كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أهلا وسهلاً بك زائرنا الكريم
نتمنى أن تقضوا معنا أفضل الأوقات
وتسعدونا بالأراء والمساهمات
إذا كنت أحد أعضائنا يرجى تسجيل الدخول
أو وإذا كانت هذة زيارتك الأولى للمنتدى فنتشرف بإنضمامك لأسرتنا
وهذا شرح لطريقة التسجيل فى المنتدى بالفيديو :
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t5785-topic
وشرح لطريقة التنزيل من المنتدى بالفيديو:
http://www.eng2010.yoo7.com/t2065-topic
إذا واجهتك مشاكل فى التسجيل أو تفعيل حسابك
وإذا نسيت بيانات الدخول للمنتدى
يرجى مراسلتنا على البريد الإلكترونى التالى :

Deabs2010@yahoo.com


-----------------------------------
-Warning-

This website uses cookies
We inform you that this site uses own, technical and third parties cookies to make sure our web page is user-friendly and to guarantee a high functionality of the webpage.
By continuing to browse this website, you declare to accept the use of cookies.



 
الرئيسيةالبوابةالتسجيلدخولحملة فيد واستفيدجروب المنتدى

شاطر
 

 كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Admin
مدير المنتدى
مدير المنتدى
Admin

عدد المساهمات : 16265
التقييم : 28019
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings    كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings  Emptyالثلاثاء 01 سبتمبر 2020, 11:07 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Hydronic Heating
For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings
Third Edition
John Siegenthaler, P.E.
Associate Professor Emeritus
Mohawk Valley Community College, Utica, New York  

كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings  M_h_h_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :

Preface ix
CHAPTER 1 Fundamental Concepts 3
Objectives 3
1.1 What Is a Hydronic Heating System? 3
1.2 Benefits of Hydronic Heating 4
1.3 Heat and Heat Transfer 9
1.4 Four Basic Hydronic Subsystems 13
1.5 The Importance of System Design 17
Summary 18
Key Terms 18
Questions and Exercises 18
CHAPTER 2 Heating Load Estimates 21
Objectives 21
2.1 Introduction 21
2.2 Defi nition of Design Heating Load 22
2.3 Conduction Heat Losses 23
2.4 Foundation Heat Loss 26
2.5 Infi ltration Heat Losses 32
2.6 Putting It All Together 34
2.7 Example of a Complete Heating Load Estimate 35
2.8 Computer-Aided Heating Load Calculations 40
2.9 Estimating Annual Heating Energy Usage 42
Summary 47
Key Terms 47
Questions and Exercises 47
CHAPTER 3 Hydronic Heat Sources 51
Objectives 51
3.1 Introduction 51
3.2 Classifi cation of Hydronic Heat Sources 52
3.3 Gas- and Oil-Fired Boiler Designs 52
3.4 Conventional Versus Condensing Boilers 56
3.5 Domestic Hot Water Tanks as Hydronic Heat Sources 66
3.6 Power Venting Exhaust Systems 68
3.7 Combustion Air Requirements 71
3.8 Boiler Heating Capacity 73
3.9 Efficiency of Gas and Oil-Fired Boilers 74
3.10 Multiple Boiler Systems 78
3.11 Electric Boilers 86
3.12 ETS Systems 89
3.13 Hydronic Heat Pumps 92
3.14 System Design Considerations for Hydronic Heat Pumps 98
3.15 Renewable Energy Heat Sources 102
3.16 Solid-Fuel Boilers 113
Contents
iiiiv Contents
Summary 121
Key Terms 122
Questions and Exercises 122
For Further Reading 123
CHAPTER 4 Properties of Water 125
Objectives 125
4.1 Introduction 125
4.2 Sensible Heat Versus Latent Heat 125
4.3 Specifi c Heat and Heat Capacity 126
4.4 Density 127
4.5 Sensible Heat Quantity Equation 128
4.6 Sensible Heat Rate Equation 129
4.7 Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point 131
4.8 Viscosity 131
4.9 Dissolved Air in Water 132
4.10 Incompressibility 133
Summary 135
Key Terms 135
Questions and Exercises 135
CHAPTER 5 Piping, Fittings, and Valves 139
Objectives 139
5.1 Introduction 139
5.2 Piping Materials 140
5.3 Common Pipe Fittings 156
5.4 Specialized Fittings for Hydronic Systems 159
5.5 Thermal Expansion of Piping 162
5.6 Common Valves 165
5.7 Specialty Valves for Hydronic Applications 170
5.8 Schematic Symbols for Piping Components 191
5.9 Tips on Piping Installation 191
Summary 193
Key Terms 193
Questions and Exercises 194
CHAPTER 6 Fluid Flow in Piping 197
Objectives 197
6.1 Introduction 197
6.2 Basic Concepts of Fluid Mechanics: What Is a Fluid? 198
6.3 Analyzing Fluid Flow in Smooth Pipes 207
6.4 Hydraulic Resistance of Fittings, Valves, and Other Devices 212
6.5 The System Head Loss Curve 214
6.6 Piping Components Represented as Series Resistors 215
6.7 Parallel Hydraulic Resistances 218
6.8 Reducing Complex Piping Systems 222
6.9 Software-Based Circuit Analysis 224
6.10 Pipe Sizing Considerations 225
Summary 229
Key Terms 229
Questions and Exercises 230Contents v
CHAPTER 7 Hydronic Circulators 233
Objectives 233
7.1 Introduction 233
7.2 Circulators for Hydronic Systems 234
7.3 Placement of the Circulator Within the System 239
7.4 Circulator Performance 242
7.5 Smart Circulators 250
7.6 Analytical Methods for Circulator Performance 257
7.7 Circulator Efficiency 260
7.8 Operating Cost of a Circulator 263
7.9 Cavitation 265
7.10 Special Purpose Circulators 270
7.11 Selecting a Circulator 270
Summary 274
Key Terms 274
Questions and Exercises 274
CHAPTER 8 Heat Emitters 279
Objectives 279
8.1 Introduction 279
8.2 Classifi cation of Heat Emitters 280
8.3 Finned-Tube Baseboard Convectors 280
8.4 Thermal Ratings and Performance of Finned-Tube Baseboard 284
8.5 Sizing Finned-Tube Baseboard 287
8.6 Hydronic Fan-Coils 294
8.7 Thermal Performance of Fan-Coils 298
8.8 Panel Radiators 304
8.9 Other Hydronic Heat Emitters 317
8.10 Head Loss of Heat Emitters 318
8.11 Heat Loss From Copper Tubing 320
8.12 Thermal Equilibrium 322
Summary 326
Key Terms 326
Questions and Exercises 327
CHAPTER 9 Control Strategies, Components, and Systems 329
Objectives 329
9.1 Introduction 329
9.2 Closed-Loop Control System Fundamentals 330
9.3 Controlling the Output of Heat Sources 338
9.4 Controlling Heat Output From Heat Emitters 343
9.5 Outdoor Reset Control 345
9.6 Switches, Relays, and Ladder Diagrams 358
9.7 Basic Hydronic System Control Hardware 366
9.8 Basic Boiler Control Hardware 379
9.9 Mixing Strategies and Hardware 387
9.10 Control System Design Principles 407
9.11 Example of a Modern Control System 409
9.12 Communicating Control Systems 412
Summary 416
Key Terms 417
Questions and Exercises 418vi Contents
CHAPTER 10 Hydronic Radiant Panel Heating 421
Objectives 421
10.1 Introduction 421
10.2 What Is Radiant Heating? 422
10.3 What Is a Hydronic Radiant Panel? 423
10.4 A Brief History of Radiant Panel Heating 423
10.5 Benefits of Radiant Panel Heating 424
10.6 Physiology of Radiant Panel Heating 426
10.7 Methods of Hydronic Radiant Panel Heating 428
10.8 Slab-on-Grade Radiant Floors 429
10.9 Concrete Thin-Slab Radiant Floors 439
10.10 Poured Gypsum Thin-Slab Radiant Floors 445
10.11 Above-Floor Tube and Plate Systems 449
10.12 Below-Floor Tube and Plate Systems 455
10.13 Suspended Tube Systems 460
10.14 Plateless Staple-Up Systems 462
10.15 Prefab Subfloor/Underlayment Panels 464
10.16 Radiant Wall Panels 465
10.17 Radiant Ceiling Panels 471
10.18 Tube Placement Considerations (Floor Panels) 474
10.19 Radiant Panel Circuit Sizing Procedure 483
10.20 System Piping and Temperature Control Options 500
Summary 513
Key Terms 513
Questions and Exercises 514
CHAPTER 11 Distribution Piping Systems 517
Objectives 517
11.1 Introduction 517
11.2 Zoning Considerations 518
11.3 System Equilibrium 521
11.4 The Concept of Iterative Design 522
11.5 Single Series Circuits 523
11.6 Single Circuit/Multizone (One-Pipe) Systems 525
11.7 Multicirculator Systems and Hydraulic Separation 529
11.8 Multizone Systems—Using Circulators 538
11.9 Multizone Systems Using Zone Valves 545
11.10 Parallel Direct-Return Systems 552
11.11 Parallel Reverse-Return Systems 556
11.12 Home Run Distribution Systems 559
11.13 Primary/Secondary Systems 563
11.14 Distribution Efficiency 575
11.15 Hybrid Distribution Systems 578
Summary 584
Key Terms 584
Questions and Exercises 584
CHAPTER 12 Expansion Tanks 587
Objectives 587
12.1 Introduction 587
12.2 Standard Expansion Tanks 588
12.3 Diaphragm-Type Expansion Tanks 591Contents vii
12.4 Estimating System Volume 597
12.5 The Expansion Tank Sizer Software Module 598
12.6 Point of No Pressure Change 599
Summary 603
Key Terms 603
Questions and Exercises 603
CHAPTER 13 Air Removal, Filling, and Purging 607
Objectives 607
13.1 Introduction 607
13.2 Problems Created by Entrapped Air 608
13.3 Types of Entrapped Air 609
13.4 Air Removal Devices 612
13.5 Correcting Chronic Air Problems 617
13.6 Filling and Purging a System 619
13.7 Make-Up Water Systems 623
Summary 625
Key Terms 625
Questions and Exercises 625
CHAPTER 14 Auxiliary Loads and Specialized Topics 627
Objectives 627
14.1 Introduction 627
14.2 Heat Exchangers 628
14.3 Domestic Water Heating 633
14.4 Intermittent Garage Heating 644
14.5 Pool (and Spa) Heating 646
14.6 Hydronic Snow Melting 650
14.7 Buffer Tanks 663
14.8 Minitube Distribution Systems 667
14.9 BTU Metering 671
14.10 Introduction to Balancing 678
Summary 692
Key Terms 692
Questions and Exercises 692
Appendix A Schematic Symbols 695
Appendix B R-Values of Common Building Materials 697
Appendix C Useful Conversion Factors and Data 699
Glossary 701
Index 721
A
Above-floor tube and plate systems,
449, 701
radiant floor panels, 428, 449–455
installation procedure, 451–455
Absolute pressure, 131, 701
Absorber plate, 104
Acceptance volume, 592, 701
Active length, 284–285, 701
Activity level, effect of, 521
Actuator, 176, 183, 375, 701
Aerial boom, 438
AFUE. (See Annual Fuel Utilization
Efficiency)
Aggregate, 438
Air
binding, 608, 701
change
method, 32, 701
rates, 32
dissolved within fluid, 132–133,
611–612
entrained, 610, 655, 706
entrapped, problems created by,
608–609
film resistances, 24–25, 701
flow rate, 303
fluid, dissolved in, 611–612
handler, 11, 294–295, 701
infiltration, 32–34, 701
pockets, stationary, 609–610
problems, correcting chronic, 617–619
purger, 614, 701. (See also Air, scoop)
removal, 612–617
requirements, combustion, 71–73
scoop, 614, 701. (See also Air, purger)
sealing quality, 32
separator, 16–17, 701
central, 612
microbubble, 614–615
solubility, unsaturated state of, 614–615
temperature stratification, 428, 701
vent, 16, 504, 701
automatic, 613
float-type, 613–614
manual, 612–613
Air-side pressurization, 592, 701
American Society of Mechanical
Engineers, 66, 173
Ampacity, 364, 701
Analog
control signal, 701
inputs, 331
AND decision, 362
Angle pattern, 174, 190, 191
Angle valve, 166–167, 701
Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency
(AFUE), 74, 76–77, 701
Antifreeze-based systems, 110–111
Aquastat, 701
ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals,
24, 320
ASME. (See American Society of
Mechanical Engineers)
Asphalt pavement, SIM installations
in, 655
ASSE 1017-rated anti-scald tempering
valve, 639
Atmospheric, 701
Automatic
air vent, 613, 701
flow balancing valves, 189–190
flue damper, 56
glycol makeup system, 701
Auxiliary
loads, 627, 701
Available floor area, 486, 488, 701
Average
floor surface temperature, 432, 701
flow velocity, 198, 701
surface temperature, 473
B
Backflow preventer, 15, 171–173, 701
BACNET, 412
Balance point temperature, 349, 701
Balancing, 190, 701
introduction to, 678–691
procedure, 683–686
purpose of, 678–679
reasons for, 678
role of differential pressure control
in, 686
systems with manually setting
balancing valves, 679–683
theoretical approach to, 679, 680
using compensated method, 686–691
valve, 189–190, 504, 552, 570, 701
Ball valve, 167–168, 238, 702
Band joist, 462
Barefoot friendly floors, 432, 492
Bars, 550, 702
Baseboard
heating mode, 410
tee, 159, 702
Basic loop systems, 13
Bearing walls, 434, 702
Bell hangers, 141
Below-floor tube and plate system, 449,
455–460, 702
installation procedure, 456–458
radiant floor panels, 428
Bellows, 372
Bend supports, 436, 702
Bimetal element, 367, 702
Bin temperature data, 702
Black ice, 658, 702
Bleeders, 612
Blow-through fan-coils, 294
Blower, 10, 11, 294, 702
Boiler
basic control hardware, 379–387
drain, 167, 702
feed water valve, 702
heating capacity, 73–74
HI/LO fire, 339, 386
high/low fired, 83
jacket, 73, 702
protection, 390–393, 702
reset
control, 702
controllers, 384–385
rotation, 702
short-cycling, 518, 702
Boilers
conventional, 182
vs. condensing, 56–66
Borehole, 96
Bond breaker layer, 441, 702
Boundary layer, 206, 702
Branch, 686
Brazed plate heat exchangers, 628,
629, 702
Brushless DC motors. (See Electronically
commutated motors (ECMs))
Brine, 3, 702
British thermal units, 5, 9, 702
BTU metering, 671–678, 702
Btu/hr or Btuh. (See British thermal units)
Bubble?s rise velocity, 610, 702
Buffer tank, 55, 99–100, 117, 341, 533,
663–667, 702
design considerations for, 666–667
piping, 663–665, 666
sizing, 665
Building
headers, 686
heat loss coefficient, 347, 350, 702
heating load, 22, 702
mains, 674, 702
Buoyancy, 4, 702
C
CAD. (See Computer-aided drafting)
Calculations, heating load, 22–23
Candidate circulators, 523, 547, 702
Capacitance rate (CR), 631, 702
ratio, 631, 702
Capacity of water, heat, 7
Capillary tube, 175, 372, 702
Cast-iron
circulators, 234
sectional boilers, 52–54
Index
721722 Index
Cavitation, 234, 265–269, 702
correcting existing, 269
gaseous, 268
guidelines for avoiding, 268–269
Net Positive Suction Head Available
(NPSHA), 265–267
Net Positive Suction Head Required
(NPSHR), 267–268
Ceiling
heated, thermal performance of,
472–474
panels, radiant, 471–474
Central air separators, 612, 703
Central heating plant, 674
Centrifugal pump, 234, 703
Characterized ball valve, 344, 703
Chase, 66
Check valve, 168–169, 539–540, 703
Chemical energy content, 74, 703
Chiller mode, 100
Circulators, 4, 10, 233–273, 703
cavitation, 265–269
connecting
in parallel, 248–250
to piping, 238
in series, 247–248
efficiency of, 260–261
end suction, 234–235
with flat pump curve, 548–549
for hydronic systems, 234–238
head
explanation of, 242
high vs. low, 246–247
for injection mixing, 270
with integral flow-checks, 270
mounting considerations, 237
multispeed, 246–247
operating point of hydronic circuit,
245–246
performance, 242–250
analytical methods for, 257–260
curves, 243–244
placement within the system,
239–242
primary, sizing the, 570–572
push/pull arrangement, 248
selecting, 270–273
in series, 247–248
smart, 250–257
constant differential pressure
control, 250–254
energy savings achieved using,
255–256
microcirculators, 257
proportional differential pressure
control, 254–255
special purpose, 270
temperature-regulated, 270
three-piece, 236
two-piece, 236–237
wet-rotor, 235–236, 262
wire-to-water efficiency of, 261–263
zoning, 270
Circuit
interior, 475–476
layout drawings, 480–482, 483, 484,
485–486, 487
perimeter, 475–476
separation, 533
single series, 523–525
Circuit-balancing valves, 502
Circuit-return temperature
thermometers, 504
Class 1 SIM systems, 650, 652, 703
Class 2 SIM systems, 652, 703
Class 3 SIM systems, 652, 703
Clean operation, 7
Clevis hangers, 142
Close-coupled, 703
Close coupling, 247–248
Closed-loop
control system fundamentals,
330–338, 703
sources, 94–96
system, 13, 239, 703
Closely spaced tees, 533, 565, 703
Closet flange, 436
Coalescing media, 534, 614, 703
Coefficient of
linear expansion, 162, 703
performance (COP), 97–98, 703
Coil, 294, 359, 703
tankless, 379–380, 634–635
and shell heat exchangers, 630, 703
Coin vents, 612
Cold start, 58
Collector array, 104, 703
Combination wood/oil boilers, 113–114
Combined
air and dirt separator, 615–617
boiler/domestic host water tank
assemblies, 56
downward and edgewise heat loss, 30
heat source reset and mixing reset,
355–356
Combisystems, 104
Combustion
air requirements, 71–73
efficiency, 75, 703
Comfort, 4–5
Common piping, 531, 533, 703
Communicating
control systems, 412–416
controllers, stand alone versus,
412–413
thermostats, 415, 703
Communications bus, 412, 703
Compact style panel, 309
Compensated balancing method,
686–691
Component isolation, 165, 703
Composite tubing, 139, 703
Compressible fluids, 198, 703
Compressive load rating, 654, 703
Compressor, 94, 703
Computer-aided drafting (CAD), 191,
480–482, 703
Concrete
lightweight, 444–445
pavement, SIM installation in,
653–655
placement, 438–439
thin-slab radiant floor panels, 428,
439–445, 703
installation procedure, 441–444
sub-slab, 656
Condensate, 703
neutralization, 64–65
Condenser, 94, 703
Condensing
boilers, 60–64
mode, 58, 703
Conduction, 5, 10, 703
heat losses, 23–26
Confined space, 71, 704
Conservation of energy, 388, 704
Conservation of mass, 388, 704
Constant circulation, 507, 509
Constant differential pressure control,
250–254, 704
Contactor, 358, 704
Contact adhesive, 468
Contacts, 359, 704
Continuous flow rating, 643, 704
Control
adaptive, 414
algorithm, 704
differential, 335, 704
joints, 436, 437, 477, 704
processing algorithms, 331
states, 334, 704
systems, 329
communicating, 412–416
design principles, 407–409
modern example, 409–412
Web-enabled, 414
Controlled
device, 331, 704
shrinkage crack, 443
variable, 331, 704
Controller, 331, 704
embedded, 364
output types, 334
stand alone versus communicating,
412–413
Convection, 5, 10, 704
forced, 10, 11, 630
natural, 10, 11, 280, 281, 630
Convectors, 280, 704
finned-tube baseboard, 10–11,
280–284
infloor, 318, 319
Conventional boilers, 57–58, 182, 704
and mod/con boilers, multiple boiler
systems using, 85–86
Conversion factors and data, useful, 699
Coordinated zone management, 415, 704
COP. (See Coefficient of, performance)
Copper water tube, 140–141, 704
boilers, 55–56
heat loss from, 320–322
mechanical joining of, 147–148
supporting, 141–143
Correction factors, 285, 300, 311
Counterflow, 704
arrangement, 628
serpentine, 476, 704
spiral, 476, 704
Coupling, 156
assembly, 236
Cover sheet, 454, 704
Cross-linked polyethylene, 139, 148, 704
Crossover bridge, 570, 704Index 723
Crossovers, 679, 686
Current, 207
Cv
. (See Flow, coefficient)
Cv rating, 683
Cv setting, 683
Cycle efficiency, 75–76, 704
Cycle time, 335
D
Damper, 280, 704
Dead-heading, 558, 704
Dead loading, 439, 704
Deaerated fluid, 608
Dedicated space heating device, 66
Degree days, 42–45, 704
Delay-on-break, 362, 704
Delay-on-make, 361, 704
Delta T (?T) protection, 660, 704
Demand charge, 89
Demand fired, 379, 705
Density, 126, 127–128, 705
Depth stop attachment, 441
Description of operation, 365, 409
Design
dry bulb temperature (97.5%), 22, 705
flexibility, 6–7
heating load, 22–23, 705
Designer radiators, 310, 313
Desuperheater, 100, 101, 705
Dewpoint temperature, 56–57, 58, 705
DHW. (See Domestic, hot water)
Diaphragm, flexible, 170
Diaphragm-type expansion tank, 14–15,
591–597, 705
low-temperature systems, 593–594
mounting, 595–597
selecting, 595
servicing, 595–597
sizing, 592–593
Dielectric union, 161–162, 705
Differential, 14, 334, 368, 705
control, 335
operating, 335
pressure, 188, 705
bypass valves (DPBV), 188, 504,
549–551, 686, 705
control, 545, 686
controller, 551
threshold, 549
transducer, 705
temperature controller, 110, 374–375
Diffuse, 153, 428, 705
Digital
address, 412
input, 331
Digitally encoded signal, 331, 705
DIN
4726 standard, 155
rail, 360–361, 705
Direct
digital control (DDC), 705
injection mixing, 401, 405, 705
through-the-wall openings, 71
vent/sealed combustion, 69–70, 705
Direct-fired water heater, 636, 705
Discharge port, 239, 240
Dissolved air, 132–133, 611, 705
Dissolved gases, 608
Distribution
circuit, 526
efficiency, 575–578, 705
piping systems, 517–583
system, 3, 13, 705
District heating, 674
Diverter
tee(s), 159–161, 526, 705
valve, 705
Documentation, photo, 438
DOE heating capacity, 73, 705
Dollars per million Btu delivered
($/MMBtu), 45
Domestic
hot water (DHW), 4, 365, 366,
633, 705
heating, 633–644
mode, 409–410
tanks, 66–68
water, 143, 705
Double
interpolation, 299, 705
pole (DP) switches, 359
pole/double throw (DPDT) toggle
switch, 359
throw (DT) switches, 359
DPBV. (See Differential pressure
bypass valve)
Draft-proving switch, 68, 705
Drain-back systems, 104, 111–112, 705
Drain port, 15
Drainback freeze protection, 578
Draindown system, 705
Draw-through fan-coil, 294
Drawings
circuit layout, 480–482, 483, 484,
485–486, 487
layer, 481
Drip pans, 304, 705
Driving ?T, 324, 706
Driving force, 207
Droop, 335, 368, 706
Dry-base boiler, 56, 706
Dual lockshield valve, 309, 311
Dual use device, 66
Dumb
mixing devices, 706
mixing valves, 177
valve, 394
Duty cycle, 706
Dynamic pressure distribution, 599, 706
Dynamic viscosity of water, 132
E
Earth heat exchanger, 94, 706
EEPROM (Electrically Erasable
Programmable Read Only
Memory), 250
Effective total R-value, 25, 706
Effectiveness, 631, 706
Efficiency, 74, 706
of circulator, 260–261
wire-to-water, 261–263
Elbows, 156
Electric
boilers, 86, 88–89
radiant panel, 423
thermal storage (ETS), 89–92, 706
layout, 91
storage tanks for, 91–92
system classification, 90–91
valve actuators, 561–562
Electrical components, schematic
symbols for, 696
Electrical device model, 207
Electromagnetic
energy, 11, 706
radiation, 104
spectrum, 422, 706
Electromechanical controls, 366, 706
Electronic controls, 366, 706
Electronically commutated motors
(ECMs), 250, 552, 706
Element, 280, 706
Elevation head, 203, 706
Embedded controllers, 364, 706
Emissivity, 12, 422, 706
End
suction circulator, 234–235, 706
switch, 188, 376, 506, 706
Energy
delivered, 45
Efficiency Ratios, 100, 706
mechanical, 203, 234, 242
renewable heat sources, 102–112
savings, 5–6
using smart circulators, 255–256
usage, estimating annual heating,
42–46
Entrain, 171, 199
Entrained air, 610, 706
Entrapped air, 608–609
EPDM, 147, 594, 706
Equal percentage characteristic, 344, 706
Equilibrium, system, 521–522, 706
Equivalent
length, 209, 212, 706
resistance, 208, 219, 706
resistor, 216
Erosion corrosion, 225, 706
Error, 331, 706
Escutcheon plate, 283, 706
Estimating
annual heating cost, 45–46
the combined downward and
edgewise heat loss, 30
the infiltration heat loss, the air
change method of, 32–34
Ethylene vinyl alcohol, 154, 707
ETS. (See Electric, thermal storage)
Evacuated tube collectors, 104, 707
Evacuated tube solar collectors, 104, 106
Evaporation, 5
Evaporator, 94
EVOH. (See Ethylene vinyl alcohol)
Exhaust systems, power venting, 68–70724 Index
Expansion
compensator, 163, 707
loop, 163, 707
offset, 163, 707
system fluid, compatibility of the, 594
tank, 14–15, 588, 707
pressure and temperature
ratings, 594
standard, 588–591
Tank Sizer, 588, 598, 707
Exposed surface, 26, 707
Extended surface suspended tube
systems, 461–462
Exterior wall exposure, effect of, 521
External heat exchangers, 630, 707
External VA rating, 376, 707
Extruded
aluminum heat transfer plates, 458
polystyrene, 433, 655, 707
underfloor plates, 458, 459
Eye (of impeller), 234, 707
F
F. (See Female threads)
Fan, 294, 707
Fan coil, 11, 280, 294–298, 707
advantages, 295
cooling, using for, 303–304
disadvantages, 295
head loss of, 319–320
heat output, 298–301
overhead, 297–298
performance principles, 300–303
thermal performance, 298–304
under-cabinet, 297
wall-mounted, 295–297
Fan-enhanced panel radiator, 311, 316
Fast-fill mode, 171, 707
Fast-fill valve, 15
Feed water valve, 15, 170–171, 707
Feedback, 331, 707
Feet of head, 203, 242, 243, 707
Female threads, 158, 707
Fibermesh®, 442
Filter fabric, 656
Finite element analysis (FEA), 430, 707
Finish floor resistance, 707
Finned-tube, 707
baseboard convector, 10–11,
280–284, 707
head loss of, 319
installing, 282–284
placement considerations, 282, 283
sizing methods, 287–294
thermal ratings and performance
of, 284–287
heat exchanger, 294. (See also Coil)
Fire-tube boiler, 54, 707
Firmware, 250, 707
First hour rating, 643, 707
Fittings, 140, 707
common pipe, 156–159
for hydronic systems, specialized,
159–162
specifying, 158
tips on using, 158–159
Fixed firing rate conventional boilers
multiple boiler systems using, 78–83
Fixed lead boiler, 86
Fixed lead heat source, 386, 707
Fixed point supports, 163
Flanges, 238, 707
Flashing, 265
Flat plate
collectors, 104, 105
heat exchanger, 628, 629, 707
solar collectors, 104, 105, 707
Flat pump curves, 246
using circulator with, 548–549
Flat-tube panel radiators, 306–308
Float-type air vent, 613–614, 708
Floating
control, 336–337, 707
zone, 336, 337, 707
Floor
area, available, 486, 488
covering considerations, 489
heating mode, 410–412
panels, tube placement
considerations, 474–482
surface temperature, 432
Flow
classifications, 205–206
coefficient (Cv), 210–211, 398, 708
duration curve, 255, 708
element (spool), 177
laminar, 205–206
meters, 504
noise, 188
rate, 129, 198, 708
on temperature drop and heat
output, 492
regulation, 165, 708
restrictor valve, 183, 708
switch, 674, 708
turbulent, 205, 206
velocity, 198–199, 225, 708
Flow-check valve, 16, 174, 539,
667, 708
Fluid, 10, 198
analyzing flow, 207–212
compressible, 198
feeder, 624, 708
flow
in piping, 198–229
rate, 301–303
head of, 202–203
incompressible, 198
Properties Calculator module, 127,
128, 209, 229, 590, 632
properties factor (), 209–210, 708
Reynold?s number of the, 206–207
Fluted-channel panel radiator, 309,
310, 311
Fluted-steel panel radiators, 309
Flux, 144–145, 708
Foot pound, 203, 708
Forced
air system, 339
convection, 10, 11, 630, 708
Forced-water purging, 619–620, 708
Fouling, 629, 708
Foundation heat loss, 27–32
4 to 20 mA, 333
Four-way motorized mixing valves,
178–181, 396–397
FPT. (See Female threads)
Framing members, effect of, 25–26
Free area, 71, 708
Free oxygen, 608
Freestanding panel radiators, 308, 708
Freezestat, 98
French drain, 653
Ft.?lb. (foot pound), 203, 708
Full
port ball valve, 167, 168, 171, 708
reset control, 354, 708
storage ETS systems, 90, 708
Fuzzy logic, 414, 708
G
Gallons per minute, 198, 209, 708
Galvanic corrosion, 144, 161, 708
Garage heating, intermittent, 644–646
Gas, 198
Gas- and oil-fired boiler
designs, 52–56
efficiency of, 74–78
Gaseous cavitation, 268, 608, 708
Gate valves, 165–166, 238, 708
Gauge pressure, 708
General purpose relay, 360–361, 708
Generic input/output ports, 415
Geotextile fabric, 653
Globe valves, 166, 708
gpm. (See Gallons per minute)
Graphite heat transfer plates, 458–460
Gravity
purging, 619, 708
Grout, 96
Gypsum-based underlayments
installation procedure, 446–449
radiant floor panels, 428, 445–449
Gypsum thin slab, 445, 708
H
Half unions, 191, 238, 708
Handwheel, 165–166
Hard
drawn tubing, 140
freeze, 98
Hard-wired logic, 362–363, 708
Head, 203, 234, 242, 708
circulator, 242
and differential pressure, converting
between, 242–243
loss, 205, 208, 225–226, 540
due to viscous friction, 204
relationship between pressure change
and, 203–204
Heat, 9–13
anticipator, 368, 709
capacity, 7, 126–127, 709
diffusion, 445
dissipation line, 325
dumps, 110Index 725
emitters, 3, 10–11, 13, 279–326, 709
classification of, 280
head loss of, 318–320
output, controlling the, 343–345
exchanger, 115, 628–633, 709
placement, pool, 648–650, 651
thermal performance of, 630–633
flow, 23, 26–27
rate of, 25–26
flux, concept of, 484, 486, 709
gains from lighting/equipment, 521
latent, 126
load
calculations, 22–23
calculations, computer-aided,
40–42
total building, 38–39
Load Pro module, 21
loss
coefficient, 347, 709
compensating for nonproportional,
349–351
infiltration, 32–34
rate of, 10
through basement floors, 29
through basement walls, 27–29
through slab-on-grade floors,
29–31
through windows, doors, and
skylights, 31
metering, 672, 709
within heat sources, 677–678
systems, networked, 676–677
technology, 672–674
migration, 184
motor, 506
migration, 184, 709
motor actuators, 375, 709
motors, 184
output
controlling, 338–343
analytical model for baseboard,
286–287
ratings, 286, 709
flow rate on temperature drop and,
492
plant, 342
pool, 6
production, variable output rate, 341
pump, 52, 92–98, 709
categories of, 92–93
purging, 76, 709
quantity, 9, 10, 128
rate, 10
sensible, 125
sinks, 426, 709
source, 709. (See also Heat source)
specific, 126–127
transfer
modes of, 10–12
plates, 449, 709
rate of, 23
Heat source, 3, 13
controllers
multiple, 385–387
reset, 384–385
fixed lead, 386
reset
for modulating heat sources,
353–354
for on/off heat source, 351–352
rotation, 386
Heating
capacity, 68, 709
curve, 709. (See also Reset line)
district, 674
effect factor, 286, 709
energy usage, estimating annual, 42–46
garage, intermittent, 644–646
load, estimate example, 35–40, 41, 42
plant, central, 674
pool, 646–650, 651
spa, 646–650, 651
space, 6
Hematite (Fe2O3), 608
HI/LO fire boilers, 339, 386, 709
High
capacity water heating, hydronic
solutions for, 639–643
limit setting, 709
limit/switching relay control, 379
point vents, 612–617, 709
High/low-fire boilers, 83
Home run
distribution system, 175, 177, 292,
559–563, 709
design procedure for, 563
stacked, 562–563, 564
zoning control options for, 561–562
Horizontal
panel radiator, 308, 709
supply air ducting, 71
Hose bib, 709
Hunting, 333
Hybrid distribution system,
578–583, 709
Hybrid staging/modulation, 387
Hydraulic
efficiency, 260
equilibrium, 245, 521–522, 709
resistance, 207, 709
determining, 208–209
diagrams, 216, 217, 709
of fittings, valves, and other
devices, 212–214
resistor, 215
separation, 81, 531–533, 709
creating, 533–534
mixing within, 534–538
summary, 538
separator, 83, 533, 709
Hydronic
circuit, operating point of, 244–246
Circuit Simulator module, 198,
224–225, 229, 260, 273, 294,
319, 500, 523, 525, 544, 548,
556, 679, 709
circulators. (See Circulators)
closed-loop system, 52, 128, 234, 588
control systems, 13
fan-coils, 294–298
heat
emitters, 3, 10–11, 13, 279–326
pump, 92–98
sources, 51–121
heating
benefits of, 4–9
history of, 3
multizone systems, 174
radiant
panel heating, 423
panels, classification of, 428
solutions, for high-capacity water
heating, 639–643
snow and ice melting systems (SIM),
650–663, 716
asphalt pavement installations, 655
benefits of, 650
boiler options, 657–658
circuit temperature drop, 661, 662
Class 1 SIM, 650, 652
Class 2 SIM, 652
Class 3 SIM, 652
design and control options, 656
drainage provisions, 652–653
estimating heat output, 661, 662
flow requirements, 660–661
freeze prevention options,
656–657
installation in concrete pavement,
653–655
on/off control options, 659–660
pavement temperature control,
658–659
for paver-covered surfaces, 655–656
subsurface conditions, 653
system classifications, 650, 652
tube spacing considerations,
661, 663
subassemblies, 509
subsystems, basic, 13–17
systems
filling and purging, 619–623
fluids in, 202
Hydronics Design Studio, 21, 127, 128,
229, 260, 273, 288, 291, 319,
322, 500, 523, 588, 593, 598,
632, 679
Hygroscopic air vent, 613, 709
Hypocausts, 423
I
IBR (Institute of Boiler and Radiator
Manufacturers)
gross output, 73, 709
method, 287–288
net output, 73–74, 709
Testing and Rating Code, 285
Ice
black, 658
and snow pavement sensor, 659
Idling (snow melt pavement), 654,
658, 709
Impeller, 234, 246, 710
Implosion, 265, 710
In solution, 611
Incompressible, 133–134, 198, 587, 710
fluids, 608
Indirect water
heaters, 636–637, 710
benefits of, 637–638
continuous flow rating, 643
first hour rating, 643
piping and settings for, 638–639
sizing an, 643–644
Indoor reset control, 358
Inductive loads, 359
Infiltration, 710
heat loss, 32–34726 Index
Infloor convectors, 318, 319
Infrared thermal radiation, 422, 710
Infrared thermograph, 12
Injection control device, 710
Injection mixing, 183, 397–398, 710
circulators for, 270
points on, 406–407
using
two-way motorized valve, 400–401
two-way thermostatic valve,
398–400
variable-speed pump (direct),
401–405
variable-speed pump (reverse),
405–406
Inlet fluid parameter, 107, 710
Inlet-temperature thermometer, 504
Inline circulators, 234, 235, 710
Inspection visit considerations, 33
Installation, noninvasive, 7–9
Instantaneous thermal efficiency,
106, 107
Institute of Boiler and Radiator
Manufacturers. (See IBR)
Instruction set, 250
Integral flow-check valves, 270
Intelligent mixing device, 358, 710
Interface module, 412, 710
Interior circuits, 475–476, 710
Intermittent garage heating, 644–646
Internal heat exchanger, 630, 710
Internal heat gains, 349
Internet accessibility, 710
Interpolation, 298, 710
double, 299
Interstage differential, 369
Interzone heat transfer, 520, 710
Isolation
flange, 238, 710
valves, 504
Isotherms, 27, 429, 710
Iteration, 259, 522, 710
Iterative design, 522–523
J
Jacket (of boiler), 54, 710
K
Kick space heater, 280, 297, 710. (See
also Fan coil, under-cabinet)
Kilo-Pascals, 550, 710
Kinematic viscosity of water, 132
KPa, 550, 710. (See also Kilo-Pascals)
Kraft paper faced batts, 444
L
Ladder diagram, 330, 363–364, 710
drawing, 364–365
line voltage section, 363
low voltage section, 363
Laminar, 205
flow, 205–206, 710
Latent heat, 126, 710
Lead/lag control, 386, 710. (See also
Boiler rotation)
Lead-based solders, 66
Leader length, 495
Leaders, 478, 562, 710
Least favored crossover, 680
Life cycle operating cost, 264
Lightweight concrete, 444–445, 710
Lift, 448
hook, 438, 439
Line voltage, 710
section, 363, 711
Linear regression, 258
Linear relationship, 343–344
Liquid, 198, 711
crystal display (LCD), 370
static pressure of, 199–202
Loads, 6, 711
auxiliary, 627
estimates, daily DHW, 633
priority, 628, 637
Lockshield valve, 190–191, 711
Logic
fuzzy, 414
hard-wired, 362–363
LONworks, 412, 711
Low
loss headers, 533
voltage section, 363, 711
water cutoff (LWCO), 383, 711
Low-limit aquastat, 296
Low-velocity zone separator, 616
M
M. (See Male threads)
Magnetite (Fe3O4), 608
Mains, 686
Make-up water
assembly, 623, 711
system, 15–16, 623–624
Male threads, 158, 711
Manifold, 454, 711
accessories, 504
stations, 8, 434, 478, 502–504, 711
systems, multiple, 506–507
valve actuators, 502, 504–506,
508, 711
Manipulated variable, 331, 711
Manometer, 711
Manual
air vent, 612–613, 711
reset high limit (MRHL), 382–383, 711
Manually set mixing valves, 393–394
Mass, 127
Master thermostat, 527, 711
Maximum allowed upward heat flux,
494, 711
Maximum deflection criteria, 439
Mean radiant temperature (MRT), 11, 711
Measured value, 331, 711
Mechanical energy, 203, 234, 242, 711
Megawatt-hours (MWh) units, 672
Metabolism, 426
Meter rental, 45
Metered balancing valves, 711
Metering, BTU, 671–678
Microbubble, 610–611, 711
air separators, 614–615, 711
Microcirculators, 257, 711
Microprocessor, 330, 711
Mineral oil, 442
Minimum supply temperature, 711
setting, 352–353
Minitube distribution system,
667–671, 711
benefits of, 668–670
design details, 670–671
multizone, 668, 669
Minitubes, 668, 711
Mixing
assembly, 389, 407, 711
devices, 330, 711
within hydraulic separating devices,
534–538
injection, 397–407
points, 390, 711
purposes, 387–388
reset control, 354, 712
strategies and hardware, 387–407
four-way motorized valves,
396–397
manually set valves, 393–394
three-way motorized valves,
395–396
three-way thermostatic valves,
394–395
thermodynamics of, 388–389
valve, 175–176, 712
MMBtu, 44, 45, 712
Modulating
boilers, 62–64, 712
DC outputs, 337–338
heat production, 341
heat source, 342
Modulating/condensing boilers, 62–64,
341, 712
efficiency of, 77–78
multiple boiler systems using, 83–85
Modulation, 63, 712
Monoflo tees®, 160, 712. (See also
Diverter tee(s))
Most favored crossover, 680
Motorized actuators, 176
Mounting rail system, 142
MPT. (See Male threads)
Mud, 617
Multicirculator systems, 529
hydraulic separation and, 531–533
creating, 533–534
mixing within, 534–538
summary, 538
Multifunction tank, 578
Multifunction time delay device, 362, 712
Multiload/multitemperature systems,
7, 712
Multiple boiler
controllers, 712
system, 78–86, 87Index 727
using conventional and mod\con
boilers, 85–86
using fixed firing rate conventional
boilers, 78–83
using mod/con boilers, 83–85
Multiple heat source
controllers
for modulating heat sources,
386–387
for on/off heat sources,
385–386
Multiple manifold systems, 506–507
Multispeed circulators, 246–247
Multistage heat production,
339–341, 712
Multistage thermostat, 369
Multi-temperature radiant panel
systems, 507, 509–512
Multizone
relay center, 378–379, 712
systems, 518, 538–545, 712
using zone valves, 545–552
using zone circulators, design of,
540–545
Multizone/zone valve system, design
procedure for, 545–548,
551–552, 712
Municipal heating mains, 674
MWh (megawatt-hours) units, 672
N
National Fenestration Rating Council
(NFRC), 31
National Fire Protection Agency, 71
National Fuel Gas Code, 71, 712
National pipe thread (NPT), 153,
158, 712
Natural convection, 10, 11, 280, 281,
630, 712
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC)
thermistor, 370
Net Positive Suction Head Available
(NPSHA), 265–267, 712
Net Positive Suction Head Required
(NPSHR), 267–268, 712
Networked control system, 412
Networked heat metering systems,
676–677
NFPA. (See National Fire Protection
Agency)
Nominal inside diameter, 140, 712
Nonbarrier tubing, 155, 712
Noncondensing mode, 58, 712
Noninvasive installation, 7–9
Nonlinear, 344
Non-pressure-rated tanks, 92
Normally
closed contacts, 359, 712
open contacts, 359, 712
NPSHA. (See Net Positive Suction
Head Available)
NPT. (See National pipe thread)
Nuclear radiation, 422
O
Off-cycle
heat loss, 54
losses, 712
Off-peak periods, 712
Offset, 332, 712
Ohm’s law, 207
Oil-fired condensing boilers, 62, 70
On/off
control, 334, 712
output, 334–335
of single-stage heat source, 338–339
180-degree return bend, 284
One-pipe
systems, 161, 526, 712
design procedure for, 528–529, 530
Open-loop
sources, 94, 712
system, 13, 712
Open protocols, 412
Operating
analytical method for finding the,
259–260
differential, 335, 712
cost, theoretical annual, 225–226
modes, 358, 712
point, 245, 713
region, 250
Operation
clean, 7
quiet, 7
OR decision, 362
Outdoor reset control, 345–358, 713
theory of, 347–348
implementation of, 351–355
Outdoor wood-fired furnaces, 114–115
Output, 73, 331
signals, 333
Overshoot, 335, 368, 713
Oxides, 608
Oxygen diffusion, 153–156, 713
barrier, 154, 713
P
Packaged boilers, 52, 713
Packing
gland, 166
nut, 166
Panel radiator, 279, 304–317, 713
benefits of, 304–306
designer radiators, 310, 313
fan-enhanced, 311, 316
flat-tube, 306–308
fluted-channel, 309, 310, 311
freestanding, 308
head loss of, 319–320
piping for, 316–317
thermal performance, 311, 314–315
towel warmer, 309–310, 312
vertical, 306, 307
Parallel
circulators in, 248–250
direct return piping, 713
direct-return system, 552–556
manual design procedure for,
555–556
distribution systems, 552
hydraulic resistances, 218–222
piping, 165, 713
primary circuit, 570, 713
pumps, 713
reverse-return piping, 556, 713
reverse-return systems, 556–559
manual design procedure for, 559
shifting, 350, 713
staging/modulation, 387
Parallel-piped baseboard, 291–292
Partial
load conditions, 54
reset control, 352–353, 385, 713
storage ETS systems, 90, 713
Partner valve, 689
Paver-covered surfaces, SIM
installations for, 655–656
Paste flux, 144–145
Pellet-fueled boilers, 120–121
Performance envelope, of boiler, 78
Perimeter circuits, 475–476, 713
Periodic flow reversal, 661, 713
Permanent split capacitor (PSC), 236,
250, 256, 401, 714
PEX tubing, 148–150, 207, 306, 318,
424, 435, 435, 439, 454, 472,
559, 560, 655, 713
PEX-AL-PEX tubing, 150–152, 207,
306, 318, 435, 435, 439, 454,
461, 471, 559, 560, 655, 713
Photo documentation, 438
Pickup allowance, 73, 713
Pipe adapters, 504
Pipe Heat Loss module, 322
Pipe size, 140, 218, 713
coefficient, 210, 713
considerations, 225–229
selecting, 228
Piped in parallel, 219, 713
Piping
buffer tank, 663–665, 666
common, 531
components
paths containing multiple pipe
sizes, 218
represented as series resistors,
215–218
schematic symbols for, 191,
192, 695
device model, 208, 209
fluid flow in, 197–229
installation, tips on, 191–193
loops, fluid-filled, 205
materials, 140–156
for panel radiators, 316–317
parallel, 165
and settings for indirect water
heaters, 638–639
standoff supports, 141
subassembly, 526
systems, reducing complex, 222–224
thermal expansion of, 162–165
topology, 563, 713
Plate and frame heat exchanger, 629, 713
Plateless staple-up systems, 462–464, 713
radiant floor panels, 428728 Index
Point of no pressure change, 239,
599–602, 713
Poles, 359, 713
Polymer, 140, 713
Polyethylene tubing (PEX), 95
Polyline, 481
Pool heat exchanger placement,
648–650, 651
Pool/spa heating, 6, 646–650, 651
Poured gypsum underlayments, 445, 713
Power venting, 68, 714
exhaust systems, 68–70
Prefabricated
panels for suspended ceilings, 428
subfloor/underlayment radiant floor
panels, 428, 464–465
Premix combustion system, 63
Preset method, 683
Press-fit joint, 147, 714
Pressure
converting between head and
differential, 242–243
drop charts, 211–212
head, 203, 234, 714
relationship between head and,
203–204
testing, 436–438
Pressure-regulated circulator, 175, 714
Pressure-rated steel tanks, 91
Pressure-reducing valve, 15, 170–171, 714
Pressure-relief valve, 15, 173–174, 714
Primary
circuit, 564, 714
combustion chamber, 116
heat exchanger, 61
side, 363, 714. (See also
Transformer)
Primary/secondary
circuit interface, 714
(P/S) piping, 563, 714
systems, 549, 563–575
flow reversal in, 573–575
indirect water heaters in, 572–573
purging provisions for, 573
tees, 714
Priming, 234, 714
Priority
control, 365
load, 361–362, 628, 637, 714
override, 366
zone, 379, 545
Processing
algorithms, 331, 714
derivative (D), 335
integral (I), 335
Programmable thermostats, 370, 714
Proportional
band, 332, 714
control (P), 332–333, 714
differential pressure control,
254–255, 714
reset, 356–358, 714
limitations of, 358
Proportional-integral control (PI),
333, 714
Proportional-integral-derivative control
(PID), 333–334, 366, 714
Proprietary protocols, 412
PSC. (See Permanent split capacitor)
Pulse width modulation (PWM),
335–336, 400, 714
Pump curve, 243, 244, 714
flat, using circulator with, 548–549
Pumps
centrifugal, 234, 714
efficiency, 714
variable speed
injection mixing using, 401–406
Purge, 171
cart, 620, 621–623, 714
valve, 714
Purger, air, 614. (See also Air, scoop)
Purging, 15, 714
gravity, 619
valves, 15, 171, 504
Push/pull arrangement, 248
PVC, 92, 93
Pyrolytic gases, 115–116
Q
Quantity of heat, 128
Quick opening valve, 345, 714
Quiet operation, 7
R
R-value, 22, 23
effective total, 25
of material, 715
of an assembly, total, 24
of common building materials,
697–698
Radiant
baseboard, 317–318, 715
ceiling panels, 471–474
modular, 472
floor heating, 339
heat, 422. (See also Thermal
radiation)
heating, 422–423, 715
panel, 12, 423, 715
benefits of, 424–426
ceiling panels, 428
circuit, thermal model of, 489–491
circuit sizing procedure, 483–484,
486, 488–500
distribution systems, zoning
option for, 507
history, 423–424
physiology, 426–428
surface temperature limitations, 488
system, multi-temperature, 507,
509–512
wall (tube and plate), 428, 465–470
Radiators, 280, 715
Rangeability, 344, 670, 715
Rate of heat
flow, 25–26
loss, 10
transfer, 23, 129
Rating, external VA, 376
Real time inputs, 715
Recessed fan-coils, 296
Recessed floor box, 318
Reference pressure, 689
Reference valve, 689
Refrigerant, 93
Refrigeration cycle, 93–94, 715
Reinforced polypropylene (PP-R)
tubing, 152–153
Relay, 358, 359–362, 715
contacts
closed, 359
open, 359
general purpose, 360–361, 708
socket, 360, 715
time delay, 361–362
Remote bulb aquastat, 372, 715
Renewable energy heat sources, 102–112
solar collectors, 104–106
evacuated tube collectors, 104, 106
flat plate collectors, 104, 105
performance of, 106–109
solar combisystems
antifreeze-based systems, 110–111
drain-back systems, 111–112
solar energy, 104
solar thermal systems, 104
Reset
line, 348, 715
ratio, 348–349, 715
Resistance, 207
loads, 359
Respiration, 5
Return main, 679
Return manifold, 502, 715
Reverse injection mixing, 405–406, 715
Reverse-return piping, 316, 715
parallel, 556–559, 713
Reversible hydronic heat pumps, 100
Reynold?s number, 206–207, 715
Rise velocity, of bubble, 610
Riser, 686
Rod clamp, 141
Room
air temperature profile, 426–428, 715
-by-room
calculations, 37–38
flow control, 477
temperature control, 174
zoning, 425, 518
heating loads, 22, 715
side heat flux, 484, 486, 715
temperature unit (RTU), 715
thermostat, 13, 330, 715
Rotor, 235
Rough openings, 439
Run fraction, 75, 715
Rung, 363, 715. (See also Ladder
diagram)
S
Saddle fusion, 153
Saturation pressure, 608
Savings, energy, 5–6
Schematic symbols for
electrical components, 696
piping components, 191, 192, 695Index 729
Scoop, air, 614. (See also Air, purger)
Score and snap method, 453
Screed, 441
Sealed combustion, 63, 715
boilers, 70
Seasonal efficiency, 77
Secondary
circuits, 564, 715
heat exchanger, 61
side, 363, 715. (See also Transformer)
Sectional boiler, 52, 715
Sections, 52, 715
Selective surface, 104
Self-balancing, 556
Sensible heat, 125, 715
quantity equation, 128–129
rate equation, 129–130
Sensing element, 331, 715
Sensor, 331
bulb, 183
snow/ice pavement, 659
well, 183, 372–373, 715
Series
Baseboard Simulator, 287, 288, 291,
524, 715
circuit, 215
circulators in, 247–248
piping
circuit, 715
path, 215, 715
primary circuits, 567–570, 716
staging/modulation, 387
Series-connected components, equivalent
resistance of, 216–218
Serpentine patterns, 475, 716
Setback, 716
Setpoint
controller, 372–373, 716
demand, 385, 641, 716
single-stage electronic, 373
temperature, 5, 334, 716
two-stage electronic, 373–374
Settings, 331
Shaft seals, 236, 716
Shape memory, 150
Shell and tube heat exchanger, 629, 716
Short-cycle, 663
Short cycling, 334, 716
Shutoff valves, 15
SIM. (See Hydronic, snow and ice
melting systems)
Single
circuit/multizone (one-pipe) system,
525–529, 716
line drawing, 412
pole (SP) switches, 359
pole/double throw (SPDT) switches,
359, 373
series circuit, 523–525, 716
throw (ST) switches, 359
Single-stage heat source, on/off control
of, 338–339
Sink, 92, 716
Siphon, 579, 716
Sizing parallel-piped baseboards,
292–294
Slab-on-grade radiant floor panels,
429–439, 478, 716
installation procedure, 433–436
Sleepers, 441, 449, 716
Sleeping comfort, desired, 521
Sleeve/roller supports, 163–164
Sliding scales, 45
Smart circulators, 250–257
Smooth pipe, 716
Snow/ice pavement sensor, 659, 716
Snow switch, 659, 716
Snowmelting, 6
Socket fusion, 153
Soft soldering, 143
Soft temper tubing, 141, 716
Software-assisted design, 500
Software-based circuit analysis, 224–225
Solar
circulation station, 677, 716
collectors, 104–106
evacuated tube collectors, 104, 106
flat plate collectors, 104, 105
performance of, 106–109
combisystems
antifreeze-based systems, 110–111
drain-back systems, 111–112
energy, 104
heat gain, effect of, 521
radiation, 104
thermal systems, 104
Solar Rating and Certification
Corporation (SRCC), 108, 109
Soldering, 143, 716
joints, making good, 143–146
tips on, 146–147
Solid-fuel boilers, 52, 113–121, 716
combination wood/oil boilers, 113–114
outdoor wood-fired furnaces, 114–115
pellet-fueled boilers, 120–121
wood-burning boilers, efficiency of,
119
wood-fueled boilers, 113
types of, 113
wood-gasification boilers, 115–119
Source, 92, 716
water, 94
Spa heating, 646–650, 651
Space
heat demand, 386, 716
heating, 6, 7, 716
Specific heat, 126–127, 716
Spool, 177, 716
Spring-loaded check valve, 169, 539, 716
Stack effect, 716
Stacked home run system, 562–563,
564, 716
Stage control, 716
Stages, 78, 339
Staging and modulation, combining,
341–343
Stagnation pressure, 405
Stand alone versus communicating
controllers, 412–413
Standard
expansion tank, 588, 716
sizing, 590–591
Standard-port ball valve, 167, 716
Standoff piping supports, 141
Starting point line, 350
Starting torque, 250
Static pressure, 199–202, 716
Stationary air pockets, 609–610, 717
Stator, 235
Steady-state
efficiency, 74–75, 717
Steam flash, 131
Steel fire-tube boiler, 54–55
Steep pump curves, 246
Step-by-step circuit sizing procedure,
492–500
Storage heat exchanger, 110
Storage tank, combining tankless coil
with, 635–636
Strainer, 629, 717
Strap-on aquastat, 372, 717
Straight pattern, 174, 190, 191
Stratification, 6, 282, 717
air temperature, 428
Streamlines, 205
Street elbows, 156
Striping, 445, 464, 717
Subassembly, piping, 526
Sub-atmospheric pressure, 619
Subfloor, 439
Subgrade, 433, 717
Submixing, 717
Substrate, 449, 467, 717
Subsystems, 717
Superplasticizer, 442
Supply
main, 679
manifold, 502, 717
water temperature, 717
Suspended tube systems, 460–462, 717
radiant floor panels, 428
Sustained
flue gas condensation, 53, 58, 59, 60
water flow, 98–100
Swing-check valve, 168–169, 717
Switches, 358
flow, 674
snow, 659
Symbol palette, 191, 717
System
curve, 214
design, importance of, 17
equilibrium, 521–522
head loss curve, 214–215, 717
piping and temperature control
options, 500–512
turndown ratio, 83–84, 85, 342,
674, 717
volume, estimating, 597–598
T
T-bar ceiling systems, 472
T-Drill®, 566, 717
T-drilled connections, 81
Tank-type water heater, 4
Tankless coil, 379–380, 634–635, 717730 Index
Tank-within-a-tank design, 637
Target
flow rate, 525, 717
temperature, 351
value, 331, 717
Tees, 156
Temperature
97.5% design dry bulb, 22
controls, 13–14
dewpoint, 56–57, 58
difference, 10
drop, 492, 717
gradients, 463
limit control, 717
mean radiant, 11
setpoint, 5
Temperature-limiting controller, 13
Temperature-regulated circulators, 270
Therm, 717
Thermal
accumulators, 664, 717
break, 717
clutch, 390
conductivity, 10, 23, 717
contraction, 164–165
energy, 3, 717
envelope, 31–32, 717
equilibrium, 12–13, 322–326, 521, 717
expansion, 162, 587, 717
valve, 94
mass, 53, 425, 717
effect of, 518–520
migration prevention, in P/S systems,
566–567
model, of radiant panel circuit,
489–491
radiation, 5, 11, 280, 422, 426, 717
resistance, 23–24, 717
substations, 674–676, 717
trap, 400, 717
wick, 429
Thermistor, 370, 717
Thermodynamics
first law of, 245
of mixing, 388–389
Thermographic image, 422, 717
Thermoplastics, 149, 718
Thermos® bottle, 104
Thermoset plastic, 149, 718
Thermosiphoning, 16, 539, 667, 718
Thermostat, master, 527
Thermostat, room, 13, 366–367
electronic, 370–371
placement considerations, 369
single-stage electromechanical,
366–369
two-stage electromechanical, 369–370
Thermostatic
actuator, 718
mixing valve, 718
motor, 181
operator, 174
radiator valves (TRV), 174–175,
308, 718
Threaded adapters, 156
Three-piece circulator, 236, 718
Three-wire control, 337, 718. (See also
Floating control)
Three-way diverter valves, 184,
186–188, 507
Three-way motorized mixing valves,
176–178, 179, 395–396
Three-way thermostatic mixing valves,
181–183, 394–395
Threshold differential pressure, 549
Threshold setting (of DPBV), 550, 518
Throws, 359, 718
Time delay relays, 361–362, 718
Time-of-use rates, 52, 90
Ton (of capacity), 718
Total
building heating load, 38–40
equivalent length, 216, 217, 718
head, 203, 718
heat transferred, 673
R-value of
an assembly, 24, 718
room-by-room calculations,
37–38
thermal envelope surfaces, 36–37
Towel warmer, 280, 309–310,
312, 718
Transformer, 363, 718
Triac, 401, 718
Triple
action control, 379–382, 718
pole (3P) switches, 359, 360
Tristate control, 337, 718. (See also
Floating control)
TRVs. (See Thermostatic radiator
valves)
Tube
depth within slab, 429–431
placement considerations, 474–482
and plate
ceiling panels, 428
system, 449, 718
size, effect of, 429
spacing within slab, 431–433
systems, extended surface
suspended, 461–462
Tubing
copper, heat loss from, 320–322
layout drawing, 433
Turbulators, 54, 718
Turbulent, 205
flow, 206, 718
Turndown ratio, 63, 718
Turn-off differential, 374
Turn-on differential, 374
2 to 10 VDC, 333
Two-pipe
circulators, 236–237
direct return systems, 189
reverse return piping
configuration, 254
systems, 552–556, 718
Two-way motorized valve
injection mixing using, 400–401
Two-way thermostatic valve, 183
injection mixing using, 398–400
Two-wire digital bus, 718
TXV. (See Thermal expansion valve)
Tyvek®, 449, 455
U
U-value, 31, 718
Uncoiler, 435, 718
Unconfined space, 71, 718
Undershoot, 335, 368, 718
Underside insulation, 443
Underslab insulation, 429
Underslung thermal trap, 567, 718
Unions, 156
Unit heater, 297–298, 718. (See also
Fan coils, overhead)
Unit U-value, 31
Unsaturated state of air solubility,
614–615, 718
Usage profile, DHW, 633–634, 718
User-definable I/O, 414–415
V
Valve
actuators, 375, 504, 719
angle, 166–167, 701
balancing, 189–190, 570, 701
ball, 167–168, 238, 702
check, 168–169, 703
spring-loaded, 169, 539, 716
differential pressure bypass, 188
diverter, 705
dumb, 394
dumb mixing, 177
fast-fill, 15
feed water, 15, 170–171, 707
flow-check, 16, 174, 539, 667, 708
four-way motorized mixing,
178–181, 396–397
full port ball, 167, 171, 708
gate, 165–166, 238, 708
globe, 166, 708
integral flow-check, 270
lockshield, 190–191, 711
metered balancing, 711
mixing, 175–176, 712
pressure-reducing, 15, 714
pressure-relief, 15, 173–174, 714
purge, 15, 171, 714
purging, 171
quick opening, 345, 714
shutoff, 15
standard-port ball, 167, 716
thermal expansion, 94
thermostatic
mixing, 718
radiator (TRV), 174–175, 718
three-way diverter, 184, 186–188
three-way motorized mixing,
176–178, 179, 395–396
three-way thermostatic mixing,
181–183, 394–395
two-way thermostatic, 183,
398–400
venturi-type balancing, 189
Valved manifold, 719
station, 502
Valveless manifold, 502, 719
Valves
common types of, 165–169Index 731
specialty for hydronic applications,
170–191
Vapor
barrier, 433, 719
pressure, 131, 265, 719
Variable
controlled, 331
firing rate heat production, 341
flow rate control, 344–345
frequency drive, 552
manipulated, 331
speed
circulators, 719
drive, 401, 719
injection mixing, 719
pressure-regulated circulators, 552
speed pump
(direct) injection mixing using,
401–405
(reverse) injection mixing using,
405–406
water temperature control, 343–344
VAs. (See Volt-amps)
Velocity
head, 203, 234, 719
noise, 719
profile, 198, 719
Vent ell, 159. (See also Baseboard tee)
Vents, high point, 612–617
automatic, 613
float-type, 613–614
manual, 612–613
Venturi fitting. (See Monoflo tees®)
Venturi-type balancing valves, 189
Vertical
panel radiator, 306, 307, 719
supply air ducting, 71
Viscosity, 131–132, 719
Viscous friction, 204, 719
Voltage, 207
Volt-amps (VA), 375–376, 718, 719
Volute, 234, 236, 719
W
Wall-hung boilers, 56
Wall panels, radiant, 465–470
installation procedure, 467–469
thermal performance, 469–470
Warm weather shut down (WWSD), 719
Water
hammer, 375
physical properties of, 3, 125–134
plate, 309, 719
temperature limitations, 100–102
Waterlogged, 589, 618, 719
Water-reducing agent, 442
Water-tube boilers, 55–56
Web-enabled, 414, 719
Welded wire fabric (WWF), 434, 654, 655
Wet-base boiler, 52, 53, 719
Wet rotor circulator, 235–236, 262, 719
Wind chill effect, 10, 426
Wireless thermostats, 371–372
Wire-to-water efficiency, 236, 260, 719
of circulator, 261–263
Wood-burning boilers, efficiency of, 119
Wood-fired
boilers, efficiency of, 119
furnaces, outdoor, 114–115
Wood-fueled boilers, 113
types of, 113
Wood-gasification boilers, 115–119, 719
Working pressure, 719
rating, 143
WWF. (See Welded wire fabric)
Y
Youker system, 441–444
Z
Zone, 518, 719
circulators, 270
coordination, 415–416
priority, 379
valve, 183–184, 185–186, 335,
375–378, 719
four-wire, 376, 377
multizone systems using, 545–552
systems, using variable-speed
pressure-regulated circulators,
551–552
Zoned systems, occupant management
of, 520–521
Zoning, 5, 719
of unoccupied areas, 521
of transitory areas, 521Hydronics Design Studio
PROFESSIONAL version 2.0
By Mario Restive & John Siegenthaler
Visual Heat Load Estimator:
Series Baseboard Simulator:
Hydronic Circuit Simulator:
Expansion Tank Sizer:
Fluid Properties Calculator:
Equivalent Length Calculator:
Hydraulic Resistance Calculator:
Pipe Sizer:
Pipe Heat Loss Estimator:
Heating Cost Estimator:
A full set of powerful software tools
to assist heating professionals in designing
high performance hydronic heating systems
Here's what the tools do:
head added / loss (feet)
available for download at
www.hydronicpros.com
Injection Mixing Simulator:
Buffer Tank Simulator:


 كلمة سر فك الضغط : books-world.net
The Unzip Password : books-world.net
أتمنى أن تستفيدوا من محتوى الموضوع وأن ينال إعجابكم

رابط من موقع عالم الكتب لتنزيل كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings
رابط مباشر لتنزيل كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
 
كتاب Modern Hydronic Heating - For Residential and Light Commercial Buildings
الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة 
صفحة 2 من اصل 1

صلاحيات هذا المنتدى:لاتستطيع الرد على المواضيع في هذا المنتدى
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى :: المنتديات الهندسية :: منتدى الكتب والمحاضرات الهندسية :: منتدى كتب ومحاضرات الأقسام الهندسية المختلفة-
انتقل الى: