كتاب Humanoid Robotics - A Reference
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 كتاب Humanoid Robotics - A Reference

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Humanoid Robotics - A Reference
Ambarish Goswami , Prahlad Vadakkepat
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كتاب Humanoid Robotics - A Reference  H_r_a_10
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Contents
Volume 1
Part I History of Humanoid Robots . 1
Humanoid Robots: Historical Perspective, Overview, and Scope 3
Bruno Siciliano and Oussama Khatib
Historical Perspective of Humanoid Robot Research
in the Americas . 9
Stefan Schaal
Historical Perspective of Humanoid Robot Research in Europe . 19
Yannick Aoustin, Christine Chevallereau, and Jean-Paul Laumond
Historical Perspective of Humanoid Robot Research in Asia 35
Atsuo Takanishi
Part II Development Story of 14 Famous Humanoid Robots 53
ASIMO and Humanoid Robot Research at Honda 55
Satoshi Shigemi
MIT Cog 91
Brian Scassellati
HRP-4 and Other HRP Robots . 101
Shuuji Kajita
History of HUBO: Korean Humanoid Robot . 117
Jung-Woo Heo, Jungho Lee, In-Ho Lee, Jeongsoo Lim, and Jun-Ho Oh
Johnnie and LOLA: The TUM Bipeds . 131
Thomas Buschmann and Michael Gienger
NAO 147
Rodolphe Gelin
The PETMAN and Atlas Robots at Boston Dynamics 169
Gabe Nelson, Aaron Saunders, and Robert Playter
xixii Contents
Sony QRIO 187
Kenichiro Nagasaka
Robonaut, Valkyrie, and NASA Robots 201
John Yamokoski and Nicolaus Radford
Toyota Partner Robots 215
Masahiro Doi and Yuichiro Nakajima
WABIAN and Other Waseda Robots 265
Kenji Hashimoto and Atsuo Takanishi
iCub 291
Lorenzo Natale, Chiara Bartolozzi, Francesco Nori, Giulio Sandini, and
Giorgio Metta
Sarcos Robots 325
Fraser Smith
The Karlsruhe ARMAR Humanoid Robot Family 337
Tamim Asfour, Rüdiger Dillmann, Nikolaus Vahrenkamp, Martin Do,
Mirko W?chter, Christian Mandery, Peter Kaiser, Manfred Kr?hnert,
and Markus Grotz
Part III Humanoid Mechanism and Design . 369
Introduction: Humanoid Mechanism and Design 371
Kensuke Harada
Leg Mechanism of LOLA 377
Sebastian Lohmeier
Compliant Leg Mechanism of Coman . 407
Nikos G. Tsagarakis, Gustavo Medrano Cerda, and Darwin G. Caldwell
Human-Like Toe Joint Mechanism 435
Ko Yamamoto
Wire Driven Multi-fingered Hand . 457
Hiroshi Kaminaga
DLR Multi-fingered Hands . 481
Markus Grebenstein, Maxime Chalon, M?ximo A. Roa, and
Christoph Borst
Underactuation with Link Mechanisms 523
Clément Gosselin
BarrettHand Grasper: Programmably Flexible Part Handling
and Assembly 535
William T. TownsendContents xiii
Human-Like Hand Mechanism . 553
Ashish D. Deshpande
Human-Like Face and Head Mechanism . 571
Tatsuhiro Kishi, Kenji Hashimoto, and Atsuo Takanishi
Mechanism Design of Human-Like HRP-4C 597
Shuuji Kajita
Mechanism Design Outline of Hubo . 615
Taejin Jung, Jeongsoo Lim, Hyoin Bae, and Jun-Ho Oh
Mechanism Design of DLR Humanoid Robots 637
Christian Ott, M?ximo A. Roa, Florian Schmidt, Werner Friedl,
Johannes Englsberger, Robert Burger, Alexander Werner, Alexander
Dietrich, Daniel Leidner, Bernd Henze, Oliver Eiberger, Alexander
Beyer, Berthold B?uml, Christoph Borst, and Alin Albu-Sch?ffer
Part IV Humanoid Kinematics and Dynamics 663
Historical Perspective and Scope 665
Tomomichi Sugihara
Differential Kinematics 675
Dragomir Nenchev
Dynamics Analysis: Equations of Motion 723
Tomomichi Sugihara and Yasutaka Fujimoto
Dynamic Formulations and Computational
Algorithms . 755
Hubert Gattringer and Andreas Mueller
Contact Dynamics 785
Tomomichi Sugihara
Reduced-Order Models 811
Tomomichi Sugihara and Katsu Yamane
Calibration and Parameter Estimation 849
Gentiane Venture and Ko Ayusawa
A Comparative Study Between Humans and Humanoid
Robots 873
Katsu Yamane and Akihiko Murai
Humanoid Kinematics and Dynamics: Open Questions and Future
Directions . 893
Michael Gienger and Jochen J. Steilxiv Contents
Volume 2
Part V Humanoid Control . 903
Linear Inverted Pendulum-Based Gait . 905
Shuuji Kajita
Gait Based on the Spring-Loaded Inverted Pendulum . 923
Hartmut Geyer and Uluc Saranli
Limit Cycle Gaits . 949
Fumihiko Asano
Neuromuscular Control Models of Human Locomotion 979
Hartmut Geyer and André Seyfarth
Compliance/Impedance Control Strategy for Humanoids 1009
Jong Hyeon Park
Passivity-Based Control Strategy for Humanoids 1029
Jong Hyeon Park
Virtual Constraints and Hybrid Zero Dynamics for Realizing
Underactuated Bipedal Locomotion . 1045
Jessy W. Grizzle and Christine Chevallereau
Model Predictive Control 1077
Pierre-Brice Wieber
CPG-Based Control of Humanoid Robot Locomotion 1099
Florin Dzeladini, Nadine Ait-Bouziad, and Auke Ijspeert
Humanoid Body Control Using Neural Networks and
Fuzzy Logic 1135
Dilip Kumar Pratihar, V. Pandu Ranga, and Rega Rajendra
Whole-Body Control of Humanoid Robots . 1161
Federico L. Moro and Luis Sentis
Reflex Control 1185
Riadh Zaier
Toward a Codesign Approach for Versatile and Energy-Efficient
Humanoid Robots 1221
Jean-Paul Laumond and Mehdi Benallegue
Principles of Energetics and Stability in Legged
Locomotion 1231
Jeremy D. Wong and J. Maxwell Donelan
Learning Control . 1261
Sylvain Calinon and Dongheui LeeContents xv
Part VI Humanoid Balance 1313
Introduction to Humanoid Balance 1315
Jerry E. Pratt, Christian Ott, and Sang-Ho Hyon
Human Sense of Balance . 1323
Thomas Mergner and Robert J. Peterka
Torque-Based Balancing . 1361
Christian Ott and Sang-Ho Hyon
Angular Momentum-Based Balance Control . 1387
Sung-Hee Lee, Andreas Hofmann, and Ambarish Goswami
Stepping for Balance Maintenance Including Push-Recovery . 1419
Jerry E. Pratt, Sylvain Bertrand, and Twan Koolen
Feedback Control of Inverted Pendulums 1467
Shuuji Kajita
Technical Implementations of the Sense of Balance 1489
Michael Bloesch and Marco Hutter
Balancing via Position Control 1519
Youngjin Choi, Yonghwan Oh, and Giho Jang
Optimization-Based Control Approaches to Humanoid Balancing . 1541
Aurélien Ibanez, Philippe Bidaud, and Vincent Padois
Part VII Humanoid Motion Planning, Optimization, and Gait
Generation 1569
Introduction: Motion Planning, Optimization, and Biped Gait
Generation . 1571
Eiichi Yoshida and Katja Mombaur
Whole-Body Motion Planning 1575
Eiichi Yoshida, Fumio Kanehiro, and Jean-Paul Laumond
Obeying Constraints During Motion Planning 1601
Dmitry Berenson
Manipulation and Task Execution by Humanoids . 1633
Kensuke Harada and M?ximo A. Roa
Human Motion Imitation 1657
Dana Kulic´
Principles Underlying Locomotor Trajectory Formation . 1679
Manish Sreenivasa, Jean-Paul Laumond, Katja Mombaur, and
Alain Berthozxvi Contents
Biped Footstep Planning . 1697
Nicolas Perrin
Adaptive Locomotion on Uneven Terrains 1719
Kris Hauser
SLAM and Vision-based Humanoid Navigation . 1739
Olivier Stasse
Multi-contact Motion Planning and Control 1763
Karim Bouyarmane, Stéphane Caron, Adrien Escande, and
Abderrahmane Kheddar
Humanoid Motion Optimization 1805
Katja Mombaur
Humanoid Motion Planning, Optimization, and Gait Generation:
Open Questions and Future Directions 1843
Katja Mombaur and Eiichi Yoshida
Volume 3
Part VIII Humanoid Simulation and Software 1849
Humanoid Simulation and Software: Overview . 1851
Katsu Yamane
Multi-body Simulation 1855
Katsu Yamane
Contact Simulation . 1877
Evan Drumwright and Jeffrey C. Trinkle
Collision Detection 1933
Young J. Kim, Ming C. Lin, and Dinesh Manocha
Actuator Modeling and Simulation 1957
J?rn Malzahn, Victor Barasuol, and Klaus Janschek
Sensor Calibration, Modeling, and Simulation 2007
Qianli Ma and Gregory S. Chirikjian
Simulation for Control 2043
KangKang Yin, Libin Liu, and Michiel van de Panne
Simulation for AI . 2087
Tadahiro Taniguchi
Free Simulation Software and Library . 2111
Barkan Ugurlu and Serena IvaldiContents xvii
Part IX Human-Humanoid Interaction 2131
Human-Humanoid Interaction: Overview 2133
Guido Herrmann and Ute Leonards
Joint Action in Humans: A Model for Human-Robot
Interaction . 2149
Arianna Curioni, Gunther Knoblich, and Natalie Sebanz
Movement-Based Communication for Humanoid-Human
Interaction . 2169
Giulio Sandini, Alessandra Sciutti, and Francesco Rea
Enriching the Human-Robot Interaction Loop with Natural,
Semantic, and Symbolic Gestures . 2199
Katrin Solveig Lohan, Hagen Lehmann, Christian Dondrup, Frank Broz,
and Hatice Kose
Applications in HHI: Physical Cooperation . 2221
Markus Rickert, Andre Gaschler, and Alois Knoll
Speech and Language in Humanoid Robots 2261
Angelo Cangelosi and Tetsuya Ogata
Human-Robot Teaming: Approaches from Joint Action
and Dynamical Systems . 2293
Tariq Iqbal and Laurel D. Riek
Embodiment, Situatedness, and Morphology for Humanoid Robots
Interacting with People 2313
Blanca Miller and David Feil-Seifer
Empathy as Signalling Feedback Between Humanoid Robots
and Humans . 2337
Tatsuya Nomura
Dynamic Control for Human-Humanoid Interaction 2347
S. G. Khan, S. Bendoukha, and M. N. Mahyuddin
Assistive Humanoid Robots for the Elderly with Mild Cognitive
Impairment 2377
François Ferland, Roxana Agrigoroaie, and
Adriana Tapus
Safe and Trustworthy Human-Robot Interaction 2397
Dejanira Araiza-Illan and Kerstin Eder
Ethical Issues of Humanoid-Human Interaction 2421
Rafael Capurroxviii Contents
Part X Humanoid Sensing, Actuation, and Intelligence 2437
Pneumatic Prime Movers 2439
Tim Swift
Transmissions 2447
Christopher McQuin
Importance of Humanoid Robot Detection . 2463
Taher Abbas Shangari, Soroush Sadeghnejad, and Jacky Baltes
Humanoid Multi-robot Systems . 2473
John E. Anderson
Multi-Axis Force-Torque Sensor 2483
Jung-Hoon Kim
Applications of IMU in Humanoid Robot 2497
Qiang Huang and Si Zhang
Range Sensors: Ultrasonic Sensors, Kinect, and LiDAR 2521
Jongmoo Choi
Tactile Sensing . 2539
Lorenzo Natale and Giorgio Cannata
Sensor Fusion and State Estimation of the Robot 2563
Francesco Nori, Silvio Traversaro, and Maurice Fallon
Part XI Applications of Humanoids . 2593
Humanoid Robot Applications: Introduction . 2595
Rodolphe Gelin and Jean-Paul Laumond
Humanoid Robots for Entertainment 2599
Steven “Mouse” Silverstein and Katsu Yamane
Humanoid Robots in Education: A Short Review . 2617
Amit Kumar Pandey and Rodolphe Gelin
Application of Nextage: Next-Generation Industrial Robot . 2633
Kensuke Harada
Toward New Humanoid Applications: Wearable Device Evaluation
Through Human Motion Reproduction 2645
Eiichi Yoshida, Ko Ayusawa, Yumeko Imamura, and Takayuki Tanaka
Inclusion of Humanoid Robots in Human Society: Ethical Issues 2665
Raja Chatila
Index . 267
Index
A
Absolute configuration, 759
Absolute coordinates, 1891, 1892, 1895, 1899
Absolute position vector, 758
Absolute velocity, 759
Abstract oscillator CPGs, 1108–1110
Accelerometer
applications, 2501
composition and classification, 2499
feature, 2500
principle, 2499
Acrobot model, 1318
Action predictability, 2173
Action understanding, 2176, 2188
Active compliance, 2349, 2356–2360
Active perception method, 2105
Active sensors, 2464
advantages, 2465
disadvantages, 2465
Actuation, 879
dynamics, 881
musculoskeletal model, 879–880
role of passive elements, 882
Actuator(s), 386
bellow actuators, 2443
PAM, 2443
Actuator modeling and simulation
BLDC motor three phase equations,
1968–1971
compliant actuation (see Compliant
actuation)
computer algebra systems, 1965
current-controlled mechanical power
DC motor model, 1971–1972
energy based formalisms, 1962
friction, 1989–1994
generalized port-Hamiltonian
systems, 1964
generalized quantities, 1960–1961
hydraulic actuation, 1977–1986
Matlab, 1967
Modelica based tools, 1967
multi-port networks, 1962–1963
MuPAD, 1967
pneumatic actuation, 1986–1989
power transmission, 1975–1977
signal based modeling, 1965
Simulink, 1967
source, 1972–1973
torque fluctuations, 1973–1975
20-sim, 1968
voltage controlled mechanical power
source, 1973
Adaptive frequency oscillators (AFO),
1112, 1113
Adaptive Kalman Filter (AKF), 2504
Adaptive terrain locomotion
components, 1721
controller and planner, 1724
future aspects, 1735
historical background, 1721
kinematic model, 1723
Lagrangian dynamics equation, 1723
phases of bipedal walking, 1722
sensors, 1725
terrain estimation, 1727
underfoot terrain model, 1726
upcoming terrain model, 1726
Admittance, 1011
Admittance control, 1014–1015
Advanced Telecommunications Research
Institute International (ATR), 85
Affective communication, 2187
Affordance
affordance-based bimanual valve
turning, 351
loco-manipulation, 349
and perception, 350
AIRBUS, 1795, 1797
Air cooling method, 619
 Nature B.V. 2019
A. Goswami, P. Vadakkepat (eds.), Humanoid Robotics: A Reference,
26752676 Index
Albert HUBO, 122
Aldebaran (SoftBank) Nao robot, 2270
Aldebaran Robotics, 148
Almere model, 2387
AMARSi project, 30
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies,
2378
Amplitude controlled phase oscillator
(ACPO), 1108
Anatomically correct test-bed (ACT) hand
design optimization, 563
elastic materials, 562
material excursion determination,
560–562
prototype design, 564–565
structure, 555
variable compliance joint design, 559–560
variable moment arms, 556–560
Anatomy
bones, 483
joints, 483
terminology, 483
Angular acceleration, 761
Angular Momentum Pendulum Model
(AMPM), 1390
Angular velocity tensor, 1894
Anthropomorphic manipulator, 39
Anthropomorphic robots, 2306
Anthropomorphism, 2321–2323, 2670
Application programming interface (API), 183
ArmarX, 361
Arm motion planning, 1636
ARMAR-I, 339
ARMAR-II, 339
ARMAR-III, 340, 344
ARMAR-4, 341, 344
ARMAR humanoid robots, 339–344
ArmarX, 361
execution of, 345
experience-based learning, 359–360
grasping familiar objects, 347, 348
grasping motions, visually guided
grasping unknown objects, 349
Language Understanding component, 362
manipulation in unknown environments,
349–351
MemoryX, 361, 362
object models, visual object recognition
and localization, 344–345
observation of human actions, 351–353
Plan Execution Monitor component, 362
Replacement component, 362
representation of actions, 356–358
segmentation of demonstrations, 356
simultaneous grasp and motion
planning, 345
Structural Bootstrapping, 359
unifying representation of human motion,
353–356
Articulated-body algorithm (ABA),
1863–1864
Articulated body inertia (ABI), 1861–1862
Articulated rigid body, 1859
Artificial intelligence (AI)
category formation, 2091
symbol manipulation and, 2089–2090
Artificial somatosensory maps, 2553
Artificial synergy synthesis, 1078, 1084–1085
ASIMO, 57, 62, 66, 68, 70, 73, 76, 79, 82, 86
Assembly-disassembly algorithm (ADA),
1867–1868
Assistive devices
for elderly people, 2646
evaluation, 2655
wearable devices, 2646
using humanoid, 2648
Assistive humanoid robots, 2379
Assistive robotics, 2244
Assistive robots, 2388
Asymptotic complexity, 1856, 1875
Athena, 14
Atlas robots, 176
Atlas, 178
Atlas-DRC, 181
AtlasProto, 176
Atlas-Unplugged, 185
Atlas-Unplugged, 185
ATR, 85
Attitude and heading reference system
(AHRS), 2505
Attractor-based Whole-body Motion Control
(WBMC), 1170–1173
Audio Visual Speech Recognition (AVSR),
2282
Automatic speech recognition (ASR) system,
2266, 2267
Autonomous dynamical system, 1287–1288
Autonomy, 2600
B
Bag-of-features representation, 2096–2098
Balance, 1136, 1137, 1142, 1152, 1158, 1315
definition, 1317
examples, 1315
maintenance, 1316, 1320
position control, 1320
strategies, 1318Index 2677
torque-based, 1319
types of, 1317
Balance constraints, 1619–1620
Balanced truncation, 836
Balancing, see Torque based balancing
Ball screws, 2458
BarrettHand design, 536
flexibility and durability, 540
mechanical structure, 537
tactile sensing package, 546
TorqueSwitch™, 542
Base limb, 1533
Base limb Jacobian, 1534
Base parameters, 862, 864–866
dynamics identification, 860
kinematics calibration, 861
Basic SAMCON, 2052–2056, 2061
Baufix scenario, 2241
Behavioral variability reduction, 2155
Behavior-based system architecture,
2246–2247
Belief-desire-intention (BDI), 2410
Belleville washers, 543
BigDog, 13
Bilateral constraints, 1879, 1890, 1893, 1895,
1897, 1916
Bimanual manipulation, 1639–1641
Biomechanics, 28
BioTac, 2551
Bipedal humanoid robots, 118
Bipedal locomotion, 1233, 1714
impedance control (see Impedance control
Bipedal walking)
Bipedal walking robot, 37
anthropomorphic manipulator, 39
BIPER-3, 46
Idaten-2, 44, 45
Kenkyaku-2, 47, 48
MEG-2, 47
WAP-1, 38
WL-1 and WL-3, 37
WL-10RD, 50
WL-9DR, 48, 49
Bipedal walking technology, 58
Bipedal walking theory, 1572
Biped footstep planning, see Footstep
planning
Biped gait generation, 3D LIPM, see Gait
generation, 3D LIPM
Biped Lola, see Lola
Biped robot, 384, 388, 393
Biped walking, 275, 373
Biped walking, MPC, see Model predictive
control (MPC)
Biped walking robot Johnnie, see Johnnie,
robot
BIPER-3, 46
Body center, 1530, 1533
Body motion, 1136, 1137
Body motion, humanoid-human interaction
reading, 2185
role of, 2181
synthesis of, 2185
Boston dynamics’ bipedal robots, 170
Atlas robots, 176
PETMAN, 173
PETProto, 171
Bounding volume hierarchies (BVHs), 1940,
1941, 1943
Brushless DC motor (BLDC motor),
1968–1971
Bullet, 2125
C
Calibration, 2493
CAN, 633
CANBus protocol, 175
Capability map, 1637
Capacitance-to-digital integrated circuits
(CTDs), 2543
Capacitive sensors, 2543
Capturability
balance control mechanism comparison,
1454
linear inverted pendulum model,
1441
and predefined footprints, 1085–1087
viability, 1082–1083, 1437
walking, 1439
Capture point, 824
Capture point concept, 179
Capture region, 1421, 1440, 1461
angular momentum, 1448
finite-sized foot model, 1445
Carnegie Robotics Multi-sense, 183
Cartesian trajectory, 1659, 1661, 1663
CCD, see Continuous collision detection
(CCD)
Center of Mass (CoM), 21, 28, 1078–1080,
1082, 1085–1087, 1089–1091,
1093, 1388, 1421, 1425, 1426, 1429,
1455, 1485–1486, 1520, 1529, 1530,
1619
Center of Pressure (CoP), 1078, 1080, 1083,
1086–1088, 1090–1092, 1388,
1420, 1428, 1454
Central nervous system, 8752678 Index
Central pattern generators (CPGs), 887,
889, 993, 997–1002, 1103–1104,
1115–1118, 1123–1124
AO CPGs, 1108–1110
coupling, 1114
encoding periodic patterns, 1113–1114
environment synchronization, 1112–1113
HCO CPG, 1106–1108, 1121–1123
locomotion in animals, 1101–1102
locomotion in robotics, 1102–1103
neuron models and RNN CPG, 1104–1106
and reflexes, 1126–1129
resonance tuning, 1119–1120
self-organized oscillatory patterns, 1111
Taga’s model extension, 1118–1119
Central processing unit (CPU), 631
Centroidal dynamics, 732–738, 813, 815, 818
Centroidal moment pivot (CMP), 1449, 1454
Centroidal moment pivot (CMP) point,
1396–1399
Centroidal momentum, 724, 753, 1394
Centroidal momentum matrix, 805, 1395
Certification, 2144
CHIMP robot, 14
Classical probabilistic method, 1764
Closed chain kinematics, 1624
constraints, 1618–1619
Cluttered space, 1622
Co-design approach, humanoid robots
coupling state estimation, 1225–1226
hardware and control integration,
1228–1229
planning, 1224
stochastic perturbations, 1226–1228
top-down vs. bottom-up control, 1222–1224
CodyCo project, 31
COG humanoid robotics project, 11
Cog Project
behavior construction, 95
computational system, 94
human intelligence, 97
legacy, 98
motor systems, 93
perceptual systems, 93
physical embodiment, 97
social interaction structures learning, 96
Cognitive empathic robots, 2340
Cognitive empathy, 2338Cognitive human–
robot interaction, 7
Collaborative cues, 2244
Collaborative robots (cobots), 638
Collision avoidance, 141, 144, 1785
Collision-avoidance constraint, 1604
Collision constraints, 1607–1608
Collision detection, 1607, 1879
Boolean distance query, 1936
bounding volume hierarchies, performance
of, 1943
bounding volumes, queries on, 1941–1943
CCD algorithms (see Continuous collision
detection (CCD))
definition, 1934
dynamic/continuous queries, 1936
enumerative form, 1936
geometric locality and motion coherence,
1938–1940
GPU-based collision detection, 1949
kinetic data structures, 1940
linear programming, 1937
Minkowski sums and convex optimization,
1938
PD computation (see Penetration depth
(PD))
separation-distance computation, 1941
static/discrete queries, 1936
Collision query
Boolean, 1936
enumerative, 1936
Color coding, 2525
CoM and ZMP stabilizer, 1520, 1523,
1527, 1537
COMAN humanoid
actuation evaluation, 420
actuation intrinsic stiffness, 414
actuation modelling and control, 417
actuation principle and mechanism, 413
ankle joint, 424
foot structure and sensing, 424
hip joint, 422
joint stiffness, selection of, 425
knee joint, 423
range of motion, 413
size of, 412
COMANOID project, 31
COMAN robot, 299, 373
CoM height, 384
CoM Jacobian, 1521, 1530, 1537
CoM motion, 1534
Communication for HRI communicative
gestures, 2204
gaze direction, 2201
gaze patterns, 2208
hand gestures, 2210
mouth gestures, 2212
movements, 2202
semantic hand gestures, 2207
types and need for gestures, 2200
Companion robot, 155, 160Index 2679
Complementarity, 798–802, 806
Complementarity problems, 1881
Complementary filter, 2504
Complementary filter solution model, 1327
Compliance, 1011
Compliance control, 2349, 2352, 2356
Compliant actuation
parallel elastic actuation, 1997, 1998
series elastic actuation, 1994–1998
series-parallel elastic actuation, 1999
variable impedance actuation, 2000–2001
Compliant leg mechanism, COMAN
humanoid, 412
Computational efficiency, 2586
Computational Geometry Algorithms Library
(CGAL), 2536
Computer system overview of robot Lola, 404
Computer vs. humanoid, 2323–2325
COM-ZMP model, 816
Conditional restricted Boltzmann machine
(CRBM), 1666
Configuration space, translational, 1938
Constraint(s), 1602
closed chain kinematics, 1618–1619
collision, 1607–1608
on configuration, 1603–1604
definition and strategies, 1603–1604
and goal sampling, 1625–1626
manifolds, 1606–1607
path planning for humanoids, 1605
pose, 1608, 1613, 1614
Constraint force algorithm (CFA),
1869–1870
Constraint stabilization, 1898, 1923–1924
Contact(s), 1852, 1854
Contact constraints, 826, 1494, 1503,
1505, 1510
Contact dynamics
impulse-based (see Impulse-based
dynamics)
microscopic, 787–795
Contact force(s), 786, 787, 792, 795, 798, 802,
803, 805–807, 2575
Contact force control
and force distribution, 1370
inverse dynamics, 1366–1367
passivity based compliance control,
1367–1368
Contact manifold, 1887, 1922
Contact wrench sum (CWS), 787, 803–806
Contextual integrity, 2429, 2430, 2432
Continuous collision detection (CCD), 1936
articulated models, 1944
rigid models, 1944
Control, 1222, 2137, 2141, 2145, 2147
coupling state estimation, 1225–1226
hardware and control integration,
1228–1229
impedance control, 494
planning, 1224
top-down vs. bottom-up control,
1222–1224
Control graphs, 2046, 2073–2079
Control models, 1344, 1354
Control policy learning, 1264, 1279
ControlIt!, 1177
Controllability gramian, 837
Conversational dialog, 2223, 2225, 2232, 2234,
2236, 2240
Conversational robots, 2262
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), 314
Cooperative manipulation, 2244
Coordinate vector, 2568
Coordination
dynamic group modeling, 2295
emergent forms of, 2152
interpersonal, 2150
joint action, 2294
joint attention in, 2151
strategies, 2300
structure, 2300
team dynamics, 2301
without planning, 2152
Correct-by-construction approach, 2402
Coulomb friction, 1883, 1889, 1904, 1907,
1919, 1923
Coulomb’s friction model, 793
Coverage-driven verification (CDV), 2409
CPG, see Central pattern generator (CPG)
CPG-based control, humanoid robot
locomotion, see Central pattern
generators (CPGs)
CPU, 631
Cross-modal inference, 2103
Cycloidal gearing, 2454
D
Dahl’s method, 793
d’Alembert’s Principle, 881
DARPA Grand Challenge, 2597
DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC), 13, 111,
204, 1797
Data-sets, 864
DB humanoid robot, 11
Decision making, 2135, 2139, 2143, 2145
Deep learning (DL), 2266, 2283, 2285
Deep learning architectures, 3142680 Index
Deformation, 786, 794, 796
of contact force, 787
linear viscoelastic, 790
plastic, 789, 790
Degrees of freedom (DoF), 21–23, 25, 26,
339–341, 353, 379, 1101, 1571,
1572, 2245
Depth, penetration, 1936, 1944–1948
Detection
human, 2466
robot, 2466
Developmental robotics, 2274, 2275, 2278
Dexterous Robotics Laboratory (DRL),
203, 211
Differential algebraic equations (DAEs), 1878,
1893, 1897, 1916, 1922
Differential inclusion, 806
Differential inverse kinematics, 667, 670
Differential kinematics, 676
coordinate transformations, 679
first-order differential motion relations,
711–714
forward kinematics problem, 677–678
forward kinematics solution, 710
instantaneous motion analysis of chains,
closed loops, 706–708
inverse kinematics solution, multiple-task
constraints (see Inverse kinematics)
kinematic redundancy (see Kinematic
redundancy)
manipulability ellipsoid, 687, 688
multi-DoF joints, 680
at singular configurations, 682–687
spatial velocity, 677
Disk operating system (DOS), 119
Disney Research, 2610
Distance
growth, 1947
separation, 1941
Disturbance estimation and compensation
(DEC) model, 1345
in double inverted pendulum
scenario, 1351
in multi-DoF system, 1353
in SIP scenario, 1346
Disturbance observers (DOBs), 206
Divide-and-conquer algorithm (DCA),
1864–1867
DLR hand, 375
DLR hand arm system, 638, 639
DOB’s region of convergence (DROC), 206
DoF, 379
Domo’s design, 2244
Double reduction system, 268
Double support phase (DSP)
algorithms for, 1156
mathematical formulation, 1144
Doubly-bordered block-diagonal matrix, 730
Drake, 1177, 2121
DRC-HUBOCC
arm design, 621
central processing unit (CPU), 631
controller area network (CAN), 633
cooling system design, 628
design concepts, 617
hand design, 623
head design, 625
inter process communication (IPC), 632
leg design, 627
pelvis design, 625
software architecture of PODO
specification, 620
torso design, 624
wheel mode, 629
DREAM project, 2629
Duckling, 178
Dynamical group modeling, 2295
Dynamical modeling
EoM (see Equations of motions (EoM))
recursive relations, 761–763
rigid body kinematics, 758–761
subsystem approach, 765–770
tree-structured multibody systems, 758
Dynamical movement primitives (DMPs),
1269–1272, 1666
Dynamical systems approach, 2153
Dynamic animation and robotics toolkit
(DART), 2125
Dynamic Bayesian network (DBN), 1669
Dynamic/continuous query, 1936
Dynamic motion planning, 1602
Dynamic movement primitives (DMP), 357
Dynamics identification, 851, 857, 860, 869
base-link equation, 857
equations of motion, 855
joint torque measurement, 856
Dynamic simulation, 2113, 2117, 2121
Dynamic stair-climbing, 178
Dynamic walking, balance control for,
1414–1415
E
Educational robots, 2629
companion to student, 2621
core functionalities and challenges, 2625
edutainment, 2622
international activities, projects,
associations and initiatives, 2629Index 2681
peer and co-learner, 2620
role of, 2619
social, ethical and legal concerns, 2627
for special education, 2624
teaching assistant, 2620
teaching platform, 2623
telepresence medium, 2622
Electrical drives, 395
Electrical interface, 2488
Electro-hydraulic servo actuator, 372
Embodiment, 2137, 2144, 2315, 2329–2330
Emergent coordination, 2152
Emote project, 2629
Emotional empathic robots, 2339
Emotional empathy, 2338
Empathy, 2136, 2140, 2338
from humans to robots, 2342
influences of, 2338
interactions, 2338
psychological definition of, 2338
from robots to humans, 2339
End user evaluation, 2411–2412
Energy efficiency, 951, 958, 959
ENRICHME project, 2385, 2388
Entertainment, 2600
Entertainment robot, see QRIO
Equations of motions (EoM), 724–732, 739,
742, 748, 750, 752, 753, 756, 757,
763–764, 781, 855, 965, 1484–1487
forward dynamics, 770–773
inverse dynamics, 773–774
subsystems (see Subsystems)
Estimation, 1225–1228
Ethical, legal and societal issues (ELS), 2666
Ethics, 2135, 2140, 2146
in AI and robotics, 2666–2667
humanoid robots and, 2668–2669
Euler equation, 1079, 1092
Euler-Lagrange equation, 1032
Euler parameters, 1889, 1891, 1896
Europe, humanoid robotics research
and automatic control, 27
bio-inspired bipeds and compliant bipedal
robots, 24
and biomechanics, 28
collaborative working environment, 27
complex dynamic bipedal robots, 21
European contracts and research groups, 29
industrial humanoid robots, 26
and neurosciences, 28
social and learning robots, 26
under-actuated biped controls and passive
bipedal robots, 23
Explicit dynamics model, 742–753
Explicit oscillatory pattern, 1112–1115
External force(s), 2575
External Force Adaptive Motion Control, 194
Extrapolated COM (XCOM), 823
F
Face mechanism
actuators, 592
DoF configuration, 576
human minic muscles, 575
humanoid, 573
on robotic head, 582
Facial expres​sion(s), 2669
actuators, 592
animal-like expression, 590
DoF configuration, 576
EDDIE, 591
EMYS, 589
human-like expression, 588
human mimic muscles, 575
KOBIAN-RII, 589
Probo, 592
robotic head, 589
for robotic mechanism, 582
symbolic robotic mechanism, 585
Factorial HMMs (FHMMs), 1665
Featherstone’s hybrid dynamics, 1402
Feedback control, inverted pendulum, see
Inverted pendulum
Field-programmable gate array (FPGA),
207, 209
Finger
endoskeleton, 508
human finger, 485
joint impedance control, 513
thumb placement, 488
Fingertip torque sensor, 547
Finite state machines (FSMs), 211, 1783
Floating base (FB), 668, 671, 1571–1573
dynamics, 724
kinematic chain, 724, 729
structure, 1851
system, 667–668
Floating pendulum
position controlled ankle, 1477–1483
torque controlled ankle, 1470–1477
Footstep planning, 1591–1595, 1689–1690,
1699–1703, 1733
bounding boxes, 1706–1707
dynamics and reactiveness, 1711–1713
optimization-based footstep planning,
1710–1711
tiered strategies, 1707–17092682 Index
Footstep planning (Cont.)
2D footstep planning problem solution,
finite transition sets, 1703–1706
vision-based footstep planning, 1713
Force-based impedance control, see Impedance
control
Force control, 1363, 1366–1368, 1370, 1376,
1378, 2356
Force distribution and optimization
compliance control for balancing, 1369
and contact force control, 1370
grasping and balancing, 1368–1369
Force estimation, 2578–2580
Force sensing resistors (FSR), 2548
Ford Motor Company, 330
Formal methods, 2401–2406
Forward dynamics, 666, 667, 770–773, 1852
preliminaries for linear-time, 1861–1863
using system mass matrix, 1858–1860
Forward kinematics, 666, 671
Fractional balanced reduction (FBR), 837
Free fall model (FFM), 1459
Free-floating rigid body dynamics, 2572–2573
Free-floating state estimation
camera-based approaches, 2584–2585
center of mass estimation, 2581
floating-base state estimation, 2581–2583
LIDAR-based approaches, 2583
Free software packages, 1853
Frequency response functions (FRFs), 1340
Friction cone, 792, 801, 805, 1883–1885,
1889, 1904, 1906, 1907
Friction force, 788, 791–795
Fusion technologies, 1500
Fuzzy logic (FL) techniques, 1136, 1149, 1152
FX-1, 122
G
GA, see Genetic algorithm (GA)
Gait generation, 950, 956–965
3D LIPM, 917–920
Gait phasing variable, 1055, 1068
Gait transition, 940–942
Gauss, J.C.F., 1946
Gaussian mixture models (GMM), 1670
Gaussian mixture regression (GMR),
1271–1275
Gaussian model, 1667
Gaussian process regression (GPR),
1275–1280
Gauss-Newton method, 859
Gaze behavior, 2152
Gazebo, 2119
Gaze, humanoid-human interaction, 2177
gaze perception in humanoids, 2179
oculomotor actions, role of, 2176
Gaze patterns, 2200, 2208
Gearing
belt drives, 2455
cycloidal, 2454
linear drives, 2456
Strain wave, 2452
traditional, 2448
Generalized coordinates, 1858, 1859
Generalized inverse kinematics, 1576,
1580–1595
Generalized penetration depth, 1947–1948
General legged system modeling
contact modeling, 1494–1495
dynamic system description, 1493–1494
Genetic algorithm (GA), 1125, 1148
Gibbs sampler, 2094
Good old fashioned AI (GOFAI), 2088
Graph, overlap, 1950
Grasping
algorithms, 494
Cutkosky taxonomy, 515
Feix taxonomy, 515
Grasp multiple objects, 1622
Grasp planning, 1635–1636
GraspRRT approach, 347
Gripper(s), 538, 1786
Gripper, DLR ROTEX, 484
Ground impact, 1035
Ground Reaction Force (GRF), 1388
Ground reference, 724, 753
for simplified handling, 738–742
Growth distance, 1947
Guided SAMCON, 2066–2073
Gyroscope
application, 2502
composition and classification, 2501
feature, 2502
principle, 2502
H
Half-center oscillator (HCO), 1107,
1121–1123, 1130
single, two and three level, 1106
UBN, 1107
Hall-effect integrated circuits, 2546
Hand(s)
Awiwi hand, 500
control, 494
DEXHAND, 496
DLR Hand I, 484–485Index 2683
DLR Hand II, 489
DLR/HIT Hand I, 495
DLR/HIT Hand II, 495
Elu 2 Hand, 503
functional abstraction, 504
housings, 511
palm design, 510
Spacehand, 496
tendon-driven hand, 505
tendon routing, 511
thumb design, 509
Twendy-One Hand, 503
UTAH/MIT hand, 503
Hand-eye calibration, 2012, 2024, 2025,
2033, 2036
Hand prostheses, 36
Haptics concept in robotics, 7
Hardware design, 139, 379
Harmonic Drive ®, 2451
Harmonic drive-based revolute joint with
crossed roller bearing, 395
Harmonic drive-based revolute joint with
four-point contact ball bearing and
support bearing, 394
Hermes humanoid robot, 11
Hertz’s analysis, 789
Heterogeneous systems, 1959, 1960, 1964,
1967, 1968
Hidden Markov models (HMMs), 357, 1282,
1285, 1664, 1665, 2266, 2384
Hidden Markov model technique, 40
Hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM),
1272, 1286
Hierarchical Dirichlet process (HDP), 2096
Hierarchical LDA (hLDA), 2096, 2102
Hierarchical MLDA (hMLDA), 2102
Hierarchical Orthogonal Code (HOC),
2527
High-Access Survey Robot, 87
High-speed walking, 382
Hill-type muscle, 983–985
Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG),
2467
Holonomic constraints, 1051–1054, 1603
Honda humanoid robot
behavior generation, 82
bipedal walking technology, 58
disaster prevention, 86
field experiments, 84
high access survey robot, 87
image recognition, 75
i-WALK, 65
mobile entities creation, 57
physical expression, 76
sensing, 79
situation estimation, 79
task performing, 68
voice recognition, 74
walk stabilization control technology, 62
walking assist device, 87
walking to running, 66
ZMP trajectory, 67
Hooke’s law, 2487
Hopf oscillator, 1109
HRI, 2151, 2205, 2338
HRI model, 2162
HRP-1, 102–104
applications of, 104
principal specifications of, 103
HRP-2, 106–107, 1791
HRP-2Kai, 111, 112
HRP2-LT, 442
HRP-2P, 104–105
HRP-3, 107–109
HRP-4, 109, 110
HRP-4C, 109, 110, 597
configuration, 599–600
design of appearance, 606
hand design, 609
head design, 607–609
joint mechanisms, 602–604
principal specifications, 598
research and application, 611
whole body mechanism and electronics,
604–606
HUBO Lab, 118
Albert HUBO, 122
DRC-HUBOC, 125
FX-1, 122
HUBO 2, 122
KHR-1, 119
KHR-2, 119
KHR-3, 122
Human(s)
DEC model, 1345
independent channel model, 1336
joint action in, 2150
posture control, 1324
sensors, 1326
Human aware navigation, 2202
Human being, 2422
Human body, 874
actuation (see Actuation)
and human motor control (see Motor
control)
kinematic singularity, 878
skeleton model and joint range of motion,
875–8772684 Index
Human-computer interaction (HCI), 2339
Human-human interaction, 2150, 2151,
2162, 2163
Human-human interplay, 2428, 2430, 2432
Human-humanoid communication, 2144
movement-based communication
signals, 2138
non-verbal communication, 2138
speech, 2139
Human–humanoid interaction (HHI), 2348
control technique for, 2350
model, 2349
Human-humanoid interaction assistive
robotics, 2145
challenges, 2136
control approaches for, 2141
decision frameworks, 2143
emotional and cognitive perspectives, 2140
ethical issues and cultural acceptability,
2146
learning, 2144
movement-based communication signals,
2138
non-verbal communication, 2138
sensing technology, 2142
speech, 2139
validation and verification methods, 2145
Human intelligence, 97, 2423
Human-like foot mechanism, 272, 274, 284
Human locomotion
active control of foot placement, 1249
bipedal, 1233
energetic cost, 1234
isometric force, 1242
leg stiffness adjustment, 1251
muscle properties, 1248
neuromuscular control models (see
Neuromuscular control models)
passive dynamics, 1248
physiological feedback control, 1246
reflexes for stabilization, 1247
spring and wheel action, 1244
stability, 1245
swing-leg retraction, 1251
transition and leg swing costs, 1240
walking and running mechanisms, 1237
walking and running speeds, 1240
Human motion imitation, 1667–1669
definition, 1658
model learning, 1667–1669
motion-primitive based approaches,
1663–1667
optimal control, 1670–1673
postural stability, 1673
reinforcement learning, 1670
separate postural control, direct
reproduction, 1660–1663
Human motion measurement and retargeting,
2649–2651
Humanoid(s), 1577, 2422, 2423
challenges of constrained path planning
for, 1605
constraints in motion planning for,
1602–1629
in context of art, 2425
in context of labour, 2426
dynamic motion and smooth path
reshaping, 1579–1581
geometric and kinematic path planning,
1578
manipulation actions, planning of (see
Manipulation)
supportive torque with, 2652–2654
task planning (see Task planning)
whole-body motion planning, generalized
inverse kinematics (see Whole-body
motion planning)
Humanoid assistive robots, 2381
Humanoid balancing, 1524, 1548–1551
balance indicators and criteria,
1554–1555
challenges, 1551
contact mechanics, 1546–1547
Lagrangian equations of motion,
1544–1546
local optimality, 1561–1563
model complexity, 1553
model predictive control, 1558–1560, 1563
Newton-Euler equations of motion, 1546
non-stochastic whole-body motion
planning, 1557
solving frequency, 1552
stochastic whole-body motion planning,
1556–1557
time horizon, 1552–1553
Humanoid body control
DSP, 1144
SSP, 1137
Humanoid vs. computer, 2323–2325
Humanoid dynamics, 1042
Humanoid eye mechanism
DoF configurations, 574
human eye muscles, 573
Humanoid-Human interaction, ethical issues
of, 2428
Humanoid kinematics and dynamics
internal simulation and predictive models,
897–898Index 2685
learning approaches, robot modeling,
898–900
model building and robot mechatronics,
895–896
Humanoid modeling, 2121
Humanoid motion model, 1521–1523
Humanoid motion optimization
changing contacts, 1807
feasibility, 1807
human-like movements, 1808
model-free and model-based learning,
1828–1829
movement primitives, 1829–1831
multi-body systems, 1811–1815
optimal control problems (see Optimal
control problems)
physical capabilities, exploitation of, 1807
redundancy, 1807
stability control, 1808
template models, 1810–1811
underactuation, 1807
whole-body motion of humanoids
and anthropomorphic systems,
1822–1828
Humanoid motion planning, 1573
Humanoid motion planning, optimization and
gait generation, 1844
automatic formulation and constraints,
1847
dynamic stability criteria, 1846
general approaches, 1847
human-like movement, measures for, 1846
motion classification, 1848
skillful manipulation and grasping, 1845
vision-based navigation, 1848
whole-body movements, MPC of,
1844–1845
Humanoid multi-robot systems, see
Multi-robot systems (MRS)
Humanoid robot(s), 5, 148, 2100–2101, 2595
challenges, 7
cognitive interaction, 2597
development of, 6
as device evaluator, 2647–2649
DLR hand arm system, 501
in education, 2617
in entertainment and education, 8
goals, 1317
haptics concept, 7
historical perspective, 372–373
and humans, 6
IMU, 2505
JUSTIN, 494
literal-minded approach, 6
mobile manipulation, 2597
momentum of, 1392–1399
motion optimization, see Humanoid motion
optimization
NAO, 2596
Nextage, 2597
overview, 373–374
revolute joint, 776–779
rigid body, 777
Sarcos, 325
sensor calibration, see Sensor calibration,
modeling and simulation
supportive torque using, 2656
in theme parks, 2600–2609
topology of, 774–776
uses, 7
WABIAN-2, 265
WBC, see Whole-body control (WBC)
See also NAO
Humanoid robot actuators
general structure of, 1958, 1959
modeling and simulation (see Actuator
modeling and simulation)
Humanoid robotics
gearing, 2451
research in USA, 9
platform, 617
state estimation (see State estimation,
humanoid robots)
Humanoid robotics project (HRP), 102
See also different types of HRP models
Humanoid robot Lola actuators, 386
ankle joint design, 399
ankle joint mechanism, 390
computer sytem overview, 404
hardware specifications, 380
hip joint, 396
kinematic structure, 379
knee joint design, 397
knee joint mechanism, 389
locomotor system at high speeds, 382
overview and dimensions, 380
revolute joints, harmonic drive
gears, 393
robotic foot, 401
sensors, 402
Humanoid robot research
animating non-humanoid characters,
2610–2611
entertainment applications, 2609–2610
physical human-robot interaction,
2612–2613
physical realization, animation characters,
2611–26132686 Index
Humanoid simulation and software, see
Simulation
Humanoid system architectures, 2224
Human relationships empathy in, 2338
Human-robot cooperation, 2228, 2243
Human robot interaction (HRI), 2151, 2162,
2164, 2205, 2338, 2623
anthropomorphism, 2321–2323
embodiment, 2315–2317, 2317, 2329–2330
movement-based communication, 2179
non-verbal information, 2299, 2303
proximate physical space, 2297
role distribution models, 2306
situatedness, 2318–2321, 2329–2330
see also Safety assessment and
trustworthiness, human-robot
interaction
Human-robot teaming application areas, 2297
challenges, 2304
dynamic group modeling, 2295
fluent interaction, 2300
human-robot handovers, 2299
joint action, 2294
as partners, 2302
proximate interactions, 2297
Human-robot teaming challenges
human behavior unpredictability, 2305
lack of infrastructure, 2307
limited behavioural versatility, 2306
team dynamics unpredictability, 2305
Humans and humanoids, 888
actuation, 879–882
human motion understanding and imitation
learning, 888
kinematic singularity, 878
motor control, 882–886
skeleton model and joint range of motion,
875–877
trajectory optimization, 887
Humans’ empathy toward robots, 2342
Human size robot, 618
Human toe joint mechanism, 436–454
analysis, 447–451
multiple toes, 446–448
toe joint with parallel four-bar linkage,
442–445
walking motion, 451–454
windlass mechanism, 445–446
Hunt-Crossley model, 790
HuroCup, 2476–2478
Hybrid dynamical system, 1879
Hybrid model
bipedal walking, 1048–1049, 1051
impact model, 1050
Lagrangian swing phase model,
1049–1050
Hybrid modeling, 899
Hybrid zero dynamics, see Zero dynamics
Hydraulic robots, 14
Hydraulic systems, 2440, 2442
I
iCub, 292
bottom-up attention system and optical
flow, 312
event-driven sensing and processing,
311–315
learning spatiotemporal filters, 314
tactile elements, 302
tactile system, 303
visual perception, 309–311
whole-body dynamics control, 307–309
whole-body dynamics estimation, 307
whole-body dynamics modelling,
305–307
iCub 1.0
design, 293
mechanical design, 293–295
sensors and electronics, 296
iCub 2.5, 297
eyes, 298
head, 298
sensors and electronics, 300–301
software infrastructure, 300–302
iCub 3.0, 317
iCub_SIM, 2120
iCub tactile technology, 2550
Idaten-2, 44, 45
IHMC Whole Body Controller, 1178
Image recognition, 75
Impact model, 1035, 1041, 1050
Impedance
control strategy for humanoids (see
Impedance control)
definition, 1010
Impedance control, 1011
and admittance control, 1014–1015
for bipedal walking, 1017–1022, 1722,
1723
characteristics, 1012
goal of, 1012
humanoid robot model, 1016–1017
position and velocity, 1013, 1014
for running, 1022–1027
Impedance modulation strategy, humanoid
robots, see Impedance control
Improved SAMCON, 2056Index 2687
Impulse-based dynamics
collision analysis of mass points, 796–798
contact wrench sum, 803–806
formulation as complementarity problem,
798–802
formulation as differential inclusion, 806
regularization of contact equation, 802–803
Independent channel model description, 1336
human balance control mechanisms, 1342
model parameters, 1340
multi-segmental body dynamics, 1344
Individual effort, 2159
Industrial robots, 4
Inertial frame, 2567, 2571
Inertial measurement unit (IMU), 22,
1496–1497, 1505–1508
accelerometer, 2499
balance control, 2512
complementary filter, 2504
disturbance rejection, 2507
falling detection, 2515
gyroscope, 2502
installation of, 2509
Kalman filter, 2504
products, 2505
vibration control, 2511
Inertia matrix, 826
Input-to-state stability (ISS), 1520, 1523
Instantaneous capture point (ICP), 1436
Instantaneous motion analysis, 676, 680, 687,
706–708
Instruments, see Musical instrument, robots
Integrated Adaptive Fall-over Motion Control,
195
Integrated development environment (IDE),
209
Intelligence, 2423
Intelligence loop, 78
Intelligent simulation-based testing, see
Simulation-based testing
Intention reading, 2186
Inter process communication (IPC), 632
Interaction, 2600
Intercultural robo-ethics, 2432, 2433
International Space Station (ISS), 202, 204
Interpersonal coordination, 2150
Inverse dynamics, 667, 671, 773–774
Inverse kinematics, 666, 670, 671, 681,
708–710, 869
fixed task priorities, 697–700
iterative optimization methods, 701–704
motion-task constraints, 695–697
variable task priorities, smooth task
transitions, 700–701
Inverse optimal control, 1671, 1672, 1808,
1809, 1831–1835
Inverted pendulum, 812, 813, 816–820,
1468–1470
floating pendulum (see Floating pendulum)
linear (see Linear inverted pendulum (LIP))
normal, 905
parameters, 1469
Inverted pendulum model (IPM), 1455, 1459,
1461
IPC, 632
Isometric force, 1242
Iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, 2534,
2584
Iterative learning control (ILC), 1295–1298
J
Jacobian matrix, 881
James humanoid bartender, 2247
Japanese Humanoid Research Project, 2596
Johnnie, robot, 132
control architecture, 135
kinematic structure, 132
mechatronic design, 133
motion control, 137
sensors and computer system, 134, 135
trajectory generation, 135
walking performance, 137
Johnson Space Center (JSC), 202, 203
Joint action, 2222–2224, 2294, 2297, 2302
distribution as tool to facilitate, 2158
HRI model, 2162
in humans, 2150
outcome, 2155
Joint-Action Science and Technology (JAST),
2223
Joint attention, in coordination, 2151
Joint control of HUBO, 127
Joint mechanisms of robot Lola
actuators, 386
ankle joint, 390
drive mechanism, 387
knee joint, 389
Joint torque estimation, 2577–2578
Joint torque measurements, 1510–1511
Joint velocity and acceleration estimation,
2576–2577
K
Kalman filter, 2504
Kalman filtering, 1498, 1500, 1505, 1507,
1508, 15112688 Index
Kelvin-Voigt model, 789, 790
Kenkyaku-2, 47, 48
Kinect, 2525
advantages of, 2527
applications, 2528
basic principle of, 2526
pattern matching technique, 2526
PrimeSense module, 2526
signal separation coding, 2527
Kinematic redundancy, 688–690
joint-limit avoidance subtask, 692
redundancy resolution, extended Jacobian
technique, 693–695
self motion, 690–691
singularity avoidance subtask,
manipulability measure, 692–
693
weighted generalized inverse, 691
Kinematics calibration, 851, 858, 859, 861,
864, 868
equation, 853
floating-base, 854
modelling, 852
Kinematics, differential, see Differential
kinematics
Kinetic friction coefficient, 792
Kinetic friction force, 791
Knowledge robotics, 5
Kohonen’s Self-Organizing Map, 2267
Kompai robot, 2388
Korean HUBO robot, 13, 14
KoroiBot project, 30
Kris’ Locomotion and Manipulation Planning
Toolbox (Klamp’t), 2120
L
Labor, humanoids in context of, 2426–2428
Lagrange’s method, 965, 1050
Lagrangian dynamics, 1078
Lagrangian equation of motion, 1043
Lagrangian model, 1051–1054
Lagrangian swing phase model, 1049–1050
Language learning approach, 2265, 2266, 2274
abstract word learning, 2279
developmental models, 2274
machine learning models, 2281
object and action word learning, 2275
syntax learning, 2278
Laser range finders (LRFs), 79
Latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), 2092–2096,
2282
LCP, see Linear complementarity problem
(LCP)
Lead screws, 2458
Learning, 2135, 2137, 2140, 2144, 2145, 2147
control, 1262–1307
from demonstration, 1302, 1305
feedback policy, 2061–2066
Least squares, 865, 866
calibration, 859
identification, 858
weighted least squares problem, a-priori
knowledge, 868
Leg and joint mechanism, 422
Leg design of Lola, 382
Leg Lab, 12
Life-like robots, humans, 2670–2671
Lift-up Motion Control, 196
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), 2531
advantages of, 2532
disadvantages of, 2532
Velodyne’s LiDAR, 2531, 2532
Light emitter diode (LED), 2546
Lightweight robot arm (LBR), 638
joint specifications, 641
Limit cycle, 1035
Limit cycle walking, 950, 951, 960, 976–977
Linear actuators, 2457
Linear complementarity problem (LCP), 802,
1881, 1907, 1912, 1918, 1921, 1926
Linear inverted pendulum (LIP)
biped walking robots, research on, 907–909
center of mass, 906
LIPM, 911–913
potential energy conserving orbit, 909–911
3D LIPM, 913–920
Linear inverted pendulum mode (LIPM), 812,
820, 821, 823, 824, 911–913
Linear inverted pendulum (LIP) model, 21, 26,
27, 1390, 1461, 1520, 2581
3D, 1432
dynamics, 1434, 1436
walking, 1430
Linear quadratic regulation (LQR), 831,
1288–1292
Linear quadratic tracking (LQT), 1272,
1288–1292
Linkage-driven fingers
three-phalanx three-dof underactuated
finger, 528
two-phalanx five-bar underactuated finger,
525–528
Linkages, underactuated robotic hands, see
Underactuated robotic hands,
mechanical linkages
Literal-minded approach, 6
Local Binary Patterns (LBP), 2467, 2469Index 2689
Locally weighted projection regression
(LWPR), 1269
Locally weighted regression (LWR),
1268–1269
Locomotor trajectory formation
cognition-perception-action coupling, 1687
feedback models, 1684
footstep planning, 1689–1690
goal-directed trajectories, 1687–1688
holonomic vs. nonholonomic locomotion,
1681–1683
inverse optimal control, 1688
locomotion path planning, 1683
movement realism, 1687
optimal control approach, 1686
optimal locomotion paths, 1690
Lola, 442
hardware overview, 139
obstacle avoidance, 143
stabilizing control, 142
walking control, 140
Lola’s locomotor system
CoM height, 384
high effective structural stiffness, 383
low-Inertia design of leg links, 384
LRFs, 79
L2ToR project, 2629
Lund-Grenoble (LuGre) model, 794
LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling),
192
Lyapunov function, 1524
M
Machine Control Lab. (MCLab), 118
Magnetic sensors, 2546
MAHRU 1, 1521
Maisonnier, Bruno, 148
Manipulation, 1577–1581
arm motion planning, 1636
bimanual manipulation, 1639–1641
grasp planning, 1635–1636
whole-body manipulation and task
execution (see Whole-body
manipulation)
Man machine interaction, 152
Markov model (MM), 1285
Mass distribution, 874
Master Motor Map (MMM), 353, 355
Master-slave hydraulic system, 71
Matching condition, 1036–1038
Matching technology, 1500
multiple foot matching, 1502–1504
single foot matching, 1501–1502
Mathematica, 2535
Matlab, 2535
MATLAB/Simulink, 2405
MATLAB/Simulink interface, 2119
Matsuoka’s oscillator, 1107
Maxwell model, 789
Maze puzzle, 1622–1623
MCI, 2378
Mechanical design of robot Lola computer
system overview, 404
hardware specifications, 380
kinematic structure, 379
locomotor system at high speeds, 382
overview and dimensions, 380
sensors, 402
Mechanical hands, 524
Mechanical linkages, underactuation, see
Underactuated robotic hands,
mechanical linkages
Mechanical parts design of DRC-HUBOC
arm design, 621
cooling system design, 628
hand design, 623
head design, 625
leg design, 627
pelvis design, 625
torso design, 624
wheel mode, 629
Mechanical single-leg model, 37
Mechanisms, 524, 528, 529, 532
Mechatronics, 152, 1958, 1959, 1964, 1965,
2002
Mechatronics of robot Lola ankle joint, 399
hip joint, 396
knee joint, 397
revolute joints, 393
robotic foot, 401
MEG-2, 47
Meka M-1 humanoid robot, 2382
Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs),
2097
MemoryX, 361, 362
MeshLab, 2535
Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS),
2500, 2503, 2513
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 2378
Mimicry, 2154
Minimal coordinates, 1889, 1890, 1895,
1900–1901
Minimum stable balanced reduction
(MSR), 838
Minimum stable model reduction (MSR)
algorithm, 812, 836
Minimum-predicted-distance (MPD), 16882690 Index
Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
(METI) of Japan, 102
Minkowski, H., 1937
Minkowski sum, 1938
Minkowski-Weyl theorem, 1774
Mirror neurons, 2172, 2173
Mixed generalized velocity, 2573
Moby, 2121
Model-based optimal controller, 1573
Model learning, 898
Model predictive control (MPC), 1090–1093,
1844–1845
discrete-time representation, 1083
dynamics of falling, 1080–1081
dynamics of legged robots, 1078–1079
dynamics of the whole body and artificial
synergy synthesis, 1084–1085
dynamics of walking, 1079–1080
viability and capturability, 1082–1083
walking motion generation, flat ground (see
Walking motion generation)
whole-body MPC, 1563
ZMP-based formulations, 1559–1560
Modernity, 2424
Momentum-based balance control, 1389,
1402–1414, 1414
Momentum-based computed torque control,
1400
Momentum control, 1399
Monte Carlo simulations, 2407
Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse, 1391
MORPHA project, 2223
Morse, 2120
Motion capture, 2045, 2047, 2051
Motion constraints, 692, 696, 699, 704, 707,
711, 715
Motion control, sampling-based,
2049–2081
Motion encoding forms, 1272
Motion generation, 1836
dynamic stability criteria, 1846
flexible and adaptive, 1844
methodological approaches for, 1845
Motion identification, 1834
Motion planning, 897, 1555, 1572–1573, 1703,
1706, 1710, 1711, 1713, 1732
for humanoids, 1602–1629
non-stochastic whole-body, 1557
stochastic whole-body, 1556–1557
whole-body (see Whole-body motion
planning)
Motion primitives, 1663–1667
Motor control, 882
human neuromuscular network, 883–884
neuromusculoskeletal model, 884–886
top-down models, 886, 887
Motorola microcontrollers, 95
Motor skill acquisition, 1262, 1264–1266
Mountable humanoid
control design, 231
experiments and performances, 233
human machine interface, 229
specifications, 228–230
stabilizing control, 232
Movement-based communication, humanoidhuman interaction, 2176
body motion, 2181
gaze, 2181
Movement patterns generator (MPG) circuits,
1101
Movement primitives, 1266–1288
MuJoCo, 2125
Multi-agent systems (MAS), 2474
Multi-axis force-torque sensor, 2489
calibration, 2493
electrical interface, 2488
strain gauge and bridge circuit, 2486
ZMP, 2485
Multibody system momenta, 1393
Multi-contact planning and control
applications, 1794, 1798
contact mode, 1768
contact planning, 1776–1782
contact stability, 1768–1772
control, 1783–1788
locomotion problems, 1766, 1767
multi-contact wrench cone,
1774–1776
Newton-Euler equations, 1772, 1774
predictive control, 1788–1794
Multimodal HDP (MHDP), 2101
Multimodal integration of speech, 2281
Multimodal latent Dirichlet allocation
(MLDA), 2092, 2098–2100
Multimodal machine learning, 2091–2092
Multi-modal modular tactile system,
2549
Multimodal representation learning
using matrix factorization, 2107
using neural networks, 2107
Multimodal robot interfaces, 2271
Multi-robot systems (MRS), 2475, 2464
open problems in, 2479–2480
SLAM, 2476, 2477
theory and application, 2475–2479
wheeled and treaded models, 2475
Multi-sensor fusion, 2239, 2240
Muscle(s), 874, 879–885, 887, 888Index 2691
Muscle reflexes, 981, 993, 997, 999, 1000,
1002, 1004
Muscle suit, 2661
Musculoskeletal model, 879–880
Musical instrument, robots
drum, 221–224
trumpet, 218–221
violin, 224–226
Mutual understanding, 2171, 2177,
2186, 2189
N
NAO humanoid robot, 1136, 2618, 2622–2624
business model, 162
development platform, 158
in education system, 160
for elderly people, 162
ethical challenges, 166
gait, 155
hardware platform, 153
speech, 157
technical challenges, 165
teleoperation, 159
NASA robots
R2 (see Robonaut 2 (R2))
Valkyrie (see Valkyrie)
NASA Tensegrity Robotics toolkit (NTRT)
Simulator), 2121
Natural Gait Control, 190
Natural gestures
gaze direction, 2201
movements, 2202
Natural-language (NL) instructions,
1649–1650
Natural language processing (NLP), 2264,
2265, 2285
based robot speech interfaces, 2269
and learning technologies, 2263
Neural networks (NN), 1136, 1149, 1152,
1154, 1158
Neuromuscular control models, 995–996
animal experiments, 992–994
biological actuator design, 981–982
CPG network, 998–1002
Hill-type muscle models, 983–985
limb controller, modeling, 994–995
neurons and signal transmission,
985–988
rehabilitation robotics, 1003–1004
sensory systems (see Sensory systems)
Neuromusculoskeletal model, 884–886
Neurorobotics, 1354, 1356
Newton-Euler equations, 1772
Nextage, 2634
hardware/customizing, 2638, 2639
hardware/industrial application, 2640, 2640
hardware/software structure, 2635–2637
in research, 2641
Nominal pose, 826
Non-anthropomorphic robots, 2307
Non-gaited planning, 1734
Nonholonomic constraints, 1603
Non-humanoid robots, 2387
Nonintegrable constraints, 1603
Nonlinear least squares problem, 859
Non-verbal communication, 2177, 2182
Normal force, 788–791
N type tendon system, 459, 460, 468
O
Object-action complexes (OACs), 349,
361, 362
Observability, 864
Observability gramian, 837
Odometry, 1491, 1498, 1500, 1502, 1508
O (n/ method, 757, 770–773
Open Architecture Human-centered Robotics
Platform version 3 (OpenHRP3),
2119
Open Dynamics Engine (ODE), 2125
OpenRave, 2120
OpenSim, 2121
Open source humanoid robot simulators
actuation simulation capabilities, 2122
Drake, 2121
Gazebo, 2119
human and humanoid models, 2123
incorporate environment model, 2122
Klamp’t, 2120
Moby, 2121
Morse, 2120
NTRT Simulator, 2121
OpenHRP3, 2119
OpenRave, 2120
OpenSim, 2121
RBDL, 2120
Robotran, 2119
ROCOS, 2119
SCS, 2121
simulation interfaces, 2123
SL, 2120, 2121
V-Rep, 2120
Open-source software, 2114
Operational safety, 2540
Optical sensors, 2546
Optimal control, 1670–16732692 Index
Optimal control problem(s), 1790, 1815
constraints, 1819–1820
human motion imitation, humanoids,
1818–1819
humanoid motion synthesis, objective
functions for, 1817–1818
inverse, 1831–1835
motion synthesis and motion
reconstruction, 1815–1816
solution of, 1821–1822
Optimization, 1573
Optimization-based control approaches,
humanoid balancing, see Humanoid
balancing
Optimization, humanoid motion, see
Humanoid motion optimization
Orbital energy, 822
Ordinary differential inclusion (ODI),
1080–1082, 1084, 1085, 1088
Orientation frame, 2567
Otolith organs, 1327
P
Painlevé’s Paradox, 1910
Paro, 161
Partially observable Markov decision processes
(POMDPs), 1648, 1649, 2268
Partial recurrent neural networks (P-RNNs),
2279
Particle swarm optimization (PSO), 1125
Passive bipedal walkers
characteristics of, 1034
impact model, 1034
limit cycle, 1035, 1036
Passive compliance, 2359, 2360, 2368
Passive-dynamics, 1223, 1224, 1227, 1228
Passive dynamic walker, 1030, 1316
Passive rimless wheel (RW) model, 965
Passive sensors
advantages, 2465
disadvantages, 2465
Passivity, 1033–1034
definition, 1031
Passivity-based control, 1031, 1038–1041
Pattern formation (PF), 1106
Peak absolute error (PAE), 2576
Pedestrian detectors, 2468
Penetration depth (PD), 1934, 1944–1945,
1947
convex polytopes, 1945
metrics, 1947
polyhedral models, 1946
spline and algebraic objects, 1947
PerceptionPalm sensor package, 546
Percolation threshold, 2542
Perfect non-elastic collision, 797
Performance analysis
data-selection, 864
direct validation and cross validation, 865
standard deviation, 864
Periodic orbit, 1046
Persistent exciting motions, 861
PETMAN, 13, 173
PETProto, 171
Physical joints, and TSR chains, 1618
Physical symbol system hypothesis, 2089
Physics-based animation, 2045, 2047–2048
Physics-based character animation, 2045
Physics engine, 2114, 2119–2121, 2124–2126
Physiological feedback control, 1246
PhysX, 2125
Piezo-electric sensors, 2545
Piezo-resistive sensors, 2542
Pinch Avoidance Motion Control, 196
Pixar, 2610
Planar humanoid robot, 742–753
Plan execution monitor (PEM), 362
Planning, 1224
Pneumatically Actuated Muscles (PAM), 2443
Pneumatic system actuators, 2442
benefit of, 2440, 2441
components of, 2440
limitations of, 2441
power requirements of, 2442
Poincaré, 931, 936, 939, 1423
Poincaré map, 1041
Point Cloud Library (PCL), 2536
Policy search, 2048–2049
Polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF), 2545,
2548, 2550
Population based optimization (PBO), 1125
Pose constraints, 1608, 1613, 1614
Position-based visual servoing approach, 345
Posture control, 1324, 1335, 1356, 1358
Potential energy conserving orbit, 909–911
Power requirement, body motion, 1136
PR2 robot, 13
Predictive simulation, 2156
Principal component analysis (PCA), 1119
Printed circuit boards (PCBs), 207, 2544
Probabilistic dynamic balance method,
1669
Probabilistic movement primitive (ProMP),
1281–1282
Programming by demonstration (PbD), 351
Projection equation, 757, 763, 766, 769
Proportional-derivative (PD), 1122Index 2693
Proportional-integral-derivative (PID), 1119
Proximal gear, 543
Puck® motor controllers, 540
Q
QNX real-time operating system, 95
QRIO, 188
behavior control architecture, 198–199
configuration, 190
as corporate ambassador, 190
hardware, 190–192
history, 188–190
intelligent functions, 197
motion control system, 192–196
Motion Editor, 196
Quadratic programming (QP) problem, 801
Quantum tunneling composite (QTC), 2550
Quasi-coordinates, 1896
Quasi-dynamic walking, 48
Quasi-static motion planning, 1602
Quaternion, 1891
Query
collision, Boolean, 1936
collision, enumerative, 1936
dynamic, 1936
proximity, 1937, 1942, 1943, 1946, 1948
static, 1936
R
Radial basis function (RBF), 1268
Random sample consensus method
(RANSAC), 1752, 2535
Range of motion, 875–877
Range sensors
CGAL, 2536
definition, 2522
feature-based registration, 2534–2535
hyper depth camera, 2533
ICP, 2534
interferometry, 2533
Matlab and Mathematica, 2535
MeshLab, 2535
PCL, 2536
RGB-D cameras, 2524–2528
stereo cameras, 2533
time-of-flight cameras, 2528–2531
ultrasonic sensors, 2522–2524
Rayleigh oscillator, 1110
Reachability map, 1637
Real-time feedback control, HUBO, 126
Real-time Integrated Adaptive Control System,
192–196
Real-time Whole Body Stabilizing Motion
Control, 193
Rebound coefficient, 797
Recurrent neural network CPGs (RNN CPG),
1104–1106, 1125
Recurrent neural network with parametric bias
(RNNPB), 2107
Recursive method, 282
Recursive Newton-Euler algorithm (RNEA)


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