
standalone cost, variant, 482–483
total cost and profit, 405
variable, 404
volume-weighted ratio, 483
CP3 model. See Comprehensive product
platform planning (CP3) model
Customer needs (CNs)
architecting process, product platforms
market segmentation, 328, 329
planned market strategy, UGVs, 328
requirements, 328
voice of the customer (VOC), 328–329
description, 504
and FRs, 504
GVS description, 525
PPM
direct interview methods, 205
indirect feedback method, 206
market segment, 204–205
product family sizing design (see Product
family sizing design)
Customer preference
clustering, 7
involvement, 8
and market conditions, 34
QFD, 149
Customer satisfaction
competitive and dynamic marketplaces, 344
product profiles, 353–354, 359, 362
Customer value rating (CVR)
modular product, 606
and QFD, 616
target market segments, 614
Customer values
benefits, 608
QFD, 614
transformation, product properties, 606
Customization
appearance, 10
family-based system, 781
mass, 2, 25, 148, 544, 600–601
Index 797Customization (cont.)
and personalization, 785, 786
platform-based, 201–202
product families, mass, 601–602
CVR. See Customer value rating (CVR)
D
Data mining
description, 154
iterative feature evaluation, 154–156
KDD process, 154
model generation and irrelevant feature
classification, 156–158
nonstandard feature (NF), 159–160
obsolete feature (OF), 160–161
standard feature (SF), 158–159
DCDM. See Design of commonality and
diversity method (DCDM)
DCF. See Discounted cash flow (DCF)
DCI. See Degree of commonality index (DCI)
Decision-making
collaborative, 182
commonality, 53, 452–453, 466, 467
complexity, 465
cultural, 53–54
customers’, 780
enterprise, 147, 174
market-based, 180
strategic, 394, 395
Decision support to design process planning
construction, TCPN, 520
TCPN deployment, 520
Decomposition
assembly, 226
ATC, 275
commonality, 221–222
description, 221
functional, 226
granularity (see Granularity)
hierarchical decomposition, 224
and parallelization, MOGA
chromosome representations, 280, 281
commonality value, 282
crossover and mutation, 282
description, 282–283
fitness calculation, 280, 282
initialization, 280
iteration and termination, 282
replacement, 282
products and systems, 224
representation
DSM, 222–223
functional model, 222, 223
network, 222, 223
service-based, 227
top-down decomposition, 224
viewpoint, 225–226
work breakdown structure, 224
Degree of commonality index (DCI), 150
Dendrogram, 617, 618
Dependency matrix, 27
Design concept exploration, representative
solutions
cluster 1, 412, 413
cluster 2, 412, 413
cluster 3, 413, 414
cluster 4, 413, 414
cluster 5, 414, 415
cluster 6, 414, 416
cluster 7, 415, 416
cluster 8, 415, 416
Design decision-making, 33, 739
Design for Human Variability (DfHV)
adjustability, 564–565
bicycle saddle height (see Bicycle saddle
height)
description, 559, 560
multiple sizes, 576–577
opportunities, platforming and
modularity, 577
platforming and modularity, 577–582
principles, 560–561
quantifying, variability
anthropometry synthesis, 562–564
databases, 561–562
robust design methodologies, 559–560
sizing (see Sizing)
tool handle
carpal tunnel syndrome, 573
grip diameters, 575
optimal diameter, 574
regression, 574–575
RMSE, 575
single size, 575–576
user’s grip circumference, 574
Design for lifecycle, 54, 783
Design for manufacturability (DFM)
and assembly, 99
guidelines, 600
platform, 211, 213
principle, 594, 599
Design for recovery
cost and revenue parameters, 724–726
end-of-life recovery, 711–714
optimization problem, 714–715
product take-back, 710–711
Design for variety (DFV)
definition, 72
product variety, 253
798 IndexTEV, 252–253
VAM, 254
Designing product families
arbitrary decisions, 600
CNC, 599
DFM principles, 599
eliminate tool, 599
manufacturability, 600
products development, 598
standard parts and materials, 599–600
Design matrix
DPM (see Design property matrix (DPM))
DSM (see Design structure matrix (DSM))
Design of commonality and diversity method
(DCDM), 181
Design process
actor and resource allocation, 527, 529
characteristics, 505
CNs, 504
configurations, TCPN, 528
customers’ requirements, 504
Gantt chart, 527, 528
generic structure, 506
GVS, PNs and TCPN model, 505
modular design projects, 506–507
modularization (see Modularization)
performance, 527, 529
planning, 525–527
platform-based techniques, 528
PN (see Petri Nets (PN))
product variant (see Product variants)
project module identification (see Project
module identification)
TCPN, design process simulation, 525, 526
Design process planning, 519–520, 525–527
Design project
configurable component-based product
platform model, 131
modular design, 506–507
Design property matrix (DPM)
company-specific requirements, 610
description, 614, 616
hierarchical clustering, 617
MFD, 607
and MIM, 607
module generation, 617
and module indication matrix (MIM),
96, 606
physical embodiments of functions, 610
and PMM, 606, 607
product architecture, 607
technical solutions, 610
voice of engineering, 614
Design quality
customers’ preference, 187
expected, 192
family product, 186
full quality, 187, 192
functions, 187, 188
marginal quality, 187, 192
market demands, 188
N71, 192–193
value of the preference U(Qp), 188
Design rationale (DR)
CC models, 138–140
concepts, 131
configurable component, 135–136
and design histories, 120
system description, 130
Design structure matrix (DSM)
analytical methods, 507
APFD model, 76, 77, 80
application, 87
architecture, 222–223
assembly decomposition, 226
automatic naming algorithm, 432, 433
based modularization, 434
clustering techniques, 434
component-based, 333
description, 248, 434, 511
DMM, 434
and DMMs, 511
FBS model, 436
“generic” architecture, 333–334
herbicide spraying systems, 249
heuristic swapping algorithm, 507
idealized matrices, granularity, 229–230
interactions, 164
kettles product family (see Kettles family)
market segments, 80
market segments and kettles primary
components, 77, 79
mathematical operations, 507
matrix operations, 511
off-diagonal entries, 434
paper trays, 235
primary and secondary components in
kettles, 77, 80
project elements, 522
service-based decomposition, 235,
240, 241
symmetrical and asymmetrical, 223
and UGVs
clustered, 335, 336
unclustered, 334–335
viewpoints, printing system, 235–237
Index 799Design valuation
company’s profit, 184–185
design quality, 187–188
financial model, 185–187
product family architecture, 183
Design versatility, 599, 602
Development cost, 59
DfHV. See Design for Human Variability
(DfHV)
DFM. See Design for manufacturability (DFM)
DFV. See Design for variety (DFV)
Disassembly
constraints, 716–719
description, 709
end-of-life recovery, 711–714
system decomposition, 226
yield rates, 723–724
Discounted cash flow (DCF), 784
Divergence
commonality, 50
planning
beneficial, 63
commonality levels, 63
firm’s ability, 65
program manager, 65–66
rail manufacturer, 65
realistic commonality benefits, 65
research data categorization, 63, 64
variants, 63
DMMs. See Domain mapping matrices
(DMMs)
Domain analysis
architectural code generation, 661
architecture objects to design
patterns, 660
constraints and adaptability, 657–659
detailed software design, 660–661
domain knowledge model, 656–657
high-level process, product family
platform, 654
knowledge to architecture, 659–660
previous product projects, 655
relevant literature, 655
use cases, 654–655
Domain knowledge model, 656–657
Domain mapping matrices (DMMs)
and MoAs, 510
modularization process, 434
project elements, 522
types, relationships, 511
DPM. See Design property matrix (DPM)
DSM. See Design structure matrix (DSM)
E
Economies of scale
advantages, 451
and customization, 119, 120
description, 57
product family design, 181
in recovery operations, 733
End-of-life management
benefits, 710
definition, 709
hierarchical assembly structure, product
family, 709
product take-back, 710–711
recovery (see End-of-life recovery)
End-of-life recovery
disassembly parts and decision making,
713, 714
disposal and recycling, 712
incoming feedstock, 711
options, 711–712
process, 712, 713
refurbishment/cannibalization, 713–714
Engineering characteristics (EC)
platform and non-platform (see
Optimization, platform and nonplatform ECs)
scalable product platform, 345
sensitivity analysis, 351–352
value determination, 350–351
Engineering design
aerodynamic
design objectives, 170
mapping product, 174
mathematical representation, 170–171
particle separator design, 169
product family sharing level, 170
scale based and module based, 169–170
and PFD
commonality, 162
component function identification,
162, 163
cosine similarity, 164
data mining predictive model, 161–162,
173–174
DSM, 164
large-scale data set, 162
latent semantic analysis, 162
product family optimization problem, 165
product feature-function comparison
matrix, 162–164
product variant optimization level,
166–167
800 Indexsharing level, product family, 166
textual description, 162
60 Whr 6-Cell Lithium-Ion Battery,
164–165
Ergonomics, 560, 562
Evolutionary optimization
optimization strategy, 634
three-objective discrete optimization
process, 637–638
two-objective method, 634–637
F
FBS modeling. See Function-behavior-state
(FBS) modeling
Financial model
call option valuation, binomial tree, 187
demand, movements, 185–186
design strategies, 196
drift, 185
family product, 186
modular product families, 196
net benefit, 186
real options analysis, 180
time interval, 186
valuation, 182
Fit, 590
Flexible assembly, 595
Flexible building, product families
assembly, 595
CNC, eliminate machining setup, 593–594
flow manufacturing, 594
one-piece flow quality, 594
setup and batch elimination, 593
source cells, 594
tooling setup elimination, 593
Flexible platform, 3, 5, 14, 25, 31, 748
F-M tree. See Function-means (F-M) tree
FRs. See Functional requirement (FRs)
Functional decomposition, 226–227
Functional efficiency, 213, 217
Functional requirement (FRs), 504
Function-behavior-state (FBS) modeling
DSM, 434
product architecture, 421–422
shifting system, 434
system architect, 432
Function-means (F-M) tree, 132
Function strategy, 208
Function structure
component design modeling, 214–215
elements, 763–764
function strategy, 208
handheld blower, 761, 764, 765
modularization, 686
modules, 335
Fuzzy clustering
combined similarity measure, 514
D00, D1 and D2, 513
equivalence matrix, 514
hierarchical decomposition, 511
module identification, 511, 512
partitioning algorithm, 512
project elements, 512
Fuzzy optimality, 347, 628
G
Gas inlet valves
MIG, 261, 263
MPC, 255, 261, 262
product variants, 263
TEV, 261–262
vacuum applications, 261
VAM, 261, 262
GBOMs. See Generic bill of materials
(GBOMs)
Generalized commonality. See Joint product
platform selection and family design
Generational variety index (GVI)
analysis, 747–748
Apple iPhone (see Apple iPhone)
calculation, 740, 746
customer requirement list, 743, 746
development, 749
evolving designs
consumer electronics segment, 738–739
impacts, 739
platformed and non-platformed
products, 739
product features, 738
revolutionary/evolutionary
changes, 738
iOS-based flexible platform strategy,
748–749
limitations, 749
low and high values, 337
Pareto optimal designs, 741
product platform design, 740–741
risk, 748–749
technological advancement, 738
Generic assets
bandwidth, 124, 127
bill of material (BOM), 120
description, 144
development processes and concept
platform, 125–126
industrial case study
Index 801Generic assets (cont.)
CCM software, 140
commercial software RD&T, 140, 142
design rationales (DRs), 139
design solution space, 142
fabricated structures, 139
functional requirement-related (FR)
properties, 140
parameter values, 142
platform elements, 140
TEC family system (see Turbine
exhaust cases (TEC))
industrial customers, 125
knowledge platform approach, 124, 125
life cycle phases, 143
maturity, 123–124
OEM company, 125
platform-based development and
manufacturing, 119–120
platforms (see Platform)
PLM (see Product life cycle management
(PLM))
product and production system platforms
(see Product, and production system
platforms)
reuse, 120–121
suppliers, 121
system development project, 126–127
technology platforms, 127–129
Generic bill of materials (GBOMs), 20, 506
Generic product plan, 208, 209
Generic variety structure (GVS)
hierarchical structure, 509
leaf node activities, 509
process varieties, 509, 510
AND and XOR junction, 510
Genetic algorithm (GA)
GP, 23
GVS, 514
MINLP, 316
parametric platforms, 4
Pareto optimal solutions, 394
product family design (PFD) method, 296
Genetic programming (GP), 23
Global product family design
automotive industries, 409
availability, modules, 409, 410
clustering, Pareto solutions, 411
demand volume, products, 409, 410
design concept exploration (see Design
concept exploration, representative
solutions)
global manufacturing, 394–395
mass customization, 393
mathematical model, 396–404
multi-objective
and concept-level design, 395–396
formulation, 416
optimization, 410–411
neighborhood cultivation genetic
algorithm, 416
optimal techniques, 407–408
PCA-based clustering technique, 416–417
price, products, 409, 410
production and sales capability, respective
sites, 409, 410
site differences, 409, 410
Granularity
assembly modules, 238
DADF and xerographics modules,
233–234
degree of modularity
MG&G metric, 238–239
service-based decomposition, 239–241
description, 241–242
DSM (see design structure matrix (DSM))
effect, modularity
idealized matrices, 230, 231
integral and modular variants, 230, 231
MDL, 230, 232
MG&G, 230, 232
product, 229
electrical components, 237–238
ITB module, 234, 235
metrics, 228–229
printing system, 235
service-based decomposition, 235
“smaller size”, 236
system decomposition, 233
Xerox DocuColor 250, 233, 234
GVI. See Generational variety index (GVI)
GVS. See Generic variety structure (GVS)
H
Hierarchical clustering
ECs, 351–352
MFD, 606, 617
modules, 334
multidisciplinary dependency, 74, 75
SPSS, 617
HoQs. See Houses of quality (HoQs)
Houses of quality (HoQs), 357
Human factors, 560, 562, 780
Human variability. See Design for Human
Variability (DfHV)
802 IndexI
INCOSE guidelines, 329
Industrial machines, software platforms
changing design
family platform framework layer,
667–668
final product test, 669–671
product family infrastructure layer,
666–667
product-specific features layer, 668–669
description, 662
high-level organization
activedevices, 663–664
PATF engine and component, 662–663
modularity, 667
review, 667
run-time system composition
application sequences, PATF, 671–672
AppProductSequence object, 673
object composition, 671
SyncPoint objects, 673
system behavior, high-level
automatic mode, 665–666
manual mode, 664–665
PATF system state, 664, 665
Instrument panel (IP) beam product families
assembly cost allocation, 486
beam processing information, 484, 485
commonality metrics
component and magnesium, 484, 487
correlations, 494, 495
and cost savings, 491, 493
investment-weighted commonality metric,
491–492
linear regression analysis, 494
magnesium design, 484, 485
mass-and piece-weighted metrics, 494
operational and financial assumptions,
484, 485
and PBCM, 484
product variants, 484, 486
projected cost category, 496
proposed commonality metrics, 486
regression statistics, 494–496
standalone variants
assembly costs, 484, 491
development costs, 484, 491
fabrication costs, 484, 491
steel and magnesium IP beam variants,
486, 492
steel component and commonality
information, 484, 488–490
volume-weighted commonality metric, 491
Interactive visualization methods
exhaustive + visualization
design space exploration, 464
product family design, 456, 457
individual opt + visualization
ATSV, 458
commonality selection, 459–461
multidimensional data, 459
product family design space, 459
trade-off resolution, 464–465
Pareto Band concept, 466
product family opt + visualization
CI, 462
commonality assessments, 463
computational cost, decomposition, 466
family-based optimization
techniques, 461
product family optimization, 462
trade-off resolution, 465
UTC product family, 461
Interface definition
DSM, 434
FBS model, shifting system, 434–437
and modularization, 431
workflow and function modeling, 431–434
Intermediate transfer belt (ITB) module,
234, 235
Inventory reduction, 55, 56, 58
iPad®, 101, 749, 784–785
IP beam product families. See Instrument panel
(IP) beam product families
iPhone evolution. See Generational variety
index (GVI)
ITB module. See Intermediate transfer belt
(ITB) module
J
Joint product platform selection and family
design
classification, product family optimization,
273–274
decomposition approaches, 275
issues, 272
MOGA (see Multi-objective genetic
algorithms (MOGA))
optimization-based research, 272
pareto fronts
electric motor family, 287
GAA family, 286
platform configuration, 287
posteriori optimization methods, 274
product platforms, 272
Index 803Joint product platform selection and family
design (cont.)
single-stage class III problems, 274
universal electric motor, 283–291
Joint Strike Fighter, 34, 49, 50, 63
K
Kanban, 594–597
Kettles family
liaison graph, 83
market segments, 76, 80, 86
primary components, 77, 79
process plan, 87
secondary component, 77, 80
unique feasible kettles variants, 80, 81
water boiling, 76, 77
K-means clustering, 351, 690, 692–693, 695
Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)
acquisition, 152–153
description, 151–152
mining/pattern discovery (see Data mining)
selection and cleaning, 153
transformation, 154
Knowledge to architecture mapping, 659–660
L
Latent semantic analysis (LSA), 162, 164
Lawn and landscape blower family, PPM
business environment, 753
data, customer needs, 754
formation strategy, 753–754, 762
function structure
engine control system, 761, 763
handheld blower market target, 761,
764, 765
main blower process system, 763
market research, PPM (see Market
research, PPM)
modularity construction (see Modularity
construction, PPM)
platform design
CAD model components, 768–769
components list, platform finding
algorithm, 765–766
feeding analysis, 769–771
fitting ratio, 771
handheld blower vacuum, 764, 765
input sheet, 764
manufacturing analysis, 771, 772
outcomes, 766–767
permanent components, 767
product family planning, 761, 762
product variations, 753, 754
resources, 754–755
road map, 753, 754
rules and regulations, 755
Learning curve
bulk purchasing and construction, 643
manufacturing line, 57
typical ship construction labor, 630, 631
Liaison graph
APFD model, 83
application, 83, 87
definition, 83
kettles, 83
Life phases modularization
module drivers, 255–256
MPC, 255, 256
product life cycle, 254–255
LSA. See Latent semantic analysis (LSA)
Lucas method, 211, 213, 215, 218
M
Mann–Kendall (MK) trend test
feature Fi, 157
feature F
n, 159
feature F
o, 160–161
feature F
s, 158–159
mathematical representation, 157–158
null hypothesis, 158
Manufacturing cost, 59–60
Market-based design, 180–182
Market-driven product family design
(MPED), 346
Market mechanisms, 28, 180
Market research
competitors, 206–207
customer needs, 204–206
PPM
competitor product analysis, 758–759
competitors market targets vs. customer
requirements, 759–760
customer demands, 759, 760
customer fulfillment, 758–759
direct and non-direct polling, customer
demands, 755–757
identification, market segment, 755, 756
market target, 757–759
rules and regulation bodies, 207
volume analysis, 207
Market segments
and APFD model, 75
business application, 325
804 Indexcharacteristics, 325
current and expected, 192
customer
population, 325
preferences, 187
requirements, 74
defense-related applications, 325
demand model, 182
description, 611
difference, 325
and DSM, 77, 80
family Felicia, 613
functional preference information, 187
identification, 180
kettle identification, 76, 86
and market attack plan, 326–327
mobile products, 190, 192
platform leveraging strategies, 327
preference value and demographics, 188
product market matrix, 327–328
scalable platforms, 328
Sophia student, 613–614
sources, 76
suction power, 613
UGVs, 326–327
Mass customization
extending product families, 601
postponement, 600–601
setup “elimination”, 593
synergies, 601–602
Mass production
cost-oriented design method, 246
product families, 591–592
Mathematical model
conditions, problem formulation, 397–398
cost model, 403–405
delivery model, 405–406
integration, product family and supply
chain, 396–397
mathematical formulation, 406–407
product family model, 399–402
quality model, 405
MDL. See Minimum description length (MDL)
MDO. See Multidisciplinary design
optimization (MDO)
MEMS. See Microelectromechanical system
(MEMS)
Method units, integrated PKT-approach
description, 251
design for variety, 252–254
life phases modularization, 254–256
modular product programs, 257–258
product program planning, 256–257
visual tools, 252, 253
Metrics
activity-based costing system (ABC), 24
assessment methodology, 483
axiomatic design, 26
commonality (see Commonality)
correlations and dependencies, 26–27
cost considerations, 21, 24
cost model, 25
definition, 24–25
extended QFD, 25
Ford’s Model T, 26
fuzzy clustering techniques, 26
leveraging data mining techniques, 25
multi-criteria platform evaluation, 24
platform construction method, 25
platform exploration and identification, 26
product family evaluation graph approach
(PFEG), 25
variation and uncertainty, 25, 26
MFD. See Modular function deployment
(MFD)
Microelectromechanical system (MEMS), 673
MIG. See Module Interface Graph (MIG)
MIM. See Module indication matrix (MIM)
Minimum description length (MDL), 228, 232,
239, 240
Mission effectiveness, 627, 629–630
Mixed-integer nonlinear programming
(MINLP), 300, 301, 307, 316, 454
Mixed integer programming, 714, 733
MK trend test. See Mann–Kendall (MK)
trend test
MoAs. See Module of activities (MoAs)
Modeling
cost methodology (see Cost modeling)
metric assessment methodology, 483
product family, 9–10
proposed commonality metrics
bill of materials, product family, 478
calculation, 478, 479
descriptions, 480
metric and cost savings, 477
piece-based, 478
production volume, 479
subassemblies, 478
trimming/drilling, holes, 477
Modular function deployment (MFD)
and BACS (see Building air conditioning
system (BACS))
business strategy, 117
Index 805Modular function deployment (MFD) (cont.)
cell phone, 115–117
complexity cost reduction, 605
construction equipment accessory
(see Construction equipment
accessory)
cordless handheld vacuum (see Cordless
handheld vacuum)
cross-functional, 94
design property matrix, 609–610
and DFX approaches, 96
documentation and analysis, 607
DPM and MIM, 607
functional requirements, 94–95
indication matrix, 610
industrial companies, 117
interfaces analysis, 96
launch planning (see Modular launch
planning)
matrix-based method, 605
and MIM, 96
module drivers (see Module drivers)
NAICS, 106
and PMM, 94, 95, 606, 607
product family and development, 91, 92
product properties, 94
and QFD, 94, 95, 608–609
riding-machine platform (see Ridingmachine platform)
strategy and tactics, 92–93
tactical vehicle, 93–94
unique application, 106
“Voices of X”, 94
Modularity
cohesion and coupling, 541–542
commonality, 11–12
goals, 540–541
highly coupled structure, 541
PFD analysis
APFD model algorithm, 85–87
cladistics, 81–82
product modules and platforms, 82–83
and platform
long-lifetime products and secular
trends, 580–582
long-tailed and skewed distributions,
577–579
segmented populations and
disproportionate disaccommodation,
579–580
principle of separation, 540
SMI, 24–25
software production, 540
Modularity construction
component design modeling, 214–216
component manufacturing tooling
design, 215
Lucas method, 215, 217
market targets, 215
module design, components, 214
PPM
CAD model, 771, 773–775
design, 771, 774
platform and non-platform
components, 771
products, 774–775
production volume costing, 215, 217–218
types, 203
Modularization
actor and resource, dashboard design,
523, 524
car dashboard design, 521
design activities, 522, 523
DSM representation, 522
fuzzy clustering algorithm and MoAs, 522
generic design process, 522, 523
generic routing, dashboard design process,
523, 524
input/output class, 523, 524
and interfaces (see Modularization and
interfaces)
Modularization and interfaces
formula student case
automatic naming algorithm, 436
generated interface graphs model,
shifting system, 437, 438
interface graphs model, shifting system,
437, 438
MSI, 436
power system, 436–437
SAE shifting system, 434, 435
modularization and interfaces, 434
workflow and function modeling
automatically generated interface,
432, 433
automatic naming algorithm, 432, 433
business process modeling, 432, 433
DSM, 434
flowchart-type description, 432
functional system decomposition, 432
simplified workflow model, 431, 432
Modular launch planning
digital cameras, 621
module drivers, 620
product launch plan, 620–622
Sony Handycam range, 620, 621
806 IndexModular product families, integrated
PKT-approach
control devices, industrial trucks (see
Control devices, industrial trucks)
description, 250
gas inlet valves (see Gas inlet valves)
herbicide spraying systems
DSM, 248, 249
MANKAR-Roll, 247–248
method units (see Method units, integrated
PKT-approach)
MIG, 251–252
MIM, herbicide spraying systems, 248–250
modern market situations, 245–246
modular lightweight design, 266
reduction, internal variety
DSM, 247
product modularization, 247
product platform, 247
product variants, 247
variety-oriented product design, 246–247
serial and parallel applications, 267
water measurement devices (see Water
measurement devices)
Modular product programs
CoC, 258
market-driven factors, 257
product structure strategies and
commonality, 257–258
Module
battery cells, 619
boundary definition
clustered DSM, UGV family, 335, 336
coupling and similarity, 334
definition, 334, 335
function deployment, 334
unclustered DSM, UGV platform,
334–335
generation, 617
interfaces, 548–549
liquid separator, 620
logic, architecture, 619, 620
MIM (see Module indication matrix (MIM))
PMM documents, 619, 620
technical solutions, 617
transparent/nontransparent versions, 620
Module commonalization
and modular architecture, 686
optimal design (see Global product family
design)
Module Drivers
application, 99–100
battery packs, 100
building air conditioning system, 113
cell phone, 117
common unit and carry over addresses, 99
complications, 104
construction equipment accessory, 114
customer intimacy companies, 102
different specification, 100
hard drives, 101
information objects, 99, 101
laptop and e-readers/tablets, 100
laptop microprocessors, 101
medical industry, 98–99
and MIM, 103–104
modular function deployment, 96
motherboards, 101
operational excellence companies, 102
PALMA database, 103
product leadership companies, 102,
104–105
product life cycle stream, 96, 97
profile, 103
project team, 104
recycling, 102
riding-machine platform, 108, 109
service and maintenance, 99
styling and different specification, 99
technical evolution and planned design
change, 99
value disciplines, 102–103
vehicle industries, 99
“Voice of Customer”, 96–97
“Voice of Engineering”, 97
“Voice of Manufacturing”, 98
“Voice of Supply Chain”, 98
webcams, 101
Module indication matrix (MIM)
battery voltage, 616
company-specific application, 616
DC motor, 616
description, 610
herbicide spraying systems, 248–250
iteration, 103, 111
module drivers (see Module drivers)
PALMA application, 103, 104
and PMM, 606
product leadership, 610
replaceable battery, 617
riding-machine platform, 107
styling handle and escutcheon, 616–617
Module Interface Graph (MIG)
3D CAD data, 251–252
product variety, 253
and TEV, 256, 257
Index 807Module of activities (MoAs)
definition, 523
identification, 514
types, modularity, 510
Module Process Chart (MPC), 255, 256, 262
Module Strength Indicator (MSI), 436
MOGA. See Multi-objective genetic
algorithms (MOGA)
MOPSO. See Multi-objective particle swarm
optimization (MOPSO)
MPC. See Module Process Chart (MPC)
MPED. See Market-driven product family
design (MPED)
MSI. See Module Strength Indicator (MSI)
Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO),
29, 395
Multidisciplinary product development.
See Architecture-centric design
approach
Multidiscipline, PFD. See Product family
design (PFD)
Multi-domain, 9, 88
Multi-objective genetic algorithms (MOGA)
chromosome representation, 276
commonality objective function, 279–280
consistency constraints, 277
crossover operators, 278
decomposition and parallelization
chromosome representations, 280, 281
commonality value, 282
crossover and mutation, 282
description, 282–283
fitness calculation, 280, 282
initialization, 280
iteration and termination, 282
replacement, 282
mutation operators, 278–279
non-dominated sorting GA (NSGA-II)
code, 275
Multi-objective optimization, 394, 407–408,
410–411, 739
Multi-objective particle swarm optimization
(MOPSO), 370–371
Multi-platform design, 368, 370–377, 386
Mutation operators, 278–279
N
National Security Cutter (NSC), 626, 627, 632,
634, 638, 640, 641
Naval architecture, 627, 628, 641
Nonstandard feature (NF), 159–160
The North American Industry Classification
System (NAICS), 106
O
Object-oriented design
abstraction, 550
aggregation, 553–554
application frameworks, 556–557
associations, 552–553
composition, 554–555
encapsulation, 550
inheritance, 550–551
message-sending, 551–552
object model, 550
polymorphism, 551
Obsolete feature (OF), 160–161
OEM. See Original equipment manufacturer
(OEM)
OF. See Obsolete feature (OF)
Offshore Patrol Cutter (OPC), 626, 629, 632,
638–641
One-piece flow, 594
One-step approaches
CP3 model
description, 311
optimization algorithm, 315–316
PSMF, 312–315
SIO, product family design
conventional mapping, 308
description, 307–308
design variables selection, 308
implementation, VSMF, 310–311
VSMF, 308–309
OPC. See Offshore Patrol Cutter (OPC)
Optimal commonality decisions
characteristics, Pareto front designs,
641, 642
characteristics, US Coast Guard’s vessels,
626, 627
correlation inference, 628
design variables, 628
development and application, 626
discrete pareto front, 632–633
evolutionary optimization (see
Evolutionary optimization)
fuzzy utility, 628
integer vector, 639
mission effectiveness/cost objectives,
629, 630
multi-objective fuzzy optimization, 628
natural commonality, 639, 640
net fleet savings objective, 630–631
NSC15 and OPC15, 641
NSC mission requirements, 638–639
performance/cost, 640
product family design, 625
progression, evolutionary solution, 639
808 Indexship design synthesis model (see Ship
design synthesis model)
test application, 626
three-objective method
analysis, 640
Pareto surface, 641, 642
two-objective method
evolutionary algorithm, 640
optimization, 639
Optimal design
multi-objective optimization, 407–408
PCA, clustering pareto solutions, 408
Optimization
evolutionary (see Evolutionary
optimization)
idiosyncrasies, 450
interactive visualization methods (see
Interactive visualization methods)
multi-objective, 407–408
product family design, 450
and UTC product design space, 454–455
Optimization, platform and non-platform ECs
calculated sensitivity indices, 357, 359
constraints, 354–355
degree of customer satisfaction, 362
industrial pincers
calculated coefficients, 357, 359
engineering measures and
benchmarking information, 356, 358
HoQ, 357
systemic image, 355–356
literature, 357
maximal OCS and OCS loss, 357, 360
objective function, 353–354
optimal values, product profiles, 357, 359
problem definition, 352–353
proposed approach, 360–361
Original equipment manufacturer (OEM)
automotive business, 125
consumer market, 122
suppliers, 121
P
PALMA. See Product architecture lifecycle
management (PALMA)
Parallelization, 246, 280–283, 291, 296
Pareto band
approach, 466
design bandwidth, 466
family and individual product, 466
Pareto front, 285–287, 632–633
Pareto set, 286, 370
Particle separator. See Aerodynamic particle
separators
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), 311, 314,
315, 317
Part sharing, 63, 477
PBCM. See Process-based cost modeling
(PBCM)
PCI. See Product line commonality index (PCI)
PDM. See Product data management (PDM)
Penalty function, 297, 298, 307, 310, 370, 518,
520, 527, 528, 635
Petri nets (PN). See also Timed colored petri
net (TCPN) model
description, 507
handling process varieties, 518
seven-tuple, 514
PFD. See Product family design (PFD)
PFEG. See Product family evaluation graph
approach (PFEG)
Platform
industrial contexts, 121–123
literature, 475–476
product development, 504, 530
requirement analysis stage, 504
Platform based product development
commonality vs. variety, 11–14
configuration and optimization (see
Platform configuration and
optimization)
description, 11
metrics (see Metrics)
powerful tools, 27
support systems and techniques, 27, 28
terminology, 27
Platform configuration and optimization
commonality, and modularity, 18–20
configuration and portfolio optimization
problems, 14, 18
development, 14
families and platforms, classes, 18, 21
GBOM, 20
and non-platform parameters, 20
selection and design, 14, 17–18
Platform design
identifying and isolating algorithm,
209–211
lawn and landscape blower family (see
Lawn and landscape blower family,
PPM)
manufacturing improvement
functional efficiency, 211, 213
Lucas method, 211, 213
manufacturing tooling design, 213–214
Index 809Platform design (cont.)
modeling, 211
nonphysical component platform, 214
optimization, 211, 212
performance, product family, 208
Platform evaluation
negative valued targets, 375
optimization, product instances, 374, 375
positive valued targets, 375
stages, 374, 375
threshold value, 376
universal electric motors
optimization, 379, 382
performance, products, 382
products leveraged, 382, 383
Platform investment, 24, 60, 62
Platform leveraging, 8, 14, 327, 376, 384
Platform modeling and configuration (PMC)
CCM software, 140
configurable components (CCs), 138
description, 137
and PDM systems, 138
Platform optimization, 211
Platform planning. See Product platform
planning
Platform relaxation
multi-platform design
evaluation stage, 374–376
mathematical model, 371
platform commonality variables, 371
relaxation stage, 376–377
single platform stage, 372–374
three-stage design process, 369, 371
stage, 376–377
universal electric motors
combined results, platforms 1 and 2,
384, 388
family, 384, 385
optimum design variables and
performances, 384, 386
product evaluation, platform 2, 384, 387
strategy, case study, 384, 389
Platform selection
and design, 17, 22
joint product (see Joint product platform
selection and family design)
Platform strategy
advantages, 49–50
automotive model, 49
Black and Decker’s electric hand tools, 49
commonality (see Commonality)
divergence (see Divergence)
examination, 50
Joint Strike Fighter program, 49
low and high forward planning, 66, 67
market segmentation, 190–192
MQB platform, 49
product cost, 184–185
trade-offs
architectural parameters, 50
internal, 52–53
market, 51–52
water valve, 66
Platform valuation
case study (see Case study, platform
valuation)
company’s profit model, 184–185
design quality, 187–188
financial model, 185–187
market-based design approaches, 180–182
modular product architecture, 196
and PFD, 181
product family architecture, 183
real options analysis, 180
sharing and reusing assets, 179–180
strategy cost, 184–185
PLM. See Product life cycle management
(PLM)
PMC. See Platform modeling and configuration
(PMC)
PMM. See Product management map (PMM)
Postponement
mass customization technique, 600–601
product architecture, 601
PPCEM. See Product Platform Concept
Exploration Method (PPCEM)
PPCTM. See Product platform constructal
theory method (PPCTM)
Primary components, 76–77, 79
Principal component analysis (PCA), 396
Proactive platform design method using
modularity (PPM)
companies, 201–202
design affordance, 204
function strategy, 208
lawn and landscape blower family
(see Lawn and landscape blower
family, PPM)
Lucas method, 218
market research, 204–207
modular architecture, 203
modularity construction, 214–218
platform design (see Platform design)
product engineering design process, 202
product family, 203
product family planning, 207–208
810 Indexproduct platform, 202, 203
product strategy, 202
top-down approach, 203
Process-based cost modeling (PBCM),
481–482
Process platform, 3, 504, 781, 783, 786
Process reuse, 786
Product
and process qualities, 534
and production system platforms
activities, 130
bandwidth, 129
configurable component, 134–137
decomposition, 133
definition, 129
designs, 131–132
different design projects, 131
elaborations and encapsulations,
133, 134
extensive properties, 130
functional and nonfunctional
requirements, 132
function-means (F-M) tree, 132, 133
models, 131
platform, 129, 130
technical system characteristics, 131
theory of domains (ToD), 131
theory of technical systems (TTS), 131
Product architecture lifecycle management
(PALMA), 103
Product data management (PDM), 137, 138,
140, 779
Product design. See Product family design
(PFD)
Product development
cost, 62, 72, 181, 481
strategy and tactics, 92–93
Product evolution, 739
Product families
building, low cost
low-cost family variation, 592
mass production methodologies,
591, 592
commonality metrics (see Commonality
metrics)
designing (see Designing product families)
design processes (see Design process)
flexible building (see Flexible building,
product families)
and mass customization, 601–602
prerequisites
standardization, 602–603
total cost quantification, 603
spontaneous supply chains (see Supply
chains)
structuring and selling
CNC, 590
definition, 589
flexible operations, nonfamily
products, 590
sales and marketing, 591
supply chain and operations, 589
variety building (see Variety)
Product family
APFD model algorithm, 85–87
bill of materials, 478
commonality
metric calculation, 478
selection (see Commonality selection)
common components, 87
process planning, 83–84
and product platform design
capabilities, enterprises, 782
coordination demand and supply
chains, 781
corporate-level product platform,
779–780
customer and marketing interaction,
778–779
development, 777
financial analysis, 782–784
internet, 781
manufacturing systems, 781
open architecture product and service,
784–787
trade-off, 782
Product family architecture, 183
Product family configuration, 10–11
Product family design (PFD)
aerodynamic (see Aerodynamic particle
separators)
back-end issues
description, 3
front-end and development issues, 4–6
reconfigurability, 27–29
redesign and design reuse strategies,
29–31
supply chain issues, 31–33
biological analogy
APFD model (see Associated product
family design (APFD) model)
cladistics, 73
cladogram construction method, 83–84
coevolution, 73
commonality and modularity, 84
constituents, 73
Index 811Product family design (PFD) (cont.)
designers and engineers, 73
design feasibility and variant
generation, 80–81
functional analysis, 76–77, 79
interspecies co-speciation cladograms, 74
liaison graphs, 83
market analysis, 75–76, 78
modularity analysis (see Modularity,
PFD analysis)
physical assembly process, 84
structural analysis, 77, 80
“black box” simulations, 451–452
classification, 368
cluster and sensitivity analysis., 370
commonality selection, 451
common components and functions, 2
components/modules, 451
consideration, 34
data mining-driven product design, 148–149
demonstration and application, 87
description, 35–36
design and production complexity, 87
design space exploration, 451, 452
design strategies, 148
development enterprises, 367
and development issues (see Platform based
product development)
distinctiveness, 451
and DSMs, 87
engineering design optimization
(see Engineering design)
front-end issues
description, 2
development and back-end issues, 2,
4–6
market-driven, 8–9
modeling product families and
platforms, 9–10
platform and product family
configuration, 10–11
product portfolio and product family
positioning, 6–7
global platform development, 35
gradient-based optimization methods, 389
heterogeneity, 87
low-cost communication infrastructure, 147
management and engineering aspects, 33
manufacturing and resource constraint, 35
mass customization, 2
“master assembly process plan”, 88
minimal loss, performance, 386
MOPSO, 370–371
multi-platform design, 386
optimization approaches, 370
optimization methods, 368
Pareto-optimal solution,
370–371
performance, 452
performance and commonality, 368
platform divergence, 33–34
platform planning
design variables, 296
efficiency, 296
genetic algorithms (GA), 296
method, 296
quantification, 296
platform relaxation, 371–377, 386
platform selection, 370
PPCEM, 370
product cost, 184
product features, 174–175
product lifecycle (see Product lifecycle)
product platform and sharing decisions,
149–151
relaxation formulation, 369
robust optimization approaches, 34–35
scale-based product family design
method, 390
sizing (see Product family sizing design)
stages, 2
standardization, 34
temporal market-driven preferences
(see Temporal market-driven
preferences)
top-down and bottom-up approaches, 3
translating customer, 149
universal electric motor, 377–386
UTC (see United Technologies Corporation
(UTC))
valuation (see Platform valuation)
variety management, 71–73
Product family evaluation graph approach
(PFEG), 25
Product family model
module production, 399
module transportation, 399–400
production, 400–401
product sales, 402
product transportation, 401–402
Product family planning, PPM
generic product plan, 208, 209
life cycles, 207–208
optimal set, products, 207
Product family positioning, 6–7, 345
Product family sizing design
cannibalization, 685
changing and demanding requirements, 684
812 Indexcost, flexibility, and market demands,
685–686
knowledge-based methodologies, 686
literature, 685
market, 684
modularization, 686–687
multi-objective genetic algorithm, 687
multiple scalable platforms, 687
objectives, 684
optimization, 687
perceptions and expectations, 684
product options, 684
purchasing power, 684
sizing (see Product family sizing design)
successive quadratic programming
(SQP), 687
variants, 685
Product family use cases. See Case study
Product features. See also Product family
design (PFD)
classification, 148–149, 157
consumer electronics, 157, 158
data mining model generation, 155
Mann–Kendal trend test, 157–158
nonstandard feature (NF), 159–160
obsolete feature (OF), 160–161
standard feature (SF), 158–159
time series product data, 152
Product lifecycle
commonality decisions, 733
components, 708
constraints, flow balance (see Constraints
and adaptability)
description, 708
end-of-life management (see End-of-life
management)
objective function, 714–715
optimal take-back and recovery
strategy, 714
optimization outcomes
cores, optimal amount, 725, 728
cost reduction, 732
end-of-life management, smartphone
family, 725, 729–730
graphical representation, optimal
solution, 725–726, 731
implications, 728
material input–output flow, 728, 731–732
objective value, 725, 727
refurbished Phone 4, 732
take-back and part procurement
costs


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