كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD
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 كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD

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عدد المساهمات : 16359
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD    كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD  Emptyالثلاثاء 01 سبتمبر 2020, 7:47 pm

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD
Second Edition
Ajeet Singh
Retired Professor and Head of Mechanical Engineering Department
Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology
Allahabad  

كتاب Machine Drawing - Includes AutoCAD  M_d_i_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface vii
Acknowledgements xi
PART A DRAWING FUNDAMENTALS 1
1. Introduction to Drawing 1
1.1 What is a Drawing? 1
1.2 Uses of Drawings 1
1.3 Elements of Graphics 2
1.4 Methods of Expression 3
1.5 Methods of Size Description 3
1.6 Methods of Preparing Drawings 4
1.7 Types of Mechanical Drawings 4
1.8 Drawing Standards 7
Theory Questions 7
Viva-Voce Questions 7
Multiple Choice Questions 7
2. Computer Aided Drafting 9
2.1 Introduction to Computer Aided Drafting 9
2.2 Advantages of Computer Aided Drafting 9
2.3 Starting the AutoCAD Program 9
2.4 AutoCAD Opening Screen 9
2.5 AutoCAD Commands 12
2.6 Function Key Assignments 12
2.7 Short-Cut Key Characters 12
2.8 UCS and UCSICON 13
2.9 Coordinate System 13
2.10 Units 14
2.11 Viewing a Drawing 14
2.12 Drawing Aids 15
2.13 Object Snap 15
2.14 Drawing Basic Entities 18xiv Contents
2.15 Correcting Mistakes 27
2.16 Object Selection 27
2.17 Modify Commands 28
2.18 Modify Properties 33
2.19 Match Properties 33
2.20 Pedit 34
2.21 Grips 34
Theory Questions 38
Viva-Voce Questions 39
Multiple Choice Questions 39
Problems for Practice 42
3. Drawing Apparatus 44
3.1 Introduction to Drawing Equipment 44
3.2 Triangles 45
3.3 Ruler 45
3.4 Scales 46
3.5 Protractor 46
3.6 French Curves 46
3.7 Instrument Box 46
3.8 Stencils 47
3.9 Inking Pens 48
3.10 Drawing Sheet 49
3.11 Types of Paper 52
3.12 Drawing Sheet Fasteners 52
3.13 Pencils 53
3.14 Drawing Ink 54
3.15 Eraser 54
CAD
3.16 Equipment for Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) 54
3.17 Computer Software 56
Theory Questions 56
Viva-Voce Questions 56
Multiple Choice Questions 57
4. Lines and Freehand Sketching 59
4.1 Lines 59
4.2 Precedence of Lines 60
4.3 Thickness of a Line 60
4.4 Drawing Lines 60
4.5 Freehand Sketching 61
CAD
4.6 Lines Using CAD 64
4.7 Sketch Command 67
Theory Questions 69Contents xv
Viva-Voce Questions 69
Multiple Choice Questions 69
Assignment on Lines, Circles and Arcs 70
Problems for Practice 71
5. Lettering 72
5.1 Introduction 72
5.2 Guide Lines 72
5.3 Spacing between Lines 72
5.4 Width of Characters 72
5.5 Line Thickness of Letters 73
5.6 Spacing between Letters 74
5.7 Inclined Letters 74
CAD
5.8 Text Command 74
5.9 Mtext Command 77
5.10 Arc Aligned Text 77
5.11 Editing Text 77
Theory Questions 79
Viva-Voce Questions 80
Multiple Choice Questions 80
Assignment on Lettering 81
CAD Assignment on Lettering 81
6. Basic Dimensioning 82
6.1 Introduction 82
6.2 Elements of Dimensioning 82
6.3 Dimensioning Circular Arcs 87
6.4 Dimensioning Diameters 87
6.5 Dimensioning Holes 87
6.6 Dimensioning Angles 88
6.7 Dimensioning Chamfers 89
6.8 Dimensioning Tapers 89
6.9 Dimensioning Undercuts 89
6.10 Dimensioning Repetitive Features 89
6.11 Dimensioning Equidistant Features 90
6.12 Dimensioning Threads 90
6.13 Dimensioning Curves 90
6.14 Dimensioning Methods 90
6.15 Placement of Dimensions 92
6.16 Sequence of Dimensioning 92
CAD
6.17 Layers 92
6.18 Dimensioning Commands 96
6.19 Dimensioning Methods 99xvi Contents
6.20 More Dimension Methods 102
Theory Questions 109
Viva-Voce Questions 109
Multiple Choice Questions 109
Assignment on Dimensioning 111
CAD Assignment on Dimensioning 111
Problems for Practice 112
PART B METHODS OF PROJECTION 113
7. Orthographic Projections 113
7.1 Introduction 113
7.2 What is Projection? 113
7.3 Types of Views 113
7.4 Principle Picture Planes 115
7.5 Methods of Orthographic Projection 115
7.6 Hidden Details 117
7.7 Preliminary Decisions for Making a Drawing 118
7.8 Projecting Side Views 119
7.9 Projection of Straight Inclined Face 121
7.10 Projection of Circular Boundaries 121
7.11 Projection of Curved Boundaries 121
7.12 Understanding Orthographic Views (Blue Print Reading) 121
7.13 Missing Views 122
7.14 Some Drawing Conventions 123
7.15 Sequence of Drawing 123
CAD
7.16 Drawing Orthographic Views 127
7.17 Plotting 127
Thoery Questions 131
Viva-Voce Questions 132
Multiple Choice Questions 132
Assignement on Orthographic Views 133
CAD Assignment on Orthographic Views 134
Homework 134
Problems for Practice 135
Assignment on Missing Views 136
Problems for Practice 137
8. Sectional Views 138
8.1 Introduction 138
8.2 Types of Sections 138
8.3 Conventions in Sectioning 141
8.4 Section Lines (Hatching) 143Contents xvii
CAD
8.5 Hatching using AutoCAD 149
Theory Questions 151
Viva-Voce Questions 152
Multiple Choice Questions 152
Assignment 1 on Sectional Views 153
CAD Assignment on Sectional Views 154
Assignment on Half Sectional Views 155
CAD Assignment on Half Sectional Views 156
Problems for Practice 156
Diffi cult Problems for Practice 157
9. Auxiliary Views 161
9.1 Introduction 161
9.2 Types of Inclined Surfaces 161
9.3 Drawing Auxiliary View of an Inclined Surface 162
9.4 Drawing Auxiliary View of a Curved Surface 162
9.5 Illusions in Auxiliary Views 164
9.6 Skew Surfaces 164
CAD
9.7 Construction Lines 169
Theory Questions 171
Viva-Voce Questions 171
Multiple Choice Questions 171
Assignment on Auxiliary Views 172
CAD Assignment on Auxiliary Views 173
Problems for Practice 174
10. Axonometric Views and Oblique Views 175
10.1 Introduction 175
10.2 Types of Pictorial Views 175
10.3 Axonometric Views 176
10.4 Isometric Scale 177
10.5 Drawing Isometric Views 177
10.6 Projections of Non-Isometric Lines 178
10.7 Isometric View of Angles 179
10.8 Isometric Drawing of Circles 179
10.9 Isometric Drawing of Arcs 181
10.10 Isometric Drawing of Curved Objects 181
10.11 Isometric Sections 181
10.12 Dimensioning Isometric Drawings 182
10.13 Reversed Isometric 182
10.14 Dimetric Projections 182
10.15 Trimetric Projections 182
10.16 Oblique Projection 183xviii Contents
10.17 Drawing an Oblique View 183
10.18 Cabinet View 185
CAD
10.19 Isometric Grid 189
10.20 Isocircle 190
10.21 Viewports Command 190
10.22 Types of 3D Models 192
10.23 User Coordinate System (UCS) 193
10.24 Views 193
Theory Questions 197
Viva-Voce Questions 197
Multiple Choice Questions 198
Assignment on Isometric and Dimetric Views 199
CAD Assignment on Isometric Views 200
Assignment on Oblique Views 201
CAD Assignment on Oblique Views 202
Homework 202
Problems For Practice 204
11. Perspective Views 205
11.1 Introduction 205
11.2 Terminology 205
11.3 Factors Affecting Appearance 206
11.4 Selection of Parameters 206
11.5 Types of Perspective Views 208
11.6 Drawing a Perspective View 208
11.7 Perspective View of a Cylinder 211
11.8 Drawing a Perspective View of a Circle 211
11.9 Graticulation 213
CAD
11.10 Rays 217
11.11 Dview Command 217
Theory Questions 219
Viva-Voce Questions 219
Multiple Choice Questions 220
Assignment on Perspective Views 220
CAD Assignment on Perspective Views 221
Problems for Practice 222
PART C JOINTS AND COUPLINGS 223
12. Riveted Joints 223
12.1 Introduction 223
12.2 Rivets 223
12.3 Making a Riveted Joint 224Contents xix
12.4 Classification of Riveted Joints 225
12.5 Joint Proportions 228
12.6 Applications of Riveted Joints 230
12.7 Structural Joints 230
12.8 Boiler Joints 234
12.9 Light Work Applications 236
CAD
12.10 Block 238
12.11 Creating a Block (Block Command) 238
12.12 Retrieving a Block (Insert Command) 239
12.13 Inserting a Block at Many Places (Minsert Command) 241
Theory Questions 242
Viva-Voce Questions 242
Multiple Choice Questions 242
Assignment on Riveted Joints 244
CAD Assignment On Riveted Joints 244
Homework 244
Problems for Practice 244
13. Threads 245
13.1 Introduction 245
13.2 Terminology 245
13.3 Classification of Threads 247
13.4 Thread Profile 247
13.5 Pitch of Thread 249
13.6 Thread Designation 249
13.7 Specifications of Threads 251
13.8 Thread Representation 251
13.9 Internal Threads 253
CAD
13.10 Array Command 254
Theory Questions 258
Viva-Voce Questions 258
Multiple Choice Questions 258
Assignment on Screw Threads 259
CAD Assignment on Screw Threads 260
Homework 260
Problems For Practice 260
14. Bolts and Nuts 261
14.1 Introduction 261
14.2 Terminology 261
14.3 Bolt Proportions 261
14.4 Drawing a Bolt/Nut 262
14.5 Studs 264xx Contents
14.6 Screws 265
14.7 Locking Devices 266
14.8 Special Nuts 266
14.9 External Locking Devices 269
14.10 Spring Washers 270
14.11 Bolts and Nuts for Special Applications 270
CAD
14.12 Wblock Command 272
Theory Questions 274
Viva-Voce Questions 275
Multiple Choice Questions 275
Assignment 1 on Bolts and Nuts 276
Assignment 2 on Locking Devices 276
CAD Assignment on Bolts and Nuts 277
Homework 277
Problems for Practice 277
15. Welded Joints 278
15.1 Introduction 278
15.2 Types of Welding Processes 278
15.3 Types of Joints 279
15.4 Edge Preparation 279
15.5 Symbols 280
15.6 Specifying a Welded Joint 282
15.7 Fillet Welds 286
15.8 Groove Welds 287
15.9 Spot Welds 288
15.10 Seam Welds 289
15.11 Plug Welds 289
15.12 Surface Welding 290
CAD
15.13 Graphic Library 293
Theory Questions 294
Viva-Voce Questions 294
Multiple Choice Questions 294
Assignment on Welded Joints 295
CAD Assignment on Welded Joints 296
Homework 297
Problems for Practice 298
16. Shafts, Keys, Cotter and Pin Joints 299
16.1 Shafts 299
16.2 Keys 300
16.3 Types of Keys 301
16.4 Splines (IS 2327:1991, IS 3665:1990, IS 13088:1991) 304Contents xxi
16.5 Cotter Joints 305
16.6 Knuckle Joint 307
CAD
16.7 Solid Modeling 307
16.8 Solid Modeling Commands 309
16.9 Operations on 2D Objects to Convert to 3D Objects 310
16.10 Operations on 3D Solids 310
16.11 Composite Solids 313
Theory Questions 317
Viva-Voce Questions 317
Multiple Choice Questions 317
Assignment on Keys and Joints 319
CAD Assignment on Keys and Joints 319
Homework 319
Problems for Practice 319
17. Couplings and Clutches 320
17.1 Couplings 320
17.2 Muff Couplings 320
17.3 Rigid Flange Couplings 321
17.4 Flexible Couplings 323
17.5 Parallel Coupling (Oldham’s) 324
17.6 Universal Coupling 325
17.7 Constant Velocity Joint 326
17.8 Detachable Couplings 327
17.9 Slip Couplings 327
CAD
17.10 3 Darray 330
Theory Questions 333
Viva-Voce Questions 333
Multiple Choice Questions 334
Assignment on Couplings and Clutches 335
CAD Assignment on Couplings and Clutches 335
Homework 335
18. Pipe Joints 336
18.1 Pipes 336
18.2 Pipe Materials 336
18.3 Pipe Designation 336
18.4 Pipe Threads 337
18.5 Types of Pipe Joints 338
18.6 Joints for Cast Iron Pipes 339
18.7 Joints for Copper Pipes 340
18.8 Joints for Wrought Iron Pipes 340
18.9 Joints for Lead Pipes 341xxii Contents
18.10 Joints for Hydraulic Pipes 341
18.11 Union Joint 342
18.12 Expansion Joints 343
18.13 Pipe Fittings 344
18.14 Cast Iron Fittings 345
18.15 Flanged Fittings 346
18.16 PVC Fittings 348
18.17 Valves 348
18.18 Piping Symbols 350
18.19 Piping Layouts 352
18.20 Pipe Supports 353
18.21 Tubes 354
18.22 Tube Joints 355
CAD
18.23 Multilines (Mline Command) 355
18.24 Creating a New Mline Style (Mstyle Command) 356
Theory Questions 361
Viva-Voce Questions 361
Multiple Choice Questions 361
Assignment on Pipe Joints 362
CAD Assignment on Pipe Joints 363
Homework 363
Problems for Practice 364
PART D PRODUCTION DRAWINGS 365
19. Tolerances, Limits and Fits 365
19.1 Introduction 365
19.2 Terminology 365
19.3 Tolerances and Manufacturing Processes 366
19.4 International Tolerance Grade (It Grade) 367
19.5 Fundamental Tolerances 369
19.6 Placing a Dimension with Tolerance 374
19.7 Cumulative Tolerances 374
19.8 Fits 379
19.9 Systems of Fits 379
19.10 Specifying a Fit 380
19.11 Types of Fits 380
19.12 Selection of Fits 381
19.13 Fits for Thread Fasteners 387
19.14 Gauges 387
CAD
19.15 Putting Tolerances using CAD 387
Theory Questions 390Contents xxiii
Viva-Voce Questions 391
Multiple Choice Questions 391
Assignment on Tolerances, Limits and Fits 392
CAD Assignment on Tolerances, Limits and Fits 393
Homework 393
Problems for Practice 394
20. Geometrical Tolerances and Surface Finish 395
20.1 Introduction 395
20.2 Types of Tolerances 395
20.3 Terminology 396
20.4 Frame 396
20.5 Datum 397
20.6 Material Condition 398
20.7 Tolerance Symbol 399
20.8 Tolerance Value 400
20.9 Indicating Geometrical Tolerances on Drawings 400
20.10 Form Tolerance for Single Features 400
20.11 Tolerances on Related Features 402
20.12 Run Out 405
20.13 Surface Texture 409
20.14 Profiles 410
20.15 Surface Roughness Number 410
20.16 Roughness Symbols 411
20.17 Lay 413
20.18 Roughness Grade Number and Grade Symbols 413
20.19 Roughness with Manufacturing Processes 414
20.20 Roughness for Typical Applications 415
20.21 Rules for Putting Roughness Symbols 416
CAD
20.22 Geometric Tolerances 418
Theory Questions 419
Viva-Voce Questions 419
Multiple Choice Questions 420
Assignment on Geometric Tolerances and Surface Roughness 421
CAD Assignment on Geometric Tolerances and Surface Roughness 422
Homework 422
Problems for Practice 423
21. Material Specifications 425
21.1 Intro duction 425
21.2 Types of Engineering Materials 425
21.3 Ferrous Metals 426
21.4 Designation of Steels [IS 1762–1974 Part 1] 429
21.5 Steel Designation According to Chemical Composition [IS 7598–1974] 431
21.6 Code Designation for Ferrous Castings [IS 4863–1968] 433xxiv Contents
21.7 Non-Ferrous Metals 433
21.8 Plastics 437
21.9 Bill of Materials 439
CAD
21.10 Table Command 442
21.11 Block Attributes 443
Theory Questions 444
Viva-Voce Questions 444
Multiple Choice Questions 444
22. Production Drawings 446
22.1 Introduction 446
22.2 Title Block 446
22.3 Manufacturing Processes 447
22.4 Heat Treatment Processes 450
22.5 Tooling 451
22.6 Inspection 454
22.7 Jigs 454
22.8 Fixtures 455
22.9 Assembly Drawings 456
22.10 Standard Mechanical Components 457
22.11 Production Drawing 458
22.12 Process Sheet 458
22.13 Title Block 460
Theory Questions 461
Viva-Voce Questions 461
Multiple Choice Questions 462
Assignment on Production Drawings 463
CAD Assignment on Production Drawings 464
Problem for Practice 465
PART E MACHINE PARTS 466
23. Springs 466
23.1 Introduction 466
23.2 Classification 466
23.3 Helical Spring 466
23.4 Leaf Spring 469
23.5 Conventional and Symbolic Representation of Springs 471
23.6 Diaphragm Spring 471
CAD
23.7 Helix Command 472
Theory Questions 475
Viva-Voce Questions 475
Multiple Choice Questions 475Contents xxv
Assignment on Springs 476
CAD Assignment on Springs 476
Homework 477
Problems for Practice 477
24. Belts and Pulleys 478
24.1 Introduction 478
24.2 Belts 478
24.3 Pulleys 480
24.4 Types of Pulleys 480
24.5 Flat Belt Pulleys 481
24.6 Grooved Pulleys 484
24.7 Toothed Pulley 485
24.8 Rope Pulley 486
CAD
24.9 Autolisp 487
24.10 Specifying Variables 490
24.11 Extracting Data from List Variable 491
24.12 Get Commnads 491
24.13 Mathematical Operations 491
24.14 Angles in Autolisp 492
24.15 Logical Operators 492
24.16 Conditional Branching (If Command) 492
24.17 Looping a Program 493
Theory Questions 495
Viva-Voce Questions 495
Multiple Choice Questions 496
Assignment on Belts and Pulleys 497
CAD Assignment on Belts and Pulleys 497
Homework 497
25. Bearings 498
25.1 Introduction 498
25.2 Classification of Bearings 498
25.3 Hydrodynamic Bearings 498
25.4 Plain Journal Bearing 499
25.5 Plain Journal Bearing Materials 499
25.6 Sleeve Bearing Supports 500
25.7 Hangers 503
25.8 Rolling Bearings 504
25.9 Mounting of Rolling Bearings 509
CAD
25.10 Managing Entities 510
Theory Questions 513
Viva-Voce Questions 514xxvi Contents
Multiple Choice Questions 514
Assignment on Bearings and Supports 515
CAD Assignment on Bearings and Supports 516
Homework 516
Problems for Practice 516
26. Gears 517
26.1 Introduction 517
26.2 Terminology 517
26.3 Types of Gears 518
26.4 Gear Tooth Calculations 519
26.5 Tooth Profiles 520
26.6 Base Circle 522
26.7 Drawing Approximate Involute Tooth Profile 523
26.8 Conventional Representation of Gear Teeth 525
26.9 Construction of Gears 525
26.10 Spur Gears 526
26.11 Helical Gears 527
26.12 Bevel Gears 528
26.13 Worm and Worm Wheel 529
26.14 Rack 531
26.15 CAD for Gear 532
Theory Questions 533
Viva-Voce Questions 534
Multiple Choice Questions 534
Assignment on Gears 535
CAD Assignment on Gears 535
Problems for Practice 536
PART F MACHINES 537
27. Part and Assembly Drawings 537
27.1 Introduction 537
27.2 Detail Drawing 537
27.3 Assembly Drawings 540
27.4 Bill of Materials 542
27.5 Steps for Creating Assembly Drawings 544
27.6 Blue Print Reading 545
Theory Questions 549
Viva-Voce Questions 549
Multiple Choice Questions 550
Assignment on Part and Assembly Drawings 551
CAD Assignment on Part and Assembly Drawings 553
Homework 555
Problems for Practice 556Contents xxvii
28. Internal Combustion Engines 558
28.1 Introduction To I.C. Engines 558
28.2 Power System 558
28.3 Fuel System 577
28.4 Ignition System 582
28.5 Cooling System 583
28.6 Lubrication System 584
Multiple Choice Questions 586
Theory Questions 587
Viva-Voce Questions 587
Assignment on I.C. Engines 587
CAD Assignment on I.C. Engines 587
Homework 588
Problems for Practice 588
29. Steam Power Plants 590
29.1 Introduction 590
29.2 Steam Generator (Boiler) 590
29.3 Steam Engine 604
Theory Questions 615
Viva-Voce Questions 615
Multiple Choice Questions 616
Assignment on Steam Power Plants 616
CAD Assignment on Steam Power Plants 617
Homework 617
Problems for Practice 617
30. Machine Tools 618
30.1 Introduction and Scope 618
30.2 Lathe 618
30.3 Shaper 629
30.4 Drilling Machine 633
30.5 Holding and Clamping Devices 635
Theory Questions 640
Viva-Voce Questions 640
Multiple Choice Questions 640
Assignment on Machine Tools 641
CAD Assignment on Machine Tools 641
Homework 641
Problems for Practice 641
Appendix 1 Some Useful Indian Standards 642
Appendix 2 Some Relevant Internet Sites 643
Appendix 3 List of Some Important AutoCAD Commands 644
Appendix 4 Various Tabs on the Ribbon and their Panels 648
Index 65
Index
Symbols
2 Vanishing Points 210
3D Spiral 639
3D Spiral 639
3Darray 330
Polar 330
Rectangular 330
A
Angles in Autolisp 492
Angular Perspective View 210
Applications of Riveted Joints 230
Imensioning 234
Gusset Plates 233
Mating Beams 233
Structural Joints
Angle Joint 231
Build up Girder 232
Seated Connections 232
Structural Sections 230
Structural Joints 230
Arc Aligned Text 77
ARRAY Command 254
Polar Array 255
Rectangular Array 255
Assembly Drawings 456
Assembly Drawings 540
Catalog Assembly Drawings 542
Design Assembly Drawings 540
Detail Assembly Drawings 541
Exploded Assembly Drawing 542
Installation Assembly Drawings 541
Sub-Assembly Drawings 541
Assembly Section 140
AutoCAD Commands 12, 644
AutoCAD Program 9
Opening Screen 9
Starting 9
The Command Line 11
The Drawing Area 11
The Status Line 11
The UCS Icon 11
Autolisp 487
Executing 490
Extracting Data from List Variable 491
Loading 490
Specifying Variables 490
Auxiliary Section 140
Auxiliary Views 161, 642, 643, 644, 648
Axonometric Views 175, 176
Axonometric Views and Oblique Views 642, 643,
644, 648
B
Ball Bearings 505
Base Circle 522
Basic Dimension 82
Auxiliary 82
Functional 82
Non Functional 82
Bearings 498
Hydrostatic 498
Rolling 498
Hydrodynamic 498
Material 498
Relative Movement 498
Belts 478
Flat Belts 478
Grooved or Serrated 479
Plain Flat 479
Toothed Belts 479
Ropes 480
V Belts 479
Bevel Gears 528
Bill of Materials 439
Bill of Materials 542
Block 238
Block Attributes 443Index 651
Block Command 238
Creating a Block 238
Blueprint Reading 121
Blueprint Reading 545
Assembly of Parts and their Details 548
Reading Assembly Drawings 546
Reading Detail Drawings 545
Boiler 590
Boiler Joints 234
Axial Joint 235
Circumferential Joint 235
Cupped End Cover 235
End Joints 235
Bolt 261
Body 262
Bolt Head 261
Alternate Method 263
Direct Method 262
Drawing 262
Square Head 264
Bolts and Nuts 270
Special Applications 270
Bolts and Nuts 270
Special Applications 270
Eye Bolt 270
Foundation Bolts 272
High Strength Bolts 271
J Bolt 270
Thumb Screw 271
U Bolt 270
Wing Nut 272
Yoke Bolt 271
Broken or Partial Section 140
Bults and Nuts 271
Special Applications 271
Turn Buckle 271
C
Cabinet View 185
CAD for Gear 532
Approximate Method 532
Drawing Gear 533
Cam Shaft 575
Cams 570
Cylindrical Type 571
Radial Type 570
Chuck 618
Four Jaw 620
Three Jaw 618
Circle Stencil 47
Ellipse Stencil 48
Lettering Stencil 48
Radial Arcs/Hexagon Stencil 48
Code Designation For Ferrous Castings 433
Composite Solids 313
Intersect Command 313
Intersecting Solids 313
Joining Solids 313
Subtract Command 313
Subtracting Solids 313
Union Command 313
Computer Aided Drafting 9
Advantages 9
Computer Software 56
Conditional Branching 492
Connecting Rod 564
Constant Velocity Joint 326
ConstRuction Lines 169
Construction of Gears 525
Conventional Representation of Gear Teeth 525
Conventions in Sectioning 141
Hidden Edges 141
Long Parts 142
Thin Parts 142
Threads in Section 142
Very Thin Parts 142
Convert To 3D Objects 310
Extrude 310
Loft 310
Revolve 310
Sweep 310
Cooling System 583
Coordinate System 13
Correcting Mistakes 27
Oops 27
Redo 27
Undo 27
Cotter Joints 305
Gib and Cotter Joint 306
Socket and Spigot Joint 305
With Sleeve 305
Couplings 320
Crank Shaft 567652 Index
Creating Assembly Drawings from Part Drawings
548
Creating Part Drawings from Assembly Drawings
549
Cumulative Tolerances 374
Cylinder 559
Piston 561
D
Datum 397
Datum Feature 397
Datum Letter 397
Datum Triangle 397
Multi-Datums 398
Designation of Steels 429
According to Chemical Composition 431
Alloy Steels 431
Unalloyed Steels 431
According to Chemical Composition 431
According to Mechanical Properties 430
Special Characteristics Codes 430
Designation of Steels 432
According to Chemical Composition 432
High Alloy Steels 432
Low and Medium Alloy Steels 431
Tool Steels 432
Detachable Couplings 327
Diaphragm Spring 471
Dimension Style 96
Dimension with Tolerance 374
Basic Size with Deviations 374
Basic Size with Fundamental Tolerances 374
General Notes 374
Maximum and Minimum Limits 374
Dimensioning 87
Angles 88
Chamfers 89
Circular Arcs 87
Curves 90
Diameters 87
Equidistant Features 90
Holes 87
Repetitive Features 89
Tapers 89
Threads 90
Undercuts 89
Dimensioning Commands 96
Dimensioning Isometric Drawings 182
Dimensioning Methods 90, 99
Aligned Dimension 100
Angular Dimension 100
Arc 100
Circle And Points 100
Two Non-Parallel Lines 100
Chain Dimensioning 91
Combined Dimensioning 91
Diameter Dimension 101
Dimensioning Arc 101
Jogged Dimension 101
Linear Dimension 99
Multi Leader 102
Ordinate Dimensioning 101
Parallel Dimensioning 91
Radius Dimension 101
Rectangular Coordinates Dimensioning 90
Superimposed Running Dimensioning 91
Tabular Dimensioning 91
Dimensions 92
Placement 92
Sequence 92
Dimetric Projections 182
Drain Plug 604
Drawing a Leaf Spring 470
Drawing a Perspective View 208
Drawing a Radial Cam 573
Drawing Aids 15
Grid 15
Object Snap 15
Ortho 15
Snap 15
Drawing an Oblique View 183
Drawing Approximate Involute Tooth 523
Teeth Less Than 30 524
Teeth More Than 30 523
Drawing Auxiliary View 162
Curved Surface 162
Illusions 164
Drawing Basic Entities 18
Arc 20
Circle 20
Donut 23
Ellipse 22
Isocircle 22
Hatch 23
Line 19
Multiple Points 18Index 653
Polygon 21
Rectangle 21
Center Option 22
Edge Option 22
Text 23
Drawing Conventions 123
Drawing Equipment 44
Big Compass 47
Big Divider 47
Drafter 44
Drafting Machines 45
Drawing Board 44
Extension Bar 47
French Curves 46
Instrument Box 46
Liner 47
Protractor 46
Ruler 45
Scales 46
Small Compass 46
Small Divider 47
Triangles 45
T-Square 44
Drawing Ink 54
Drawing Orthographic Views 127
Drawing Sheet 49
Border and Frame 50
Centering Marks 51
Grid Reference Numbers 51
Standard Sizes 50
Drawing Sheet Fasteners 52
Adhesive Tape 53
Drawing Clip 53
Drawing Pin 53
Fixing a Drawing Sheet 53
Drawing Skew Surfaces 164
Drawing Standards 7
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 7
Bureau of Indian Standards 7
International Standards Organization 7
Drawings 1, 4
Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) 4
Finished Drawings 4
Freehand Sketching 4
Uses 1
Drilling Machine 633
Drilling MachiNe 633
Dview Command 217
E
Edge Preparation 279
Editing Text 77
Elements of Dimensioning 82
Arrowheads 85
Dimensional Values 86
Dimension Line 84
Dimensions in Restricted Area 85
Extension Line 83
Leader Line 83
Elements of Graphics 2
Engineering Materials 425
Equipment for Computer Aided Drafting (CAD) 54
Computer 54
Digital Camera 55
Printer/Plotter 55
Scanner 55
Eraser 54
Expansion Joints 343
Bellows Type 343
Loop Type 343
F
Factors Affecting AppeaRance 206
Perspective Views 206
Orientation of Object 206
Feed Check Valve 593
One Way Valve 593
Feed Check Valvefeed Check Valve Feed Check
Valve 594
Feed Pump 590
Ferrous Metals 426
Alloy Steels 428
Carbon Steels 426
Grey Cast Iron 428
High Carbon Steel 427
Low Carbon Steel 427
Medium Carbon Steel 427
Cast Iron 427
Ductile Cast Iron 427
Malleable Cast Iron 428
White Cast Iron 428
Stainless Steels 429
Austinitic Stainless Steels 429
Ferritic Stainless Steels 429
Martensitic Stainless Steels 429654 Index
Fillet Welds 286
Dimensioning 286
Fits 379
Systems of Fits 379
Fits 380
Systems of Fits 380
Hole Basis 380
Shaft Basis 380
Fits For Thread Fasteners 387
Fittings 345
Cast Iron 345
Flanged Fittings 346
Fixtures 455
Flat Belt Pulleys 481
Armed Pulley 482
Built up Pulley 482
Fast and Loose Pulley 483
Solid Pulley 481
Stepped Pulley 483
Webbed Pulley 481
Flexible Couplings 323
Folding a Sheet 52
Followers 571
Form Tolerance for Single Features 400
Circularity 401
Cylindricity 401
Flatness 401
Straightness 400
Frame 396
Freehand Sketching 61
Center Lines 61
Circles 62
Diagonals 61
Drawing Freehand Lines 61
Fuel System 577
Carburetor 577
Diesel Fuel Pump 579
Full Section 139
Function Key Assignments 12
Fundamental Tolerances 369
Letter Symbol 369
Letter Symbol for Holes 370
Letter Symbol for Shafts 373
Number Symbol 370
G
Gauges 387
Gear Tooth CalculationS 519
Tooth Proportions 520
Types of Pitches 519
Gears 517
Terminology 517
Types of Gears 518
Bevel Gears 519
Helical Gears 518
Rack 519
Spur Gears 518
Worm And Worm Wheel 519
Geometric Tolerance 396
Axis 396
Boxed Dimensions 396
Feature 396
Median 396
Tolerance Zone 396
Geometric Tolerances 418
Geometrical Tolerances 395
Get Commnads 491
Graphic Language 1
Advantages 1
Graphic Library 293
Graticulation 213
Grips 34
Groove Welds 287
Specifying Groove Welds 287
Grooved Pulleys 484
Multi Belt 484
Rope Pulley 486
Single Belt 484
Stepped Grooved Pulley 484
Toothed Pulley 485
Guide Lines 72
Inclined Letters 74
Line Thickness 73
Spacing Between Letters 74
Spacing Between Lines 72
Width of Characters 73
Compressed 73
Extended 73
Width of Characters 72Index 655
H
Half Section 139
Hand Drilling Machine 634
Hand Drilling Machine 634
Hangers 503
J Hanger 504
U Hanger 503
Hatch and Gradient 149
Hatch Command 149
Hatching 149
Heat Treatment Processes 450
Annealing 451
Hardening 450
Normalizing 451
Tempering 450
Helical Gears 527
Helical Spring 466
Compression Spring 467
Tension Spring 468
Torsion Spring 468
Helix Command 472
Helix Command 638
Helix Command 638
Hidden Details 117
Holding and Clamping Devices 635
Pipe Vice 635
Pipe Wrench 636
Spanners 636
Holding And Clamping Devices 635
Pipe Vice 635
Pipe Wrench 636
Spanners 636
Hydrodynamic Bearings 498
I
I.C. Engines 558
Four Stroke 558
Two Stroke 558
Compression Stroke 558
Exhaust Stroke 558
Power Stroke 558
Suction Stroke 558
If Command 492
Ignition System 582
Indian Standards 642
Injector 581
Injector 591
Inking Pens 48
Conical Pen 49
Freehand Pen 48
Ruling Pen 48
Tubular Pen 49
Insert Command 239
Retrieving a Block 239
Inspection 454
International Tolerance Grade 367
Internet Sites 643
Isocircle 190
Isolines 308
Isometric Grid 189
Isometric Scale 177
Arcs 181
Circles
Four Center Method 180
Offset Method 179
Circles 179
Curved Objects 181
Drawing 177
Projections of Non-Isometric Lines 178
View of Angles 179
Isometric Sections 181
J
Jigs 454
Joint Proportions 228
Diagonal Pitch 228
Margin 228
Pitch 228
Row Pitch 228
Joints 339
Cast Iron Pipesa 339
Copper Pipes 340
Hydraulic Pipes 341
Lead Pipes 341
Wrought Iron Pipes 340
K
Keys 300
Keyway 300
Knuckle Joint 307656 Index
L
Lathe 618
Lay 413
Layer Properties Manager 93
Creating a New Layer 94
Deleting a Layer 94
Freeze / Thaw 95
Lock / Unlock 95
Making a Layer as a Current Layer 94
Status of a Layer 95
On / Off 95
Layers 92
Layout Line 11
Leaf Spring 469
Elliptical 469
Quarter Elliptical 470
Semi-Elliptical 469
Torsional Spring 470
Lift Diagrams 572
Light Work Applications 236
Blind Rivets 237
Explosive Rivets 238
Flush Joints 237
General Purpose Joints 236
Lines 59
Drawing Lines 60
Precedence of Lines 60
Thickness of a Line 60
Lines Using CAD 64
Linetypes 64
Locking Devices 266
Miscellaneous Lock Nuts 268
Special Nuts 268
Castle Nut 268
Lock Nut 266
Pinned Nut 267
Ring and Groove Nut 268
Sawn Nut 268
Slotted Nut 267
Special Nuts 266
Locking Devices 269
External Locking Devices 269
Full Locking Plate 269
Half Locking Plate 269
Screw 269
Split Pin 269
Spring Washers 270
Miscellaneous Lock Nuts 268
Oddie Nut 268
Philidas Nut 268
Simmonds Nut 269
Logical Operators 492
Looping a Program 493
Repeat 493
While 493
Lubrication System 584
M
Machine Tools 618
Machine Tools 618
Making a Drawing 118
Preliminary Decisions 118
Types of Projections 118
Preliminary Decisions 118
Making a Drawing 118
Preliminary Decisions 118
Number of Views 118
Object Orientation 118
Selecting Views 118
Selection of Scale 119
Spacing of Views 119
Managing Entities 510
Entsel Command 510
Ssget Command 510
Sslength Command 510
Ssname Command 510
Manufacturing Processes 447
Casting Processes 447
Die Casting 447
Sand CasTing 447
Chemical Processes 449
Electric Discharge Machine (EDM) 449
Electro-Chemical Machining (ECM) 449
Electroplating 450
Etching 449
Cnc Machines 450
Forming Processes 447
Drawing 448
Extrusion 448
Forging 447
Rolling 447
Joining Processes 448
Arc Welding 448
Brazing 449Index 657
Gas Welding 448
Riveting 449
Seam Welding 448
Soldering 449
Spot Welding 448
Material Removal Processes 449
Surface Finishing Processes 450
Match Properties 33
Match Properties 66
Material 425
Properties 425
Material Condition 398
Least Material Condition (LMC) 398
Maximum Material Condition (MMC) 398
Regardless of Feature Size (S) 399
Mathematical Operations 491
Methods of Expression 3
Orthographic Projections 3
Pictorial Representation 3
Minsert Command 241
Missing Views 122
Box Method 123
Projection Line Technique 123
Mline Command 355
Model Layout 11
Modify Commands 28
Align 33
Array 29
Polar Array 30
Rectangular Array 30
Break 31
Break At a Point 31
Chamfer 32
Copy 29
Erase 28
Explode 32
Extend 31
Fillet 32
Join 32
Lengthen 30
Mirror 29
Move 30
Offset 29
Reverse 33
Rotate 30
Scale 30
Stretch 30
Trim 31
Modify Properties 33
Modifying a Layer 95
More Dimension Methods 102
Baseline Dimension 104
Broken Dimension 103
Centre Mark 106
Continue Dimension 104
Inspection Dimension 105
Jog Line Dimension 105
Quick Dimension 104
Spacing Dimensions 103
Update Dimension Style 105
Mounting of Rolling Bearings 509
Mstyle Command 356
Mtext Command 77
Muff CouPlings 320
Full Muff Coupling 320
Half Lap Muff Coupling 321
Split Muff Coupling 321
Mvsetup Command 460
N
Nomograms 1
Non-Ferrous Metals 433
Aluminum Alloys 436
Code Designation 436
Copper Alloys 434
Code Designation 435
O
Object Properties 64
Color 65
Linetype 66
Lineweight 66
Scale For Linetype 66
Object Selection 27
Oblique Projection 183
Oblique Views 175
Operations On 3d Solids 310
3Dalign 312
3Darray 312
3Dmove 311
Chamfer 312
Fillet 312
Interfere 312
Mirror3D 312
Rotate3D 312658 Index
Slice 312
Solidedit 312
Thicken 312
Orthographic Projection 115
Comparison of First Angle and Third Angle 116
First Angle Method 115
Third Angle Method 116
P
Panels 648
Parallel Coupling 324
Parallel Keys 302
Double Head Key 303
Feather Key 303
Peg Key 303
Single Head Screw Key 303
Parallel Perspective View 209
One Vanishing Point 209
Part and Assembly Drawings 537
Part and Assembly Drawings Detail Drawing 537
Pedit 34
Pencils 53
Perspective View Of A Circle 211
In Front View 212
In Top View 212
Perspective View of a Cylinder 211
Perspective Views 205
Factors Affecting Appearance 206
Effect of Distance 206
Factors Affecting Appearance 206
Position of Object 207
Selection of Parameters 206
Elevation Angle 207
Lateral angle 206
Location of Eye 207
Location of Station Point 206
Object Orientation 206
Terminology 205
Pictorial Views 175
Axonometric Views 175
Oblique Views 175
Perspective Views 175
Dimetric View 175
Isometric View 175
Trimetric 175
Pipe Fittings 344
Branching 344
Dead Ends 345
Straight Couplings 344
Pipe Joints 338
Screwed Flange Joint 338
Screwed Socket Joint 338
Socket and Spigot Joint 339
Welded Flange 339
Welded Pipes 339
Pipe Supports 353
Pipes 336
Designation 336
Materials 336
Threads 337
Piping Layouts 352
Double Line 352
Single Line 353
Piping Symbols 350
Fitting Symbols 350
Fluid Symbols 352
Joint Symbols 350
Valve Symbols 352
Piston Rings 563
Plain Journal Bearing 499
Bearing Materials 499
PlasTics 437
Elastomers 439
Thermoplastics 437
Thermoset Plastics 438
Wood 439
Plotting 127
Centering The Plot 129
Choosing Paper Size 128
Drawing Orientation 129
Plot Scale 129
Plotting A Drawing 127
Plotting Devices 127
Previewing and Plotting 129
Setting The Plotting Device 128
Plug Welds 289
Power System 558
Principle Picture Planes 115
Production Drawing 446
Title Block 446
Production Drawing 458
Process Sheet 458
Title Block 460Index 659
Mean Roughness Index (Ra) 410
Peak to Valley Height 410
Projecting Side Views 119
Using a Compass 120
Using a Divider 120
Using a Miter Line At 45° 120
Projection 113
Projection of Straight Inclined Face 121
Projection of Circular Boundaries 121
Projection of Curved Boundaries 121
Proportioning Sizes 62
Pulleys 480
Types of Pulleys 480
Putting Roughness Symbols 416
CAD 418
Pvc Fittings 348
R
Rack 531
Ray Command 217
Rays 217
Rectangle 21
Removed Section 140
Requirements of Detail Drawing 537
Additional Information 538
Checklist for a Detail Drawing 538
Drawing Revisions 539
Multiple Drawings 538
Shape Description 537
Size Description 537
Reversed Isometric 182
Revolved Section 140
Revolving Center 629
Revolving Center 629
Rigid Flange Couplings 321
Marine Coupling 322
Protected Flange Coupling 323
Rigid Flange Couplings 322
Riveted Joint 224
Arrangement of Plates 226
Arrangement of Rivets 227
Making 224
Number of Cover Plates 226
Number of Rows of Rivets 226
Riveted Joints 223
Rivets 223
Roller Bearings 506
Rolling Bearings 504
Nomenclature 504
Roughness for Typical Applications 415
Roughness Grade Number 413
Roughness Symbols 411
Roughness with Manufacturing Processes 414
Run Out 405
Circular Run Out 405
Total Run Out 405
S
Safety Valve 600
Dead Weight Type 600
Lever Type Safety Valve 604
Spring Loaded 602
Screw Thread 245
Applications of Threads 245
Terminology 245
Conical Threads 246
Crest 245
Depth of Thread 246
Flank 245
Hand of Helix 246
Helix Angle 246
Lead 246
Major Diameter 246
Minor Diameter 246
Pitch Diameter 246
Pitch of Thread 246
Root 245
Start of Thread 246
Thread Angle 246
Threads Per Inch 246
Terminology 245
Screws 265
Cap Screw 265
Machine Screw 265
Set Screw 265
Wooden Screw 266
Seam Welds 289
Section Lines 143660 Index
Angle of Section Lines 143
DraWing Section Lines 144
Pitch of Section Lines 144
Sectional View 138
Selection of Fits 381
Sequence of Drawing 123
Setting a New Dimension Style 97
Alternate Units 98
Fit 98
Lines 98
Primary Units 98
Symbols and Arrows 98
Text 98
Tolerances 98
Shafts 299
Axle 299
Dead Axle 299
Live Axle 299
Hollow Shaft 299
Journal 299
Line Shaft 299
Rod 299
Spindle 299
Stepped Shaft 299
Shaper 629
Clapper Box 632
Quick Return Mechanism 630
Tool Slide 632
Shaper 629
Clapper Box 632
Quick Return Mechanism 630
Tool Slide 632
Short-Cut Key Characters 12
Size Description 3
Sketching Pictorial Views 62
Skew Surfaces 164
Sleeve Bearing Supports 500
Foot Step Support 503
Pedestal Support 501
Plummer Block 500
Simple Bearing Support 500
Wall Bracket Support 502
Slip Couplings 327
Cone Clutch 329
Multi-Plate Clutch 329
Single Plate Clutch 327
Solid Modeling 307
Solid Modeling Commands 309
Box 309
Cone 309
Cylinder 309
Polysolid 309
Pyramid 310
Sphere 309
Torus 309
Wedge 309
Specifying a Fit 380
Specifying a Welded Joint 282
Arrow Line 283
Blank Length (B) 285
Length of Weld (L) 285
Reference Line 283
Side of the Joint 283
Weld Size (S) 284
Weld Symbol 285
Splines 304
Involute 304
Parallel Sided 304
Spot Welds 288
Springs 466
Tension Spring 466
Compression Spring 466
Diaphragm Spring 466
Helical Spring 466
Leaf Spring 466
Spiral Spring 466
Torsion Bar 466
Torsion Spring 466
Springs 471
Symbolic Representation 471
Spur Gears 526
Standard Mechanical Components 457
Steam Engine 604
Connecting Rod 611
Covers 604
Crank Shaft 612
Cross Head 609
Cylinder 604
Eccentric 614
Piston Rings 607
Piston Rod 607
Pistons 607
Slide Valves 614Index 661
Steam Power Plants 590
Stencils 47
Steps for Creating Assembly Drawings 544
Stop Valve 597
Studs 264
Surface Finish 395
Surface Roughness Number 410
Surface Texture 409
Roughness 409
Roughness Cut-Off 409
Roughness Height 409
Roughness Width 409
Waviness 409
Surface Welding 290
Symbol For Projection Method 117
T
Table Command 442
Tabs on the Ribbon 648
Tail Stock 625
Tail Stock 625
Text Command 74
Justify 75
Start Point 75
Style 75
Text Style 76
Thread Designation 249
Acme Thread 249
British Standard Whitworth (B.S.W.) Thread 248
Buttress Thread 249
Knuckle Thread 249
Pitch of Thread 249
Square Thread 249
V Thread 248
Thread RepresEntation 251
Conventional Representation 253
Schematic Representation 252
Square Threads 252
V Threads 252
Threads 247, 251, 253
Conical 247
Cylindrical 247
Double Start 247
External 247
Internal 247
Left Hand 247
Quadruple Start 247
Right Hand 247
Single Start 247
Triple Start 247
Internal 253
Title Block 51
Tolerance Symbol 399
Related Features Tolerances 399
Runout Tolerances 400
Single Feature Tolerances 399
Tolerance Value 400
Indicating Geometrical Tolerances 400
Tolerances 365
Actual Size 366
Allowance 366
Basic Size 365
Deviation 366
Fundamental Deviation 366
Limits 366
Standard Size 365
Tolerances 366
Tolerances and Manufacturing Processes 366
Tolerances on Related Features 402
Angularity 403
Concentricity 403
Parallelism 402
Perpendicularity 403
Position 404
Position Tolerance For Patterns 404
Symmetry 404
Tolerances using CAD 387
Lower Value 389
Method 388
Basic 388
Deviation 388
Limits 388
None 388
Symmetrical 388
Precision 389
Scaling for Height 389
Upper Value 389
Vertical Position 389
Tool Post 622
Tool Post 622
Tooling 451662 Index
Cutting Speed 451
Tool Angles 451
Tools used for Different Machines 452
Broaching Machine 453
Drilling Machine 452
Hobbing Machine 453
Lathe 452
Milling 452
Planing Machine 453
Shaper 452
Slotting Machine 453
Vertical Milling 452
Trimetric Projections 182
Tube Joints 355
Compression Joint 355
Flare Joint 355
Spigot Joint 355
Tubes 354
Types Of 3d Models 192
Solid Model 193
Surface Model 193
Wire Frame Model 192
Types of Fits 380
Clearance Fit 380
Interference Fit 380
Transition Fit 380
Types of Inclined Surfaces 161
Types of Joints 279
Types of Keys 301
Gib Head Key 302
Rectangular Key 301
Round Key 302
Saddle Keys 301
Square Key 301
Sunk Keys 301
Types of Mechanical Drawings 4
Assembly Drawings 5
Exploded Drawings 5
Installation Drawings 6
Machine Drawings 4
Part Drawings 6
Patent Drawings 7
Production Drawings 5
Sub-Assembly Drawings 5
Tabular Drawings 6
Types of Paper 52
Plastic Films 52
Tracing Cloth 52
Tracing Paper 52
Types of Perspective Views 208
Aerial View 208
Angular Projection 208
Ground or Worm’s View 208
Normal View 208
Oblique Projection 208
Parallel Projection 208
Types of Sections 138
Assembly Section 138
Auxiliary Section 138
Broken Out Section 138
Full Section 138
Half Section 138
Removed Section 138
Revolved Section 138
Types of Tolerances 395
Form Tolerances 395
Position Tolerances 395
Size Tolerances 395
Types of Views 113
Orthographic Views 114
Pictorial Views 114
U
Ucs 13
Ucsicon 13
Union Joint 342
Units 14
Universal Coupling 325
User Coordinate System (UCS) 193
V
Valves 348
Check Valve 349
Gate Valve 348
Globe Valve 348
Plug Valve 348
Sizes of Valves 349
Valves 575
Viewing a Drawing 14
Viewports Command 190
Views 193Index 663
W
Water Level Indicator 595
Wblock Command 272
Weld Symbols 280
Additional Welding Symbols 282
Contour Symbols 281
Surface Finish Symbols 281
Welded Joints 278
Welding Processes 278
Arc Welding 278
Gas Welding 278
Pressure Welding 278
Welding Processes 278
Pressure Welding 278
Seam 278
Spot 278
Woodruff Key 303
Worm and Worm Wheel 529
X
Xline Command 169


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