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 كتاب Engineering Design Graphics

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Engineering Design Graphics    كتاب Engineering Design Graphics  Emptyالخميس 20 أغسطس 2020, 1:18 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Engineering Design Graphics
Sketching, Modeling, and Visualization
Second Edition
James M. Leake
Department of Industrial & Enterprise Systems Engineering
University of Illinois at Urbana-champaign
With Special Contributions by
Jacob L. Borgerson
Paradigm Consultants, Inc.
Houston, Texas  

كتاب Engineering Design Graphics  E_d_g_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Engineering Design 1
Introduction 1
Aspects of Engineering Design 1
Analysis and Design 4
Product Anatomy 4
Design Phases 4
Design Process Overview 5
Needs Assessment 5
Problem Definition 6
Background Research 6
Design Criteria 6
Design Constraints 7
Alternative Solutions 7
Analysis 9
Evaluation and Selection 9
Specification 12
Communication 17
Written Reports 17
Recommended Report-writing Steps 17
Oral Presentations 18
Concurrent Engineering 18
Design for Manufacture and Assembly 19
Teamwork 20
Questions 22
2 Freehand Sketching 23
Introduction 23
Sketching Tools and Materials 23
Sketching Techniques 25
Line Techniques 25
Sketching Straight Lines 25
Sketching Circles 26
Sketching Ellipses 27
Proportioning 28
Estimating Dimensions of Actual Objects 28
Partitioning Lines 29
Instrument Usage—triangles 30
Parallel Lines 30
Perpendicular Lines 30
Line Styles 31
Questions 32
3 Planar Projections and
Pictorial Views 37
Planar Projections 37
Introduction 37
Classification of Planar Projections: Projector Characteristics 37
Preliminary Definitions 38
Block Coefficient 40
Classification of Planar Projections: Orientation of
Object With Respect to Projection Plane 40
Further Distinctions Between Parallel and
Perspective Projections 40
Classes of Parallel Projections 43
Oblique Projections 43
Oblique Projection Geometry 43
Oblique Projection Angle 45
Classes of Oblique Projections 45
Oblique Projection Angle in 2d 46
Receding Axis Angle 46
Orthographic Projections 47
Orthographic Projection Geometry 47
Orthographic Projection Categories 47
Axonometric Projections 48
Isometric Projections 49
Isometric Drawings 50
Multiview Projections 50
Introduction to Pictorial Sketching 51
Oblique Sketches 52
Introduction 52
Axis Orientation 52
Receding Axis Scale 53
Object Orientation Guidelines 53
Sketching Procedure for a Simple Extruded Shape
(See Figure 3-37) 54contents X
Step-by-step Cabinet Oblique Sketch Example for a Cut Block
(See Figure 3-38) 54
Step-by-step Cavalier Oblique Sketch Example for an Object With
Circular Features (See Figure 3-39) 55
Isometric Sketches 56
Introduction 56
Axis Orientation 56
Isometric Scaling 56
Isometric Grid Paper 56
Object Orientation Guidelines 57
Step-by-step Isometric Sketch Example for a Cut Block
(See Figure 3-46) 57
Circular Features in an Isometric View 58
Step-by-step Isometric Sketch Example for a Cylinder
(See Figure 3-47) 58
Step-by-step Isometric Sketch Example for a Box With Holes on
Three Faces (See Figure 3-48) 59
Step-by-step Sketch Example for an Object With Circular Features
(See Figure 3-49) 59
Chapter Review: Pictorial Sketching Scalability 60
Questions 61
4 Multiviews 83
Multiview Sketching 83
Introduction—justification and Some Characteristics 83
Glass Box Theory 83
Alignment of Views 84
Transfer of Depth 86
View Selection 86
Third-angle and First-angle Projection 87
Line Conventions 89
Multiview Drawing of a Cylinder (See Figure 4-21) 90
Line Precedence 91
Generic Three Multiview Sketch Procedure
(See Figure 4-24) 91
Step-by-step Multiview Sketch Example
(See Figure 4-25) 92
Intersections and Tangency 92
Fillets and Rounds 92
Machined Holes 93
Conventional Representations: Rotated Features 94
Step-by-step Multiview Sketch Example: Object With
Complex Features (See Figure 4-33) 96
Visualization Techniques for Multiview Drawings 96
Introduction and Motivation 96
Treatment of Common Surfaces 96
Normal Surfaces 96
Inclined Surfaces 97
Oblique Surfaces 97
Projection Studies 98
Adjacent Areas 99
Surface Labeling 100
Similar Shapes 100
Vertex Labeling 100
Analysis by Feature 100
Missing-line and Missing-view Problems 101
Questions 103
5 Auxiliary and Section Views 137
Auxiliary Views 137
Introduction 137
Definitions 137
Auxiliary View Projection Theory 137
Auxiliary Views: Three Cases 139
General Sketching Procedure for Finding a Primary
Auxiliary View 139
Step 1 140
Step 2 141
Step 3 141
Step 4 (Optional) 141
Step 5 141
Step 6 142
Finding a Primary Auxiliary View of a Contoured Surface 142
Finding a Partial Auxiliary View, an Isometric Pictorial,
And a Missing View, Given Two Views 142
Section Views 146
Introduction 146
Section View Process 146
Section Lining (Hatch Patterns) 146
Full Sections 148
Half Sections 148
Offset Sections 149
Broken-out Sections 150
Revolved Sections 150
Removed Sections 150
Conventional Representations: Section Views 151
Conventional Representations: Thin Features 152
Section View Construction Process—example 1 152
Section View Construction Process—example 2 155
Conventional Representations: Aligned Sections 156
Assembly Section Views 157
Questions 158
6 Dimensioning and Tolerancing 183
Dimensioning 183
Introduction 183
Units of Measurement 183
Application of Dimensions 184
Terminology 184xi
Contents
Reading Direction for Dimensional Values 185
Arrangement, Placement, and Spacing of Dimensions 185
Using Dimensions to Specify Size and Locate Features 186
Symbols, Abbreviations, and General Notes 187
Dimensioning Rules and Guidelines 187
Prisms 187
Cylinders and Arcs 189
Finish Marks 189
Tolerancing 190
Introduction 190
Definitions 190
Tolerance Declaration 191
Tolerance Accumulation 191
Mated Parts 192
Basic Hole System: English Units 193
Basic Shaft System: English Units 194
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation of a Clearance Fit Using the
Basic Hole System (See Figure 6-27) 194
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation of an
Interference Fit Using the Basic Hole System
(See Figure 6-28) 195
Preferred English Limits and Fits 195
Running or Sliding Clearance Fit (Rc) 196
Locational Clearance Fit (Lc) 196
Transition Clearance or Interference Fit (Lt) 196
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation of a Clearance Fit Using the
Basic Shaft System (See Figure 6-30) 196
Locational Interference Fit (Ln) 197
Force or Shrink Fit (Fn) 197
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation Using English-unit Fit Tables,
Basic Hole System (See Figure 6-31) 197
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation Using English-unit Fit Tables,
Basic Shaft (See Figure 6-32) 198
Preferred Metric Limits and Fits 199
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation Using Metric-unit Fit Tables,
Hole Basis (See Figure 6-39) 202
Step-by-step Tolerance Calculation Using Metric-unit Fit Tables,
Shaft Basis (See Figure 6-40) 203
Tolerancing in Cad 204
Questions 204
7 Computer-aided Product
Design Software 210
Introduction 210
Computer-aided Design 210
Categories of Cad Systems 210
Computer-aided Drawing 210
Surface Modeling 211
Solid Modeling 211
Parametric Modeling 214
Cad Viewing and Display 215
Parametric Modeling Software 216
Introduction 216
Terminology 217
Part Modeling 218
Introduction 218
Sketch Mode 218
Feature Creation 220
Part Editing 221
Part Creation Process (See Figure 7-23) 222
Assembly Modeling 224
Introduction 224
Degrees of Freedom 225
Assembly Constraints 225
Cad Libraries 225
Advanced Modeling Strategies 225
Nurbs Surface Modeling 229
Introduction 229
Parametric Curves and Cubic Splines 230
Parametric Representation of a Curve 231
Bézier Curves 232
B-splines 234
Nurbs 235
Surfaces 235
Curvature 236
Continuity 237
Class a Surfaces 239
Building Information Modeling 240
Questions 241
8 Working Drawings 247
Introduction 247
The Impact of Technology on Working
Drawings 247
Detail Drawings 249
Assembly Drawing Views 249
Bill of Materials and Balloons 252
Sheet Sizes 252
Title Blocks 253
Borders and Zones 254
Revision Blocks 254
Drawing Scale 254
Tolerance Notes 255
Standard Parts 255
Working Drawing Creation Using Parametric
Modeling Software 255xii
Contents
Extracting a Detail Drawing From a Parametric Part
Model (See Figure 8-16) 256
Using Existing Part Models to Create an Assembly
Model (See Figure 8-17) 257
Extracting a Sectioned Assembly Drawing
(See Figure 8-18) 258
Creating an Exploded View (See Figure 8-19) 259
Creating an Exploded View Drawing With Parts List
And Balloons (See Figure 8-20) 260
Questions 261
9 Reverse Engineering Tools 272
Introduction 272
3d Scanning 272
Introduction 272
3d Scanner/digitizer Hardware 273
Contact Scanners 273
Noncontact Scanners 274
Laser Triangulation 274
Other Noncontact Scanner Technologies
(Tof, Structured Light) 276
Reverse Engineering Software 276
Mesh Reconstruction (or Point Processing) 276
Nurbs Modeling 278
Rapid Prototyping 279
Introduction 279
Technology Overview 279
Stl Files 280
Characteristics of Rp Systems 281
Part Orientation 281
Support Structure 282
Hatch Style 282
3d Printing 282
Questions 284
10 Digital Simulation Tools 285
Upfront Analysis 285
Finite Element Analysis 285
Modeling and Meshing 287
Boundary Conditions 288
Contour Plot 289
Results 289
Fea Workflow 290
Dynamics Simulation Software 292
Dynamics Simulation Software Demonstration 294
Questions 296
11 Concept Design Tools 297
Innovation 297
Tools for Design Innovation 297
Industrial Design 298
Computer-aided Industrial Design (Caid) 299
Concept Design and Innovation 300
Concept Design Software Tools 300
Digital Sketching 300
Direct Modeling 301
Direct Modeling Demonstration 302
Freeform Modeling 304
Questions 305
12 Product Dissection 306
Introduction 306
Product Suitability 306
Product Dissection Procedure 307
Pre-dissection Analysis 307
Dissection 308
Craftsman Locking Pliers Disassembly Steps 309
Product Documentation 312
Product Analysis 316
Product Improvement 320
Reassembly 321
Communication 321
Questions 321
13 Perspective Projections
And Perspective Sketches 327
Perspective Projection 327
Historical Development 327
Perspective Projection Characteristics 328
Classes of Perspective Projection 328
Vanishing Points 329
One-point Perspective Projection 330
Two-point Perspective Projection 331
Three-point Perspective Projection 332
Perspective Projection Variables 332
Perspective Projection Using a 3d Cad System 333
Projection Plane Location 335
Lateral Movement of Cp 335xiii
Contents
Vertical Movement of Cp 336
Varying Distance From Cp 336
Perspective Sketches 336
Introduction 336
Terminology 336
One-point Perspective Sketches 336
Two-point Perspective Sketches 337
Proportioning Techniques 338
Step-by-step One-point Perspective Sketch Example
(See Figure 13-26) 340
Step-by-step Two-point Perspective Sketch Example
(See Figure 13-27) 341
Summary: Orientation of Pictorial Sketching Axes
(See Figure 13-28) 343
Questions 344
A Ansi Preferred English Limits
And Fits 347
B Ansi Preferred Metric Limits
And Fits 357
Index 367
Drawing Sheets
367
? Index
Adjacent Areas, 99, 100
Adjacent View, 85
Alberti, Leon Battista, 328
Alias, 299
Aligned Dimensioning, 185
Aligned Sections, 156
Allowance, 193
Alphabet of Lines, 31–32
Alternative Design Evaluation
Process, 11
Alternative Solutions, 7–9
Analysis, 2, 9
Angular Dimension, 184
Ansi B4.1-1967 (R1994)
“preferred Limits and Fits for
Cylindrical Parts,” 195
Ansi B4.2-1978 (1994)
“preferred Metric Limits and
Fits,” 199
Apple, 297
Architectural Digital Sketches, 301
Arcs, 189
Arrowhead, 31, 32
Art of Innovation,
The (Kelley), 298
Artist Drawing a Lute
(Dürer), 37, 38
Asme Y14.41-2003, “digital
Product Definition
Practices,” 249
Assembly, 4
Assembly Constraints, 218, 225
Assembly Drawing, 247, 248, 258
Assembly Drawing
Views, 249–252, 258–260
Assembly Environment Tree
Structure, 217
Assembly Model, 257
Assembly Modeling, 224–225
Assembly Modeling
Environment, 216
Assembly Section View, 157, 251
Associative Linking, 217
Autocad, 210, 216
Autodesk Alias, 211, 304
Autodesk Alias User Interface, 299
Autodesk Inventor, 214, 293
Autodesk Inventor Fusion, 304
Autodesk Revit Bim
Environment, 240
Auxiliary View, 137–145
Defined, 137
Fi Nding Partial View,
Isometric Pictorial, Missing
View, 142–145
Partial, 138
Practice Drawings, 172–182
Primary/secondary, 137
Sketching - Finding Primary
View, 139–142
Auxiliary View Projection
Theory, 137–138
Avatar (Film), 273
Avoidance, 22
Axonometric Projection, 47, 48–49
B-rep, 213, 214
B-spline, 234–235
Background Research, 6
Balloons, 252, 253
Base Feature, 218, 220
Base Line Dimensioning, 191, 192
Basic Size, 199, 200
Benchmarking, 321
Bézier, Pierre, 232
Bézier Curves, 232–233, 234
Bézier Surface Patch, 236
Bilateral Tolerance, 191
Bill of Materials, 252, 253
Bim, 240
Blending Function, 230
Blind Hole, 94, 95
Block Coefficient, 40
Boolean Operations, 213, 221
Boundary Conditions, 230, 286, 288
Boundary Representation
(B-rep), 213, 214
Bounding Box, 39
Brainstorming, 7, 17, 298
Break Line, 31, 32
Broken-out Section, 149
Broken-out Section View, 251
Brown, Tim, 297
Brunelleshi, Filippo, 327
Building Information Modeling
(Bim), 240
Cn Continuity, 237
Cabinet Oblique Projection, 45
Cad. See Computer-aided
Product Design Software
Cad Libraries, 225
Cad Viewing and Display, 215
Cae Software. See Digital
Simulation Software
Caid, 299
Cast Parts, 92, 93
Catia, 214
Catia Shape Design, 211
Cavalier Oblique Projection, 45
Center Line, 31, 32
Dimensioning, 185
Multiviews, 89–90
Center of Projection (Cp), 38, 329,
330, 335, 336
Chain Dimensioning, 191, 192
Circle, 26–27
Circular Features
Cavalier Oblique Sketch, 55
Isometric Sketch, 58, 59, 60
Class a Surface, 239
Clearance Fi T, 192, 193
Cmm, 273, 274
Cocreate, 302
Communication, 2, 17–18
Component, 4, 8
Composites, 213
Compromise, 22
Computer-aided Drawing, 210–211
Computer-aided Engineering
(Cae) Software. See Digital
Simulation Software
Computer-aided Industrial Design
(Caid), 299
Computer-aided Product Design
Software, 210–246
Bim, 240
Cad Viewing and Display, 215368
Index
Computer-aided Product (Continued)
Computer-aided Drawing, 210–211
Nurbs. See Nurbs Surface
Modeling
Parametric Modeling. See
Parametric Modeling
Solid Modeling, 211–214
Surface Modeling, 211
Concept Alternatives, 7–9
Concept Design Phase, 4–5
Concept Design Tools, 297–305
Brainstorming, 298
Concept Design and
Innovation, 299
Digital Sketching, 300–301
Direct Modeling, 301–304
Freeform Modeling, 304
Industrial Design, 298–299
Prototyping, 298
Ucd, 298
Concurrent Engineering, 18–19
Confi Guration Design, 12
Confi Guration Design Phase, 5
Conflict, 22
Confl Ict Resolution Techniques, 22
Consensus Decision, 22
Constraint-based Modeling, 218.
See Also Parametric Modeling
Constraints, 218, 293
Construction Geometry, 220
Construction Line, 25
Constructive Conflict, 22
Constructive Engagement, 22
Constructive Solid Geometry
(Csg), 213
Consumed Sketch, 221
Contact Scanners, 273–274
Continuation Title Block, 254
Continuous Line, 25, 89
Contour Plot, 289
Control Points, 233
Control Polygon, 233
Convergence, 288
Convex Hull, 233
Coordinate Measuring Machine
(Cmm), 273, 274
Counterboring, 94, 95
Counterdrilled Hole, 94, 95
Countersinking, 94, 95
Craftsman Professional Locking
Pliers, 308. See Also Product
Dissection
Creo Elements/pro, 214
Critical-path Subfunctions, 317
Csg, 213
Csg Tree Structure, 213, 214
Cubic Spline, 230, 232
Curvature Comb, 236-239
Curvature (G2) Continuity, 237, 238
Cutting-plane Line, 31, 32
Cylinder, 90
Cylinders, 189
Da Vinci, Leonardo, 327
Datum Planes, 218
De Casteljau, Paul, 233
Degrees of Freedom
(Dof), 225, 287
Descriptive Geometry, 137
Design Analysis, 9
Design Constraints, 7
Design Criteria, 6–7
Design Evaluation, 9
Design for Assembly (Dfa), 19, 20
Design for Manufacture
(Dfm), 19, 20
Design for X (Dfx), 20
Design Innovation. See Concept
Design Tools
Design Intent, 225, 226
Design Phases, 4–5
Design Process Feedback Loop, 2
Design Project Brainstorming
Sketches, 24
Destructive Conflict, 22
Detail Design Phase, 5, 13
Detail Drawing, 247–250, 256
Detailed Outline, 17
Deviation, 199
Dfa, 19, 20
Dfm, 19, 20
Dfx, 20
Digital Prototype, 4
Digital Simulation Software, 285–296
Best-in-class Manufacturers, 285
Dynamics Simulation Software,
292–296
Fea. See Finite Element Analysis
(Fea)
Improvements, 285
Digital Sketching, 300–301
Digitizers, 273
Dimension, 183
Dimension 3d Printer, 283, 284
Dimension Line, 31, 32, 184
Dimension Value, 184
Dimensional Constraints, 218
Dimensioning, 183–190
Arcs, 189
Base Line, 192
Chain, 192
Cylinders, 189
Direct, 192
Fi Nish Marks, 189–190
General Notes/abbreviations, 187
Goals, 183
Leaders, 186
Parallel Dimensions, 185
Part Interchangeability. See
Tolerancing
Placement of Dimension Text,
185–186
Practice Drawings, 208, 209
Prism, 187–188
Sizing/locating Features, 187, 188
Spacing, 185
Symbols, 187
Terminology, 184–185
Unilateral/aligned, 185
Units of Measurement, 183
Dimensioning Symbols, 187
Dimetric Projection, 48
Direct Dimensioning, 191, 192
Direct Modeling, 301–304
Direct Tolerancing Methods, 191
Display, 215
Dissection Exercise. See Product
Dissection
Drawing Scale, 254–255
Drawing Sheet Sizes, 252, 253
Duccio Di Buoninsegna, 327
Duck, 229
Dumb Solids, 214
Dürer, Albrecht, 38, 327
Dynamics Simulation Software,
292–296
Dyson, James, 297
Edge, 52
Ellipse, 27
Engineering and the Mind’s Eye
(Ferguson), 2
Engineering Design, 306
Alternative Solutions, 7–9
Analysis, 9
Background Research, 6369
Index
Communication, 17–18
Concurrent Engineering, 18–19
Defined, 1
Design Constraints, 7
Design Criteria, 6–7
Design Phases, 4–5
Evaluation and Selection, 9–12
Needs Assessment, 5–6
Overview, 3, 5
Problem Definition, 6
Product Anatomy, 4
Specification, 12–17
Teamwork, 20–22
Engineering Design Phases, 4–5
Engineering Design Process, 3, 5
Engineer’s Stamp, 247, 249
English or Imperial System, 183
English-unit Preferred Fits, 195–198,
347–355
Equivalent Stress, 289, 291
Eraser, 24, 25
Evaluation and Selection, 9–12
Explicit Modeling, 302
Exploded View, 251, 252, 259, 260
Extension Line, 31, 32, 184
Extrusion, 212
Face, 52
Failure Theories, 289–290
Fdm, 279–280
Fea. See Finite Element Analysis
(Fea)
Feature Alignment, 85
Feature-based Modeling, 218
Feature Creation, 220–221
Feature Editing, 223
Feature Suppression, 223
Feature Tree, 223, 224
Features, 217–218
Ferguson, Eugene, 2
Fillet, 92–93, 94
Fillet Conventions, 94
Fine-line Mechanical Pencils, 24
Finish Marks, 189–190
Finite Element Analysis (Fea),
285–292
Boundary Conditions, 288
Defined, 285
Example, 290–292
Failure Theories, 289–290
Hooke’s Law, 286
Modeling and Meshing, 287–288
Phases, 286
Stress Analysis, 289–290
First-angle Projection, 88, 89
First-angle Projection Symbols, 89
Fit, 192. See Also Mated Parts
Fn Force and Shrink Fits, 197,
354–355
Force or Shrink Fits
English-unit System, 197, 354–355
Metric System, 202, 364-365
Forcing, 22
Foreshortening, 39, 337
Form, 1
Formulation Phase, 4
Franciscan Rule Approved
(Giotto), 327
Freeform Modeling, 304
Freehand Sketching, 23–32.
See Also Pictorial Sketching
Circle, 26–27
Ellipse, 27
Line Styles, 31–32
Line Techniques, 25–26
Parallel Lines, 30
Partitioning Lines, 29
Perpendicular Lines, 30–31
Practice Diagrams, 33–36
Proportioning, 28, 29
Straight Lines, 25–26
Tools and Materials, 23–25
Triangle, 30–31
Uses, 23
Full Section, 148, 149
Function, 1
Function Verifi Cation Tasks, 279
Functional Decomposition
Analysis, 316
Fundamental Deviation, 199, 200
Fused Deposition Modeling (Fdm),
279–280
G0 Continuity, 237, 238
G1 Continuity, 237, 238
G2 Continuity, 237, 238
Gn Continuity, 237
General Arrangement
Drawing, 13, 14
General Criteria Categories, 7
General Oblique, 46
General Tolerance Note, 191, 255
Generic Three Multiview
Procedure, 91
Geomagic, 273
Geometric Constraints, 217, 218
Geometric (Gn) Continuity, 237
Geometric Dimensioning and
Tolerancing (Gd&t), 191, 192
Giotto, 327
Glass Box Theory, 83–84
Glyph, 219
Grid Paper, 24, 56, 57
Ground Line, 329–330, 336
Group Decision Making, 21
Group Norms, 21
Half Section, 148–149
Half Section View, 251
Handheld Laser Scanner, 275
Hatch Patterns, 146–148
Hermite Cubic Spline, 232
Hidden Line, 31, 32, 89
Hidden-line/hidden-surface
Display, 215
History-based Parametric
Modeling, 301–302
Hole Basis Fits
English-unit System, 193, 194
Metric System, 200–202, 358–361
Hooke’s Law, 286
Horizon Line, 330, 336
Horizontal Line, 26
How to? See Step-by-step
Procedures
Human-centered Design, 298
Ideo, 297
Imperial System of
Measurement, 183
Inclined Line, 26
Inclined Surface, 97
Industrial Design, 298–299
Innovation, 297
Interference Fi T, 192, 193
International Tolerance
Grade, 199, 200
Intersection, 92, 93, 213, 221
Inventor Fusion, 304
Isometric Drawing, 50
Isometric Grid
Paper, 24, 56, 57
Isometric Line, 56
Isometric Projection, 39, 49–51
Isometric Scaling, 56
Isometric Sketches, 27, 28, 56–60370
Index
Isoparametric Curve, 235
Ives, Jonathan, 297
Jobs, Steve, 297
Joints, 293
Kelley, David, 297
Kelley, Tom, 298
Keycreator, 302
Kinematic Models for Design Digital Library (Kmoddl), 293
Knots, 234
Knuckle, 237
Laser Triangulation, 274–276
Last Supper (Da Vinci), 328
Layer, 300
Layout Drawing, 13
Lc Clearance Locational Fits, 196,
350–351
Leader Line, 31, 32, 184, 186
Limit Dimensioning, 191
Line Fit, 193
Lines/line Techniques
Dimensioning, 184–185
Freehand Sketching, 25–26, 30–32
Multiviews, 89–91
Lines Plan, 230
Ln Interference Location Fits,
197, 353
Loads, 286
Locational Clearance Fits
English-unit System, 196, 350–351
Metric System, 202, 358–363
Locational Interference Fits
English-unit System, 197, 353
Metric System, 202, 364–365
Locational Transition Fits, 202,
364–365
Locking Pliers, 308. See Also
Product Dissection
Loft, 221
Lower Deviation, 199
Lt Clearance Location Fi Ts, 196, 352
Machined Holes, 93–94, 95
Maesta (Duccio Di Buoninsegna),
327
Manufacturing Features,
100–101, 102
Manufacturing Quality, 190
Mars Rover, 273
Mate Assembly Constraint, 225
Mated Parts, 192–203
Hole System Vs. Basis System, 193,
194–195, 200, 201
Preferred English Limits and Fits,
195–198, 347–355
Preferred Metric Limits and Fits,
199–202, 357–365
Step-by-step Calculation, 194–198,
202–203
Tables, 347–365
Types of Fit, 192–193
Mathematical Spline, 230
Maximum Equivalent Stress Failure
Theory, 290
Maximum Shear Stress Failure
Theory, 290
Maximum Tensile Stress Failure
Theory, 290
Mcad Companies, 214
Mechanical Dissection. See Product
Dissection
Mechanical Joint to Assembly Constraint Conversion Table, 293
Mechanical Pencil, 24
Medium Drive Fi Ts, 202, 364–365
Mesh Reconstruction, 276–278
Meshing, 286, 287–288
Methodology. See Step-by-step
Procedures
Metric Preferred Fits, 199–202,
357–365
Metric Unit Dimensions, 183
Metric-unit Fi T Designation, 200
Mini Cooper Curves and
Surfaces, 229
Missing-line/missing-view
Problems, 101, 103, 104
Mixer Client-specified
Dimensions, 227
Mixer Product Family, 227
Mixer Product Parameter
Roadmap, 228
Model Features, 217–218
Mohr-coulomb Stress Failure
Theory, 290
Monge, Gaspard, 137n
Morphological Chart, 8
Motion Analysis Software, 292–296
Msc Adams, 293
Multiviews, 48, 50–51, 83–136
Adjacent Areas, 99, 100
Alignment of Views, 84–85
Cylinder, 90
Fi Llets and Rounds, 92–93, 94
Fi Rst-angle Projection, 88, 89
Generic Three Multiview
Procedure, 91
Glass Box Theory, 83–84
Inclined Surface, 97
Intersection and Tangency, 92, 93
Line Conventions, 89–90
Line Precedence, 91
Machined Holes, 93–94, 95
Manufacturing Features,
100–101, 102
Missing-line/missing-view
Problems, 101, 103, 104
Normal Surface, 96–97
Oblique Surface, 97
Practice Drawings, 122–136
Projection Studies, 98
Purpose, 83
Rotated Features, 94, 95
Similar Shapes, 100, 101
Step-by-step Multiview Sketch
Example, 92, 96
Surface Labeling, 100
Third-angle Projection,
87–88, 89
Transfer of Depth, 86
Vertex Labeling, 100, 101
View Selection, 86–87
Visualization, 96–103
Needs Assessment, 5–6
Newton’s Second Law of
Motion, 292
Noncontact Scanners, 274
Nonisometric Line, 56
Nonuniform Knots, 235
Nonuniform Rational B-splines.
See Nurbs Surface Modeling
Normal Surface, 96–97
Nurbs Modeling, 278–279
Nurbs Surface Modeling,
211, 229–239
B-spline, 234–235
Bézier Curves, 232–233, 234
Class a Surface, 239
Continuity, 237–239
Cubic Spline, 230, 232
Curvature, 236
Historical Overview, 229–230371
Index
Isoparametric Curve, 235
Nurbs, 235–239
Parametric Curves, 230, 231
Surface Patch, 236
Weights, 235
Nx, 304
Nx Shape Studio, 211, 214
Oblique Projection, 39, 43–46
Oblique Projection Angle, 45
Oblique Projection Angle
(in 2d), 46
Oblique Sketches, 27, 52–53, 54, 55
Oblique Surface, 97
Occlusion, 274–275
Offset Section, 149
On Painting (Alberti), 328
One-point Perspective, 39
One-point Perspective Projection,
330–331
One-point Perspective Sketch,
336–337, 340
One-view Drawing, 87
Oral Presentations, 18
Orthographic Projection, 47–48
Osclating Circle, 236
Outline, 17
Parallel Dimensions, 185
Parallel Lines, 30
Parallel Projection, 38, 39–44
Parallelogram Method
(of Sketching Ellipses), 27, 28
Parameter, 218
Parametric Constraints, 218
Parametric (Cn) Continuity, 237
Parametric Curves, 230, 231
Parametric Equations, 230
Parametric Modeling,
214–215, 216–228
Advanced Modeling Strategies,
225–228
Assembly Constraints, 225
Assembly Modeling, 224–225
Associative Linking, 217
Cad Libraries, 225
Constraints, 218
Degrees of Freedom, 225
Design Intent, 225, 226
Feature Creation, 220–221
Parent-child Relationships, 224
Part Creation Process, 222
Part Editing, 221–224
Part Modeling, 218–221
Sketch Mode, 218–220
Terminology, 217–218
Parametric Solid Models, 4
Parent-child Relationships, 224
Part, 4
Part Creation Process, 222
Part Editing, 221–224
Part Interchangeability. See
Tolerancing
Part Library Interface, 226
Part Modeling, 218–221
Partial Auxiliary View, 138
Partitioning Lines, 29, 338
Partitioning Trapezoidal
Areas, 339
Parts List, 252, 253
Peaucellier-lipkin Linkage, 293, 294
Peb, 38, 39
Pencil Lead, 24
Pencil Lead Grades, 25
Perpendicular Lines, 30–31
Perspective Projection, 38, 39–43,
327–336
Advantage/disadvantage, 328
Classes, 328–329
Historical Overview, 327–328
Lateral Movement of Cp, 335
One-point Perspective, 330–331
Parallel Projection,
Compared, 328
Practice Drawings, 345–346
Projection Plane Location, 335
Step-by-step Procedure, 333–334
Three-point Perspective, 332, 333
Two-point Perspective, 331, 332
Vanishing Points, 329–330
Varying Distance From Cp, 336
Vertical Movement of Cp, 336
Perspective Sketches, 336–343
One-point, 336–337, 340
Orientation of Pictorial Sketching
Axes, 343
Parallel Projection,
Contrasted, 336
Practice Drawings, 345–346
Proportional Techniques, 338, 339
Step-by-step Procedure, 340–342
Terminology, 336
Two-point, 337–338, 341–342
Phantom Line, 31, 32
Physics-based Dynamics Simulation
Software, 292
Pictorial Projections, 39–40
Pictorial Sketching, 27, 51–61.
See Also Freehand Sketching
General Technique, 51
Isometric Sketches, 27, 28, 56–60
Oblique Sketches, 27, 52–53, 54, 55
Practice Drawings, 79–82
Scalability, 60–61
Step-by-step Procedure
(Isometric Sketch), 57–60
Step-by-step Procedure
(Oblique Sketch), 54, 55
Pictorial Sketching
Scalability, 60–61
Pink, Daniel, 297
Placed Features, 218, 220
Planar Geometric Projection
Classes, 41
Planar Projections, 37–51.
See Also Pictorial Sketching
Axonometric Projection, 47, 48–49
Definitions, 38–40
Elements, 37
Foreshortening, 39
Isometric Projection, 39, 49–51
Multiview Projection.
See Multiviews
Oblique Projection, 39, 43–46
Orientation of Object/projection
Plane, 40
Orthographic Projection, 47–48
Parallel Vs. Perspective
Projection, 40–43
Projector Characteristics, 37–38
Scalability, 60–61
Plane Curve, 232
Plus-and-minus Tolerancing, 191
Point Cloud, 273, 275, 276
Point Processing, 276
Polygon Net, 236
Polygonal Mesh Construction
Tools, 277
Polyhedron, 51
Portable Coordinate Measuring
Machine, 274
Positional (G0)
Continuity, 237, 238
Practice Drawings
Auxiliary and Section Views,
172–182372
Index
Practice Drawings (Continued)
Dimensioning and Tolerancing,
208, 209
Freehand Sketching, 33–36
Multiviews, 122–136
Perspective Projections/sketches,
345–346
Pictorial Sketching, 79–82
Preferred English Limits and Fits,
195–198, 347–355
Preferred Metric Limits and Fits,
199–202, 356–364
Preliminary Outline, 17
Primary Auxiliary View, 137
Primitives, 212
Principal Axes, 38
Principal Dimensions, 38
Principal Enclosing Box (Peb), 38,
39, 329
Principal Planes, 39
Principal Vanishing Points, 329, 330
Prism, 187–188
Pro/engineer, 214
Problem Definition, 6
Problem Statement, 6
Procedural Steps. See Step-by-step
Procedures
Product, 4, 8
Product Anatomy, 4
Product Component Decomposition
Diagram, 312
Product Data Defi Nition Set, 249
Product Development, 1
Product Dissection, 306–326
Benefits, 306
Communication, 321
Dissection, 308–311
Pre-dissection Analysis, 307–308
Product Analysis, 316–320
Product Documentation, 312–316
Product Improvement, 320–321
Product Suitability, 306–307
Reassembly, 321
Steps in Process, 307
Underlying Concept, 306
Product Drawings, 13. See Also
Working Drawings
Product Realization Process, 1
Profile, 212
Projected Image, 37
Projection, 37. See Also Planar
Projections
Projection Plane, 37
Projection Studies, 98
Proportioning, 28, 29
Prototyping, 298
Pulley Assembly Tolerance Fits, 192
Quadratic Spline, 232
Quadratic Tetrahedral Meshes, 287
Quill, 236
Radius of Curvature, 236
Rapid Prototyping (Rp), 279–284
Fdm, 279–280
Hatch Style, 282
Part Orientation, 281–282
Sls, 280
Stereolithography, 279
Stl Files, 280–281
Support Structure, 282
3d Printing, 282–283, 284
Uses, 279
Rapidform, 273, 276
Raster Image, 301
Rc Running and Sliding Fits, 196,
348–349
Reader Exercises. See Practice
Drawings
Receding Axis Angle, 46
Rectangular Method (of Sketching
Ellipses), 27
Reference Dimension, 184
Related View, 85
Relations, 218
Removed Section, 150, 151
Rendered Display, 215
Report Writing, 17
Request for Proposal (Rfp), 13
Reverse Engineering, 6
Reverse Engineering Scanning
Process, 273
Reverse Engineering Tools, 272–284
Mesh Reconstruction, 276–278
Nurbs Modeling, 278–279
Rapid Prototyping, 279–283
3d Scanning, 272–276
Revision, 254
Revision Block, 254, 255
Revolution, 212
Revolved Features, 94, 95
Revolved Section, 150, 151
Rfp, 13
Rhinoceros, 211, 299, 304
Rotated Features, 94, 95
Round, 92–93, 94
Rp. See Rapid Prototyping (Rp)
Running and Sliding Fits
English-unit System, 196, 348–349
Metric System, 202, 358–363
Safety Factor, 290
Sanzio, Raffaello, 327
Scalability, 60–61
Scanner Pipeline, 273
School of Athens (Sanzio), 328
Secondary Auxiliary View, 137
Section Lining, 31, 32, 146–148
Section View, 146–158
Aligned Sections, 156
Assembly, 157
Broken-out Section, 149
Construction Process, 152–156
Conventional Representations,
151, 152, 156
Full Section, 148, 149
Half Section, 148–149
Hatch Patterns, 146–148
Labeling, 146, 147
Offset Section, 149
Practice Drawings, 172–182
Removed Section, 150, 151
Revolved Section, 150, 151
Section Lining, 146–148
Thin Features, 152, 153
Section View Construction Process,
153–156
Section View Labeling, 146, 147
Section View Process, 146
Selective Assembly, 192
Selective Laser Sintering (Sls), 280
Shaded Display, 215
Shaft Basis Fits
English-unit System, 194–195
Metric System, 200–202, 362–365
Sheet-of-light Scanner, 274
Sheet Sizes, 252, 253
Shrink Fits. See Force or Shrink Fits
Siemens Nx, 304
Siemens Synchronous
Technology, 302
Similar Shapes, 100, 101
Simulation Software. See Digital
Simulation Software
Sketch Mode, 218–220
Sketch Plane Categories, 219373
Index
Sketchbook Pro User Interface,
300
Sketched Features, 217–218
Sketching
Digital, 300–301
Freehand. See Freehand Sketching
Perspective, 336–343
Pictorial. See Pictorial Sketching
Sketching Lines, 25
Sketching Software, 300–301
Sliding Fits. See Running and
Sliding Fits
Sls, 280
Smoothing, 22, 277
Software Reverse
Engineering, 272
Solid Edge, 214
Solid Modeling, 211–214
Solid Primitives, 212
Solidthinking, 211
Solidworks, 214, 293, 299, 302
Space Curve, 230
Spaceclaim, 302
Spans, 234
Sparse Fill, 282
Spatial Visualization
Techniques, 96–103
Specifi C Criteria Categories, 7
Specifications, 247
Spline, 229
Spotfacing, 94, 95
Square Method (of Sketching
Circles), 27
Standard Parts, 255
Standard Sheet Sizes, 253
Step-by-step Procedures
Cabinet Oblique Sketch - Cut
Block, 54
Cavalier Oblique Sketch - Circular
Features, 55
Direct Modeling, 302–304
Generic Three Multiview Sketch
Procedure, 91
Isometric Sketch - Box With
Holes, 59
Isometric Sketch - Cut Block, 57
Isometric Sketch - Cylinder, 58
Locking Pliers Disassembly,
309–312
Multiview Sketch, 92, 96
One-point Perspective Sketch, 340
Perspective Projection, 333–334
Sketching - Circular
Features, 59, 60
Sketching - Finding Partial
Auxiliary View, 142–143
Sketching - Finding Primary
Auxiliary View, 139–142
Sketching - Simple Extrude
Shape, 54
Tolerance Calculation - Basic Hole
System, 194, 195
Tolerance Calculation - Basic Shaft
System, 196
Tolerance Calculation - Englishunit Fi T Tables, 197, 198
Tolerance Calculation - Metricunit Fi T Tables, 202–203
Two-point Perspective Sketch,
341–342
Working Drawings, 256–260
Stereolithography, 279
Stiffness, 288n
Stl Files, 280–281
Straight Lines, 25–26
Strain, 286
Stratasys, 283
Stress, 286
Stress Analysis, 289–290
Stress Contour Plot, 289
Structured Light Scanners, 276
Student Exercises. See Practice
Drawings
Subassembly, 4
Subfunction, 316–317
Subtraction, 213, 221
Surface Construction, 277, 278
Surface Labeling, 100
Surface Modeling, 211
Surface Patch, 236
Sweep, 212
Synthesis, 2
Tangency, 92, 93
Tangent (G1) Continuity, 237, 238
Team, 21
Teamwork, 20–22
Tetrahedral Meshes, 287, 288
Thin Features, 152, 153
Third-angle Projection, 87–88, 89
Third-angle Projection Symbols,
89
Threaded Hole, 94, 95
3d Printing, 282–283, 284
3d Scanning, 272–276
Contact Scanners, 273–274
Laser Triangulation, 274–276
Noncontact Scanners, 274
Occlusion, 274–275
Structured Light
Scanners, 276
Time-of-fl Ight Scanners, 276
3d Wireframe Drawing, 210, 211
Three-point Perspective Projection,
332, 333
Time-of-fl Ight Scanners, 276
Title Block, 253–254
Tolerance, 190
Tolerance Accumulation, 191,
192tolerance Declaration,
191
Tolerance Notes, 255
Tolerance Zone, 199, 200
Tolerancing, 190–204
Accumulation of
Tolerances, 191, 192
Actual Size/basic Size, 190
Cad, 204
Defined, 190
Direct Tolerancing Methods, 191
General Notes, 191
Geometric Tolerances, 191
Importance, 190
Mated Parts. See Mated Parts
Tools
Design Innovation. See Concept
Design Tools
Reverse Engineering. See Reverse
Engineering Tools
Simulation Software. See Design
Simulation Tools
Trammel, 28, 29
Trammel Method (of Sketching
Circles), 26, 27
Transition Clearance or
Interference Fi T (Lt), 196, 352
Transition Fi T, 192, 193
Tree Structure, 213
Triangle (Instrument), 30
Triangulation, 274
Trimetric Projection, 48
Trough Hole, 94, 95
2d Cad Drawing, 210
Two-point Perspective, 39
Two-point Perspective
Projection, 331, 332374
Index
Two-point Perspective Sketch,
337–338, 341–342
Two-view Drawing, 87
Typ, 187
Ucd, 298
Unidirectional Dimensioning, 185
Uniform Knot Spacing, 235
Unilateral Tolerance, 191
Union, 213, 221
Upper Deviation, 199
User-centered Design (Ucd), 298
Vanishing Points, 43, 329–330, 336
Vector Graphics, 210
Vertex, 52
Vertex Labeling, 100, 101
Vertical Line, 26
Visible Line, 31–32
Visualization, 96–103
Von Mises Stress, 289, 291
Wacom Cintiq, 299
Wacom Cintiq 21ux Interactive
Pen Display, 300
Whole New Mind: Why Rightbrainers Will Rule the Future,
A (Pink), 297
Wire Shelf Part Family, 227
Wireframe Display, 215
Work Features, 220
Working Drawings, 13, 247–271
Assembly Drawing, 247, 248,
258
Assembly Drawing Views, 249–252,
258–260
Assembly Model, 257
Balloons, 252, 253
Bill of Materials, 252, 253
Border, 254
Defined, 247
Detail Drawing, 247–250, 256
Drawing Scale, 254–255
Engineer’s Stamp and Signature,
247, 249
Exploded View, 251, 252, 259,
260
Parametric Modeling Techniques,
255–260
Revision Block, 254, 255
Sectioned Assembly Drawing,
249, 251, 258
Sheet Sizes, 252, 253
Standard Parts, 255
Step-by-step Procedures,
256–260
Technology, and, 248–249
Title Block, 253–254
Tolerance Notes, 255
Y14-41 Standard, 249
Zones, 254
Working Model, 293
Wozniak, Steve, 297
Written Reports, 17
Y14-41 Standard, 249
Yield Stress, 286
Z Corp, 283
Z Corp 3d Printer, 283
Z Shape Profile and Extrusion,
144
Zebra Stripe Shading, 239
Zones, 254
Zscanner 700, 275


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