كتاب Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances
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 كتاب Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances    كتاب Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances  Emptyالأحد 23 أغسطس 2020, 11:37 pm

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Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances
J. Paulo Davim
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كتاب Machining - Fundamentals and Recent Advances  M_f_a_12
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Contents
1 Metal Cutting Mechanics, Finite Element Modelling 1
Viktor P. Astakhov and José C. Outeiro
1.1 Advanced Metal Cutting Mechanics . 1
1.1.1 Objective of Metal Cutting Mechanics 1
1.1.2 State of the Art . 1
1.1.3 Advanced Methodology . 4
1.1.4 Combined Influence of the Minor Cutting Edge 7
1.1.5 Influence of the Cutting Speed, Depth of Cut
and Cutting Feed on Power Partition . 9
1.1.6 Concluding Remarks 11
1.2 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) . 13
1.2.1 Numerical Formulations 14
1.2.2 Modelling Chip Separation from the Workpiece
and Chip Segmentation 15
1.2.3 Mesh Design 16
1.2.4 Work Material Modelling 18
1.2.5 Modelling of Contact Conditions . 19
1.2.6 Numerical Integration 19
1.2.7 Errors . 20
1.2.8 Example . 20
1.2.9 Advanced Numerical Modelling 21
1.2.10 Model Validation . 22
References . 25viii Contents
2 Tools (Geometry and Material) and Tool Wear . 29
Viktor P. Astakhov and J. Paulo Davim
2.1 Essentials of Tool Geometry . 29
2.1.1 Importance of the Cutting Tool Geometry . 29
2.1.2 Basic Terms and Definitions 31
2.1.3 System of Considerations . 32
2.1.4 Basic Tool Geometry Components 33
2.1.5 Influence of the Tool Angles 35
2.2 Tool Materials . 37
2.2.1 Carbides . 39
2.2.2 Ceramics 43
2.2.3 Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) . 44
2.2.4 Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD)
and Solid Film Diamond (SFD) . 45
2.3 Tool Wear 48
2.3.1 Tool Wear Types 48
2.3.2 Tool Wear Evolution 50
2.3.4 Mechanisms of Tool Wear . 52
2.4 Tool Life 52
2.4.1 Taylor’s Tool Life Formula . 53
2.4.2 Expanded Taylor’s Tool Life Formula . 55
2.4.3 Recent Trends in Tool Life Evaluation 55
References . 57
3 Workpiece Surface Integrity 59
Joël Rech, Hédi Hamdi and Stéphane Valette
3.1 What Does Surface Integrity Mean? 59
3.1.1 Link Between Surface Integrity
and its Manufacturing Procedure . 62
3.1.2 Impact of the Surface Integrity
on the Dimensional Accuracy 64
3.1.3 Impact of the Surface Integrity on Fatigue Resistance . 67
3.2 Material and Mechanical Aspects of Surface Integrity 68
3.2.1 Mechanisms Leading to Material and Mechanical
Modifications in Machining . 68
3.2.2 Modelling of Residual Stresses 74
3.2.3 Experimental Approach . 80
References . 91Contents ix
4 Machining of Hard Materials 97
Wit Grzesik
4.1 Basic Features of HM 97
4.1.1 Definition of Hard Machining 97
4.1.2 Comparison with Grinding Operations 98
4.1.3 Technological Processes Including Hard Machining . 100
4.2 Equipment and Tooling . 101
4.2.1 Machine Tools . 101
4.2.2 Cuting Tools and Materials 102
4.2.3 Complete Machining Using Hybrid Processes . 104
4.3 Characterization of Hard Machining Processes . 105
4.3.1 Cutting Forces 105
4.3.2 Chip Formation 105
4.3.3 Cutting Temperature 108
4.3.4 Wear of Ceramic and PCBN Tools 110
4.3.5 Modelling of Hard Cutting Processes 110
4.4 Surface Integrity in Hard Machining Processes 113
4.4.1 Surface Roughness . 113
4.4.2 Residual Stresses 114
4.4.3 Micro/Nanohardness Distribution
and White-Layer Effect 115
4.4.4 Modification of Surface Finish in Hybrid Processes 117
4.4.5 Cutting Errors and Dimensional Accuracy 118
4.5 Applications of Hard Machining Processes . 119
4.5.1 Hard Turning 119
4.5.2 Hard and High-Speed Milling of Dies and Moulds . 120
4.5.3 Hard Reaming 121
4.5.4 Hard Broaching 122
4.5.5 Hard Skive Hobbing . 122
4.5.6 Optimization of Hard Machining Processes . 123
References . 124
5 Machining of Particulate-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites . 127
A. Pramanik, J.A. Arsecularatne and L.C. Zhang
5.1 Introduction . 127
5.2 Effect of Reinforcement Particles on Surface Integrity
and Chip Formation . 129
5.2.1 Strength of MMC During Machining . 130
5.2.2 Chip Shape . 131x Contents
5.2.3 Surface Integrity . 135
5.2.4 Shear and Friction Angles 142
5.2.5 Relation Between Shear and Friction Angles . 144
5.2.6 Forces . 145
5.3 Modelling 147
5.3.1 Forces . 147
5.3.2 Tool–Particle Interaction 157
5.4 Tool Wear 159
5.4.1 Performance of Cutting Tools 159
5.4.2 Modelling of Tool Wear 161
Acknowledgements . 162
References . 162
6 Drilling Polymeric Matrix Composites . 167
Edoardo Capello, Antonio Langella, Luigi Nele, Alfonso Paoletti,
Loredana Santo, Vincenzo Tagliaferri
6.1 Introduction . 167
6.1.1 What Are Polymeric Matrix Composites? . 167
6.1.2 The Importance of Drilling 171
6.2 Drilling Technology of Polymeric Matrix Composites . 173
6.2.1 Conventional Drilling Process . 173
6.2.2 Unconventional Drilling Processes 178
6.3 Modelling of Conventional Drilling 179
6.3.1 The Need for Modelling . 179
6.3.2 Cutting Force Modelling 180
6.4 Damage Generated During Drilling
and Residual Mechanical Properties 183
6.4.1 Structural Damage 183
6.4.2 Residual Mechanical Properties . 186
6.5 Damage Suppression Methods 188
6.5.1 Introduction 188
6.5.2 Process Parameters Selection . 188
6.5.3 Drilling Conditions 189
6.5.4 Special Tools 190
References . 191
7 Ecological Machining: Near-dry Machining 195
Viktor P. Astakhov
7.1 Introduction . 195
7.2 Amount and Cost . 196
7.3 Health and Environmental Aspects . 197
7.4 Principal Directions in the Reduction of MWF Economical,
Ecological and Helth Impacts 198Contents xi
7.5 Nearly Dry Machining (NDM) 201
7.5.1 How NDM Operates 201
7.5.2 Classification of NDM . 202
7.5.3 Why NDM Works 212
7.5.4 Consideration of the NDM System Components . 217
References . 221
8 Sculptured Surface Machining 225
L. Norberto L?pez de Lacalle and A. Lamikiz
8.1 Introduction . 225
8.2 The Manufacturing Process . 227
8.2.1 Technologies Involved . 228
8.3 The CAM, Centre of Complex Surfaces Production . 231
8.4 Workpiece Precision 233
8.4.1 Cutting Forces 235
8.5 Workpiece Roughness . 237
8.6 Tool Path Selection Using Cutting Force Prediction . 239
8.6.1 Three-axis Case 240
8.6.2 Five-axis Case 241
8.7 Examples . 242
8.7.1 Three-axis Mould . 242
8.7.2 Five-axis Mould . 243
8.7.3 Three-axis Deep Mould . 245
8.8 Present and Future . 246
Acknowledgements . 246
References . 247
9 Grinding Technology and New Grinding Wheels 249
M.J. Jackson
9.1 Introduction . 249
9.2 High-efficiency Grinding Using Conventional Abrasive Wheels . 250
9.2.1 Introduction 250
9.2.2 Grinding Wheel Selection 251
9.2.3 Grinding Machine Requirements
for High-efficiency Dressing 253
9.2.4 Diamond Dressing Wheels . 253
9.2.5 Application of Diamond Dressing Wheels . 256
9.2.6 Modifications to the Grinding Process . 257
9.2.7 Selection of Grinding Process Parameters . 257
9.2.8 Selection of Cooling Lubricant Type and Application . 258
8.2.2 Five-axis Milling 229xii Contents
9.3 High-efficiency Grinding Using CBN Grinding Wheels . 258
9.3.1 Introduction 258
9.3.2 Grinding Wheel Selection 259
9.3.3 Grinding Machine Requirements
for High-efficiency CBN Grinding 264
9.3.4 Dressing High-efficiency CBN Grinding Wheels 265
9.3.5 Selection of Dressing Parameters
for High-efficiency CBN Grinding 266
9.3.6 Selection of Cooling Lubrication
for High-efficiency CBN Grinding Wheels . 266
9.4 Internet Resources . 267
References . 269
10 Micro and Nanomachining 271
M.J. Jackson
10.1 Introduction . 271
10.2 Machining Effects at the Microscale . 272
10.2.1 Shear Angle Prediction 275
10.2.2 Plastic Behaviour at Large Strains . 278
10.2.3 Langford and Cohen’s Model 278
10.2.4 Walker and Shaw’s Model . 279
10.2.5 Usui’s Model 280
10.2.6 Saw-tooth Chip Formation in Hard Turning . 281
10.2.7 Fluid-like Flow in Chip Formation . 281
10.3 Size Effects in Micromachining 282
10.4 Nanomachining 282
10.4.1 Nanometric Machining 283
10.4.2 Theoretical Basis of Nanomachining . 284
10.4.3 Comparison of Nanometric Machining
and Conventional Machining . 294
Acknowledgements . 295
References . 295
11 Advanced (Non-traditional) Machining Processes . 299
V.K. Jain
11.1 Introduction . 299
11.2 Mechanical Advanced Machining Processes (MAMP) . 301
11.2.1 Ultrasonic Machining (USM) 301
11.2.2 Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC) 304
11.3 Thermoelectric Advanced Machining Processes . 307
11.3.1 Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) and Wire EDM 307
11.3.2 Laser Beam Machining (LBM) 312Contents xiii
11.4 Electrochemical Advanced Machining Processes . 313
11.4.1 Electrochemical Machining (ECM) . 313
11.4.2 ECM Machine 315
11.5 Fine Finishing Processes . 317
11.5.1 Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) . 317
11.5.2 Magnetic Abrasive Finishing (MAF) . 320
11.5.3 Magnetic Float Polishing (MFP) 323
11.6 Micromachining 324
11.7 Finished Surface Characteristics 325
References . 325
12 Intelligent Machining: Computational Methods
and Optimization 329
Sankha Deb and U.S. Dixit
12.1 Intelligent Machining 329
12.2 Neural Network Modelling 332
12.3 Fuzzy Set Theory . 339
12.4 Neuro-fuzzy Modelling . 344
12.5 A Note on FEM Modelling 347
12.6 Machining Optimization 348
12.6.1 Objective Functions and Constraints . 348
12.6.2 Optimization Techniques . 350
12.7 Future Challenges 355
References . 356
Index
Index
Abrasive flow machining (AFM)
317
Abrasive water jet cutting (AWJC)
304
Abrasive wheels
CBN 258
conventional 250
Advanced
metal cutting mechanics 1
methodology 4
non-traditional machining 299
numerical modelling 21
Aerosol
composition 208
supply 202
Carbides 39
Ceramics 43
Chip
formation 105, 129, 281
management 219
Coating 40
Computational methods and
optimization 329
Computer-assisted manufacturing
(CAM) 231
Cooling lubricant 258
Cubic boron nitride (CBN) 44
Cutting
forces 105, 145
forces prediction 239
temperature 108
tools 159
Damage
evaluation methods 183
structural 183
suppression methods 188
Delamination 184
Dies and moulds
five-axis 243
high-speed milling 120
three-axis 242
three-axis deep 245
Dressing
diamond 256
high efficiency 265
Drilling
conditions 189
conventional process 173
unconventional processes 178
Ecological machining 195
Electro-chemical machining 313
Electro-discharge machining (EDM)
307360 Index
Fine finishing processes 317
Finished surface characteristics 325
Finite element analysis 13
Finite element modelling 1
Friction angles 142, 144
Fuzzy set theory 339
Genetic algorithms 353
Grinding 249
high efficiency 250, 258,
264–266
process parameters 257
wheels 249, 258, 265, 266
Hard
broaching 122
machining (HM) 97, 100, 105,
113, 123
reaming 121
skive hobbing 122
turning 86, 119
Hardness 115, 141
Hole manufacturing 91
Intelligent machining 329
Laser beam machining (LBM) 312
Machine tools 101
Machining
conventional 294
effects of the microscale 272
electro-chemical advanced 313
hard materials 97
hybrid processes 104
nanometric 294
optimization 348
thermo-electric advanced
processes 307
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF)
320
Magnetic float polishing (MFP) 323
Manufacturing process 227
Mesh design 16
Metal cutting mechanics 1
Metal matrix composites (MMCs)
127, 130
Method
golden section search 350
sequential quadratic
programming (SQP) 352
Micromachining 271, 282, 324
Milling, five-axis 229
Minor cutting edge 7
Model
Langford and Cohen 278
Usui 280
validation 22
Walker and Shaw 279
Modelling
chip segmentation 15
chip separation 15
contact conditions 19
conventional drilling 179
delamination 185
forces 147
hard cutting process 110
neural network 332
neuro-fuzzy 344
residual stresses 74
tool wear 161
Nanomachining 271, 282, 284
Near-dry machining (NDM) 195
classification 202
system components 217
Numerical
formulations 14
integration 19
Optimization
hard machining processes 123
techniques 350
Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) 45
Polymeric matrix composites
(PMCs) 167Index 361
Residual mechanical properties
183, 186, 187
Residual stresses 114, 139
Sculptured machining 225
Shear, angle prediction 275
Special tools 190
Super-finishing 89, 117
Surface integrity 59, 113, 129, 135
Surface roughness 113, 135
Taylor’s tool life
expanded formula 55
formula 53
Thermal effects
with microstructural changes 71
without microstructural changes
71
Thrust force 175
Tool
angles 35
life 52
life evaluation 55
materials 37
wear 29, 48, 159
wear evolution 50
wear mechanisms 52
wear types 48
Tool path
five-axis 241
three-axis 240
Tools
geometry 29
material 37
Torque 177
Ultrasonic machining (USM) 301
White layer 115
Workpieces
precision 233
roughness 239
surface integrity 59


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