كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering
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 كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering

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عدد المساهمات : 16359
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering    كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering  Emptyالسبت 19 سبتمبر 2020, 11:20 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Basic Mechanical Engineering
Second Edition
Pravin Kumar
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Delhi Technological University (DTU)  

كتاب Basic Mechanical Engineering  B_m_e_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Brief Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
About the Author
Acknowledgements
1. Concepts of Thermodynamics and Properties of Gases
2. Fuels and Combustion
3. Power Plant Engineering and Sources of Energy
4. Properties of Steam and Steam Generators
5. Steam and Gas Turbines
6. Internal Combustion Engines
7. Heat Transfer
8. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
9. Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines
10. Air Compressors
11. Centroid and Moment of Inertia
12. Stress and Strain
13. Machine Elements
14. Flywheel and Governors
15. Power Transmission Devices
16. Couplings, Clutches, and Brakes17. Engineering Materials
18. Mechanical Measurement
19. Machine Tools
20. Casting and Welding
21. Mechanical Working of Metals, Sheet Metal Work,
Powder Metallurgy, and Smithy
22. Manufacturing Systems: NC, CNC, DNC, and Robotics
23. Heat Treatment
Appendix 1: Mollier Diagram for Steam
Appendix 2: Steam Table
Index
Contents
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the First Edition
About the Author
Acknowledgements
1 CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS AND PROPERTIES OF
GASES
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Important Terminologies Used in Thermodynamics
1.3 Specific Heat Capacity
1.3.1 Specific Heat at Constant Volume (C )
1.3.2 Specific Heat at Constant Pressure (C )
1.3.3 Relationship Between C and C
1.4 The First Law of Thermodynamics
1.4.1 Mechanical Equivalent of Heat
1.4.2 Internal Energy
1.4.3 Physical Interpretation of Internal Energy
1.4.4 Energy Transfer Across the System Boundary (Heat and Work)
1.4.5 Non-flow Processes
1.4.6 Application of First Law of Thermodynamics in Steady Flow
Process and Variable Flow Process
v
P
p v1.4.7 Limitations of First Law of Thermodynamics
1.5 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1.5.1 Kelvin–Planck Statement
1.5.2 Clausius Statement
1.5.3 Equivalence of Kelvin–Planck and Clausius Statement
1.6 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
1.7 The Carnot Cycle
1.8 The Clausius Inequality
1.9 Entropy and Entropy Generation
1.9.1 Entropy
1.9.2 Entropy Generation
1.9.3 Entropy Balance
1.9.4 Evaluation of Entropy Change
1.10 Third Law of Thermodynamics
1.11 Gas Laws
1.11.1 Boyle’s Law
1.11.2 Charles’s Law
1.11.3 Gay–Lussac’s Law
1.11.4 The Combined Gas Law
1.11.5 Gas Constant
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review QuestionsExercise Problems
2 FUELS AND COMBUSTION
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Coal
2.2.1 Analysis of Coal
2.2.2 Advantages of Solid Fuels over the Liquid Fuels
2.3 Liquid Fuels
2.3.1 Petroleum
2.3.2 Kerosene
2.3.3 Diesel
2.3.4 Gasoline
2.3.5 Calorific Value of Liquid Fuels
2.3.6 Major Contents of Liquid Fuels
2.3.7 Advantages and Disadvantages of Liquid Fuels over Solid
Fuels
2.4 Gaseous Fuels
2.4.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
2.4.2 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
2.4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Gaseous Fuels over the Solid
Fuels
2.5 Biofuels
2.5.1 Bioalcohols
2.5.2 Biodiesel
2.5.3 Green Diesel
2.5.4 Vegetable Oil
2.5.5 Biogas2.5.6 Bioethers
2.5.7 Syngas
2.5.8 Solid Biofuels
2.5.9 Scope of Second-generation Biofuels
2.6 Combustion
2.6.1 Principle of Combustion
2.7 Determination of Calorific Value of Fuel Using Bomb
Calorimeter
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
3 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING AND SOURCES OF
ENERGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Prime Movers
3.2.1 Historical Development of Prime Movers
3.3 Power Plant Engineering
3.3.1 Thermal Power Plant
3.3.2 Hydroelectric Power Plant
3.3.3 Nuclear Power Plant
3.3.4 Diesel Power Plant
3.3.5 Tidal Power Plant
3.3.6 The Geothermal Power Plant
3.3.7 Windmill
3.4 Sources of Energy3.4.1 Renewable Energy
3.4.2 Non-renewable Energy
Points to Remember
Multiple Choice Questions
Answers
Review Questions
4 PROPERTIES OF STEAM AND STEAM GENERATORS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Formation of Steam at Constant Pressure
4.3 Throttling Calorimeter
4.4 Separating and Throttling Calorimeter
4.5 Steam Table
4.6 Mollier Diagram or h–S Chart
4.7 Steam Generators/Boilers
4.7.1 Classification of Boilers
4.7.2 Requirements of a Good Boiler
4.7.3 Cochran Boiler
4.7.4 Babcock and Wilcox Boiler
4.7.5 Locomotive Boiler
4.7.6 Lancashire Boiler
4.7.7 Cornish Boiler
4.8 Boiler Mountings
4.8.1 Safety Valves
4.8.2 High Steam Low Water Safety Valve
4.8.3 Water Level Indicator4.8.4 Pressure Gauge
4.8.5 Feed Check Valve
4.8.6 Steam Stop Valve
4.8.7 Blow-off Cock
4.8.8 Fusible Plug
4.8.9 Manhole
4.9 Boiler Accessories
4.9.1 Economizer
4.9.2 Air Preheater
4.9.3 Superheater
4.9.4 Feed Pump
4.9.5 Injector
4.9.6 Steam Trap
4.9.7 Steam Separator
4.9.8 Pressure Reducing Valve
4.10 Performance of Boilers
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
5 STEAM AND GAS TURBINES
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Steam Engines and their Working Principles5.2.1 Modified Rankine Cycle: Theoretical Indicator Diagram
5.2.2 Rankine Cycle
5.3 Steam Turbines
5.3.1 Classification of Steam Turbine
5.3.2 Compounding of Impulse Turbine
5.3.3 Impulses-reaction Turbine (Reaction Turbine)
5.3.4 Differences Between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
5.3.5 Losses in Steam Turbines
5.3.6 Governing of Steam Turbines
5.4 Gas Turbines
5.4.1 Classification of Gas Turbine
5.4.2 Applications of Gas Turbines
5.4.3 Gas Turbine Cycle with Regenerator
5.4.4 Gas Turbine Cycle with Reheating and Intercooling
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Objective Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
6 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Classification of I.C. Engines
6.3 Basic Structure of I.C. Engines
6.3.1 Nomenclature6.4 Working Principle of I.C. Engines
6.4.1 Four-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
6.4.2 Four-stroke Compression Ignition Engine
6.4.3 Two-stroke Spark Ignition Engine
6.4.4 Two-stroke C.I. Engine
6.4.5 Comparison Between Four-stroke and Two-stroke Engines
6.4.6 Comparison Between S.I. and C.I. Engines
6.4.7 Comparison Between Otto Cycle and Diesel Cycle
6.5 Valve Timing Diagrams
6.5.1 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-stroke S.I. Engines
6.5.2 Port Timing Diagram for Two-stroke S.I. Engines
6.5.3 Valve Timing Diagram for Four-stroke C.I. Engine
6.6 Otto Cycle
6.7 Diesel Cycle
6.8 Dual Cycle
6.9 Engine Performance Parameters
6.10 Emission Control
6.10.1 Types of Emissions
6.10.2 Emission Control Techniques
6.11 Some Recent Developments in Automotive Technology
6.11.1 Multi-point Fuel Injection
6.11.2 Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI)
6.11.3 Hybrid Engine
Points to Remember
Important FormulaeMultiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
7 HEAT TRANSFER
7.1 Introduction
7.1.1 Conduction
7.1.2 Convection
7.1.3 Radiation
7.1.4 Combined Heat Transfer
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
8 REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Refrigerator and Heat Pump
8.3 Components of Refrigeration System
8.3.1 Evaporator
8.3.2 Compressor
8.3.3 Condenser
8.3.4 Expansion Valve
8.4 Types of Refrigeration Systems
8.4.1 Air-refrigeration System8.4.2 Vapour Compression Refrigeration System
8.4.3 Absorption Refrigeration Cycle
8.5 Type of Refrigerants
8.6 Domestic Refrigerator
8.7 Psychrometry
8.8 Psychrometric Processes
8.8.1 Psychrometric Chart
8.9 Air Washers
8.10 Human Comfort Conditions
8.11 Room Air Conditioner
8.11.1 Window Air Conditioner
8.11.2 Split Air Conditioner
8.11.3 Difference Between Split and Window ACs
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
9 FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC MACHINES
FLUID MECHANICS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Properties of Fluids
9.2.1 Density
9.2.2 Viscosity
9.2.3 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids9.2.4 Surface Tension
9.2.5 Capillarity
9.2.6 Pressure Variation with Depth
9.3 Bernoulli’s Equation
9.4 Types of Flow
HYDRAULIC MACHINES
9.5 Introduction
9.6 Hydraulic Turbines
9.6.1 Classification of Hydraulic Turbines
9.7 Terminology Used in Turbine
9.8 Pelton Turbine
9.8.1 Main Components of Pelton Turbine
9.8.2 Selection of Speed of Pelton Turbine
9.8.3 Velocity Triangle for Pelton Turbine
9.9 Francis Turbine
9.9.1 Main Components of Francis Turbine
9.9.2 Different Shapes of Draft Tubes
9.10 Kaplan Turbine
9.10.1 Velocity Triangle for Kaplan Turbine
9.11 Governing of Turbines
9.12 Pumps
9.13 Centrifugal Pump
9.13.1 Main Components of Centrifugal Pump
9.13.2 Velocity Triangle for Centrifugal Pump
9.13.3 Various Heads and Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pumps9.13.4 Some Important Points Related to Centrifugal Pump
9.14 Reciprocating Pump
9.14.1 Air Vessels
9.15 Gear Pump
9.16 Vane Pump
9.17 Lobe Pump
9.18 Screw Pump
9.18.1 Two-screw, Low-pitch, Screw Pump
9.18.2 Three-screw, High-pitch, Screw Pump
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
10 AIR COMPRESSORS
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Classification of Compressors
10.3 Reciprocating Compressors
10.3.1 Polytropic Compression
10.3.2 Isothermal Compression
10.3.3 Effect of Clearance on Work Done
10.3.4 Volumetric Efficiency
10.3.5 Multistage Compression
10.3.6 Work Done in Multistage Compression
10.4 Rotary compressors10.4.1 Fixed Vane Type Compressors
10.4.2 Multiple Vane Type Rotary Compressors
10.5 Centrifugal Compressors
10.6 Axial Flow Compressors
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
11 CENTROID AND MOMENT OF INERTIA
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Determination of Position of Centroid of Plane
Geometric Figures
11.2.1 Center of Gravity, Center of Mass, and Centroid of an
Irregular Shape
11.2.2 Centroid of I-section
11.2.3 Centroid of U-section
11.2.4 Centroid of H-section
11.2.5 Centroid of L-section
11.2.6 Centroid of T-section
11.2.7 Centroid of C-section
11.2.8 Centroid of Circular Arc
11.2.9 Centroid of Semicircular-section of a Disc
11.2.10 Centroid of a Sector of a Circular Disc
11.2.11 Centroid of a Parabola11.2.12 Centroid of a Triangle
11.3 Second Moment of Area
11.3.1 Radius of Gyration
11.3.2 Theorem of Perpendicular Axis
11.3.3 Theorem of Parallel Axis
11.3.4 Moment of Inertia from First Principle
11.3.5 Moment of Inertia of Some Composite Sections
11.4 Center of Gravity of Solids
11.5 Mass Moment of Inertia
11.5.1 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Ring
11.5.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Disc
11.5.3 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Hollow Cylinder
11.5.4 Mass Moment of Inertia of Sphere
11.5.5 Mass Moment of Inertia of a Circular Cone
Points to Remember
List of Mass Moment of Inertia
List of Area Moment of Inertia
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
12 STRESS AND STRAIN
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Hooke’s Law
12.3 Stress–Strain Diagram12.4 Extension in Varying Cross-section or Taper Rod
12.5 Stress and Strain in Varying Cross-section Bar of
Uniform Strength
12.6 Stress and Strain in Compound Bar
12.7 Stress and Strain in an Assembly of Tube and Bolt
12.8 Stress and Strain in Composite Bar
12.9 Temperature Stress
12.10 Stress and Strain Due to Suddenly Applied Load
12.11 Stress and Strain for Impact Load
12.12 Relation Between Stress and Volumetric Strain
12.13 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Bulk
Modulus
12.14 Relation Between Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus
of Rigidity
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
13 MACHINE ELEMENTS
SPRINGS
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Types of Springs
13.3 Materials used for Springs
13.4 Shear Stress in Helical Springs
13.5 Deflection in Helical Spring
13.6 Series and Parallel Connection of Helical SpringsCAM AND FOLLOWER
13.7 Introduction
13.8 Types of Cams
13.9 Types of Followers
BUSHING AND ROLLER BEARING
13.10 Introduction
13.11 Bushing Materials
13.12 Bearings
13.12.1 Sliding Contact or Bush Bearings
13.12.2 Rolling Contact Bearings
13.13 Properties of Bearing Materials
13.14 Bearing Materials
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
14 FLYWHEEL AND GOVERNORS
FLYWHEEL
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Mass Moment of Inertia of Flywheel
GOVERNORS
14.3 Introduction
14.4 Terminology Used in Governors
14.5 Classification of Governors14.6 Gravity Controlled Centrifugal Governors
14.6.1 Watt Governor
14.6.2 Porter Governor
14.6.3 Proell Governor
14.7 Spring Controlled Centrifugal Governor
14.7.1 Hartnell Governor
14.7.2 Willson–Hartnell Governor
14.7.3 Hartung Governor
14.8 Sensitiveness of Governors
14.9 Governing of I.C. Engines
14.9.1 Qualitative Governing
14.9.2 Quantitative Governing
14.9.3 Hit and Miss Governing
14.10 Differences Between Flywheel and Governors
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
15 POWER TRANSMISSION DEVICES
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Belt Drive
15.2.1 Type of Belt Cross-sections
15.2.2 Velocity Ratio
15.2.3 Creep15.2.4 Flat Belt Drives
15.2.5 Ratio of Tensions
15.2.6 Effect of Centrifugal Force on Belt Drive
15.3 Rope Drive
15.4 Chain Drive
15.4.1 Chain Length
15.4.2 Types of Chain
15.5 Gear Drive
15.5.1 Gear Terminology
15.5.2 Law of Gearing
15.5.3 Forms of Teeth
15.6 Classification of Gears
15.6.1 Parallel Shafts
15.6.2 Intersecting Shaft
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
16 COUPLINGS, CLUTCHES, AND BRAKES
COUPLINGS
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Rigid Coupling
16.3 Flexible Bushed Coupling16.4 Universal Joint
CLUTCHES
16.5 Introduction
16.6 Single Plate Clutch
16.7 Multi-plate Disc Clutch
16.8 Cone Clutch
16.9 Centrifugal Clutch
BRAKES
16.10 Introduction
16.10. 1 Block or Shoe Brake
16.10.2 Band Brake
16.10.3 Band and Block Brake
16.10.4 Internal Expanding Shoe Brake
Points to Remember
Important Formulae
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
Exercise Problems
17 ENGINEERING MATERIALS
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials
17.3 Mechanical Testing of Engineering Materials
17.3.1 Tensile Test
17.3.2 Hardness
17.4 Impact Test17.5 Classification of Engineering Materials
17.5.1 Ferrous Metals
17.5.2 Non-ferrous Metals
17.5.3 Plastics
17.5.4 Abrasive Materials
17.5.5 Ceramics
17.5.6 Silica
17.5.7 Glasses
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
18 MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Temperature Measurement
18.2.1 Thermocouple
18.2.2 Resistance Temperature Devices (RTD)
18.2.3 Infrared Temperature Measurement Devices
18.2.4 Bimetallic Temperature Measurement Devices
18.2.5 Fluid-expansion Temperature Measurement Devices
18.2.6 Change-of-state Temperature Measurement Devices
18.3 Pressure Measurement
18.3.1 Manometers
18.3.2 Bourdon Tube Pressure Gauge
18.3.3 Low Pressure Measurement
18.4 Velocity Measurement18.4.1 Velocity Measurement of Fluid with Pitot Tube
18.4.2 Hot Wire Anemometer
18.5 Flow Measurement
18.5.1 Flow Measurement Through Velocity of Fluid Over Known
Area
18.5.2 Orificemeter
18.5.3 Rotameter
18.6 Strain Measurement
18.6.1 Strain Gauge
18.7 Force Measurement
18.7.1 Cantilever Beam
18.8 Torque Measurement
18.8.1 Prony Brake Dynamometer
18.8.2 Rope Brake Dynamometer
18.8.3 Torque Measurement by Pointer and Scale
18.9 Measurement Errors
18.10 Uncertainties of Measurement
18.11 Vernier calipers
18.12 Micrometer or Screw Gauge
18.12.1 Measurement Procedure
18.13 Dial Gauge or Dial Indicator
18.14 Slip Gauges
18.14.1 Classification of Slip Gauges
18.14.2 Applications of Slip Gauge
18.15 Sine Bar
18.16 Combination SetPoints to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
19 METAL CUTTING AND MACHINE TOOLS
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Mechanism of Metal Cutting
19.2.1 Types of Chip Formation
19.3 Orthogonal and Oblique Metal Cutting
19.4 Lathe
19.4.1 Classification of Lathes
19.4.2 Specifications of Lathe
19.4.3 Constructional Detail of Lathe
19.4.4 Power Transmission System in Lathe Machine
19.4.5 Cutting Tools Used in Lathe
19.4.6 Types of Operations on Lathe Machine
19.5 Shaper, Slotter, and Planer
19.5.1 Shaping and Planing
19.5.2 Constructional Detail of Shaper
19.5.3 Slotter Machine
19.5.4 Crank and Slotted Arm Quick Return Mechanism
19.5.5 Specification of Shaper
19.5.6 Constructional Detail of Planer
19.5.7 Fast and Loose Pulleys Driving Mechanism of Planer
19.5.8 Specifications of Planer
19.5.9 Difference Between Shaper and Planer19.6 Drilling Machine
19.6.1 Driving Mechanism in Drilling Machine
19.6.2 Drill Bit
19.6.3 Specifications of a Drilling Machine
19.6.4 Operations Performed on Drilling Machine
19.6.5 Advanced Types of Drilling Machine
19.7 Boring
19.7.1 Specification of Boring Machines
19.8 Milling Machines
19.8.1 Constructional Detail of Milling Machine
19.8.2 Basic Milling Operations
19.8.3 Nomenclature of Milling Cutter
19.9 Grinding Machines
19.9.1 Grinding Wheel Specification
19.9.2 Methods of Grindings
19.9.3 Cylindrical Grinders
19.9.4 Plain Cylindrical Grinders
19.9.5 Plain Surface Grinders
19.9.6 Universal Cylindrical Grinders
19.9.7 Centerless Grinders
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
20 CASTING AND WELDINGCASTING
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Classification of Casting Process
20.3 Sand Casting
20.3.1 Steps in Sand Casting
20.3.2 Pattern Making
20.3.3 Types of Pattern
20.3.4 Mould Making
20.3.5 Properties of Mouldings Sands
20.3.6 Hand Tools Used in Moulding
20.3.7 Moulding Procedure
20.3.8 Gating System
20.3.9 Chills
20.3.10 Chaplets
20.3.11 Cores
20.3.12 Sand Testing
20.4 Special Casting Methods
20.4.1 Gravity/Permanent Mould Casting
20.4.2 Die Casting
20.4.3 Centrifugal Casting
20.5 Casting Defects
20.6 Surface Cleaning of the Casting
WELDING
20.7 Introduction
20.7.1 Definition of Welding20.8 Classification of Welding Process
20.9 Gas Welding
20.9.1 Oxyacetylene Welding
20.9.2 Gas Welding Methods
20.10 Electric Arc Welding
20.10.1 Functions of Electrode Coatings
20.10.2 Ingredients of Electrode Coating
20.10.3 Selection of Electrodes
20.10.4 Specifications for Electrodes
20.11 Types of Electric Arc Welding
20.11.1 Carbon Arc Welding
20.11.2 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)
20.11.3 Metal Inert Gas Arc Welding (MIG)/Gas Metal Arc Welding
(GMAW)
20.11.4 Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG)/Gas Tungsten Arc
Welding (GTAW)
20.11.5 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
20.11.6 Electroslag Welding
20.11.7 Atomic Hydrogen Welding
20.11.8 Plasma Arc Welding
20.12 Resistance Welding
20.12.1 Resistance Spot Welding
20.12.2 Resistance Seam Welding
20.12.3 Resistance Projection Welding
20.12.4 Flash Welding
20.12.5 Percussion Welding20.12.6 Resistance Butt Welding
20.13 Thermit Welding
20.14 Welding Allied Processes
20.14.1 Soldering
20.14.2 Brazing
20.14.3 Braze Welding
20.15 Welding Defects
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
21 MECHANICAL WORKING OF METALS, SHEET METAL
WORK, POWDER METALLURGY, AND SMITHY
MECHANICAL WORKING PROCESS
21.1 Introduction
21.1.1 Advantages of Mechanical Working Process Over Other
Manufacturing Processes
21.2 Rolling
21.2.1 Terminology
21.2.2 Types of Rolling Mills
21.2.3 Rolling Defects
21.3 Forging
21.3.1 Different Types of Forging
21.4 Extrusion
21.4.1 Hot Extrusion
21.4.2 Cold Extrusion21.4.3 Impact Extrusion
21.5 Wire Drawing
21.6 Bar Drawing
21.7 Tube Drawing
21.8 High Energy Rate Forming
21.8.1 Explosive Forming
21.8.2 Electrohydraulic Forming
21.8.3 Electromagnetic Forming
21.9 Thread Rolling
21.10 Piercing or Seamless Tubing
21.11 Some Other Forming Processes
SHEET METAL PROCESS
21.12 Introduction
21.13 Sheet Metal Joints
21.14 Materials Used for Sheet Metal
21.15 Hand Tools Used in Sheet Metal Work
21.16 Sheet Metal Operations
21.16.1 Shearing
21.16.2 Bending
21.16.3 Stretch Forming
21.16.4 Deep Drawing
21.16.5 Hot Spinning
POWDER METALLURGY
21.17 Introduction
21.18 Manufacturing of Metal Powders21.18.1 Characteristics of Metal Powder
21.18.2 Methods of Production
21.19 Blending/Mixing of the Metal Powders
21.20 Compacting
21.21 Sintering
21.22 Finishing Operations
21.23 Advantages of Powder Metallurgy
21.24 Limitations of Powder Metallurgy
21.25 Applications of Powder Metallurgy
SMITHY
21.26 Introduction
21.27 Major Tools Used in Smithy Shop
21.27.1 Smith’s Forge or Hearth
21.27.2 Anvil
21.27.3 Hammer
21.27.4 Swage Block
21.27.5 Tongs
21.27.6 Chisels
21.27.7 Punches
21.27.8 Flatters
21.27.9 Set Hammer
21.27.10 Fullers
21.27.11 Swages
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice QuestionsFill in the Blanks
Review Questions
22 MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS: NC, CNC, DNC, AND
ROBOTICS
22.1 Introduction
22.1.1 Production Machines, Tools, Fixtures, and Other Related
Hardware
22.1.2 Material Handling System
22.1.3 Computer Systems
22.1.4 Human Workers
22.2 Automation
22.3 Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
22.4 CAD/CAM
22.4.1 Computer Aided Design (CAD)
22.4.2 Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
22.5 Numerical Control (NC)
22.5.1 Limitations/Drawback of Conventional NC System
22.6 Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
22.7 Programming Methods
22.8 Comparison of NC and CNC Machines
22.9 Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
ROBOTICS
22.10 Introduction
22.11 Robot Anatomy
22.12 Three Degree of Freedom for Robot’s Wrist
22.13 Robot Configurations22.14 Robot Control
22.14.1 Type of Robot Control
22.15 Control Systems
22.15.1 Basic Form of Control Systems
22.15.2 Sequential Control
22.15.3 Microprocessor Based Controllers
22.15.4 Sensors Used in Robotics
22.15.5 Transducers used in Robotics
22.16 Applications of Robots
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Review Questions
23. HEAT TREATMENT
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Iron–Carbon Phase Diagram
23.3 TTT (Time–Temperature–Transformation) Diagram
23.4 Normalizing
23.5 Annealing
23.6 Spheroidizing
23.7 Hardening
23.8 Tempering
23.8.1 Austempering
23.8.2 Martempering
23.9 Carburizing
23.10 Cyaniding23.11 Nitriding
23.12 Induction Hardening
Points to Remember
Multiple-choice Questions
Fill in the Blanks
Review Questions
Appendix 1: Mollier Diagram for Steam
Appendix 2: Steam Table
Index
Index
A ab
rasives, 524
absolute pressure, 532
absorption refrigeration cycle, 250
actual Brayton cycle, 169–171
adiabatic process, 15
air compressors
classification of, 330–331
clearance on work done, 334–335
isentropic compression, 334
multistage compression, 337–339
polytropic compression, 333–334
reciprocating compressor, 331–333
volumetric efficiency of, 335
air conditioning, 239
air-fuel ratio, 210
air injection system, 213–214
air preheater, 126–127
air-refrigeration system, 242–245
advantages and disadvantages, 245
air vessel, 315–316
air washers, 264
alloying elements, 521–522
alloy steel, 521
aluminium alloys, 522
angular contact bearings, 423–424
annealing, 720
anvil, 686–687
apparatus dew-point (ADP) temperature, 257
atomic hydrogen welding, 638–639
austempering, 721
automatic start/stop, 217
automation, 696–698average stress, 378
axial flow compressors, 345–346
axial thrust, 150
B Ba
bcock and Wilcox boiler, 115–116
bakelite or resinoid bond, 588
ball bearing, 422–426
bar drawing, 666
bearings
materials, 426–427
rolling contact, 422
sliding contact or bush, 421–422
Bell–Coleman cycle, 243–244
belt drives, 455–458
compound, 462–463
creep, 458
crossed, 460–461
effect of centrifugal force on, 465–466
flat, 458
open, 459–460
quarter turn drive, 461
ratio of tensions, 463–464
round belts, 456
timing belts or toothed belts, 457
V-belt, 456
velocity ratio, 457–458
bending, 678
Bernoulli’s equation, 281–283, 537
Betz limit, 89
bevel gears, 477–478
bimetallic devices, 530–531
binary cycle power plants, 86–87
bioalcohols, 63–64
biodiesel, 64
bioethers (oxygenated fuels), 65
biofuels, 63–66
biogas, 65
biomass energy, 90–91
blade efficiency, 151
blade friction factor, 150
blank diameter, 679
blanking, 677–678boiler accessories, 125–129
boiler efficiency, 130
boiler mountings, 118–125
blow-off cock, 123–124
feed check valve, 122
fusible plug, 124
high steam and low water safety valve, 120–121
manhole, 125
pressure gauge, 122
safety valves, 118–120
steam stop valve, 123
water level indicator, 121
boilers, 112–118
performance of, 129–130
boiling water reactor (BWR), 79
bomb calorimeter, 67–68
boring, 568–569
boring machine, 580
boundary of a system, 6
Bourdon tube pressure gauge, 533–534
Boyle’s Law, 42, 44
brakes
band, 500–502
band and block, 503–504
internal expanding shoe, 504–506
shoe or block, 497–499
brake thermal efficiency, 209
Brayton cycle, 166–169
braze welding, 647
brazing, 646–647
Brinell hardness test, 516
bulk modulus, 397
bush bearing, 420
bushing, 420
lubrications in, 421
materials, 420
by-pass factor (BPF), 257
C ca
m and follower
nomenclature, 416–417
types of, 417–419
cantilever beam, 542capillarity, 278–279
capillary depression, 278–279
capillary rise, 279
carbon arc welding, 633
carbon monoxide, 212
carburetor engine, 185, 215
carburizing, 722–723
Carnot corollaries, 33–34
Carnot cycle, 32–34
casting defects, 619–621
casting process, 597–598
classification of, 598
casting surface, cleaning of, 621–622
cast irons, 520
catalytic converter, 213
cavitation, 303
Celsius temperature, 7
Celsius temperature scale (centigrade scale), 6
centerless grinders, 591–592
centerless grinding, 589
center of gravity, 352–353
center of gravity of a solid, 363
center of mass, 352–353
centrifugal casting, 617–619
centrifugal compressors, 344–345
centrifugal pump, 304–308
centrifuging, 619
centroid, 352–353
of circular arc, 357
of C-section, 356
of H-section, 355
of I-section, 354
of L-section, 355–356
of a parabola, 358–359
of sector of a circular disc, 358
of semicircular-section of a disc, 357–358
of a triangle, 359–360
of T-section, 356
of U-section, 354–355
ceramics, 524–525
chain drive, 469–470
types of, 471–472
change in state, 4–5
change-of-state temperature sensors, 531
chaplets, 612Charle’s Law, 43–44
chemical equilibrium, 4
chills, 611–612
chisel edge angle, 577
chisels, 689–690
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), 212
chromium (Cr), 521
classical thermodynamics, 1
Clausius inequality, 34
Clausius statement, 29–30
violation of, 31–32
clay content test of sand mold, 614
close die forging, 661
closed system, 6
clutches
centrifugal clutch, 496
cone clutch, 494–495
multi-disc clutch, 493
single plate clutch, 488–490
coal, 56–58, 91
ash content, 58
grades of, 57
proximate analysis of, 57
sulfur content, 58
ultimate analysis of, 57
cochran boiler, 114–115
coining, 670
cold chamber die-casting, 616–617
combination set, 552–553
combustion, principle of, 66–67
combustion chamber, 214
common rail direct injection system (CRDI), 214, 216–217
Co molds, 606
compacting, 683–684
compressed natural gas (CNG), 62
compressible and incompressible flow, 284
compression stroke, 189–190, 192
compressive test of sand mold, 614–615
compressor, 241
computer aided design (CAD), 698–699
computer aided manufacturing (CAM), 699–700
computer integrated manufacturing system (CIM), 698
computer numerical control (CNC), 701, 703
condenser, 242
condition line, 158
2conduction, 225–226
conical and volute springs, 407
constructional detail of shaper, 570–571
continuous chip, 557
with a built-up (BUP) edge, 558
continuous path control robots, 708–709
control volume, 5–6
convection, 227–228
conveyor chain, 471
copper alloys, 522–523
cores, 612–613
core sand molds, 606
Cornish boiler, 118
crank and slotted arm mechanism, 571–572
creep feed grinding, 589
crude oil, 91
cutting-off/grooving, 566
cyaniding, 723
cylindrical grinders, 589–590
cylindrical grinding, 588
cylindrical or plain roller bearings, 425
D Da
lton’s law of partial pressure, 253
deep drawing, 678–680
deep-groove ball bearing, 423
degree of saturation, 253
dew point temperature (DPT), 254
dial gauge or dial indicator, 549
die-casting, 615–617
diesel, 59
Diesel cycle, 183, 190, 197, 203–204
diesel power plant, 80–82
advantages, 81
disadvantages, 81–82
direct numerical control (DNC), 703–704
discontinuous chip, 558
disc springs, 408–409
domestic or household refrigerator, 251–252
double helical / herringbone gears, 477
down milling, 582
drift, 690
drilling, 568drilling machine
drill bit, 576–577
driving mechanism in, 575
operations performed on, 577–579
specifications of, 577
drop forging, 662
dry bulb temperature (DBT), 254
dryness fraction, 100
dry sand mold, 606
dry steam power plant, 85–86
dual cycle, 206–207
E ec
centric turning, 565
economizer, 125–126
efficiency ratio, 210
electric arc welding, 629–632
electric motor drive/assist, 217
electro-hydraulic forming, 668
electroslag welding, 637–638
emission control, 212–214
techniques, 212–214
end milling, 583–584
energy transfer, 13
engine control unit (ECU), 216
engineering materials
allowable stress, 515
classification of, 519–522
elastic and plastic range, 514
elastic limit, 514
factor of safety, 515
hardness, 515–518
impact test, 518–519
mechanical properties of, 512
modulus of resilience, 514–515
modulus of toughness, 515
proportionality, 514
rapture strength, 514
stress-strain diagram, 513–514
tensile test, 513
ultimate strength, 514
working stress, 515
yield point, 514engineering thermodynamics, 1
enthalpy, 7
entropy, 34–35
balance, 35–36
change, 36
generation, 35
of steam, 101
of water, 100
equilibrium, 4–5
equivalent evaporation, 129
ethanol, 64
Euler’s Equation of motion, 282–283
evaporation rate, 129
evaporator, 241
exhaust gas recirculation valve (EGR) valve, 213
exhaust stroke, 190, 192
expansion valve, 242
explosive forming, 667–668
extensive properties, 4
external fired boilers, 113
extrusion, 663
cold, 664
hot, 664
impact, 664–665
F fac
e grinding, 589
face milling, 584
facing operation, 565
factor of evaporation, 129
Fahrenheit scale, 7
fast breeder reactor (FBR), 79
fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), 64
feed pump, 127
ferrous metals, 519–522
fineness test of sand mold, 614
finishing operations, 684
fire tube boilers, 112–113
first law of thermodynamics, 11
limitations, 28
fixed vane type compressors, 342–343
flash steam power plants, 86
flash welding, 643–644flatters, 690
flexible bushed coupling, 486–487
flow measurement, 536–539
fluid density
mass density, 274
relative density, 274
specific weight, 274
viscosity, 274–276
fluid-expansion devices, 531
fluid mechanics
properties of fluid, 273–281
types of flow, 284
flywheel, 431–432
difference between governors and, 450
mass moment of inertia of, 432–433
force measurement, 541–542
forging, 660
different types of, 660–663
formaldehyde, 212
form grinding, 589
form milling, 585
fossil fuels, 55
four-stroke compression ignition engine, 190–192
valve timing diagram, 199–200
four-stroke spark ignition engine, 188–190
valve timing diagram, 197–198
Francis turbine
components, 293–294
shapes of draft tubes, 294–296
fuel injectors, 214
fuels, 55
fuel stratified injection (FSI), 216
fullers, 690–691
G gan
g drilling machine, 579–580
gang milling, 584
gas carburizing, 722
gas cooled reactor (GCR), 79
gaseous fuels, 62–63
advantages and disadvantages of, 63
gasoline, 60
gasoline direct injection (GDI), 216gas turbine cycle
with regenerator, 175
with reheating and intercooling, 175–176
gas turbines, 165
applications of, 165–171
classification of, 165
flow diagram of intercooling and reheating, 176
gas welding, 625–628
gauge factor (GF), 541
gauge pressure, 531
Gay–Lussac’s Law, 43–44
gear drive, 472–474
forms of gear teeth, 475
gear pump, 317–318
geothermal energy, 91
geothermal power plant, 85–87
glasses, 525
global warming, 56
governing of turbines, 304
governors, 434–435
centrifugal, 436
classification of, 436
difference between flywheel and, 450
Hartnell, 442–444
Hartung, 447
of I.C. engine, 449–450
inertia and flywheel, 436
pickering, 436
porter, 437–439
Proell, 440–441
sensitiveness of, 448
terms used in, 435
watt, 436–437
Willson–Hartnell, 445–446
gravity/permanent mould casting, 615
gray cast iron, 520
green diesel, 64
green sand mold, 605
grinding machines, 586–592
gross calorific value (GCV), 60
H ham
mers, 687–688hardening, 720
hardness test of sand mold, 615
heat
defined, 7
similarities between work and, 13
heat exchanger, 86
heat pumps, 240
heat transfer, modes of
combined form, 229
conduction, 225–226
convection, 227–228
radiation, 228
through hollow cylinder, 232–233
through hollow sphere, 234
heat treatment
annealing, 720
austempering, 721
carburizing, 722–723
cyaniding, 723
hardening, 720
induction hardening, 723
iron-carbon (Fe-C) phase diagram, 716–718
martempering, 721–722
nitriding, 723
normalizing, 719–720
spherodizing, 720
tempering, 721–722
time-temperature-transformation curves, 718–719
heavy water cooled and moderated CANDU (Canadian deuterium uranium)
reactor, 79
heel, 577
helical gears, 476–477
helical springs, 407
deflection in, 412–413
series connection and parallel connection of, 414–415
shear stress in, 410–412
high carbon steel, 520
high energy rate forming, 667
hobbing, 670
Hook’s law, 379, 513–514
horizontal boiler, 113
hot chamber die-casting, 616
hot spinning, 680–681
hot wire anemometer, 536
human comfort conditions, 264–265humidity (w) ratio, 253
hybrid engine, 217
hydraulic machines, 284–285
hydraulic pumps, 304
hydraulic turbines, 285
classification of, 285
terminology used, 286
hydrocarbon fuels, 55
hydrocarbons, 59, 212
hydroelectric power, 90
hydroelectric power plant, 76
hypoid gears, 478
I id
eal gas law, 45
impulses-reaction turbine (reaction turbine), 157–160
degree of reaction (R) of, 158
differences between impulse and, 164
reheat factor, 158–159
velocity diagram for, 159–160
impulse turbine, 147–151
compounding of, 153–157
inclined boiler, 113
indicated thermal efficiency, 209
infeed or plunge cut grinding, 589
infrared sensors, 530
injector, 128
intelligent robots, 709
intensive properties, 4
Internal Combustion Engine (I.C. Engine), 182
arrangement of cylinders, 184
basic structure, 185–188
classification of, 183–185
clearance volume (V ), 188
comparison between four-stroke and two-stroke engines, 196
comparison between S.I. and, 197
compression ratio, 188
cooling systems in, 184
cylinder bore, 187
dead centers, 187
displacement volume, 187
engine performance parameters, 209–210
fuel supply systems, 184
cfuel used, 183
ignition systems, 183
nature of thermodynamic cycle, 183
number of strokes per cycle, 183
piston area, 187
stroke or stroke length, 187–188
working principle of, 188–196
internal energy (U) of a system, 7, 11–12
physical interpretation of, 12
internal fired boilers, 113
internal grinding, 588
ion gauges, 535
iron-carbon (Fe-C) phase diagram, 716–718
irreversible process, 32
isentropic compression, 334
isobaric process, 14
isochoric process, 14
isolated system, 3
isothermal process, 15
J Jo
ule cycle, 166–169
K Ka
plan turbine, 299–300
Kelvin-Plank statement, 29
violation of, 30–31
Kelvin temperature, 7
kerosene, 59
knurling, 567
L lam
inar and turbulent flow, 284
laminated or leaf spring, 408–409
Lancashire boiler, 117
lancing, 678
lateral strain, 378
lathe
classification, 559–560
constructional detail of, 560–562cutting tools used in, 564
power transmission system in, 562–564
specification, 560
types of operations in, 564–569
law of gearing, 474
lignite, 91
limited sequence robots, 708
liquefied petroleum gases (LPG), 62
liquid fuels, 58–61
advantage and disadvantage of, 61
ash content, 61
calorific value of, 60
carbon residue in, 61
sulfur content, 60
water content of, 61
liquid metal cooled reactor, 79
load cell, 541–542
loam sand molds, 606
lobe pump, 318
locomotive boiler, 116
longitudinal strain, 378
low carbon steel, 520
M ma
chine tools, 556
macroscopic (classical thermodynamics), 2
macroscopic forms of energy, 12
magnesium alloys, 523
malleable cast iron, 521
manganese (Mn), 521
manometers, 532–533
manufacturing system
automation, 696–698
computer aided design (CAD), 698–699
computer aided manufacturing (CAM), 699–700
computer integrated manufacturing system (CIM), 698
computer numerical control (CNC), 701, 703
computer system, 696
direct numerical control (DNC), 703–704
human workers, 696
material handling system, 696
numerical control (NC), 700–701
production machines, tools, jigs, fixtures, 695–696programming methods, 701–702
martempering, 721–722
mass, defined, 3
mass moment of inertia
of circular cone, 366–367
of circular disc, 364–365
of circular ring, 363–364
of hollow cylinder, 365
of inertia of sphere, 365–366
mean effective pressure, 210
mean piston speed, 210
measurement errors, 545
mechanical efficiency, 210
mechanical equilibrium, 4
mechanical equivalent of heat, 10–11
mechanical measurement, 529
mechanical working, 655–656
advantages, 656–657
comparison between cold working and hot working, 656
medium carbon steel, 520
metal cutting, 557–558
orthogonal and oblique, 558–559
metal inert gas arc welding (MIG)/gas metal arc welding (GMAW), 634–635
metal molds, 606
metal powders
blending/mixing of, 682
characteristics, 681
methods of production, 681–682
methane emission, 212
micrometer, 547–549
microscopic forms of energy, 12
microscopic (statistical thermodynamics), 2
milling machines, 581–585
modulus of elasticity, 397–398, 514
modulus of rigidity, 397–398
moisture content test of sand mold, 614
Mollier diagram (h–S chart), 111–112
molybdenum (Mo), 522
moment of inertia (second moment of area), 360
of a circular disc, 362
of composite sections, 363
of a rectangle, 361
of a triangle, 362
multiple vane type compressors, 343–344
multi-point fuel injection system (MPFI), 214–215multi-spindle drilling machine, 579–580
N nat
ural circulation boilers, 113
natural gas, 92
needle bearings, 425–426
net calorific value (NCV), 60
Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, 276–277
nickel (Ni), 521
nitriding, 723
nitrogen oxide, 212
nodular (or ductile) cast iron, 520
non-ferrous materials, 522–523
non-flow processes, 14–15
non-renewable energy, 91–93
normalizing, 719–720
normal stress, 378
notching, 670, 678
nuclear power, 92–93
nuclear power plant, 76–79
block diagram of, 78
components of, 78
numerical control (NC), 700–701, 703
O off
hand grinding, 589
oil spill accidents, 92
open die forging, 660–661
open system, 3, 6
optimum velocity ratio, 151
orificemeter, 538
Otto cycle, 183, 190, 197, 200–201
oxy-acetylene welding, 625–628
oxychloride bond, 588
P pa
ck carburizing, 722–723
particulate matter, 212
parting, 678
peat, 91Pelton turbine, 287–290
components, 287–288
speed of, 288–289
velocity triangle for, 289–290
percussion welding, 644
perforating, 678
peripheral milling, 582
permeability number, 614
permeability test of sand mold, 614
perpetual-motion machine of the first kind (PMM1), 30
perpetual-motion machine of the second kind (PMM2), 30
perpetual motion machine (PMM1), 11
petroleum, 58–59
phase, defined, 5
phase equilibrium, 5
phosphorus (P), 521
photovoltaic cells, 90
piercing, 677–678
piercing or seamless tubing, 669–670
Pirani gauge, 534
plain cylindrical grinders, 590
plane milling, 582
planer, 573
fast and loose pulleys driving mechanism of, 573–574
specifications of, 575
plane surface grinder, 590–591
plasma arc welding, 639–640
plastics, 523–524
point angle, 577
point-to-point (PTP) control robots, 708–709
Poisson strain, 540
polytropic compression, 333–334
polytropic process, 15–16
positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system, 212–213
potential energy, 12
powder metallurgy, 681
advantages, 684–685
applications of, 685
disadvantages, 685
power plant engineering, 74–89
power stroke, 190, 192
power transmission, 455
power transmission chains, 471–472
precision grinders, 589
press forging, 662pressure
defined, 3
equilibrium, 5
measurement, 531–535
reducing valve, 129
variation with depth of a fluid, 280–281
pressurized water reactor (PWR), 79
prime movers, 73–74
historical development of, 74
reciprocating, 74
rotating, 74
process, defined, 5
profile milling, 585
Prony brake, 543
property, defined, 4
psychrometric chart
cooling and dehumidification, 256–257
cooling and humidification, 258–259
heating and dehumidification, 259
heating and humidification, 257–258
mixing of air streams, 259–260
sensible cooling, 254–256
sensible heat factor (SHF), 257
sensible heating, 256
psychrometry, 253–254
punches, 690
punching, 677–678
pure biodiesel (B100), 64
P-V diagram for diesel cycle, 192
Q qu
asi static process, 6
R rad
ial drilling machine, 579
radial rake angle, 585
radius of gyration of a body, 360
rake or helix angle, 577
Rankine scale, 7
reaming operation, 568
reciprocating prime movers, 74
reciprocating pump, 311–316refining, 59
refractory metals, 523
refrigerants, 250–251
refrigeration, 239–240
capacity of refrigeration plant, 241
components of, 241–242
tons of, 240–241
regenerative braking system, 217
relative humidity, 253
relief angle, 585
renewable energy, 90–91
resin-bonded sand molds, 606
resistance butt welding, 645
resistance projection welding, 642–643
resistance seam welding, 642
resistance spot welding, 641–642
resistance welding, 640
resistive temperature devices (RTD), 530
reversed Brayton cycle, 243–244
reversed Carnot cycle, 242–243
reversible adiabatic compression, 33
reversible adiabatic expansion, 33
reversible isothermal compression, 33
reversible isothermal expansion, 33
reversible process, 32
rigid couplings, 485–486
risers, 611
robotics, 704–709
applications, 712
configurations, 706–708
control systems, 709–712
microprocessor based controllers, 711
robotic control, 708–709
sensors used in, 711
sequential control, 711
transducers used in, 712
Rockwell hardness test, 517–518
roller bearings, 425
roll forming, 681
rolling mills, 657–659
defects, 659
types of, 658–659
room air conditioners, 265–267
rope brake dynamometer, 543–544
rope drive, 468–469rotameter, 538–539
rotary compressors, 342–344
rotating prime movers, 74
rotational and irrotational flow, 284
rough grinders, 589
rubber bond, 588
S sa
nd casting, 598–599
gating system, 610–611
hand tools for sand moulding, 608–609
methods, 615–619
moulding procedure, 609–610
mould making, 605–606
pattern making, 600–601
properties of mouldings sands, 607–608
steps in, 599–600
types of mold, 605–606
types of pattern, 601–605
sand testing, 614–615
saturated steam, 111
screw gauge, 547–549
screw pump, 319
second-generation biofuels, 66
second law of thermodynamics, 29–32, 240
self-aligning ball bearings, 424–425
semi-centrifugal casting, 618
separating and throttling calorimeter, 110
set hammer, 690
shaper, 572, 575
shaping and planning, 569–570
shaving, 670
shearing operations, 677–681
sheet metal process, 671
hand tools used, 673–677
joints, 671–672
materials used, 672–673
shellac bond, 588
shell mold, 606
shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), 633–634
shoulder turning, 565
side milling, 583
sign conventionfor heat and work interaction, 13
work done by system, 11
silica, 525
silicate bond, 587–588
silicon (Si), 521
sine bar, 551–552
sintering, 684
skin dried sand mold, 605–606
slab milling, 582
slip gauges, 549–551
slotter machine, 571
smith’s forge or hearth, 686
smithy, 685–686
tools used in, 686–691
smoothers, 690
solar energy, 89–90
soldering, 645–646
solid biofuels, 65–66
solid fuels, 58
specific fuel consumption, 210
specific heat capacity
at constant pressure, 8–10
at constant volume, 8
specific humidity, 253
specific power output, 210
specific volume, 254
spherical roller bearings, 426
spherodizing, 720
split air conditioner, 266–267
spnning, 569
springs
applications of, 406–407
materials used for, 409–410
types of, 407–409
spur gears, 476
statistical thermodynamics, 1
steady and unsteady flow, 284
steady flow energy equation (SFEE), 25
steady flow process, 24–25
steam
at constant pressure, 97–101
entropy of, 101
Mollier diagram of, 727
P-V diagram, T-S diagram, h-S diagram, P-S diagram, 99–100
table, 111, 728–738wet, 100
steam engine, 141–147
steam generators, 112–118
steam power system, 141
steam separator, 128
steam trap, 128
steam turbine
classification of, 147–151
governing of, 164
losses in, 164
Stefan–Boltzmann Law of Thermal Radiation, 228
straddle milling, 584
straight turning, 565
strain gauges, 540–541
strain measurement, 539–541
stress and strain, 377–379
in an assembly of tube and bolt, 387
in composite bar, 392
in compound bar, 386–387
diagram, 378–379, 381
due to suddenly applied load, 394–395
for impact load, 395
relation between stress and volumetric strain, 396–397
in taper rod, 383–384
in varying cross-section bar of uniform strength, 385
stretch forming operation, 678
submerged arc welding (SAW), 636–637
suction stroke, 189–191
sulfur oxide, 212
sulfur (S), 521
superheated steam, 111
superheater, 127
surface grinding, 589
surface tension, 277–278
swage block, 688–689
swages, 691
syngas, 65
synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, 58
system
boundary of, 6
defined, 3, 5
properties of, 3–4
system boundary, 3
Ttangential thrust, 150
tapered roller bearings, 426
taper turning, 566
tapping, 568
temperature, 6
measurement, 530–531
stress, 393
tempering, 721–722
theorem of parallel axis, 361
theorem of perpendicular axis, 361
thermal equilibrium, 4–5
thermal power plants, 75–76
thermit welding, 645
thermocouple, 530
thermodynamic cycle, 5
thermodynamic temperature scale, 6
thermoplastics, 524
thermosetting plastics, 524
third law of thermodynamics, 41–45
thread cutting, 567–568
thread rolling, 668–669
three-screw, high-pitch, screw pump, 319–320
throttling calorimeter, 108–109
thrust ball bearings, 425
tidal barrage, 82
tidal fences, 84
tidal power plant, 82–85
advantages, 84
disadvantages, 85
tidal turbine, 83
timber, 524
time-temperature-transformation curves, 718–719
titanium alloys, 523
tongs, 689
torque measurement, 543–545
torsion springs, 408
trimming, 670
true centrifugal casting, 617–618
tube drawing, 666–667
tungsten inert gas arc welding (TIG)/gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW),
635–636
tungsten (W), 522
two-screw, low-pitch, screw pump, 319
two-stroke C.I. engine, 194–196
two-stroke spark ignition engine, 192–194port timing diagram for, 198–199
U un
certainty of measurement, 546
uniform and non-uniform flow, 284
universal cylindrical grinder, 591
universal gas constant, 45
universal joints, 487–488
up milling, 582
upset forging, 662–663
U-tube manometer, 535
V van
adiun (V), 522
vane pump, 318
vapor compression refrigeration system, 247–250
advantages and disadvantages, 250
comparison between reversed Carnot cycle, 249
COP of, 248
factors affecting performance, 249
heat and work interaction in, 247
thermodynamic process of, 247–248
variable flow process, 25
vegetable oil, 65
velocity measurement, 535
Vernier calipers, 546–547
vertical boiler, 113
Vickers hardness test, 517
vitrified bond, 587
volatile organic compounds, 212
volatility, 60
volume
defined, 3
measurement, 535–536
volumetric efficiency, 210
W wat
er content of furnace oil, 61
water tube boilers, 112–113
weldability, 622–623welding
atomic hydrogen, 638–639
carbon arc, 633
classification, 624
defects, 648–649
defining, 622–623
electric arc, 629–632
electroslag, 637–638
flash, 643–644
gas, 625–628
metal inert gas arc (MIG)/gas metal arc (GMAW), 634–635
percussion, 644
plasma arc, 639–640
resistance, 640
resistance butt, 645
resistance projection, 642–643
resistance seam, 642
resistance spot, 641–642
shielded metal arc (SMAW), 633–634
submerged arc (SAW), 636–637
tungsten inert gas arc (TIG)/gas tungsten arc (GTAW), 635–636
type of groove or edge preparation for, 623–624
wet bulb temperature or saturation temperature (WBT), 254
wet steam, 100
white cast iron, 520
windmill, 87–89
window air conditioner, 265–267
wind power, 90
wire drawing, 665–666
work
defined, 7
similarities between heat and, 13
working fluid, 86
worm gears, 478
Z ze
roth law of thermodynamics


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