كتاب Machine Tool Metrology - An Industrial Handbook
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 كتاب Machine Tool Metrology - An Industrial Handbook

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Machine Tool Metrology - An Industrial Handbook
Graham T. Smith  

كتاب Machine Tool Metrology - An Industrial Handbook  M_t_m_11
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1 Measurement and Machine Tools-An Introduction 1
1.1 Why the Need for Accurate and Precise Machine
Tools-a Brief History 1
1.2 The Early Historical Development of a Linear Measurements . 4
1.2.1 The Historical Development of the Metre
and the International Bureau of Weights
and Measures (BIPM) 9
1.2.2 Optical and Laser Length Measurement 12
1.3 International Standards Laboratories-Why They Are Essential 14
1.3.1 What Is Traceability and Why Is It Necessary? . 15
1.3.2 Auditing Metrology: Artefacts, Instrumentation
and Equipment 19
1.3.3 National Metrological Research and Calibration
Laboratories 22
1.4 Machine Tool’s Machining Capabilities . 32
1.5 Metrology Equipment Utilised for Basic Machine
Tool Calibration Checks . 37
1.5.1 Gauge Blocks . 37
1.5.2 Length Bars 41
1.5.3 Combination Angle Gauges 44
1.5.4 Precision Polygons . 46
1.5.5 Dial Gauges and Dial Test Indicators . 48
1.5.6 Straightedges and Cylindrical Precision Mandrels 53
1.5.7 Precision- and Cylindrical Squares 59
1.6 A Concise History of Machine Tool Calibration 62
1.7 Notable Chronology in Machine Tool Testing 67
1.8 Achievable Accuracy and Precision of Machine Tools . 69
1.9 Accuracy and Precision-Produced by a Machine Tool 74
1.10 Designation of Machine Tool Axes and Kinematics . 84
1.11 Configurations of Machining and Turning Centres 90xii Contents
1.11.1 Orthogonal Machine Tools 90
1.11.2 Modular, or Reconfigurable Machine Tools . 90
1.11.3 Modular Machine Tool Construction 93
1.11.4 Turning and Machining Centre Configurations 95
1.11.5 CNC Controller Developments 101
1.11.6 Non-orthogonal/Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM) . 103
1.12 Major Elements in a Machine Tool’s Construction 107
1.12.1 Headstocks for Turning Centres and Spindles
for Machining Centres . 108
1.12.2 CNC Conventional Drive Systems and Recirculating
Ballscrews 114
1.12.3 Machine Tool-Bearing Categories . 126
1.12.4 Constructional Elements for Machine Tools 143
1.12.5 Linear Motor Drive Systems 154
1.12.6 Linear and Rotary Axis Positioning/Monitoring Systems 159
1.13 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of Machine Tools . 177
1.13.1 FEA of CNC Machine Tools 179
1.13.2 Industrial Machine Tool Case Study
in FEA-for a Machining Centre . 180
1.14 Basic Construction of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) 183
1.14.1 Introduction to the CMM . 183
1.14.2 CMM Construction . 187
1.14.3 CMM-Mechanical Probe 188
1.14.4 Recent CMM Probing Systems 190
1.14.5 Micro-Metrology Probes . 194
References 195
2 Laser Instrumentation and Calibration . 201
2.1 Introduction to Lasers . 201
2.1.1 Why Is Calibration so Important? . 202
2.1.2 Calibration of Laser Interferometers . 203
2.1.3 Laser Calibration-Potential Error and Uncertainty
Sources 205
2.1.4 Introduction to Laser Machine Calibration 211
2.2 Methods of Machine Acceptance Tests-The Basis
for Verification 214
2.2.1 ISO 230 Machine Tool Standards-Previous
and Current Calibration Procedures 214
2.2.2 ISO 230-Laser Calibration Procedures
on CNC Machine Tools . 219
2.2.3 Laser Diagonal Displacement Test . 222
2.2.4 Laser Step Diagonal Test 230
2.2.5 Potential Errors-In Three Axes Machine Tools 236
2.3 ISO 10360 for Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)
Calibration and Verification 245Contents xiii
2.3.1 Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM)-Fundamentals 246
2.3.2 CMM-Environmental Conditions 253
2.3.3 CMM Performance Standards 253
2.4 Calibration of a Rotary Table-With a Rotary Indexer . 255
2.4.1 AxisSet™ Checkup-Utilised for Machine
Tool Alignments . 259
2.5 Machine Tool Linear Axes-Factors Affecting Their Accuracy
and Precision . 261
2.6 Laser Tracker-Instrumentation, Testing and Applications 264
2.6.1 Laser Tracker-Calibration Procedures . 267
2.6.2 Laser Tracker-Frequently Asked Questions . 268
2.6.3 Laser Tracker-Machine-Based Research Applications 270
References 274
3 Optical Instrumentation for Machine Calibration 279
3.1 Basic Principles of Light 279
3.1.1 Optical Alignment-Basic Principles 284
3.2 Autocollimation Principles . 287
3.2.1 Basic Design of an Autocollimator 287
3.2.2 Autocollimator-its Optical Operational Principle 290
3.2.3 Digital Autocollimators . 291
3.2.4 Precision Polygons for Angular Measurements . 296
3.2.5 Angular Calibration of a Precision Polygon 297
3.2.6 Calibration of a Rotary Table . 299
3.3 The Micro-optic Dual-Axis Autocollimator, or Angledekkor 300
3.3.1 Optical Squares and Prisms 302
3.4 Alignment Telescope–Principles of Alignment . 305
3.4.1 Targets for Autocollimators 316
3.4.2 Auto-reflection and Autocollimation . 317
3.4.3 Calculating Mirror Gradients . 319
3.4.4 Effects of the Earth’s Curvature and Atmospheric
Refraction 320
3.5 Precision Spirit Level . 323
3.6 Optical Instrumentation-Clinometers . 328
3.7 Talyvel-Precision Level 333
3.7.1 Software Programs-for Precision Electronic Levels 337
References 342
4 Telescoping Ballbars and Other Diagnostic Instrumentation 345
4.1 Telescoping Ballbars . 345
4.1.1 Machine Tool Health Checks-The Reason
Why They Are Necessary 345
4.1.2 Telescoping Ballbars-Historical Development
and Operation . 346
4.1.3 Telescoping Ballbar-In More Detail 354
4.1.4 Ballbar Testing-Why the Need? 354xiv Contents
4.1.5 Wireless Telescoping Ballbar . 356
4.1.6 Telescoping Ballbar-A Closer Examination
of Machine Tool Inaccuracies 359
4.1.7 Ballbars-Other Instrumental Variations 360
4.2 Grid Encoders and Linear Comparator Systems 366
4.3 Rotary Analyzer System and Calibration Rings . 372
4.4 Calibration Spheres and Rings-for CMMs . 375
References 378
5 Artefacts for Machine Verification . 381
5.1 Introduction to Artefact Verification-For Interim CMM Checks 381
5.1.1 An Introduction to CMM Error Sources 382
5.1.2 ISO 10360 and CMM Performance 382
5.1.3 Material Standard of Size and CMM Accuracy . 385
5.1.4 CMM-Length Measurement and Maximum
Permissible Errors . 392
5.2 Purpose-Made Artefacts-Testpieces . 393
5.3 General Artefacts for CMM Verification 394
5.3.1 Step Gauge-Its Calibration . 394
5.3.2 Step Gauge-For Verification of the Accuracy of CMMs . 395
5.3.3 Machine Checking Gauge (MCG) . 399
5.4 Ball- and Hole-Plates . 406
5.4.1 The 3-D Ball-Plates 410
5.4.2 Ball- and Cube-Tetrahedrons . 413
5.5 Large Reference Artefact-For Large-Scale CMM Verification 416
5.5.1 Large Reference Artefact (LRA)-Design
and Construction 418
5.5.2 Large Reference Artefact-Reference Surfaces . 419
5.5.3 Large Reference Artefact-Artefact Positioning,
Alignment and Testing 422
5.5.4 Large Reference Artefact-Summary and Concluding
Remarks . 423
5.6 Machinable-Artefacts for Machine Tool Verification . 424
5.6.1 Introduction to Machinable Testpiece Standards 424
5.6.2 Artefact Stereometry-For Dynamic Machine
Tool and Comparative Assessment . 426
5.6.3 Stereometric Artefact-Conceptual Design 427
5.6.4 Stereometric Artefact-Machining Trials . 429
5.6.5 Stereometric Artefact-Machined and Metrological
Results 435
5.7 Small Coordinate Measuring Machine (SCMM) 438
5.7.1 Small Coordinate Measuring Machine-Design
Requirements . 438
5.7.2 Small Coordinate Measuring Machine-Interferometers,
Autocollimators and Probe Design . 441
5.8 A Novel 3-D-Nano Touch Probe-For an Ultra-Precision CMM 443Contents xv
5.8.1 Probing Force and Surface Damage 445
5.8.2 The 3-D-Nano Touch Probe-Constructional Details 445
5.9 Robotic Arms . 447
5.9.1 Industrial Robotics-Their Historical Development . 448
5.9.2 Defining Robotic Parameters . 449
5.9.3 Robotic Calibration 451
5.9.4 Robotic Calibration Devices and Techniques . 453
5.10 Parallel Kinematic Mechanism (PKM)-Equator™ Gauge . 457
5.10.1 Theory of Operation-Of the PKM 459
5.10.2 Calibrating This PKM 460
5.11 Articulated Arm CMM (AACMM) 461
5.11.1 Articulated Arm CMMs-In More Detail . 465
5.11.2 Verification of Articulated Arm CMM (AACMM) 467
References 468
6 Machine Tool Performance: Spindle Analysis; Corrosion
and Condition Monitoring; Thermography 473
6.1 Machine Tool Spindle Analysis . 473
6.1.1 Design Trends in Machine Tool Spindles 475
6.1.2 Machine Tool Spindle Failure Modes 478
6.1.3 Complete Machine Tool Retrofits and Rebuilds 485
6.2 Monitoring and Diagnostics of Machine Tool Spindles . 495
6.2.1 Spindle Monitoring Instrumentation-For Machine Tools 496
6.2.2 Thermal Distortion-At the Spindle . 496
6.2.3 Spindle Error Motions 497
6.3 Spindle Error Analyser (SEA) Instrumentation . 498
6.3.1 Spindle Error Analyser-The Master Target
and Its Fixtures-Spindle Hardware . 503
6.3.2 Spindle Error Analyser-Spindle Software 504
6.3.3 SEA-Thermal Drift-Resulting from Expansion
of Materials . 504
6.3.4 SEA-Thermal Tests . 505
6.3.5 SEA-How Spindle Measurement Data is Displayed 506
6.3.6 SEA-Spindle Error Plots: For Analysis
and Rectification of Bearings . 506
6.4 Corrosion-Basic Concepts 507
6.4.1 Understanding Metallic Corrosion-In Brief . 510
6.4.2 Machine Tool Spalling-of Bearings and Gears 514
6.4.3 Bearing Failure Modes-With Hard Particle
Lubricant Contamination 514
6.4.4 Bearing Contamination . 518
6.5 Condition Monitoring-Of Machine Tools 519
6.5.1 Condition Monitoring-Historical Perspective . 521
6.5.2 Types of Condition Monitoring Systems 523
6.5.3 Condition Monitoring Systems-Establishing
a Programme 524xvi Contents
6.6 Thermographical Inspection 527
6.6.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum-A Brief
and Introductory History 527
6.6.2 Thermography-Further Information 532
6.6.3 Thermal Imaging Cameras . 535
6.6.4 Emissivity-Thermal Radiation . 537
6.6.5 Advantages and Limitations of Thermography . 538
6.6.6 Effects of Temperature Variation in Machine Tools 539
6.6.7 Controlling Component Part Temperatures 543
6.6.8 Minimising Heat Sources 543
6.6.9 Temperature Control Strategies . 544
References 546
7 Uncertainty of Measurement and Statistical Process Control . 551
7.1 Conformance, Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty 551
7.2 Task-Specific Measurement Uncertainty 555
7.2.1 Traceability Reporting 555
7.2.2 Conformance Rules-for Metrological Equipment 558
7.3 Measurement Uncertainty-Typically Relating
to Machine Tools and CMMs . 561
7.3.1 Statements of Compliance-The Effect of Uncertainty . 566
7.3.2 Uncertainty Issues . 566
7.3.3 Statistical Measures-In Uncertainty Calculations 567
7.3.4 Origins of Uncertainties . 574
7.3.5 Calculation of Measurement Uncertainty 575
7.3.6 Analysis of Uncertainty: Uncertainty Budgets 580
7.3.7 Reducing Measurement Uncertainty . 584
7.4 Statistical Process Control (SPC)-In Production Output
on Machine Tools 585
7.4.1 What is Statistical Process Control? 586
7.4.2 Control Chart Functions . 587
7.4.3 Control Chart-Background Information . 589
7.4.4 Control Chart Limits . 591
7.4.5 Reading Control Charts . 594
7.4.6 Computerised SPC Charts . 596
7.5 Machine and Process Capability Studies 598
7.5.1 Machine and Process Capability Studies-Typical
Procedure 598
7.5.2 Machine Capability Study-In Detail 599
7.5.3 Machine Tool Capability Study-Practical Example . 601
7.5.4 Final Concluding Remarks . 605
References 605
Appendices 609
Index.
© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016
G.T. Smith, Machine Tool Metrology, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-25109-7
671
ANSI B4.2: 1978, 567
ANSI B5.54: 1992, 502
ANSI S2.19-1989, 483
Approved Technical Assessor, 19
Artefact Stereometry, 426
Articulated Arm CMM (AACMM), 462, 465,
467
Artificial intelligence (AI), 100, 447
AS2054:1977, 324
Asset management, 519
ASME B89.7.3.1, 558
ASME Y14.5-2009, 551
Asynchronous error motions-spindles, 498
Atmospheric refraction, 320
Atom-based dimensional metrology, 26, 27
Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), 27, 29, 445
Atomic Frequency Standard, 24
Atomic radius, 33
Audit review, 21
Auditing metrology-artefacts, etc., 19
Auditing procedure, 19
Auto-collimation, 287, 288, 290, 291, 293, 294,
304, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 319, 338
Auto-collimation–optical principle, 279, 283,
290, 310
Auto-collimation (photoelectronic)–optical
principle, 287
Auto-collimation principles, 287
Automatic computing engine (ACE), 23
Auto-reflection, 307, 309, 310, 317, 319
Axes and motions–general rules, 84
Axial error motion–in machines, 238, 498
Axis reversal spikes-in Ballbar assessment,
359
Axis transition points–using Ballbars, 351, 432
A
Abbé offset error, 209
Absolute linear encoders, 166
Absolute reference signals, 165
Achievable machining accuracies, 69
Acme-screwthread, 117
Active vibration control, 102
Adhesion, 111, 194
Adjustable base - used in conjunction with
Talyvels, 333
Advanced Thermal Displacement Suppression
System (ATDS)-schematic diagram,
542
Air Dead Path Error (EADP), 210
Air purge system, 113
Akkadian units of measurement, 4
Alignment telescope, 116, 284, 305, 307, 309,
310, 313, 316, 317, 333
American Civil War, 3
Analogue linear encoders, 164
Analysis of variance (ANOVA), 40
Angle, 44, 45, 47, 48, 99, 106, 120, 121, 128,
132, 141, 156, 158, 173, 175, 176, 193,
230, 231, 232, 233, 255, 264, 267, 280,
282, 283, 287, 291, 293, 296–303, 305,
309, 313, 315, 326, 327, 328, 329, 331,
333, 335, 354, 376
Angle Dekkor, 300, 302, 305
Angle gauge-combinations, 44, 45, 46, 302
Angle gauges, 37, 44
Angle gauge sets, 44
Angular master, 299
Anode, 510
ANOVA gauge R&R Study, 591
ANOVA gauge repeatability and reproducibility (ANOVA gauge R&R), 40
Index672 Index
AxisSet checkup instrument, 259, 261
AxisSet checkup instrument – machine tool
configurations, 259
B
B5.54:1992 - Diagonal Tests, 227
B89 4.22, 467
B89.1.12 M-1990, 411
Backlash, 50, 51, 122, 125, 157, 230, 238,
239, 245, 262, 351, 491
Backlash error, 50, 239
Backlash step-in Ballbar assessment, 359
Baily’s metal-Imperial standard yard casting
material, 8
Ballbar-diagnostically corrected, 437
Ballbar kinematic motions (circle), 349
Ballbar kinematic motions (partial arc), 353,
354
Ballbar
quick diagnostic check (Turning Centre),
360
quick diagnostic check (vertical Machining
Centre), 355
testing for dynamic assessment, 375
testing for static assessment, 375
BallCubes
probing sequence on a bridge-type CMM,
247, 413
Ball nut
ball pitch circle diameter, 121
end cap, 120, 121
profile ball groove, 121
recirculation, 121
spacer balls, 122
Ball-plate
design configurations, 420
Ball-tetrahedrons, 413
Ball-tetrahedrons–geometric arrangements,
416
Ballscrew
jamming, 122
lead accuracy, 123, 124
metallurgy, 120
multi-start, 121, 160
pitch error, 116
rigidity, 120
rolled threads, 124
temperatures-via thermographical
analysis, 527
twisting/ wind up, 120
with multiple-start threads, 121
(R.H.) Barker-developed the
Barker-code/ sequence, 165
(Nikolay) Basov from whom the term maser
was originally first described, 24
Bathtub curve, 523. See also Reliability
Engineering
Baugruppen, 94
Beam steerer – for laser setup, 221
Bearing
contamination, 518
corrosion-in machine tools, 126
failure modes, 514
loads, 129
selection-flowchart, 129
permissible rotational speeds, 129
Belt-driven spindle, 112, 475
Bench
centres, 31
comparators, 32
Bessel-developed the Bessel support points
(Friedrich Wilhelm), 42
Bevel protractors, 31
Bi-directional repeatability, 239
Binnig jointly developed the STM(Gerd)g,
156
Black-body radiation, 537
Black-body radiation law, 536
Block Base-used in conjunction with
Talyvels, 333
(Niels Henrik David) Bohr work on: Atomic
structures & Quantum Theory, 27
Bore alignment inspection, 313
Bore gauges, 31
Bowditch-developed curves describing complex harmonic motion (Nathaniel), 164
Box frame, 333
optical calibration, 302, 333
used in conjunction with Talyvels, 333
Box-like construction-machine tool castings,
490
(Sir William Henry) Bragg – work on X-ray
spectra, with his son, 530
Bridge-type CMM, 185, 399, 422
Bridging pieces/parallels, 327
Brinell Hardness test, 111
Brinelling, 111, 479
Brinelling-effect, 111, 475
Bronze Yard – Imperial Length Standard, 9
BS 4311, 39
BS EN ISO 14253-1:2013, 395
BS EN ISO 3650 (1999), 41
BS3509:1962, 324Index 673
BS958:1968, 324
William Lawrence Bragg – shared Noble
Prize: X-ray analysis of crystal
structures, 530
The International Bureau of Weights and
Measures (BIPM), 9, 11, 15, 201, 660
C
Caesium atomic clock, 23
Caesium Fountain atomic clock, 23
Calculating a balance tolerance–rotating tools,
483
Calculating Mirror Gradients, 319
Calculation of measurement uncertainty, 575
Calibration
certificate, 16, 20, 297, 375, 564, 565, 567,
576, 577, 579
of laser interferometers, 203
of precision polygons, 46
of sensors, 205
reference balls with/without stems, 15, 16,
403
ring gauge, 375
rings, 372, 407
rings-calibrating a machine tool, 372
sphere, 247, 375, 376
sphere-probing strategies, 375
testers, 31
Cantilever type CMM, xii
Capability study-for machining centre
output, 598
Capacitance, 163, 442, 502, 503
Capacitance gauging, 502
Capillary system-for sintered bearings, 138
Carnot, Sadi (or) Léonard, Nicolas – considered the: Father of Thermodynamics,
532
Cathode, 510
C-axis swivel head-for machining centres,
173, 178
Chatter, 36
Check masters, 31
Chillers, 113
Chirp pattern where frequency signal either
increases, or decreases, 165
Chromate conversion, 509
Cincinnati milling machine company, 3
Cincinnati Screw & Tap Company, 3
Classification of errors-for a CNC machine
tool, 237
Clinometers, 284, 328, 329, 331. See also
Precision Microptic Clinometer
CMM
accuracy, 376, 385
coordinate Measuring Machines, 211, 216,
381
details of construction, 183, 187
error sources–Spatial/Computational/
Geometric, 382
estimation of measurement of uncertainty,
218, 567
length measurement, 382–384, 392, 395,
399, 410, 423
maximum permissible errors, 392
mechanical probe, 188
performance–Qualification/Verification/
Calibration, 381, 382, 384, 385, 410
traceability, 15, 16, 18, 19, 31, 203, 205,
383, 384, 438, 555
CNC Controller Developments, 101
Coaxiality, 36
Coaxial-spindled machine tools, 268
Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), 56,
57, 167, 173, 392, 467, 504, 542. See
also Linear expansion
Combination Angle Gauges, 44, 302
Combination Sets, 31
Commercial Metrology Laboratories, 31, 32
Company Master Standards, 15
Company quality manual, 19, 21
Comparative magnitudes of dimensional size,
34, 69, 72, 134, 173, 543
Comprehensive audit, 19
Computer-aided Design (CAD), 181, 193,
460, 465
Computerised SPC Charts, 596
Computerised SPC-establishing control
limits
- X-bar & Range charts, 590
Concentricity, 36, 57, 80, 257, 318, 479
Condensation-in a telescope, 323
Condition Monitoring (CM)-of machine
tools, 519
Condition Monitoring Programme, 524
Conformance, 360, 377, 383, 395, 411, 551,
552, 558, 560, 561
Constant Deviation Prism, 300, 305
Continuous improvement, 586. See also Kaizen
Control chart-background information, 589
Control chart Functions, 587
Control chart
mean & range (typical examples), 592, 595
pairing X-Bar with R Charts, 590
pairing X-Bar with S Charts, 591
sample size and sub-grouping, 590674 Index
smoothing data with a moving average,
591
reading control charts, 594
trouble shooting with control charts, 595
Control chart limits
determination of control limits, 593
relaxed mean or modified control charts,
592
Controlling component part temperatures, 543
Conversion chart
English to Metric, vice versa, 509
Hardness comparisons, 54, 489
Corrosion
a diffusion controlled process, 509
basic concepts, 507
crevices and pitting (schematics), 509
reactions, 510
rusting, 507
schematic diagrams (water droplets), 65,
214
Cosine error, 50, 52, 209
Crashed spindles, 495
Cube-Tetrahedrons, 413
Cubit, 6
Cyclic error–in Ballbar assessment, 171, 360,
429
Cylindrical precision mandrels, 57
Cylindrical squares, 31, 59, 61
Cylindricity, 36, 250, 436, 489
D
3-D automated measurement routines (CMM
probing), 190
3-D Ball-plate fixture-utilised to assess
Touch-trigger probing performance,
185
3D-nano touch probe
calibration adjustments, 447
configuration, 443
Data-clustering techniques, 589
Dead path errors – in laser setup configurations, 211
Degradation-ceramics and polymers, 234,
355, 511, 514
(Jean Baptiste Joseph) Delambre-Polar
Quadrant Survey, 10
Denavit–Hartenberg–D-H parameters, 454
Departures from roundness, 36, 110
Depth-gauges, 31
Depth micrometres, 31
Depth of field, 309, 310
Designation of machine tool axes, 84
(George) Devol–awarded first real patents for
Robots, 448
Diagnostic assessment of machine tools-by
Telescoping Ballbars, 107, 345, 346,
365
Diagnostic report, 358
Dial calliper gauges, 31
Dial-callipers, 31
Dial gauge-calibration, 14, 48
Dial gauges, 48, 50
Dial test indicator-with tear-drop pointer,
52, 346
Dial test indicators, 31, 37, 52
Digimatic-callipers, 31
Digimatic scales, 31
Digital autocollimators, 291
Digital dial gauge, 51
Digital dial test Indicators, 52
Digital inclinometer, 331
Dimensional Measurement Interface Standard
(DMIS), 561
Dimensional Measuring Equipment (DME),
552, 555
DIN 1691 GG25, 144
DIN 69051, 124
DIN 878: 2006-06 (E), 48
DIN EN ISO 10360, 396
DIN EN ISO 463: 2006-06 (E), 48
Direct-drive spindle, 112
Distance coded reference marks (DCRM), 166
Djehutihotep Tomb (Ancient Egyptian)-illustrating first bearing lubrication, 126
DMIS
format, 403, 460
program, 403, 561
Doppler effect-being change in wave-frequency moving relative to source, 362
(Christian) Doppler-who named the Doppler
effect, 362
Double Ball Bar (DBB), 360
Double Ball Bar (DBB) schematic diagram,
360, 362, 366
Dowell prism, 305
Down-time, 81, 102, 404
DSP-based electronics, 291
Dual air purge system, 113
Dual-wound spindle motors, 112
Dynamic errors – in machines, 243
E
Earth’s curvature, 284, 320
Earth’s curvature - atmospheric refraction, 320Index 675
(Homer) Eaton – designed/patented the Romer
arm, 462
Egyptian stride, 7
EIA 267-C, 84
Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) -lubrication, 514
Electromagnetic induction, 502, 529
Electromagnetic spectrum, 527, 530, 531, 535
Electromagnetic spectrum – schematic diagram, 528
Electromotive force (emf) - series (abridged
chart), 502, 509, 654
Electronic comparators, 32
Electronic Differential Levels-for flatness,
338
Electronic touch-trigger probe, 189
Elizabethan yard, or Ell, 8
Emissivity, 533, 537
Emissivity-Thermal Radiation, 537
EN ISO 3650, 39
End standard, 8, 11, 44
(Joseph F.) Engelberger–jointly developed
PTMs (Devol’s Robots), 448
Entropy, 12
Environmental compensation unit–for laser
instrumentation, 205
Epoxy granite, 80
Equator gauge
probing a precision component part, 460
equipped with probing rack, 460
Error budget
machine tool overview, 583
budget tabulation, 545
Error compensation, 116, 214
Euclidean geometry, 228
Errors–in a machine tool (part & error hierarchy), 235, 582
(Louis) Essen–developed Caesium atomic
clock, 23
Eutectic steel, 429
External auditing, 19
External micrometres, 31
F
(Michael) Faraday - generally-credited with
discovery of Induction, 502, 529, 659
Fatigue, 129, 143, 314, 518
Fatigue damage, 478
Fatigue resistance, 143
FEA of CNC machine tools, 179
Feedback inaccuracy, 239
Fiducial plane, 326
Field of view, 300
Figure of eight action, 150
Fines, 82, 112, 478, 490
Finite element Analysis (FEA), 177, 179, 422
Finite Element Analysis (FEA)-on Machine
Tools, 177
Finite Element Method (FEM), 177
First Law of Thermodynamics, 532. See also
Second Law of Thermodynamics
(Erich) Franke - patented the wire race bearing, 138, 532
Friedrich) Fischer – founder of FAG, 128
Fit for Service (FFS), 519
Fixed Test Wedge-utilised with auto-collimator/alignment telescopes, 116, 307,
309, 317
Flatness deviation, 297
Flatness program, 338
Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC), 99, 100,
106
Flexible Manufacturing Cell/System (FMC/S),
99
Flexure hinges, 443, 445, 446
Flow of force (FOF), 92, 93
Forces of acceleration, 117
Foundry production processes, 153
Four-ball artefact
geometry definition, 409
setup for verification on horizontal
Machining Centre, 412
Franz (Frank) Koenigsberger-co-founder of
the MATADOR Conferences, 64
Free-body diagram, 87
French Academy of sciences, 9
Frosting-by Hand scraping, 152
Fundamental Standard of Measurement-post
1960, 13
G
Galileo (Galilei), 126
Galling, 514. See also Spalling
Galvanic corrosion
galvanic series (abridged chart), 509, 510,
513
Galvanic couple, 510
Gantry-type CMM, 496
Gaston, Ignace Pardies, 280
Gauge Block
calibration, 16, 32, 37?40, 44, 45, 247
comparator, 32, 39
sets, 37
Gauge R&R (repeatability
and reproducibility), 40676 Index
Gear corrosion
In machine tools, 514
Geier, Fred A.
added integral motors to conventional
lathes/milling machines, 3
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
(GD&T), 551
Geometric errors
in machines, 239, 270
German Calibration Service (DKD), 399
Glass vials, 324
Golden rule-of Metrology, 69
Gothic arch-Ballscrews, 119
Gough, V.E.
the first industrial application of PKMs
(Gough platform), 104
Grainger, Romain
one of ROMER’s founders (Articulated
Arms), 462
Granitan, 79
Great Pyramid of Giza, 147
Grid encoders, 366, 370
Grid encoder system
grid pattern, 172
setup on a machining centre, 369
motion error traces, 360
Grid method
for flatness assessment, 337
Grid plate, 366, 369. See also Grid Encoder
System
Guillaume, Charles Edouard
invented Invar, 441
H
Hair size-comparisons, 73
Hall, Edwin H.
introduced so-called Hall-effect (voltage
difference), 154
Hand scraping, 152, 153, 490
Harmonic behaviour, 36, 110
Harmonics of
departures from roundness, 36, 110
Harrison, John (Horologist/artisan)
designed the first caged roller bearing, 127
Hartley, H. O.
(born: Herman Otto Hirschfeld)-developed Hartley’s test (Equality of variances), 571
Headstocks
with belt-driven spindles, 108
with direct-drive spindles, 112
Turning Centres, 108
Heat exchangers, 113, 543, 544
Height gauges, 31
Height masters, 31
Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf
re: Contact mechanics, 516
Hertzian-contacts, 516
Herschel, Frederick–William
discovered existence of infrared radiation,
528
High-speed spindle
depicting partial cutaway assembly, 114
inspection procedure (after rebuild), 435
performance considerations (Cause-&-
effect diagram), 488
Historical development of linear measurements, 4
History of bearings, 126
History of machine tool calibration, 62
History of machine tools, 3
Hole-plate, 407
Holz, Frederick
redesigned the universal milling machine,
with feeds, 3
Homogeneous transformation matrix (HTM),
92
Homogeneous transformation matrix-based
(HTM’s) spreadsheets, 545
Horizontal audit, 19
Horizontal Machining Centre Spindle
depicting partial cutaway assembly, 55
Huygens, Christiaan, 323
Hybrid ceramic bearings, 111
Hydrodynamic shaft & bearing rotation, 140
Hydrodynamic lubrication, 143, 516
Hydrogen maser, 24
Hydrostatic system slideways, 491
Hyperfocal distance, 310
Hysteresis, 51, 166, 239, 359
Hysteresis error
in machines, 239
I
IEC 61131-3, 494
Image shift, 322
Imaging scanning principle, 176
Imperial college (London, UK), 24
Imperial standard yard, 8
Improper maintenance and repair, 479
Inch
early definition, 6
Industrial revolution, 1, 2, 521
Industrial robot, 185, 447–449, 451, 453, 455,
456
Industrial RoboticsIndex 677
historical development, 448
Infrared camera
utilised in Thermographical applications,
168
Interferential scanning principle, 176
Inspection and testing, 31, 62, 63
Inspection beam, 333
Intelligent balance analyser, 103
Intelligent maintenance support function, 102
Intelligent performance spindle, 102
Intelligent safety shield, 102
Intelligent thermal shield, 102
Interim CMM checks, 381
Internal audit, 19, 21
Internal micrometres, 31
International bureau of weights and measures
(BIPM), 9, 11, 15
bureau international des poids et mesures,
11
International Company Addresses
alphabetical, 665–670
International Company Addresses
in Regions, 658–665
International Prototype Metre, 11, 13
International Standards Laboratories, 14
International Standards Organisation (ISO),
395, 658
Invar–for thermal stability, 441
Iodine-stabilised helium-neon lasers, 13
ISO 10285, 133
ISO 10360-1 to 6, 216
ISO 10791-6, 374
ISO 10791-7, 424, 425
ISO:1290G, 483
ISO 13041-1 to 8, 216
ISO 14253, 440
ISO 15530, 558
ISO 185/250/260, 144
ISO:1940:1, 483
ISO 22093:2011, 552, 561
ISO 230-1 to 10, 216
ISO-10012-1, 338
ISO-2063:1962, 59
ISO 286-1&2:2010, 567
ISO 3408, 124
ISO 3650 (1998), 41
ISO 55000:2014, 519
ISO 6983-1:2009, 84
ISO 8373:2012, 447
ISO 9000 - compliance, 203
ISO 9001:2008 Quality manual, 21
ISO 9493:2010, 48
ISO/IEC 17025:2005, 562
ISO/TR 16015, 217
(SS) ISO 9283:2012, 452
J
Jacobi, Carl Gustav Jacob, 106
Jacobian matrix- mathematics, concerning
Vector calculus, 466
JIS B 1192-1997, 124
JIS B 7506, 39
Johansson, Carl Edvard
invented a Set of blocks (Gauge blocks),
37
K
Kaizen, 586. See also Continuous improvement
Kernel density estimation (KDE)
in: Probability and statistical theory, 589
Kienzle, Otto, 63
Kinematic errors, 116, 236, 238–240
Kinematics, 65, 82, 84, 87, 91, 93, 106, 183,
214, 270, 443, 446, 451, 453, 456
Kinematics of a machine tool (Free-body),
87, 89
Kinematics of an orthogonal machine tool, 2,
103, 90, 105, 222, 359
Kirchhoff, Gustav Robert
investigated into ‘black-body’ radiation,
etc., 281
Koenigsberger, Franz (Frank)
co-founder of the MATADOR
Conferences, 64
Krypton-86
light source (for length measurement determination), 13
L
Labyrinth seals, 113
Ladder logic diagrams, 494
Large Reference Artefact (LRA)
artefact positioning, alignment and testing,
422
reference surfaces, 419
uncertainty budget, 423
Laser-an acronym for
Light Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation, 202
Laser Ball-bar (LDDM)
setup on a Turret mill, 362
Laser calibration
of Length Bars, 41
potential error and uncertainty, 205
Laser controlled slideways
on machine tools, 37, 72, 168, 217, 229,
328, 498, 585
Laser dead path errors, 209, 212
Laser Diagonal Displacement Test678 Index
calibration, 227, 230
setup/configuration, 231
Laser Step Diagonal Displacement Test, 235
Laser Step Diagonal Displacement Test –
calibration, 235
mirror misalignment effect, 231, 232
setup/configuration, 231
Laser Instrumentation and equipment, 211
Laser machine calibration, 211
Laser machine calibration
angular alignment & optical configuration,
214, 231
dynamic analysis-laser & optical configuration, 374
flatness alignment & optical configuration,
222
linear alignment & optical configuration,
213
rotary alignment & optical configuration,
212, 222
squareness alignment & optical configuration, 217, 222
straightness alignment & optical configuration, 212, 220, 221
Laser sensor integration, 213
Laser sensor performance, 14, 213
Laser single-point triangulation, 192
Laser step diagonal test, 226, 230
Laser straightness calibration, 212, 221, 222
Laser systems
for machine and instrument calibration,
312
mounting configurations, 172
Laser technology, 24
Laser tracker
for verification of a CMM, 423
for volumetric verification (machine tool),
270
inspection/calibration applications, 257,
264
Least Squares Circle (LSC), 506
Length Bar Interferometer, 41, 42
Length Bars, 16, 37, 41, 42, 44, 398, 416
Length Bar sets, 16, 41, 42, 398, 416
Length Measurement Uncertainty, 396, 397
Length Standards, 13, 41, 42, 411
Lens-based CCD-system, 190
Level of failure, 522
Linear axes, 82, 87, 185, 189, 217, 261, 372,
374
Linear axis positioning/monitoring systems,
162
Linear Comparator Systems
calibrating alignments on Machining
Centres, 369
schematic diagram illustrating Grid pattern, 172, 366
Linear cycle
for static machine calibration, 216
Linear digital encoders, 163, 165
Linear encoder
construction & operation, 156, 161–166,
168, 170
errors, 162, 163, 165
Linear expansion, 582. See also Coefficient of
thermal expansion
Linear Measuring Machine (LMM), 443, 446
Linear momentum, 80
Linear motor
drive systems, 154
sine error, 158
Linear rail guideways, 133
Linear way
construction, 262
testing & results, 262
Linear variable differential transformer
(LVDT), 459
Linear way
construction, 182
testing & results, 182
Line-of-sight (L.O.S.)
influenced by Earth’s curvature, 284, 320
table of corrections, 89, 268, 282, 284,
302, 303, 305, 309, 310, 313, 315–317,
319, 321–323, 333
Lissajous, Jules Antoine
explained complex harmonic motion
curves, 164
Lissajous/ Bowditch curve, 164
Lissajous figures, 164
Lissajous stability, 172
Lobing effect
in CMM probes, 189
Localised corrosion, 512
Low friction material
TURCITE, 490
Low friction tape
MULTIFIL, 490
LURD convention
using alignment telescopes, 307, 319
M
Machinable artefacts, 427
Machinable testpiece Standards, 424
Machine and Process Capability Studies, 598Index 679
Machine Capability Study, 598–601
Machine Checking Gauge (MCG), 399
Machine Checking Gauge
principle of operation, 401
volumetric performance, 403, 405
Machine Tool Capability Study, 601, 604
Machine tool
axes assembly, 82, 125, 493
environmental changes (influences), 67
fluid checks, 491
re-assembly, 492
rebuilds, 485
refurbishment, 495, 507
retrofits, 485, 487
structural temperature changes diagram
& causes, 33, 144, 177, 250, 365, 388,
505, 539
typical axis plot of potential errors, 117,
263
Machine tool spindle
bearing extraction, 80, 112, 473
bearing monitoring, 477, 483
construction, 81, 473
design trends, 81, 112, 473
failure modes, 478
Machine Tool Testing
chronology, 63, 67
Machine vibration
in Ballbar assessment, 360
McCarthy, John
coined the original AI term, 100, 447
McMurtry, Sir David R.
inventor: Touch-trigger Probe & CEO
(Renishaw plc), 185, 189
Magna Carta, 7
Maintenance
overview of its historic development and
operating context, 4, 9, 12, 67, 346
Malleable grey cast iron, 79
Microwave Amplification by Stimulated
Emission of Radiation (MASER), 23
Master Cylindrical square, 61
Master plane gauges, 2, 3
Master/slave
in Ballbar assessment, 360
Master surface, 54, 148
Material Dead Path Error (EMDP), 210, 211
Material standard of size, 385, 393
Material temperature compensation, 206
Maudslay, Henry
produced first engine lathe and index milling machine, 2
Maxwell, James Clerk
electromagnetism/Unification of light &
electrical phenomena, 529
Mean time between failure (MTBF), 485
Mean time to repair (MTTR), 485
Measurement report, 19, 20
Measurement uncertainty
Cause-&-effect diagram, 16, 41, 42, 55,
203, 392, 397, 460, 552
Méchain, Pierre
Polar Quadrant Survey, 10
Meniscus, 194
Methods of Machine Acceptance Tests
basis for verification, 214
Mètre des Archives (1799), 10, 11
Metric system
defining the Standard, 9
Mesopotamia, 5
Micro-alignment telescope systems, 310
in alignment/flatness/squareness testing,
313, 315
Micro-machining, 132
Micro-Metrology Probes, 194
Micro-optic dual-axis autocollimator (Angle
Dekkor)
checking prism angles, 300, 302
Microscale probe, 194
Mill/Turn centres, 90, 95, 475, 476, 498
Minimising heat sources, 543
Mirage, 320
Mirror Polygon, 287, 299
Modular design concepts, 93
Modular fixturing (CMM), 67, 183, 412, 461
Modular Machine Tool Construction, 93
Modular Machine Tool (MMT), 91
Molecular attraction, 39
Molecular measuring machine, 27
Momentum, 80, 282
Monitoring and diagnostics
machine tool spindles, 495
Monolithic diamond tooling, 33
Moody, J.C.
invented the Union Jack flatness test, 338
Morse, Steven
developed first twist drills and self-holding
tapers, 3
Morse tapers, 57
Mueller, George
designed the thread production
tooling, 3
Multi-axes laser calibration–of machine
tools, 95, 212, 411, 453
Multi-axes robots, 453
Multi-axes robots680 Index
calibration via partial cubed kinematic
device, 449
calibration/verification by Ballbar, 95, 107,
230, 254, 255, 346
N
Nano Touch Probe, 443, 445, 446
Nano-machining, 33, 69
NAS 979 Composite cutting test
schematic engineering drawings, 493
NAS 979
having completed a Composite Cutting
Test, 67
National Bureau of Standards (NBS), 24
National Institute of Standards and
Technology (NIST), 15, 24, 235, 555
National Metrological Institute (NMI), 18, 25
National Physical Laboratory (NPL), 13, 15,
22, 467
Newton, Sir Isaac
fundamental work into optics, etc., 280, 529
Nichol Joint
for assembly of Length Bars, 41
Noble metal, 510
Noise, 124, 129, 244, 270, 351, 359, 446, 477,
483
Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques, 527
Non-orthogonal machine tools, 104
Null corrector, 287
O
Offline thermal error modelling methodology,
179
Ogival geometry
ballscrews, 119
Oil whip
caused by self-excited vibration of rotating
journals, 141
in rotating bearings, 141
Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, 6
Onsite Calibration Service, 31, 32
Optical and Laser Length Measurement, 12
Optical lithography, 175. See also
Photolithography
Optical lever effect, 303
Optical parallels, 31
Optical pentaprism, 303, 315
Optical probesoptical square, 190, 195
Optical probing, 190
Optical square
used in conjunction with micro-alignment
telescope, 302, 310
Optical targets
used in conjunction with micro-alignment
telescope, 310, 313
Optical techniques
for straightness and angular calibration
tests, 297
Origins of uncertainties, 574
Out-of-roundness–equates to
Departures from roundness, 455
P
Passivation, 509
Parallax, 281, 314
Parallax error, 314
Parallelism, 41, 54, 57, 134, 240, 287, 292,
310, 398, 491, 552
Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)
machine tool, 104, 106
Equator™ gauge, 457, 459, 461
gauge–calibration, 460
theory of operation, 459
Parallel mandrels, 57
Partially-cubed calibration device-for Robots,
449
Particle nature of light, 280
Parzen, Emanuel-developed Parzen windows-used in
statistics, 589
PCD multi-coating–on cutting tools, 435
Pentagonal Prism, 303
Perch, or Rod-early measurement standard,
7, 25
Periodic recalibration, 257
Personal coordinate measuring machine
calibration, 188, 253, 403
metrological applications, 106, 183, 195,
219, 245, 272, 303, 438, 441, 460
Photoelectronic autocollimator & pentagonal
prism-for axes calibration, 47, 284,
303, 442
Photoelectronic/Digital autocollimator, 287
Photoelectric scanning
incremental linear encoders (axis displacement), 165
inferential absolute linear encoder (axis
displacement), 156, 161
rotary/angular encoders, 173
rotary/angular encoders (absolute), 173
Photolithographic processes, 175
Photolithography, 175
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt
(PTB), 15, 29
Picometre, 26Index 681
Pin gauges, 31
Pitch-loss, 116
Pitting corrosion, 513
Plain bearings-with hydrodynamic lubrication, 138
Planar encoder’s grid pattern, 172
Planar encoder systems, 172
Planck constant, 281
Planck length, 531
Planck, Max Karl Ernst Ludwig-who originated Quantum Theory, 281
Planned Maintenance (PM)-a scheduledservice visit, 522
Planned Preventative Maintenance (PPM), 522
Play, 51, 116, 359
Polar Quadrant Survey-defining the Metre,
10
Population Density Function (PDF) - used in
Probability and Statistical Theory, 589
Potential errors – diagram of machine tool
volumetric distortion, 236
Potential errors - for three axes machine tools
include
backlash error, 239
contouring error, 236
pitch, yaw and roll errors, 236
positioning error straightness, 227, 228,
229, 234, 244
squareness error, 229, 230, 236, 244, 405,
413
PPP kinematic architecture (Precise Point
Positioning), 106
Precision Microptic Clinometer, 329, 331
Precision Polygons
for Angular Calibration, 296, 297
Precision spirit levels, 53, 323, 324. See also
Ziemann, Henry
operating principle, 290
Precision Squares, 59
Prediction of achievable component accuracy
and precision (Taniguchi), 69
Predictive maintenance (PdM), 519, 520
Pre-travel variation plot-in CMM probes,
189
Primary axis-machine tool, 84, 86
Primary National Standard (USA)-Length
Standard (until 1960), 11
Probability of failure, 522
Probing force-surface damage, 240, 442, 443,
445, 446
Probing uncertainty, 247, 376
Process capability (Cp), 571, 598, 601
changes with time, 571
drift with time, 497, 572
Process capability index, 571
Production Part Approval Process (PPAP), 41
Programmable Transfer Machines (PTM’s)–
Robots, 448
Programmable Universal Machine for
Assembly (PUMA), 449
Prokhorov, Alexander-for whom the term
maser was originally first described, 24
Protecting-line-of-sight, 322
Prussian blue, 150
Purpose-made artefacts–testpieces, 393, 394
Pyramidality, 297
Pythagoras’ theorem, 222, 228
Q
Quadratic-phase signal, 165. See also Chirp
pattern
Quantum Field Theory (QFT), 281
Quantum mechanics, 281
Quasi-pilgrim step cycle – for static machine
calibration, 216
Quasi-static errors – in machines, 237
R
Radial error motion – in machines, 238
Ramelli, Agostino, 126
Rare earth iron boron (NIB) permanent magnets-for linear motors, 156
Reactive ion etching (RIE) process, 28
Rebuilding - complete CNC machine tool, 488
Receiver-gauge fixturing, 459
Recirculating ballscrew life, 122
Recirculating Ballscrews, 114. See also Ball
Screws
partial cutaway assembly diagram, 119
thermal stability, 159
types, 124
Reconfigurable machine tool (RMT), 91, 92
Reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS),
91
Reconfigurable uncalibrated artefact, 412
Red marking compound, 148
Redundant standards, 21
Re-engineering
completed and calibrated turning centre,
485
CNC controller replacement (turning
centre), 493
hydraulic systems (turning centre), 487
of a turning centre, 485682 Index
servos, drives and wiring (turning centre),
487
Reference standards, 15, 16, 19, 20, 395, 398
Reflection
angle of, 282
diffuse, 282
Law of, 282
specular, 282
Reflector carriage – utilised with auto-collimator/alignment telescopes, 317
Refraction, 282, 283, 315, 320, 321, 527
Refraction errors, 315
Refractive index of air
compensation, 204
Regression algorithms, 185
Relative precision Index (RPI), 571, 572, 591
Reliability engineering, 523
Renishaw’s - Online MCG Service, 23
Repeatability, 3, 5, 13, 20, 23, 25, 43, 51, 65,
82, 148, 152, 217, 236, 237, 239, 243,
255, 262, 263, 375, 376
Reproducibility, 13, 40
Resonant frequency, 160
Restraint and location, 87
Retrofitting, 485, 488, 490
Reversal errors, 116
Reversal techniques – for straightness measurements, 220, 284
Reverse Engineering, 87, 193, 198, 268
Right-hand rule – machine co-ordinate system,
84–86
Rigidity rule, 147
Ritter, Johann Wilhelm – credited with ultraviolet radiation, 529
Robotic arms, 67, 69, 71
Robotic calibration, 71–76
Robotic calibration cube – for home
positioning, 76
Robotic calibration devices and techniques, 73
Robotic parameters - defined, 69
Rohrer, Heinrich – jointly developed the STM,
516
Rolling contact – on rails, 138
Rolling element noise levels, 132
Roman
grad?s, 7
mille, 7
pace (Passus), 7
Ronchi, Vasco – developed Ronchi-test -
variation of Foucault knife-edge test,
167
R?ntgen, Wilhelm Conrad – noted R?ntgen
rays/X-rays, 530
Rosenblatt, Murray – jointly developed:
Parzen–Rosenblatt window method,
589
Rotary and angular encoders
circular graduations, 173
reference marks, 175
Rotary axis analyzer system (R-Gage)
calibrating a Machining Centre, 372
Rotary axis calibrator, 212, 222, 256, 257,
259, 632, 633
Rotary table
calibration, 255, 257, 259, 261, 292, 299,
300, 374, 632
error (test procedure), 250, 252
Rotary table Indexer, 299
Rotating bearing selection, 129, 130
Roughness Height Reading (RHR), 46
Roundness Testing Machine, 55, 108
Round-rail technology, 133
Run-to-breakdown maintenance, 520
Rutherford, Ernest - widely-credited with first:
splitting of the atom, etc, 531
S
Sacrificial-anode, 510
SAG calculation, 50
Sahl , Ibn– is credited as initially describing
the Law of Refraction, 283
Scale mismatch – in Ballbar assessment, 635
Scales - as targets, 316
Scanning probing, 190
Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM), 27,
28
Scheduled maintenance window, 356
Scheinman, Victor – developed the Stanford
Arm (Robot), 68
Schlesinger , Georg– founder of modern-day
machine tool calibration, 63
Schroeder, Robert - invented first bi-material
plain bearing, 128
Scraping, 3, 54, 148, 150–152, 490
Scraping of machine elements, 148
Screen displays of surface Flatness by
Optical/Talyvel techniques, 339–341
Secondary axes – machine tool, 87
Second Law of Thermodynamics, 532. See also
First Law of Thermodynamics
Sensitivity-of Spirit Levels, 326
Selective corrosion attack, 513
Self-holding tapers, 57
Sequential multilateration, 382
Serial-communication protocols, 166Index 683
Servo mismatch – in Ballbar assessment, 640
Servo-spikes – on Ballbar plots, 351
Setting rings, 31
Setting standards, 31
Sheepshanks, Rev. Richard – redesigned
bronze Linear end standard - gold
plugs, 8
Shewhart, Walter Andrew - known as: Father
of Statistical Quality Control, 572
Shine – a maintenance activity, 20
Signal detection theory, 589
Sign conventions for axes motion, 84
Sine and Cosine errors, 50
Sinebar, 302
Single-wound spindle motors, 112
Sintering - Powder Metallurgy (PM), 138
SI units of measurement, 654, 656, 657
Six-sigma methodology, 40
Slideway grinding machine tool, 517
Slip-stick phenomenon, 151
Small Coordinate Measuring Machine
(SCMM)
in situ on a bridge-type CMM, 187
schematic representations, 349
Snap-gauges, 31
Snellius, Willebrord – namely, Snell’s law for
the Law of Refraction, 283
Soft-logic diagrams, 494
Spalling – bearings and gears, 514
Speed-increasers, 52
Spindle assemblies – problems, 112
Spindle Error Analyser (SEA), 498
depicting typical spindle error plots, 506
setup on a turning centre, 498
setup on a vertical machining centre, 435
thermal drift performance chart, 505
typical screen displays, 498
Spindle error motions, 497
Spindle error plots, 506
Spindle failure-common causes, 478
Spindle impact protection system, 82
Spindle monitoring
Eddy current gauging, 502
capacitance probes, 500
Spindles-machining centres, 108, 110
Spindle service life-extension, 479
Spindle service provider-vetting, 484
Split field of view-clinometers, 331
Square linear motion rolling guide, 137
Square-masters, 31
Squareness
in Ballbar assessment, 359
Squaring-on reflector, 318
Standing wave probes, 195
Statements of compliance - the effect of uncertainty, 566
Statistical measures-In uncertainty calculations, 567
Statistical process control (SPC), 585
control charts (mean & range), 592
real-time software, 596
Statistical relationships
Normal/Gaussian distribution, 564
sample averages, 590
standard deviation, 568
Steel rules, 31
Stefan, Josef & Boltzmann, Ludwig – introduced the Stefan–Boltzmann constant,
535
Step Gauge–Calibration on a CMM, 395
accessories, 399
calibration, 394, 395
calibration setups (schematic), 396
establishing measurement uncertainty, 397
with extension swivelling fixture, 401
Stereometric artefact
CMM assessment, 188
conceptual design (Schematic), 427
machining trials, 429
metrological results, 435, 438
Stereometry, 427, 432
Stewart platform, 104
Stick-slip
in Ballbar assessment, 359
Stiction, 194, 238, 243, 244
Straightedge reversal, 286
Straightedges, 37, 53, 54
Straightness, 53–55, 82, 215, 221, 230, 232,
236, 244, 284, 286, 333, 355, 489
Straightness program, 340
Stray current corrosion, 513
Stray light, 322
Stribeck, Richard- metallurgical research on
ball bearing steels / Stribeck curve, 128
Stride Base/Level, 315
Stride Base-used in conjunction with alignment telescopes, 315, 333
Sub-divisional error (SDE), 164, 170
Super-finishing operations, 132
Surface plates, 32, 53
Surface tables, 32, 336, 339
Suriray, Jules – awarded first ball bearing
patent, 127
Swarf, 78, 216
Synchronous error motion-spindles, 497
Synthetic granite, 79
Systems approach – to machining, 77684 Index
T
Talyvel-precision Level, 333
Taper test mandrels, 59
Target analogy, 65
Targets for autocollimators, 316
Task specific measurement uncertainty evaluations, 552
Telescoping Ballbar
axis reversal spikes
circular interpolating, 359
Backlash step (negative)
Cause-&-effect, 359
Backlash step (positive)
Cause-&-effect, 359
Cyclic error
Cause-&-effect, 360
for Robotic calibration, 455
Machine vibration
Cause-&-effect, 360
Scale mismatch
Cause-&-effect, 359
Squareness
Cause-&-effect, 359
Stick-slip
Cause-&-effect, 359
visual interpretation (Ballbar plots), 436
Temperature variation error (TVE)
comparison chart, 505
Temperature variation-in machine tools, 79
Tertiary axes-machine tool, 86
Test mandrel, 50
Thermal drift, 505
Thermal growth, 162, 496
Thermal imaging camera, 532, 535. See also
Thermography
Thermal-improvement strategies, 544
Thermal stabilisation system, 113
Thermal tests, 505
Thermodynamic equilibrium, 12, 532
Thermographical inspection, 527
Thermography - Thermal
patterns/Thermograms, 527, 532
Thevenot, Melchisedech-invented basic spirit
level, 323
Thickness-gauges, 31
Three degrees of freedom, 445
Three-node triangle – in FEA, 179
Tilt error motion – in machines, 239
Time-series analysis, 589
Timken, Henry-patented the tapered roller
bearing, 128
Tobias, Professor-co-founder of Machine
Tool Design and Research Conferences
(MATADOR), 64
Tolerance-effect of measurement uncertainty,
581
Tolerance – hole & shaft fitment (IT-grades),
62
Tool Centre Point (TCP)– in Robotics, 455
Total indicator run-out (TIR), 50
Touching-ball-tetrahedron
for CMM verification/calibration, 416
Touch-trigger probe construction & operation,
185
Townes, Charles H.-suggested word molecular replacing term microwave, 24
Traceability
measurement, 15
Traceability of measurement chain, 203
Traceability pyramid - for the Metre, 18
Traceability reporting, 555
Transient-thermal variations, 496
Translational momentum, 80
Travelling column boring machine tool, 34
Travelling column machining centre, 101
Tresca, Henri-Tresca section-for line end
standard, 11
Tumbling-harmonic effect-via belt-driven
headstock spindles, 108
Turning Centre headstock-depicting partial
cutaway assembly, 80
Twin-column type CMM, 34
Twist program, 342
Type A evaluations – in uncertainty, 576
Type B evaluations – in uncertainty, 576
U
UKAS
calibration certificate, 395
United Kingdom Accreditation Service, 31
Ultra-high accurate & precise component
assembly, 544
Ultra-high Vacuum Scanning Tunnelling
Microscope (UHV-STM), 26
Ultra-precision machining, 34, 69
Ultra-precision & micromachining, 34
Ultra Series dual-axis digital autocollimator
assessing table flatness, 338
Uncertainty
addition and subtraction:summation in
quadrature, 577
analysis of uncertainty:uncertainty budgets, 580
combining standard uncertainties, 577, 578
complicated functions:summation in
quadrature, 578
correlation, 579, 581Index 685
coverage factor (k), 579
laser interferometer, 205
multiplication:summation in quadrature,
578
reducing measurement uncertainty, 584
Uncertainty budget, or Uncertainty analysis,
580
Uni-directional repeatability, 239
Uniform corrosion, 512
Union Jack-method of Flatness Assessment,
337
Uruk Period of Sumer, 5
UV lithography, 175. See also
Photolithographic processes
V
Vacuum wavelength of the iodine-stabilised
laser, 204
Value engineering (VE), 144
Value Engineering and Analysis (VE/VA), 181
van der Waals forces-attractive, or repulsive
forces between molecules, etc., 194
van der Waals, Johannes Diderik-pioneering
research in Physical Chemistry, 194
van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie Philips, 280
Vaughan, Philip-first rolling element bearing,
127
VDI 2617 Part 3, 397
VDI/VDE 2617 Part 2.1, 396
Vector-quantization, 589
Verification
Articulated Arm CMM (AACMM), 467
Vernier callipers, 31
Vertical audit, 19, 20
Vertical Machining Centre, 85, 159, 437
with linear-driven axes, 159
with non-orthogonal axes, 104
Vial curvature–to angle of rise, 328
Villard, Paul Ulrich - credited with discovering
gamma rays, 530
Vitruvian man, 4
VIM definition, 19
Volumetric Length Measuring Error €, 248
Volumetric uncertainty, 440
von Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm-invention of
Infinitesimal Calculus, 280
W
Watt, James-of steam engine development, 2
Watzman mountain effect, 539
Wave nature-of light, 280
Wave-particle duality of light, 281
Weather station – in laser sensors (environmental compensation unit), 267
Web of vectors-in FEA, 179
White light, 193
White light scanning, 192
Whitworth, Joseph-developed first modern
screwthread, 2
Wind-up-of Ballscrews, 160
Wireless Electronic Precision Level
metrological applications, 167, 335
Wireless Telescoping Ballbar
calibration, 346
configuration & specification, 358
kinematic motions, 349
typical polar plots, 436
Small Circle Adaptor and its usage, 455
Wireless Telescoping Ballbar–, 455
Wilkinson, John-built accurate/precise boring machine, 2
Whitworth, Joseph – developed first modern
screwthread, 2
Wilkinson, Oziel-developed first screwcutting lathe, 2
Wingquist, Sven (SKF)-designed first selfaligning bearings, 128
Working standards, 16
Workpiece accuracy/precision, 539
Work spindle, 80
XX
-axis
calibration, 86, 147, 222, 228, 232, 233,
303, 505, 588
sag, 40, 48
YY
-axis
calibration, 212
Yardstick-Standard of Measurement, 7
ZZ
-axis
calibration, 212
Z-axis crash, 81
Zerodur, 53, 56, 443
Zerodur straightedge, 53, 56
Ziemann, Henry-invented the modern precision spirit level, 53


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