مقالة بعنوان Lifelines for the Smart Factory
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منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 مقالة بعنوان Lifelines for the Smart Factory

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مُساهمةموضوع: مقالة بعنوان Lifelines for the Smart Factory    مقالة بعنوان Lifelines for the Smart Factory  Emptyالثلاثاء 06 أكتوبر 2020, 10:36 am

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مقالة بعنوان
Lifelines for the Smart Factory
By Ralf Moebus, Product Management Automation at U.I. Lapp GmbH  

مقالة بعنوان Lifelines for the Smart Factory  L_l_f_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Above all, the smart factory and the associated decentralization of
intelligent systems require an end-to-end data network that is
always available. Smart factories cannot be implemented without
high-performance communication. It is the end-to-end data
communication from production to the inventory management
system, and the global connection of internal and external partners
in particular, that enable new business models and a huge increase
in productivity. Ralf Moebus
A number of factors have to be taken into account in the Smart factory: An ever increasing number of
network members in the production environment results in increasing amounts of data. Intelligent
sensor systems, such as industrial cameras for quality inspections and RFID readers, which report the
progress of goods directly to the production control system, are increasingly being used in
manufacturing. In addition, decentralised drive systems – where the drive control, and sometimes even
the PLC function, form a unit together with the motor – require data from the network.
Currently, IP-based (Internet Protocol) networks are the
dominant technology for networking. This is the same
technology familiar from the information technology area for
office networking and the internet. A huge amount of
development has taken place with IP-based networking over the
past few years: data rates are increasing, and using this
technology has become much simpler. This type of networking
is establishing itself worldwide in all areas, from home networks
to railways to buses and passenger cars. In production and
process automation, IP-based networks are lining up to replace
the established fieldbuses.
IP-based networks include several technologies. Ethernet is a cable-based network protocol using
copper conductors or fibre optic cables. WLAN is the standard, enabling radio communication. GSM,
(used for mobile communications networks) enables data packages to be sent over longer distances.
DSL enables the transmission of data using simple two-wire telephone lines. The main advantage of IP
networks is all of these technologies can be combined in such a way that the data packages can be
transmitted from one transmission path to another without much effort.
The types of industrial communication should be chosen depending on the application. Copper-based
Ethernet is currently the standard medium for fixed installations because installation of copper
conductors is easy and fast, and the cable provides highly reliable and stable communication. A
distinction is made between 2-pair and 4-pair Ethernet cables. The advantages of the 2-pair cables are
the lower costs and reduced connection expenditure. However, if data rates over 100 Mbit/s are
required, 4-pair lines are needed. Transmission rates are classified by categories. CAT.5 is up to a2
maximum of 100 Mbit/s. While transfer rates up to 10 Gbit/s are possible with CAT.6A. In general, it is
necessary to ensure good shielding when copper data network cables are selected for industrial use. A
braided shield degree of coverage of over 85% is recommended to prevent EMC interference, for
example from frequency converters. In order to guarantee durable cable operation, it must be suitable
for the planned installation type. Cables with solid conductors are suitable for fixed installations on
cable conduits. 7-wire braids can be used to connect occasional flexing machine parts. Cables with a
special structure and usually 19-wire braids are required for use in a drag chain. Also, environmental
influences such as chemicals and ambient temperatures play an important part when selecting the
correct outer sheath material.
The general recommendation is to use suitable industrial Ethernet cables in the industrial environment
to maximize reliable machinery and plant operation. LAN cables designed for standard building
installation do not belong in harsh industrial environments. Fibre optic cables use light rather than
electrical signals to transmit data so they are more resistant to electromagnetic interferences (EMI). In
industry in particular, the EMC load can be so high that it is often only possible to achieve reliable
transmission of data using fibre optic cables. For example, this is the case for welding robots in
automotive production. Fibre optic cables also have the advantage of being able to bridge long
distances up to several kilometres.
There are three different fibre types available for selection for fibre optic cables: POF (Polymer Optical
Fibre), PCF (Polymer Cladded Fibre) and GOF (Glass Optical Fibre). The cost-effective POF plastic fibres
have the considerable advantage that they can be
connected very easily without any special tools. However,
they have a maximum distance of 60 metres and a data
rate of 100 Mbit/s. PCF extends these limits to 300
metres, also with a rate of 100 Mbit/s. The highest
performance is provided by GOF, where single-mode glass
fibres can cover distances of over 80 km with a rate of
several Gbit/s. However, this requires complicated
installation using special tools and is often assigned to
specialist assemblers. These days, fibre optic cables can
be just as durable and robust as copper cables and are
used in industrial applications. Variants are available for
drag chains or torsional movements. It is also possible to select robust materials which provide oil
resistance, temperature resistance, or flame retardance. As a result, fibre optic cables represent a
sensible supplement to copper-based networks.
If it is necessary for devices and machinery to be mobile, radio systems provide a further sensible
supplement to fixed cable installations. This is especially the case in areas where a cable would restrict
mobility, such as for automated guided vehicle systems or portable DataMatrix code scanners. Radio
technology is advantageous here. However, the user should also be aware of the technology's limits.
For example, with the current WLAN standard IEEE 802.11ac, a maximum of 540 Mbit/s is possible
with an optimal radio connection. In comparison, with conventional Cat.7 Ethernet cables, 10 Gbit/s is
possible regardless of distances or the quality of the transmission path. With the latest Cat. 8 standard,
this can be as high as 40 Gbit/s. This means that cable networks should be used where it is possible. A
reliable and always available network is especially important in areas where process controls have to be
provided with constant, accurate data and a loss of data results in production disruptions.3
The selection of a suitable connector is also an important
criterion for reliable networks. The RJ45 and the M12 in
particular have established themselves for industrial
Ethernet. While the RJ45 is used in control cabinets, the
M12 is a robust solution for use in the field. Depending
on the data rate, the M12 has different codings: 100
Mbit/s is possible with D-coding, and 10 Gbit/s can be
achieved with X-coded connectors. The RJ45 and M12
connectors can now be installed in the field easily without
special tools thanks to fast-connect connection types. The new M8 connector has recently become
available as the new space-saving variant.
To summarise, IP-based networks are assuming a dominant role in industrial applications as a result of
the smart factory trend. Combining the available transmission technologies in sensible ways enables
reliable, flexible and high-performance networks to be established. LAPP features an end-to-end
product range for the implementation of these networks and supports customers with the
implementation of their smart factory.
About LAPP:
LAPP manufactures the highest quality cable, connectors, glands and industrial data communication
solutions to enhance factory automation and future-ready industrial production systems and
equipment. LAPP's state of the art manufacturing plant includes an in-house UL Client Data Program
and UL certified laboratory to ensure the highest quality.


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