كتاب Machining Fundamentals
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 كتاب Machining Fundamentals

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machining Fundamentals    كتاب Machining Fundamentals  Emptyالأحد 23 أغسطس 2020, 11:47 pm

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Machining Fundamentals
10th Edition
John R. Walker Bob Dixon
Bel Air, Maryland Walters State Community College
Morristown, Tennessee

كتاب Machining Fundamentals  M_f_b_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Brief Contents
1 An Introduction to 17 The Milling Machine 287
Machining Technology . 1
18 Milling Machine Operations . 316
2 Careers in Machining Technology 13
19 Precision Grinding . . 347
3 Shop Safety . 27
20 Band Machining and Broaching . 372
4 Understand ing Drawings . 38
21 Introduction to CNC Machining . 391
5 Measurement 53
22 CNC Programm ing Basics . 404
6 Layout Work . 80
23 CNC Milling 418
7 Hand Tools . . 92
24 CNC Turning . . 431
8 Fasteners 129
25 Automated Manufacturing 441
9 Jigs and Fixtures . 145
26 Quality Control . . 455
10 Cutting Fluids . 152
27 Geometric Dimensioning
11 Sawing and Cutoff Machines . 158 and Tolerancing 470
12 Drills and Drilling Machines . 168 28 Metal Characterist ics . . 485
13 Offhand Grinding . 201 29 Heat Treatment of Metals . 500
14 The Lathe 209 30 Metal Fin ishing . . 519
15 Other Lathe Operations 247 31 Electromachining Processes . 533
16 Cutting Tapers and 32 Nontraditional Machining
Screw Threads on the Lathe . 265 Techniques . 541
33 Other Processes . . 552
xviiContents
Chapter 1 5 5.4 .3 Gages Vernier Measuring Tools 65 61
An Introduction to 5.5 Dial Indicators 72
Machining Technology . . 1 5.6 Helper Measuring Tools 73
1.1 The Evolution of Machine Tools . 2
1.2 Basic Machine Tool Operation 5 Chapter 6
1.3 Nontraditional Machining Processes . .7
1.4 Automating the Machining Process . . .8
1.5 The Evolving Role of the Machinist . .10
1.6 Acquiring Machining Skills and Knowledge 11
Layout Work 80
6.1 Layout Tools . . . 81
6.2 Layout Steps 88
Chapter 2
Careers in Machining Technology. 13
2.1 Machining Job Categories 14
2.2 Preparing to Find a Job in
Machining Technology .21
2.3 How to Get and Keep a Job .22
2.4 Keeping Your Skills Current .25
Chapter 1
Hand Tools . . . 92
7.1 Clamping Devices 93
7.
2 Pliers . 94
7.3 Wrenches 96
7.
4 Screwdrivers 100
7.5 Striking Tools 102
7.
6 Chisels 103
Chapter 3 7.8 1.1 Hacksaw Files .104 109
Shop Safety 27 7.9 Reamers . 113
3.1 Safety in the Shop . 28 7.10 Hand Threading 115
3.2 General Machine Safety .31 7.11 Hand Polishing . . .123
3.3 General Tool Safety . .32 7.12 Broaching Operations . . 124
3.4 Fire Safety . 32
3.5 Safety Data Sheets . 35 Chapter 8
Chapter 4 Fasteners 8.1 Threaded . Fasteners . 129 130
Understanding Drawings 38 8.2 Nonthreaded Fastening Devices . 139
4.1 Dimensions 42 8.3 Adhesives 141
4.2 Information Included on Drawings . 44
4.3 Prints . 48
4.4 Types of Drawings Used in the Shop 48
4.5 Parts List 48
Chapter 9
Jigs and Fixtures 145
4.6 Drawing Sizes 51 9.1 Jigs .146
9.2 Fixtures 147
Chapter 5 9.3 Jig and Fixture Construction .148
Measurement . . . 53
5.1 The Rule . 54
5.2 The Micrometer Caliper . 56
xviiiChapter10
Cutting Fluids 152
10.1 Types of Cutting Fluids . 153
10.2 Application of Cutting Fluids . 155
10.3 Choosing a Cutting Fluid . .155
10.4 Cutting Fluid Safety . . . 156
Chapter 11
Sawing and Cutoff Machines 158
11.1 Metal-Cutting Power Saws . 159
11.2 Power Hacksaw 160
11.3 Power Band Saw . 161
11.4 Troubleshooting Power Hacksaws
and Band Saws . . 164
11.5 Metal-Cutting Circular Saws 165
11.6 Power Saw Safety . 166
Chapter12
Drills and Drilling Machines 168
12.1 Drilling Machines . 169
12.2 Drill Press Safety . 172
12.3 Drills . . 172
12.4 Drill-Holding Devices . . 177
12.5 Work-Holding Devices . . 179
12.6 Cutting Speeds and Feeds .183
12.7 Cutting Fluids . . . 184
12.8 Sharpening Drills . . .184
12.9 Drilling . . . .188
12.10 Countersinking .192
12.11 Counterbori ng . 193
12.12 Spotfacing 194
12.13 Tapping . . 195
12.14 Reaming . 196
12.15 Microdrilling . 198
Chapter13
Offhand Grinding. . 201
13.1 Bench and Pedestal Grinders. . .202
13.2 Other Types of Grinders 203
13.3 Grinding Wheels . 203
13.4 Abrasive Belt and Wheel Grinder Safety 206
13.5 Using a Dry Grinder . . 206
13.6 Using a Wet Grinder .207
Chapter14
The Lathe . 209
14.1 Lathe Size . . 210
14.2 Major Parts of a Lathe . 210
14.3 Work-Holding Attachments . . 215
14.4 Cutting Tools and Toolholders 224
14.5 Cutting Speeds and Feeds . . . 231
14.6 Preparing the Lathe for Operation 234
14.7 Cleaning the Lathe . .235
14.8 Lathe Safety 235
14.9 Facing Operations .236
14.10 Turning Operations 237
14.11 Parting and Grooving Operations . . 241
14.12 Gathering Information from Chips 243
Chapter15
Other Lathe Operations . 247
15.1 Boring on a Lathe . . .248
15.2 Drilling on a Lathe 249
15.3 Reaming on a Lathe . 250
15.4 Knurling on a Lathe . 251
15.5 Filing and Polishing on a Lathe . 253
15.6 Using Steady and Follower Rests . . 254
15.7 Using Mandrels 256
15.8 Grinding on the Lathe 257
15.9 Other Lathe Attachments .259
15.10 Industrial Applications of the Lathe 260
Chapter 16
Cutting Tapers and Screw Threads
on the Lathe . 265
16.1 Turning Tapers . 266
16.2 Measuring Tapers . 272
16.3 Cutting Screw Threads on the Lathe 274
Chapter17
The Milling Machine . 287
17.1 Types of Milling Machines 288
17.2 Milling Operations . 293
17.3 Milling Cutter Basics . . 294
17.4 Types and Uses of Milling Cutters 295
17.5 Holding and Driving Cutters . 303
17.6 Milling Cutting Speeds and Feeds . 306
xix17.7 Cutting Fluids .307
17.8 Milling Work-Holding Attachments . . 308
17.9 Milling Safety Practices . 312
Chapter 18
Milling Machine Operations 316
18.1 Vertical Milling Machine 317
18.2 Vertical Milling Machine Operations 317
18.3 Horizontal Milling Machine Operations 324
18.4 Milling Machine Care . 334
18.5 Cutting a Spur Gear . 335
18.6 Cutting a Bevel Gear . 339
18.7 Thread Milling . 342
18.8 Milling Machine Safety 343
18.9 Industrial Applications 344
18.10 High-Velocity Machining . 344
Chapter 19
Precision Grinding . . . 347
19.1 Types of Surface Grinders 348
19.2 Work-Holding Devices . . 349
19.3 Grinding Wheels 350
19.4 Cutting Fluids 354
19.5 Grinding Applications 355
19.6 Grinding Problems 357
19.7 Grinding Safety . . 359
19.8 Universal Tool and Cutter Grinder 359
19.9 Sharpening Cutters 359
19.10 Cylindrical Grinding . . 364
19.11 Internal Grinding . 366
19.12 Centerless Grinding . 367
19.13 Form Grinding 368
19.14 Other Grinding Techniques . 368
Chapter 20
Band Machining and Broaching. 372
20.1 Band Machining Advantages .373
20.2 Band Blade Selection 374
20.3 Welding Blades . . 376
20.4 Band Machine Preparation . .378
20.5 Band Machining Operations . 380
20.6 Band Machine Power Feed 381
20.7 Other Band Machining Applications . 382
20.8 Troubleshooting Band Machines . . 384
XX
20.9 Band Machining Safety 384
20.10 Broaches and Broaching Machines 384
20.11 Advantages of Broaching 387
Chapter 21
Introduction to CNC Machining. 391
21.1 History of CNC .392
21.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of
Using CNC 392
21.3 CNC Milling Machines . . 392
21.4 CNCTurning Machines . 395
21.5 CNC Safety . . • . . 398
21.6 CNC Coordinate Systems . . 399
21.7 CNC Movement Systems • 400
Chapter 22
CNC Programming Basics . . 404
22.1 Developing CNC Programs 405
22.2 Programming Methods . . 406
22.3 CAD and CAM Software . 408
22.4 CNC Programming Codes . 410
22.5 CNC Modal Commands . . . 412
Chapter 23
CNC Milling . 418
23.1 Miscellaneous Function Codes 419
23.2 Work-Holding Devices . .420
23.3 Planning the Program 421
23.4 Initial Programming and
Preparing the Machine . 423
23.5 Programming the Machining Operations .425
Chapter 24
CNC Turning . 431
24.1 Work-Holding Devices for
CNC Turning Centers . 432
24.2 Planning for a CNC Turning Program . 433
24.3 Initial Programming . 435
24.4 Programming the Machine Operations .435
Chapter 25
Automated Manufacturing . 441
25.1 Flexible Manufacturing Systems 442
25.2 Robotics 44525.3 Safety in Automated Manufacturing . .447
25.4 Rapid Prototyping Techniques 449
25.5 The Future of Automated Manufacturing . 452
Chapter 26
Quality Control . 455
26.1 The History of Quality Control . .456
26.2 Types of Quality Control 457
26.3 Nondestructive Testing Techniques .457
26.4 Other Quality Control Techniques 467
26.5 Calibration and Traceability . .467
Chapter 27
Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing . . 470
27.1 Definitions . .471
27.2 Application of Geometric
Dimensioning and Tolerancing 473
27.3 Form Tolerances 475
27.4 Profile Tolerances .476
27.5 Orientation Tolerances .476
27.6 Location Tolerances .477
27.7 Runout Tolerances . 480
27.8 Bonus Tolerancing . 482
Chapter 28
Metal Characteristics . . . 485
28.1 Classifying Metals . • . • 486
28.2 Ferrous Metals . . 486
28.3 Nonferrous Metals . . . . 493
28.4 High-Temperature Metals 496
28.5 Rare Metals .497
28.6 Other Materials 497
Chapter 29
Heat Treatment of Metals. . 500
29.1 Heat-Treatable Metals 501
29.2 Heat Treatment of Steel 501
29.3 Heat Treatment of Other Metals 504
29.4 Equipment for Heat Treatment . 504
29.5 Hardening Carbon Steel . 506
29.6 Temperi ng Carbon Steel . 508
29.7 Case Hardening Low-Carbon Steel 508
29.8 Hardness Testing . 510
29.9 Heat Treatment Safety . 516
Chapter 30
Metal Finishing . 519
30.1 Quality of Machined Surfaces 510
30.2 Other Metal Finishing Techniques . .523
Chapter 31
Electromachining Processes 533
31.1 Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) . . 534
31.2 Electrical Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC) . 536
31.3 Small Hole EDM Drilling . .537
31.4 Electrochemical Machining (ECM) 538
Chapter 32
Nontraditional Machining
Techniques 541
32.1 Chemical Machining .542
32.2 Hydrodynamic Machining (HOM) . 544
32.3 Waterjet Abrasive Milling . 545
32.4 Ultrasonic Machining . 546
32.5 Electron Beam Machining (EBM) . 548
32.6 Laser Beam Machining . 549
Chapter 33
Other Processes . . . 552
33.1 Machining Plastics . . 553
33.2 Machining Ceramics . . 558
33.3 Chipless Machining 559
33.4 Powder Metallurgy . .562
33.5 High-Energy-Rate Forming (HERF) 564
33.6 Cryogenics 567
Appendix A: Math Review 572
Appendix 8: Reference Section 595
Glossary . 630
Index . 642
xxiFeature Contents
Joining Organizations .9 Teamwork .274
Investigating Education and Training .19 Decision Making and Problem Solving .399
Staying Safety Conscious 34 Professional Behavior .422
Applying for a Job 90 Lifelong Learning .439
Preparing for a Job lnterview .149 Computer Ethics 445
Evaluating Job Offers .154 Respecting Diversity 471
Being an Efficient Employee .206 Discrimination in the Workplace 528
Attitude on the Job 215 Entrepreneurship .534
Creativity and Brainstorming .261
CAD Technician .41 Aerospace Engineer .358
Civil Engineer 71 Welder 377
Assembler/Fabricator .107 CNC Programmer/Technician .411
lronworker .132 Quality Control Inspector 461
High School CTE Teacher .166 Metallurgist. 489
Industrial Production Manager 193 Foundry Worker .510
Industrial Machinery Mechanic .298 Mechanical Engineer 547
Machinist .341 Biomedical Engineer 558
0 GREEN MACHINING
Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources .4 Recycling Cutting Tools 283
Green Manufacturing . 17 Cleaning Machined Parts 291
Green Fire Safety .34 Proactive Maintenance . 384
Electronic Drawings and CAD 48 Efficiency in CNC Machining 401
Recycling Steel .99 Government Programs as Green Catalysts .408
Environmentally Friendly Adhesives . 142 Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Health and Environmental Impacts Design (LEED) .446
of Cutting Fluids .153 Recycling Aluminum 494
Recycling Tungsten Carbide Drills . 172 Metal Finishes .520
Reducing Chips .255 Powder Metallurgy .562
Index
3D modeling. See rapid prototyping
A
abrasive belt grinders, 203
abrasive bell machining, 368-369
abrasive cutoffsaw, 165
abrasive Row machining, 531
abrasives, 123-124
absolute positioning, 415-416
accountability, 21
accuracy, 467
Acme threads, 281
acr)•lics, 557
actual size, 473
addendum, 337
addition, 573, 574-575, 577
additive manufacturing. See rapid protolyping
adhesives, 141- 143
green, 142
adjustable wrenches, 97
aerospace engineer, 358
air gage, 68
AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) codes,
491-492
all-around machinist, 16
Allen wrenches, 99
all-hard blade, 161
alloys, 486
aluminum, 493-494
copper, 495-496
nickel-based, 497
steel. 487-488
alloy steels, 487-488
Alphabet of Lines, 39
aluminum, 493-494
heat treatment, 504
recycling, 494
Aluminum Association Designation System, 493
American Iron and Stecllnstilule (A lSI) codes,
491-492
American National Standards Institute. See ANSI
American National Thread System, 115
American Society for Quality (ASQ), 9
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME),471
American Welding Society (AWS), 9
angle cutters, 301
angle plate, 182
angles, measuring, 87-88
angularity, 476
angular surfaces, milling, 321
animal power, 4
annealing, 501
anodizing, 525
ANSI
Alphabet of Lines, 39
Standard 674.13. See grinding wheels
ANSI/EIA 274D code format. See CNC
programming
ANSI Y14.36M. See metal finishing
applying for a job, 90
apprentice, 15
apprenticeship programs, 21
642
approved respirator, 29
arbor milling cutters, 299-301
arbor press, 124
arbors, 303
area, 582-585
ASME (American Society of 1'vlechanical
Engineers), 471
ASME Yl4.5M. See geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing
ASM International, 9
ASQ (American Society for Quality), 9
assembler/fabricator, 107
assembly drawings, 48
assigned codes, 411
associate's degree, 18
ATC (automatic tool changer), 393
attitude, 215
austenitic stainless steel, 490
automated manufacturing, 442-453
flexible manufacturing systems, 442-4<~5
future developments, 452-1~53
rapid prototyping, 449-452
robotics, 445-447
safety, 447-449
automatic accumulator, 432
automatic screw machine, 261
automatic tool changer (ATC), 393
automation, 442
averages, 588
awareness barriers, 30
AWS (American Welding Society), 9
B
bachelor's degree, 19
backlash
clearance in threaded applications, 402
hesitation in axis movement, 318-320
bacteriostatic additives, 154
band machining, 5, 373-384
advantages, 373
blade characteristics and selection, 374-376
blade welding, 376-377
cutting fluids, 380
cutting speed, 379
machine preparation, 378-380
operations, 380-384
power feed mechanisms, 381-382
safety, 384
troubleshooting problems, 384
band machining operations
filing,382
friction sawing, 166, 382-383
internal cuts, 380-381
polishing, 382
sawing,380
band saw, 161-164
bar graphs, 588-589
bar pullers, 432
bar stock
dimensional tolerances, 606-608
machining formulas, 605
base line. See reference line
base metal, 486
belt grinders, 203
bench grinders, 202
using dry or wet, 206-207
beryllium copper, 495-496
bevel gears, 339-342
calculating milling data, 593, 609-610
milling, 340-342
bilateral tolerance, 46
bill of materials, 48, 51
biomedical engineer, 558
blackening, chemical, 526-527
blade guides. 378
blades, 107- 108
characteristics and selection, 374-376
selecting and installing, 160- 164
troubleshooting cutting problems, 164
welding band machining stock, 376-377
blade set, 108, 375
blade tension, 379
blind hole, 117, 191
block,410
body (ofa drill). 173
bolts
eye,l34
grade markings, 621
machine, 131
removing broken or sheared, 135
stud, 133
torquing chart, 624
bonus tolerancing, 482-483
boring, 324, 333
using a lathe, 248-249
boring mill, 2, 261
box annealing, 501
box wrenches, 98
brainstorming, 261
brale pcnetralor, 513
brass, 495
heal treatment, 504
bra~ed-t ip single-poi nt cutting tools, 226-229
Brinell hardness test, 510,512, 594
conversion to Rockwell hardness numbers, 617
briquetting, 563
broach. 124
broaching, 124-126,384-387
advantages, 387
broaching machine, 7
bronze, 495
buffing, 530
burnishing, 387, 530
bushings. 146
c
CAD software, 48
using data for CNC programming, 408-409
CAD technician, 41
calculators, 572-573
calibration, 467-468
calipers, 74
dial, 64
hermaphrodite, 82
micrometer, 56, 580-581
vernier, 61, 64
Copynght Goodheart-Willcox Co , IncIndex
CAM (computer-aided manufacturing), 48
using data for CNC programming, 407-408,
410
canned cycle, 426
capacitor discharge forming. See
electrohydraulic forming
cap screws, 131-132
heads,622
carbon content, 486
factor in whether steel can be hardened, 501
carburizing, 503
career and technical education (CTE) teacher, 166
careers, 14-25
applying for a job, 90
definition, 14
education level needed, 19
evaluating job offers, 154
getting and keeping a job, 22-25
occupational information, 21
preparing for an interview, 149
training level needed, 19
traits employers value, 21
worker categories, 14-21
careers in machining
aerospace engineer, 358
assembler/fabricator, 107
biomedical engineer, 558
CAD technician, 41
civil engineer, 71
CNC programmer/technician, 411
foundry worker, 510
high school CTE teacher, 166
industrial machinery mechanic, 298
industrial production manager, 193
ironworker, 132
machinist, 341
mechanical engineer, 547
metallurgist, 489
quality control inspector, 461
welder, 377
Cartesian coordinate system, 399- 400
case hardening, 503-504, 508-509
cast irons, 486
center. See lathe center
center finder, 188
center gage, 276
centerless grinding, 367
center rest. See steady rest
central electrical power, 4
ceramics, 558-559
certifications, 25
chamfer micrometer, 57
chemical blackening, 526-527
chemical blanking (chem-blanking), 8, 544
chemical cutting fluids, 155
chemical machining, 542-544
chemical milling (chem-milling), 8, 542-543
chipbreaker, 229
chipless machining, 559-562
chips
managing waste, 255
studying those created by lathe, 243
chisels, 103-104
chucks, 177
lathe, 221-224
magnetic, 310
Copyright Goodheart·Wtlfcox Co.. Inc.
ClM (computer integrated manufacturing),
48, system
circle graphs, 590
circles, 584-585
circular interpolation, 413-415
circularity, 475
circular pitch, 337
circular runout, 480
circular saws, 165-166
circumferencc, 584
civil engineer, 71
clamps, 94
classes of fit, 116
cleaning agents, green, 291
cleanliness, 28
climb milling, 293
closed-loop systems, 401
CMM (coordinate measuring machine), 458
CNC machining, 9-10,48,392- 402
advantages and disadvantages, 392-393
coordinate systems, 399-400
efficiency, 401
grinding, 369-370
history, 392
milling, 393-395, 419-429
movement systems, 400-402
programming, 405-416,419-429
safety, 398-399
turning, 395-397, 432-439
work-holding devices, 420- 421, 432
CNC programmer/technician, 411
CNC programming, 405-416,419-429, 432-439
CAD and CAM software support, 407-410
codes, 410-412,625-627
complete code examples, 429, 439
G-eodes, 412-416
machining center example, 421-429
M-codes, 419-420
methods, 405-407
milling example, 421-429
modal commands, 412-416
planning and development, 405,421,423,
433- 435
setup codes, 423-425, 435
turning center example, 432-439
cold chisel, 103
cold circular saw, 165
cold-finished steel, 487
cold forming. See chipless machining
cold heading. See chipless machining
colletchuck,222-223
color coding ofsteel stock, 492, 597
column-and-knee milling machines, 289-290
combination set, 86-87
combination wrenches, 99
combustible materials, 32
combustion, spontaneous, 28
comment code, 425
common denominators, 574
common sense, 30
composites, 498
compound rest, 214
compound rest method ofturning tapers, 266, 268
comprehension, 21
computer-aided design. See CAD software
computer-aided drafting. See CAD software
643
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), 48
using data for CNC programming, 407-408,
410
computer ethics, 445
computer integrated manufacturing (CIM),
48, 442. See also flexible manufacturing
S)'Stem
computer numerical control. See CNC
machining; CNC programmer/
technician; CNC programming
concentricity, 480
construction calculator. 572
contour etching. See chemical milling
conventional milling, 293
conversational language programming, 393, 407
coolant codes, 420
coordinate dimensioning, 43-44
coordinate measuring machine (CMM), 458
coordinate systems, 399-400
visualizing for CNC machining, 434
copper and copper-based alloys, 495-496
heat treatment, 504
cotter pins, 139
counterboring, 172, 193
countersink, 192
countersinking, 172, 192- 193
creativity, 261
credentials, 25
creep grinding, 356-357
critical temperature, 501
critical thinking skills, 399
cross-slide, 214
cryogenics, 567-569
treatment of cutting tools, 568-569
use of Teflon in applications, 555
CTE (career :~nd technical education) teacher, 166
cube,585
cutoffmachine. See horizontal band saw
cutoffsawing, 5
cutter bits, 230
cutter compensation, 425, 435
cutters. See miIIing cutters
cutting. See band machining; milling operations;
watcrjet cutting
cutting fluids, 153-156,184, 307-308, 624
application, 155
band machining, 380
green, 153
health and environmental impact, 153
precision grinding, 354-355
safety, 156
types, 153-155
cutting speed, 183-184,231-234
band machining, 379
calculating, 590-591
drills, reamers, and taps, 603-604
milling machines, 306-307
round stock, 601
rules for determining, 602
cutting tools, 225-230
recycling, 283
resetting in a thread, 279
cyaniding, 504, 509
cyanoacrylate quick-setting adhesive, 142-143
cylinder, 585
cylindrical grinders, 364-365
cylindricity, 476644
D
datum, 471
deburring, 531
decimal point, 577
decimals, 577-578
converting to fractions, 578
decision making skills, 399
dedendum, 337
deep grinding. See creep grinding
degrees, 64
Delrin, 554
denominator, 574
dependability, 21
depth gage, 56,60
depth ofcut, 234
destructive testing, 457
detail drawings, 48
detonation gun coating, 529-530
dial caliper, 64
dial indicators, 72-73
dial test indicator, 73
diameter, 584
versus radius in CNC programing, 434
diamctral pitch, 337
diamond-edge band, 383
d iamonds, industrial, 229
dielectric fluid, 535
die maker, 16
dimensioning. See dimensions; geometric
dimensioning and tolerancing
dimensions, 42-44
coordinate dimensioning, 43-44
dual dimensioning, 42
limit,47
US Conventional and metric
dimensioning, 42
direct shell production casting (OSPC), 452
discrimination in the workplace, 528
diversity, 471
dividend, 574
divider, 82
dividing head, 311-312
division, 574, 575, 577-578
divisor, 574
double square, 86
dovetail cutter, 301
dowel pins, 139
down-milling. See climb milling
draw-in collet chuck, 222-223
drawings, 39-51
assembly, 48
bill of materials, 48, 51
detail, 48
digital and electronic, 48
dimensions, 42-44
line conventions, 39-40, 42
material specifications, 44
parts list, 48, 51
prints, 48
scale, 47
standard sheet sizes, 51
surface finishes, 44, 46
title block and revision block, 44, 47-48
tolerances, 46-47
types used, 48
working, 48
drift, 179
drill gage, 174
drilling, 324, 333
operations, 192- 198
procedure,l88-I91
using a lathe, 249-250
drilling machines
cutting fluids, 184
drill-holding devices, 177-li9
operations, 172, 192-198
safety, 172
speed control, 184
types, 169-171
work-holding devices, 179-183
drill jig, 183
drill point gage, 186
dri II press, 6
safety, 172
speed calculations, 590-591
speed control, I84
See also drilling machines
drill rod, 71
drills
cutting fluids, 184
cutting speed, 183- 184,603-604
decimal equivalents of number and letter
sizes, 610- 611
drill-holding devices, 177-179
feed, 183-18parts, 172-173
recycling, 172
sharpening, 184-188
sizes and measurements, 173-176
types,l76-177
drive screws, 139
dry cycle, 391
dry grinders, 206-207
DSPC (direct shell production casting), 452
dual dimensioning, 42
ductility, 488
metals listed in order, 598
duplicating unit, 260
dwell, 349
dye penetrant inspection, 462
E
EBM (electron beam machining), 8, 548-549
ECM (electrochemical machining), 7, 538-539
eddy-current inspection, 466
edge milling. See peripheral milling
EDM. See electrical d ischarge machining
education
level needed for a career, 19
need for ongoing, 25, 439
EDWC (electrical discharge wire cutting), 536
efficiency, 206
electrical discharge machining (EDM), 7, 534-536
applications, 536
process and parts, 534-536
small-hole drilling, 537
electrical discharge wire cutting (EDWC), 536
electrical power, 4
electrochemical machining (ECM), 7, 538-539
electrode, 535
elcctrohydraulic forming, 565-566
electrolytic grinding, 369
Machining Fundamentals
electromachining, 534-539
electrical discharge machining (EDM),
534-537
electrical discharge wire cutting (EDWC), 536
electrochemical machining (ECM), 538-539
small-hole EDM drilling, 537
electromagnetic forming, 566
electron beam machining (EBM), 8, 548-549
electronic gage, 68
electroplating, 528
employment
applying for a job, 90
education level needed, 19
employee expectations, 23, 25
evaluating job offers, 154
getting and keeping a job, 22-25
occupational information, 21
ongoing education and training needed,
25,439
preparing for an interview, 149
rejection factors, 22
resume. 23
social media and, 23
termination factors, 25
training level needed, 19
traits employers value, 21
worker categories, 14-21
emulsifiable oils, 154
enamel, vitreous, 526
encoder, 401
end mills, 296-298
sharpening, 362-363
engineers, 19-21
enthusiasm, 215
entrepreneurship, 534
equations, 582
equipment, safety, 29
equivalent fractions, 574
etchant, 542
ethics, computer, 445
explosive forming, 564-565
exponents, 586
external broaching, 386
external grinding, 258
external threads,275
extinguishers, 32-34
green, 34
extrude honing, 531
eye bolts, 134
F
fabricator, 107
face milling, 293, 328
face milling cutters, 299
facing, 236-237
CNC code example, 436
facing tool, 226
fasteners, 130- 143
adhesives, 141 - 143
nonthreaded, 139- 141
threaded, 130- 139
FDM (fused deposition modeling), 452
feature, 472
feature control frame, 474
Federal Accuracy Grades for gage blocks, 67
Cop~nghl Goodhe;:~t·W•IIcox Co., Inc.Index
feed, 183, 231-234
drills, reamers, and taps, 603-604
milling machines, 306-307
rules for determining, 602
tapping speed calculations, 594
feeler gages, 70
ferritic stainless steel, 490
ferrous, 486
ferrous metals, 486-493
cast irons. 486
steels. 486-493
fi le band, 382
files, 109-113
care, 111
classifications and types, 110
safety, 113
filing
using a band machine, 382
using a lathe, 253-254
fillet gages, 71
finishing cuts, 234
finishing tools, 225-226
CNC code example, 438
finish turning, 239-240
fire safety, 32-34
green, 34
fishtail. See center gage
fixed-bed milling machines, 288-289
fixtures, 146-150,421
construction and material selection, 148, 150
flatness, 475
flat surfaces, milling, 324-327
flexible back blade, 160
flexible manufacturing cell (FMC), 442
flexible manufacturing system (FMS), 442-445
flutes, 173
FMC (flexible manufacturing cell), 442
FMS (flexible manufacturing system), 442-445
follower rest, 255
foot-pounds (ft·lb), 96
foot power, 4
formed milling cutters, 301
form grinding, 368
form tolerances, 475-476
form tooth cutters, sharpening, 363
foundry worker, 510
four-jaw independent chuck, 222
fractional dimensioning. See US Conventional
system
fractions, 574-576
converting to decimals, 578
friction sawing, 166, 382-383
furnaces, 505-506
fused deposition modeling (FDM), 452
G
gage blocks, 67-68
gages, 65-71,74
drill, 174
drill point, 186
gage blocks, 67-68
plug,65
ring, 65
small hole, 74
snap,66
Copyright Goodheart·WillCox Co., Inc
surface, 83-84
telescoping, 74
thread,66
gaging, 65
gang milling, 329
gang-tool lathe, 396
gaseous fluids, ISS
G-eodes, 410,412-416,625-626
GD&T. See geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing
gears
bevel, 339-342
calculating milling data, 593,609-610
cutting, 335-342
spur, 335-339
terminology, 336-337
geometric dimensioning and tolerancing
(GD&T), 471-483
application, 473-475
bonus tolerancing, 482-483
form tolerances, 475-476
location tolerances, 477, 480
orientation tolerances, 476-477
profile tolerances, 476
runout tolerances, 480-482
symbols and definitions, 471-473, 629
geometric tolerance, 471
glazing, 205
go plug. See plug gage
graduations, 54
graphs, 588-590
green materials and processes
adhesives, 142
cleaning agents, 291
construction, 446
cutting fluids, 153
fire safety, 34
government initiatives, 408
manufacturing, 17
metal finishing, 520
powder metallurgy (P/M), 562-564
recycling, 99, 172, 283,494
grinders
belt, 203
bench,202
cylindrical, 364-365
dry, 206-207
hand, 203
pedestal, 202
surface, 348-349
wet, 207
grinding
cutter bits, 230
external, 258
internal, 258
offhand,6,202-207
precision, 6, 348-370
using a lathe, 257-258
grinding machine, 6
grinding wheels, 203-206, 350-352
marking system and standards, 350-352, 629
mounting, 352
ring test, 204
shapes, 352
wheel dresser, 205
grooving, 241-243
H
hacksaw, 104-109
blades, 107-108
safety, 109
hammers. See striking tools
hand grinders, 203
hand polishing, 123-124
hand power, 4
hand reamer, 113-115
hand threading, 115-123
hand tools, 93-115
See also individual tools by name
hardening,502-504,506,508
hardness testing, 510-516
Brinell hardness test, 510,512
conversion chart, 617
Rockwell hardness test, 512-515
scleroscope, 515-516
Webster hardness tester, 515
HDM (hydrodynamic machining), 8, 544
headstock, 211
heat treatment, 501-516
645
aluminum, brass, copper, and titanium, 504
equipment, 504-506
hardness testing, 510- 516
judging steel temperature by color, 506
processes, 501-504
safety, 516
steel, 501-504,506-509
treatable metals, 501
helper measuring tools, 73- 74
HERF (high-energy-rate forming), 564-567
hermaphrodite caliper, 82
high-carbon steels, 487
high-energy-rate forming (HERF), 564-567
high school CTE teacher, 166
high-speed machining, 344
high-speed steel (HSS), 489
high-temperature metals, 496-497
high-velocity machining, 344-345
HMC (horizontal machining center), 394
holes
blind, 117, 191
boring, 248-249
drilling, 188-191,249-250
locating on milling machine, 324
pilot, 190
small-hole EDM drilling, 537
honesty, 21
honeycomb sandwich panels, 497-498
horizontal band saw, 161-164
horizontal machining center (HMC), 394
horizontal milling attachment, 260
horizontal milling machines, 288, 290, 324-334
advantages,333-334
drilling and boring, 333
operations, 324-334
work setup, 324-327
hot-rolled steel, 487
HSS (high-speed steel), 489
hydrodynamic machining (HDM), 8, 544
I
impact machining, 546646
incremental positioning. 416
indexable insert cutting tools, 229
index table, 310
individual electrical power, 4
industrial diamonds, 229
in
dustrial machinery mechanic, 298
industrial production manager, 193
industrial robots, 445- 447
initiative, 21
inorganic coatings, 525-527
inserts, 136
inside micrometer, 56, 60
integrity, 21
internal broaching, 386
internal cuts, 381-382
internal grinding, 258, 366
internal threads, 117- 121,275, 282-283
lntemational System of Units (SI), 42
interview, preparing for, 149
intraform machining, 561-562
iron, 486
ironworker, 132
J
Jacobs chuck, 222
jigs, 146-150,421
construction and material selection, 148, 150
)IT (just-in-lime) inventory system, 445
)o-blocks (Johansson blocks). See gage blocks
jobs. See careers; employment; workers
job shops, 16
just-in-time (JlT) inventory system, 445
K
keys, 141
keyseats, 321-323,330- 332
keyway,l24
knee-type milling machines, 289-290
knife-edge blade, 383
knurling, 251- 253
L
laminated object manufacturing (LOM), 449- 450
laminated plastics, 557-558
laser, 549
laser beam machining, 549
laser gaging, 68
laser inspection, 466
laser machining, 8
lathe, 2-3, 5
checkout procedure, 234-235
chips created reveal issues, 243
cleaning, 235
CNC machining, 395-397
cutting speed, 231-234
cutting speed calculations, 591
cutting tools, 225-230
duplicating or tracing unit, 260
feed, 231-234
industrial applications, 260-262
milling attachments, 259- 260
operations, 210-243, 248-254
parts, 210-215
safety, 235-236
size, 210
turning operations, 237-241
work-holding devices, 215-224
lathe center, 215
lathe dog, 217
lathe operations
basic, 210-243
boring, 248-249
CNC machining, 395-397
cutting screw threads, 272-284
drilling, 249-250
facing, 236-237
filing, 253-254
grinding, 257-258
grooving, 241-243
knurling, 251-253
parting, 241-243
polishing, 254
reaming, 250-251
turning tapers, 266-272
lay, 520
layout, 81- 90
angle measurement, 87-88
divider, 82
dye, 81
procedure, 88-90
scriber, 81
sine bar, 85-86
squares, 86
straightedge, 85
surface gage, 83-84
surface plate, 84-85
tools, 81-88
V-blocks, 85
layout dye, 81
layout specialist, 16
layups, 54lead, 275
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
(LEED) certification, 446
lead hole. See pilot hole
lead nuts, 401
lead screws, 401
lean manufac turing work cell, 443
least material condition (LMC), 472
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental
Design) certification, 446
left-hand threads, 280
lifelong learning, 25,439
limit dimensions, 47
limits ofsize, 473
linear interpolation, 412-413
line conventions, 39-40, 42
line graphs, 589
liquid thread lock, 136
LMC (least material condition), 472
loading, 205
location tolerances, 477, 480
lockout/tagout procedures, 399
lock washers, 136
LOM (laminated object manufacturing), 449-450
low-carbon steels, 486
Lucite. See acrylics
M
machine backlash, 318-320
machine bolts, 131
Machining Fundamentals
machine control unit (MCU), 406
machined surfaces
econornics, 523
quality, 520-523
roughness, 522
machine home, 424
machine homing, 401
machinc off'sets, 424, 435
machine reamers, 196-198
machine screws, 130-131
heads, 622
machine shields, 31
machine steel, 486
machine tools, 2-10
automating, 8-10
basic, 5-7
early, 2-4
nontraditional processes, 7-8, 542-549
power sources, 4
safety precautions, 31
machining centers, 393-395
CNC programming example, 421-429
machining vise, 421
machinist, 2, 31U
knowledge and skills needed, 11
modern role, 10-11
machinist's square, 86
magnafluxing. See magnetic particle inspection
magnesium, 494-495
magnetic chuck, 310
magnetic formi ng, 566
magnetic particle inspection, 461-462
magnetic pulse forming, 566
maintenance, 384
maintenance worker. See industrial machmery
mechanic
major diameter, 275
mallets. See striking tools
manager, 17
mandrels, 256-257
manual data input (MDI), 406
manufacturing, green, 17
martcnsitic stainless steel, 490
materials
safe handling and machining, 28
specifications in drawings, 44
material safety data sheet (MSDS). See safety
data sheet
material specifications, 44
math concepts, 572-594
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
division, 573-578
area, 582-585
averages, 588
calculators, 572-573
decimals, 577-578
equations, 582
exponents, 586
fractions, 574-576,578
graphs, 588-590
machining-specific topics from text, 590-594
percent and percentage, 588
reading measurement tools, 576-577,
578-582
triangles, 587
volume, 585-586
whole numbers, 573-574
Copynght Goodheart-Willcox Co IncIndex
Maudslay, Henry, 2-3
maximum material condition (MMC), 472
M-codes, 411, 419-420, 626-627
MCU (machine control unit), 406
MDI (manual data input), 406
measuring tools, 54-74, 87-88
angles, 87-88
dial indicators, 72-73
gages, 65-71
helper tools, 73-74
micrometers, 56-61
rule, 54- 55
vernier, 61-65
mechanical engineer, 547
medium-carbon steels, 487
megahertz (MHz), 463
metal coatings, 527-530
metal-cutting saws. See power saws
metal fi nish, 520
metal finishing, 520-531
coatings, 525-530
deburring, 531
economics, 523
functions, 523
green, 520
mechanical, 530-531
surface quality, 520-523
surface roughness, 522
techniques, 525-531
metallurgist, 489
metals
characteristics and applications, 485-•~97
classifying, 486
common shapes, 596
ductility, 598
ferrous, 486-493
high-temperature, 496-497
nonferrous, 493-496
physical properties, 599
rare, 497
sheet materials chart, 598
metal-slitting saws, 301
metal spraying, 529
metric dimensioning. See Sl Metric system
metrology, 54
microdrilling, 198
microinch, 46,520
micrometer (micron), 46, 520
micrometer caliper. 56, 580-581
micrometer depth gage, 56, 60
micrometers, 56-61,580-582
care, 60-61
chamfer, 57
depth gage, 56, 60
inside, 56, 60
outside, 56, 58, 60
reading, 57-58, 580-582
screw thread, 57
types, 56- 57
mild steel, 486
milling cutters, 294-302
care, 302
classifications, 294
holding and driving devices, 303-306
materials and characteristics, 294-295
sharpening, 359-363
types, 295-301
uses, 295-301
~o.u.,yr ,J n ...wud "' r V'ltlcox Co.. Ire.
milling machines, 3-4, 7
care, 334-335
CNC, 393-395,421- 429
control methods, 292-293
cutters, 294-302
cutting fluids, 307-308
cutting speed, 306-307, 592-593
feed, 306-307, 592-593
industrial applications, 344
lathe attachments, 259-260
operations, 293-294, 317-334
safety, 312-313, 343-344
tool-holding and tool-driving devices,
303-306
types, 288-291
work-holding devices, 308,310-312
milling operations, 293-294,317-334
angular surfaces, 321
face milling, 328
flat surfaces, 324-327
gear cutting, 335-342
side milling, 329-332
slitting, 332
slotting, 333
squaring, 320, 328
millwright. See industrial machinery mechanic
mineral oils, 153-154
minor diameter, 275
minus tolerance, 46
minutes, 64
miscellaneous function codes. SeeM-codes
mist coolant, 380
mixed number, 575
MMC (maximum matcrinl condition), 472
modal commands, 412-416
absolute versus incremental positioning, 415
circular interpolation, 413-415
linear interpolation, 412-413
rapid travel (rapid traverse), 412
unit specification, 415
Mohs hardness scale, 559
mold maker, 16
molybdenum, 497
motors used in CNC machining, 400-402
MSDS (material safety data sheet). See safety
data sheet
multiplication, 573, 575, 577
N
National Institute for Metalworking Ski lls
(NIMS), 9, l I
credentials offered, 25, 439
National Institute of Standards and Technology
(N1ST), 458, 468
National Society of Professional Engineers
(NSPE), 9
NC (numerical control), 9, 392
newton-meters (N·m), 96
nickel-based alloys, 497
NIMS (National Institute for Metalworking
Skills), 9, I l
credentials offered, 25, 439
NIST (National Institute ofStandards and
Technology), 458, 468
nitriding, 504, 528-529
no-go plug. See plug gage
nondestructive testing, 457-466
dye penetrant inspection, 462
eddy-current inspection, 466
laser inspection, 466
magnetic particle inspection, 461-462
measuring, 458-459
radiographic inspection, 460
ultrasonic testing, 463-465
nonferrous, 486
nonferrous metals, 493-496
aluminum, 493-494
647
copper and copper-based alloys, 495-496
magnesium, 494-495
titanium, 495
nonrenewable resources, 4
nonthreaded fasteners, 139-141
nontraditional machining processes, 7-8, 542-549
chemical machining, 542- 544
electron beam machining (EBM), 548-549
hydrodynamic machining (HOM), 544
laser beam machining, 549
ultrasonic machining, 546-548
waterjet abrasive milling, 545
normalizing, 501
NSPE (National Society of Professional
Engineers), 9
numerator, 574
numerical control (NC), 9, 392
nuts, 135-136
nylon, 553-554
0
occupational information, 21
Occupational 011tlook Handbook, 21
Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
See OSHA
offhand grinding, 6, 202-207
best practices, 205-206
dry grinders, 206-207
safety, 206
wet grinders, 207
wheels, 203-206
offline programming, 406-407
offset tailstock method, 268-271
calculations, 268-269
open-end wrenches, 98
open-loop systems, 401
optical comparator, 68, 458
optical flats, 69
optical gaging system, 458
organic coatings, 525
organizations, joining student and professional, 9
orientation tolerances,476-477
OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
Administration), 29, 34
lockout/tagout procedures, 399
outside micrometer, 56, 58, 60
p
pack method, 503
Palmer. Jean, 56
parallelism, 477
part catchers, 432
parting, 241-243
CNC code example, 438-439
part programmer, 16-17648
parts list, 48, 51
peck drilling, 198, 427
pedestal grinders, 202
using dry or wet, 206-207
percent, 588
percentage, 588
perimeter, 584
peripheral feed. Sec cutting speed
peripheral milling, 293
perpendicularity, 477
photoetching, 544
photoforming, 544
pie charts, 590
pilot hole, 190
pipe wrenches, 98
pitch, 275
pitch circle, 336
pitch diameter, 275
plain milling cutlers, 300-301
sharpening, 360-362
plain milling machine. See horizontal milling
machines
plain turning, 240
plastics, 553-558
acrylics, 557
Delrin, 554
laminated, 557-558
nylon, 553-554
Teflon, 555-557
platens, 369
PLC (program mabie logic controller), 44·3
Plexiglas. See acrylics
pliers, 94-96
plug gage, 65
plunge grinding, 364
plus and minus tolerance. See bilateral tolerance
plus tolerance, 46
P/M. See powder metallurgy
pneumatic-mechanical forming, 566-567
point (of a drill), 172- 173
changing angles, 188
polar coordinate system, 400
polishing, 123-124
using a band machine, 382
using a lathe, 254
porcelain. See vitreous enamel
positional tolerances, 477, 480
position tolerances, 477
post-processing, 410
potassium cyanide, 516
potbroaching,386
powder metallurgy (P/M), 562-564
energy savings and waste reduction, 562
process chart, 628
power feed mechanisms, 381-382
power hacksaw, 160- 161
power saws, 159- 166
circular, 165- 166
hacksaw, 160- 161
horizontal band saw, 161- 164
safety, 166
troubleshooting cutting problems, 161
power sources for carl)' machine tools, 4
power tapper, 120
precision, 467
precision grinding, 6, 348-370
creep grinding, 356- 357
cutting fluids, 354-355
cylindrical grinders, 364-365
procedure, 355-356
safety, 359
sharpening cutlers, taps, and reamers,
359-364
square and parallel edges, 356
surface grinders, 348-349
troubleshooting problems, 357-358
wheels, 350-352
work-holding devices, 349
pl'ints,48
proactive maintenance, 384
problem-solving skills, 399
process annealing, 501
product. See multiplication
professionalism, 422
professional organizations, 9
professionals, 18- 2 L
profile ofa line tolerance, 476
profile ofa surface tolerance, 476
profile tolerances, 476
profilometer, 46
programmable logic controller (PLC), 443
programming. See CNC programming
program stop and end codes. 419
program zero position, 424
protective clothing, 28
prototyping, 449-452
protractor, 88
pull broaching. See internal broaching
push block, 380
Pythagorean Theorem, 587
0
quality control (QC), 456-468
aircraft manufacturing drove development,
456-457
calibration, 467-468
destructive testing, 457
goal, 456
industry devices and techniques, 467
nondestructive testing, 457-466
traceability, 467- 468
quality control inspector, 461
quenching, 501
quenching media, 504-505
quotient, 574
R
radiographic inspection, 460
radius, 584
versus diameter in CNC programming, 434
radius gages, 71
raker set, 375
rapid prototyping, 449-452
laminated object manufacturing (LOM),
449-450
stereolithography, 450-451
rapid travel (rapid traverse), 412
rare metals, 497
reamers, 113-115
cutting speed and feed, 603
safety, 115
sharpening, 364
Machining Fundamentals
sizes, 616
reaming. 173, 196- 198,324
using a lathe, 250-251
reciprocating hacksaw. See power hacksaw
rectangles, calcul3ting area, 583-584
recycling
aluminum, 494
cutting tools, 283
steel, 99
tungsten carbide drills, 172
red hardness, 488
reference line, 89
regardless of feature size (RFS), 473
remainder, 574
renewable resources, 4
repetitive cycles, 436
resources, nonrenewable versus renewable, 4
respirator, 29
resume, 23
retaining rings, 140
revision block, 47-48
RFS (regardless of feature size), 473
right angles, 587
right triangle, 587
ring gage, 65
ring test, 204
rivet buster, 104
rivets, 140
robotics, 445-447
applications, 446- 447
robot components, 445-446
robots, 445-447
Rockwell hardness test, 512-515
co1wersion to Brinell hardness numbers, 617
difference between Band C scales, 513
roller burnishing, 530
rotary table, 310
roughing cuts, 225, 23<~
roughing tools, 225
roughness, 522
rough turning, 238-239
rounding off, 578
roundness, 475
round-nose tool, 226
round stock, 191
cutting speed, 601
rule, 54-55, 576-577
runout tolerances, 480-482
s
SAE (Society ofAutomotive Engineers) steel
identification codes, 491- 492
safe edge, 112
safety, 28- 35
abrasives, 124
aids, 30-31
automated manufacturing, 447-449
band machining, 384
cleanliness, 28
CNC machining, 398-399
common sense, 30
cutting fluids, 156
drilling machines, 172
familiarity with materials, 28
fire, 32-34
hand tools, 99, 101- 102, 103, 104, 109, 113, 115
Copynght Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc.Index
heat treatment, 516
lathe, 235-236
machine, 31
milling machines, 312-313
offhand grinding, 206
power saws, 166
precision grinding, 359
protective clothing and equipment, 28-29
safety data sheet (SDS), 35
shop precautions. 28- 31
tools, 31
safety consciousness, 34
safety data sheet (SDS), 35
safety equipment, 29
sawing,380
abrasive cutoffsaw, 165
band saw, 161-164
circular saws, 165-166
cutofl', 5
friction, 166, 382-383
hacksaw, 104-109
horizontal band saw, 161- 164
metal slitting, 301
power hacksaw, 160- 161
power saws, 159-166
See also band machining
sawing machine, 5
scale drawings, 47
scleroscope, 515-516
screwdrivers, 100- 102
screw pitch gage, 70
screws
cap,l31-132
drive, 139
machine, 130- 131
setscrews, 133
thread-forming and thread-cutting. 138
screw thread micrometer, 57
screw threads
cutting, 272-284
element dimensions, 623
forms, 274-275
fractional sizes, 611- 612
measuring, 280
metric sizes, 613
resetting a cutting tool, 279
tapered surface, 284
terminology, 275
threading inserts, 279- 280
scriber, 81
seconds, 64
self-confidence, 21
semichemical cutting fluids, 155
semiskilled workers, 14- 15
servomechanism, 535
servomotors, 401
set. See blade set
selover, 268
calculations, 268-269, 591-592
setscrews, 133
setup specialist, 16
shank, 173
shaper, 4
shoulders, 240
side milling, 329-332
side milling cutters, 301
Copyngh1 Goodhear1·WIIICox Co., Inc.
Sl Metric system, 42
specifying units in CNC programming. 415
US Conventional conversion table, 619
sine bar, 85-86
single-point cutting tools, 225-230
brazed-tip, 226-229
sintering, 490, 559, 562, 563
skilled workers, 15- 17
skills for the workplace
applying for a job, 90
brainstorming, 261
decision making, 399
evaluating job offers, 154
lifelong learning, 25,439
preparing for an interview, 149
problem solving, 399
teamwork, 21, 274
skill standards, 11
SkillsUSA, 9
slab broaching. See external broaching
slab cutters. See plain milling cutters
slitting, 301, 332
slots, milling, 321-323, 329- 332
slotting, 333
slurry machining. See impact machining
small-hole EDM drilling, 537
small hole gage, 74
smart tooling, 444
SM E (Society of Manufacturing Engineers). 9
snap gage. 66
social media and employment, 23
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) steel
identification codes, 491- 492
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME}, 9
socket wrenches, 99
soluble oils. See emulsifiable oils
spanner wrenches, 99
spark forming. See electrohydraulic forming
spark test, 492-493
SPC (statistical process control), 458
spindle, 211
CNC code example, 419-420
head adjustments, 317
milling angular surfaces, 321
speed formula, 434- 435
spontaneous combustion, 28
spotfacing, 172, 194
spur gears, 335-339
calculating milling data, 593
milling, 337-339
terminology. 336-337
square-nose tool, turning a taper, 272
squares
geometric shape, calculating area, 583-584
layout tool, 86
square threads, 280- 281
squaring, 320,328
stainless steels, 490
recommended turning rates, 602
statistical process control (SPC), 458
steady rest, 254- 255
steam power, 4
steel rule, 54- 55, 576-577
steels, 486-493
alloy, 487- 488
case hardening, 508- 509
classified according to carbon content,
486- 487
color coding ofstock, 492, 597
hardening, 506,508
heat treatment, 501- 504, 506-509
high-speed, 489
identification methods, 491-492
judging temperature by color, 506
recycling, 99
spark test, 492- 493
stainless, 490
tempering, 508
tool. 488-489
step block, 182
stepper motors, 401
stereolithography, 450- 451
straddle milling. 329
straightedge, 85
straightness, 475
straight set, 375
strap clamps, 181
stress-relieving treatments, 501
striking tools, 102-103
stud bolts, 133
student organizations, 9
subroutine, 426
subtraction, 573, 575, 577
sum. See addition
supervisor, 17
surface finishes, 44, 46
metals, 520-531
surface gage, 83-84
surface grinders. 348- 349
surface grinding. See precision grinding
surface hardening, 502-503
surface plate, 84- 85
surface roughness, 522
surface roughness standards, 520
surface speed, 436
sustainability initiatives, 408
swing, 210
Swiss-type turning centers, 397
symmetry, 480
T
tailstock, 213
tailstock setover method, 268-271
calculations, 268- 269,591-592
tantalum, 497
tap drill, 117
sizes, 614-615
taper attachments, 271-272
taper pin sizes, 616
tapers
measuring, 272- 274
turning methods, 266-272
tapping, 172, 194
taps
CNC code example, 428-429
feed and speed calculations, 594
cutting speed and feed, 603
sharpening, 363
tap wrench, US
T-bolts, 180-181
teachers, 18-19
649
career and technical education (CTE), 166650
teamwork, 21. 274
technicians, 17-18
Teflon, 555-557
telescoping gage, 74
temper, 206
tempering, 504, 508
termination, 25
thermal expansion, 150
thickness gages, 70
thread-cutting screws, 138
threadcutting stop, 277
thread dial, 278
threaded fasteners, 130- 139
thread-forming screws, 138
thread gages, 66
threading, 115-123
threading inserts, 279-280
thread rolling, 281
threads
cutting, 272- 284
external, 121- 122
forms, 274- 275
fractional sizes, 611-612
internal, 117
measuring, 280
metric sizes, 613
milling, 342
resetting a cutting tool, 279
size, 115-116
tapered surface, 284
terminology, 275
thread size, 115-I 16
three-jaw universal chuck, 221
three-tooth rule, 160
three-wire method, 280, 592
titanium, 495
heat treatment, 504
title block, 44, 47-48
tolerances, 46-47. Sec also geometric
dimensioning and tolerancing
tolerancing. See geometric dimensioning and
tolerancing; tolerances
tombstone, 148
tool and die maker, 16
tool change codes, 420, 424-425
tool-driving devices, 303-306
tool-holding devices, 303-306
toolmaker, 16
tool post, 214
tool post grinder, 257-258
tool rest, 202
tools
angle measurement, 87-88
cutting, 225-230
hand, 93-115
layout, 81-88
machine, 2-10
measuring, 54-74
safety precautions, 32
See also individual tools by name
tool steel, 488-489
tooth form, 375
tooth rest, 359
torque, 96
bolt chart, 624
torque wrenches, 96-97
total runout, 480
traceability, 467-468
tracing unit, 260
training
level needed for a career, 19
need for ongoing, 25, 439
traits employers value, 21
attitude, 215
creativity, 261
efficiency, 206
enthusiasm, 215
ethics, 445
professionalism, 422
respect for diversity, 471
safety consciousness, 3•~
trammel,82
traverse grinding, 364
triangles, 587
calculating area, 583-584
triangular prism, 585
T-slot milling cutter, 301
tungsten, 497
tungsten carbide, 490
tungsten carbide drills, recycling, 172
turning,5,237-241
CNC machining, 395-397, 432-439
shoulders, 240
rates for stainless steels, 602
tools, 229
tapers, 266- 272
turning centers, 395
CNC programming example, 432-439
Swiss-type, 397
turret lathe, 260, 396
twist drills, 172
u
ultrasonic-assist machining, 546
ultrasonic machining, 8, 546-548
ultrasonic testing, 463-465
unassigned codes, 411
Unified National threads, 115-117
Unified System, 115
unilateral tolerance, 46
unit specification in CNC programming, 415
universal bevel protractor, 64-65
universal milling machine, 290
universal tool and cutter grinder, 359
up-milling. See conventional milling
US Conventional system, 42
decimal equivalents of fractions, 620
metric conversion table, 618
specifying units in CNC programming, 415
US Department of Labor
apprenticeship programs, 21
Occupational Outlook Handbook, 21
U-strap clamp, 181
v
V-blocks, 85, 180
ventilation, 28
Vernier, Pierre, 61
vernier caliper, 61, 64
vernier measuring tools, 61-65
caliper, 61, 64
care,65
reading, 62-63
Machining Fundamentals
universal bevel protractor, 64-65
vernier protractor, 88
vernier scale, 51, 578-580
vertical lathe. See boring mill
vertical machining center (VMC), 394
vertical milling attachment, 259-260
vertical milling machines, 288, 291, 317-324
cutters used, 317
drilling, reaming, and boring, 324
locating holes, 324
machine backlash, 318-320
operations, 317-324
spindle head adjustments, 317
vises, 93, 179, 308
vitreous enamel, 526
VMC (vertical machining center), 394
volume, 585-586
w
washers, 136
waterjet abrasive milling. 545
waterjet cutting, 544
water power, 4
\Xfatt, )ames, 2
waviness, 520
wavy set, 375
ways, 210
Webster hardness tester, 515
welder,377
welding blades for band machining, 376-377
wet grinders, 207
wheel dresser, 205
Whitney, Eli, 3
whole numbers, 573-574
wiggler. See center fi nder
Wilkinson, john, 2
wire gage chart, 600
Woodruffkeyseat cutter, 301
word,410
word address format, 410
work envelope, 445
workers
categories, 14-21
professionals, 18-21
semiskilled, 14-15
skilled, 15-17
technicians, 17-18
work-holding devices
CNC machining, 420-421,432
drilling machines, 179-183
lathe, 215-224
milling machines, 308, 310-312
surface grinders, 349
working drawings, 48
workplace discrimination, 528
workplace diversity, 471
wrenches, 96-99
H
X-ray inspection, 460
X-Y coordinate system, 43
z
zero position  


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