كتاب Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control
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 كتاب Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control 3rd Edition
N. K. Mehta  

كتاب Machine Tool Design and Numerical Control  M_t_d_13
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Contents vii
Contents
About the Author ii
Preface xi
1. INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE TOOL DRIVES AND MECHANISMS— 1
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF MACHINE TOOL DESIGN
1.1 Working and Auxiliary Motions in Machine Tools 1
1.3 Machine Tool Drives 19
1.4 Hydraulic Transmission and Its Elements 23
1.5 Mechanical Transmission and Its Elements 34
1.6 Technico-economical Prerequisites for Undertaking the Design of a New Machine Tool 52
1.7 General Requirements of Machine Tool Design 54
1.8 Engineering Design Process Applied to Machine Tools 57
1.9 Layout of Machine Tool 60
Review Questions 65
References 67
2. REGULATION OF SPEED AND FEED RATES 68
2.1 Aim of Speed and Feed Rate Regulation 68
2.2 Stepped Regulation of Speed: Design of Speed Box 69
2.3 Design of Feed Box 90
2.4 Machine Tool Drives Using Multiple-speed Motors 95
2.5 Special Cases of Gear Box Design 98
2.6 General Recommendaitions for Developing the Gearing Diagram 105
2.7 Determining the Number of Teeth of Gears 108
118
2.9 Stepless Regulation of Speed and Feed Rates 124
2.10 Kinematics of Machine Tools 140
Review Questions 163
References 166
3. DESIGN OF MACHINE TOOL STRUCTURES 167
3.1 Functions of Machine Tool Structures and their Requirements 167
3.2 Design Criteria for Machine Tool Structures 167
1.2 Parameters Defining Working Motions of a Machine Tool
2.8 Classification of Speed and Feed Boxesviii Contents
3.3 Materials of Machine Tool Structures 170
3.4 Static and Dynamic Stiffness 175
182
3.6 Basic Design Procedure of Machine Tool Structures 188
3.7 Design of Beds 197
3.8 Design of Columns 213
3.9 Design of Housings 216
3.10 Design of Bases and Tables 219
3.11 Design of Cross Rails, Arms, Saddles and Carriages 221
3.12 Design of Rams 222
3.13 Model Technique in Design of Machine Tool Structures 224
Review Questions 228
References 231
4. DESIGN OF GUIDEWAYS AND POWER SCREWS 233
4.1 Functions and Types of Guideways 233
4.2 Design of Slideways 234
4.3 Design Criteria and Calculations for Slideways 243
4.4 Guideways Operating under Liquid Friction Conditions 251
4.5 Design of Aerostatic Slideways 265
4.6 Design of Anti-friction Guideways 267
4.7 Combination Guideways 273
4.8 Protecting Devices for Slideways 274
4.9 Design of Power Screws 276
Review Questions 285
References 287
5. DESIGN OF SPINDLES AND SPINDLE SUPPORTS 288
5.1 Functions of Spindle Unit and Requirements 288
5.2 Materials of Spindles 289
5.3 Effect of Machine Tool Compliance on Machining Accuracy 290
5.4 Design Calculations of Spindles 294
5.5 Anti-friction Bearings 303
5.6 Sliding Bearings 310
Review Questions 332
References 333
3.5 Profiles of Machine Tool StructuresContents ix
6. DYNAMICS OF MACHINE TOOLS 335
6.1 Machine Tool Elastic System-cutting Process Closed-loop System 335
6.2 General Procedure for Assessing Dynamic Stability
of Ees—Cutting Process Closed-Loop System 336
6.3 Dynamic Characteristics of Elements and Systems 339
6.4 Dynamic Characteristic of the Equivalent Elastic System 340
6.5 Dynamic Characteristic of the Cutting Process 352
6.6 Stability Analysis 366
6.7 Forced Vibrations of Machine Tools 378
Review Questions 383
References 385
7. CONTROL SYSTEMS IN MACHINE TOOLS 386
386
7.2 Control Systems for Changing Speeds and Feeds 386
7.3 Control Systems for Executing Forming and Auxiliary Motions 396
7.4 Manual Control Systems 397
7.5 Automatic Control Systems 410
7.6 Adaptive Control Systems 415
References 418
8. NUMERICAL CONTROL OF MACHINE TOOLS 419
419
8.2 Manual Part Programming 440
8.3 Computer Aided Part Programming 465
Review Questions 486
References 493
9. EXTENSIONS OF NUMERICAL CONTROL— CNC, DNC, 494
MACHINING CENTRES
9.1 Distributive Numerical Control (DNC-1) 495
9.2 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) 495
9.3 Machining Centres 498
9.4 Direct Numerical Control (DNC-2) 501
9.5 CNC Programming 504
Review Questions 538
Index 543
7.1 Functions, Requirements and Classification
8.1 Fundamental Concepts, Classification and Structure of Numerical Control SystemsIndex 543
INDEX
A
Absolute Dimensioning System 435
AC Variable Speed Drives 133
ADAPT 466
Adaptive Control Systems 415
Additional Check for Strength of spindle 301
Aerodynamic Bearings 329
Aerostatic Bearings 330
Air-lubricated Bearings 328
Amplitude-frequency plot 338
Amplitude-phase-frequency Plot 337
Analogue Displacement-measuring Devices 438
Analogue Displays 405
Angular Indexing 161
Anthropometric and Functional Anatomy Data 398
Anti-friction Bearings 303
Anti-friction Guideway with Recirculation of Rolling
Elements 269
Aperture in Box-type Structure 183
APT 466
APT Auxiliary Statements 476
APT Computation Statements 477
APT Geometry Statements 471
APT Motion Statements 467
APT Postprocessor Statements 475
APT Program for Drilling Holes 478
APT Program for Milling a Pocket 482
APT Programming Language 466
ASCII Code 428
Automap 466
Automatic Control Systems 396, 410
Auxiliary motions 2, 3, 59
Average Sideway Pressure 246
B
Basic Length Unit 424
Baud Rate 503
Bearing Clearance 315
Bearing Materials 312
Bed Sections and Wall Arrangements 198
Behind the Tape Reader 501
Belt Transmission 37
Bolt Arrangement for columns 187
Box-type Structure 183
BSW Thread 147, 150, 164
Buffer Storage 431
C
Cam-controlled Systems 411
Cam Mechanism 40
Canned Cycles 514, 530
for simple turning 530
for taper face turning 530
for taper turning 530
Capillary Compensated Pad Bearing 257
Capillary Restrictor 257
Cast Iron Slideways 238
Chain Transmission 38
Chatter Vibrations 348
Check Surface 469
Chip Thickness C
Circular Interpolation 433
Clearances in Slideways 240
Closed Hydrostatic Slideways 263
Closed-type Anti-friction Ways 268
Clutches 48, 50
electromagnetic 51
friction 21, 31, 33, 42, 49, 50, 51
CNC Programming 504
Coding Systems 426
Column Sections 214
oefficient 361
Classification of Feed Boxes 121
Classification of Speed Boxes 118
CNC Efficiency 497544 Index
Combination of Two Flat Slideways 245
Combination of V and Flat Slideways 243
Combinations of Various Anti-friction Bearings 304
Comparators 439
continuous-function type 439
discrete-function type 439
Compatibility in the Design of Control Members 408
Composite Slider Bearing 253
Computer Aided Part Programming 465
Computer Numerical Control 495
Cone Variators without Intermediate Member 135
Constant-DP-type Reducing Valve 129
C Restrictor 261
Constant-gap Restrictor 261
Continuous-function-type Levers 408
Continuous-path Systems 425
Control Loop Unit (CLU) 494
Control Systems 386
Control Systems for Changing Speeds and Feeds 386
Control Systems for Forming and
Auxiliary Motions 396
Control Systems with Centralised Control 387
Control Systems with Individual Control 387
Couplings 48, 50
Crank-and-Rocker Mechanism 39
Cross Receptance 351
Cutting Process Closed-Loop System 336
Cutting Process Dynamic Characteristic 356
Cutting Speed 3, 4, 12, 13, 20, 55, 65, 66
Cutting Speed C
D
Data Processing Unit (DPU) 494
Decoder 431
Supports 296
Design Criteria for Machine Tool Structures 167
Design Criteria for Slideways 243
Design for Stiffness 194
Design for Stiffness of Spindle 301
Design for Strength 191
Design of Speed Box: Selection of Range Ratio 76
Design of Aerostatic Slideways 265
Design of Anti-friction Guideways 267
Design of Anti-friction Ways for Stiffness 271
Design of Bases and Tables 219
Design of Beds 197
Design of Columns 213
Design of Cranks 402
Design of Cross Rails, Arms, Saddles and Carriages 221
Design of Hand Wheels 404
Design of Housings 216
Design of Hydrodynamic Slideways 252
Design of Hydrostatic Slideways 254
Design of Knobs 401
Design of Lathe Bed 203
Design of Levers 403
Design of Push Buttons 401
Design of Rams 222
Design of Rolling-friction Power Screws 281
Design of Rotary Levers and Star Wheels 404
Design of Slideways 234
Design of Slideways for Stiffness 249
Design of Slideways for Wear Resistance 243
Design of Sliding-friction Power Screws 276
Design of Toggles 401
Design Procedure of Machine Tool Structures 188
Design Process Applied to Machine Tools 57
Design recommendations for Displays 406
Design Requirements to Spindle Units 288
Determination of Gear Dimensions 112, 117
Determination of Shaft and Gear Dimensions 112
Determination of Shaft Dimensions 112, 115
Determining Number of Teeth of Gears 108
Diagonal Stiffeners 199
Differential Indexing 159
Differential Mechanism 46
Digital Displacement-measuring Devices 436
Digital Displays 406
Dimensional-data Functions 448
onstant-flow
oefficient 361
Deflection due to Compliance of the Tapered Joint 298
Deflection of Spindle Axis due to Bending 295
Deflection of Spindle Axis due to Compliance of SpindleIndex 545
D Format 444
Direction-control Valves 29
Direct Numerical Control 501
Direct Receptance 350
Displacement-measurement Devices 435
Display 405
Distributive Numerical Control 495
DNC E
Drip Feeding 502
Drive Motion 1, 2, 3
Drives of NC Machine Tools 434
Drive Surface 468
Drives Using Multiple-speed Motors 95
Drives with Flow-control Valves 127
Drives with Fluid Delivery Control 126
Dynamic A Factors 179
Dynamic Characteristic of the Cutting Process 352
Dynamic Characteristic of the Equivalent
Elastic System 340
Dynamic C
Dynamic Compliance 179
Dynamic Coupling 343
Dynamic Stability of EES 336
Dynamic Stiffness 178
E
Economic Effectiveness of Machine Tool 52
EIA code 428
Electrical Automatic Control Systems 413
Electric Motor 20
Selection of 20
Electrical Stepless Regulation 130
Electrodynamic Exciters 350
Electrohydraulic Exciters 350
Electromagnetic Exciters 350
Equivalent Elastic System 336
Ergonomics 398
Errors in Anti-friction Ways 272
Exapt 466
F
Facing Operation 6
Faceplate Variators 134
Feed Box 90
design of 69, 90
Feed Boxes with Change Gears 121
Feed Boxes with Gear Cone and Sliding Key 121
Feed Boxes with Sliding Gears 121
Feed Boxes with Tumbler Gear (Norton’s Gear) 122
Feed Box with Meander’s Mechanism 123
Feed-changing Mechanism of a Horizontal Milling
Machine 388
Feed Motion 1, 2, 3, 20, 43
Feed Motion Drives 435
Feed Per Minute 4, 9, 42, 66
Feed Per Revolution 4
Feed Per Tooth 4, 9, 66, 67
Feed-rate Function 448
Finite Hydrodynamic Bearing 320
Fixed Block Format 443
Forced Vibration due to Perturbance of the Cutting
Process 379
Forced Vibrations due to Perturbance of EES 381
Forced Vibrations of Machine Tools 378
Force Required for Shifting a Toggle 400
Function Codes 447
Functions of Control Systems 386
Functions of Guideways 233
Functions of Machine Tool Structures 167
Functions of Spindle Unit 288
Function Symbols on Control Panels 409
G
Gearing Diagram 105, 155
general recommendaitions 105
Gearing Diagram of Drilling Machine 151
Gearing Diagram of Horizontal Milling Machine 155
Gearing Diagram of Speed Box of a Lathe with
Mechanical Variator 143
Gearing Diagram of Speed Box of a Thread
Cutting Lathe 141
Gear Transmission 35
Generalised Model of Dynamic Cutting Force 362
General Processor 465
imension-specification
fficiency 503
mplification
oefficients 360546 Index
Geneva Mechanism 43
H
Hand Wheels 409
Hersi-Shtribek Diagram 310
Hole Combinations in ASCII Code 430
Hole Combinations in EIA Code 429
Horizontal Milling Machine 155
Hydraulic Cylinders 28
Hydraulic Drive 23, 24, 30
rotary 2, 3, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 29, 31, 34, 39, 60, 61
translatory 2, 19, 23, 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 39, 40, 42,
43, 60, 61
Hydraulic Preselective Control System 393
Hydraulic Stepless Regulation 125
Hydraulic Transmission 23
Hydrodynamic Force 252
multiple-pad 323
multiple-recess 323, 324
single-pad 323, 324
Hydrostatic Slideway with a Restrictor 257
Hydrostatic Slideway without Restrictor 255
I
Incremental dimensioning system 435
Indexing 162
Indexing For Machining of Helical Grooves 162
Indexing Head 157
Interpolator 432
K
Kudinov’s Dynamic Cutting Force Expression 355
L
Layout of Machine Tool 60
Limit Constraint Adaptive Control System 417
Limited Travel Anti-friction Guideway 268
Linear Inductosyn 439
Linear Interpolator 433
Load and Flow C Cylindrical Pad 325
Hydrodynamic
Bearing 316
Load Capacity of a Hydrostatic ournal 327
Location of Control Members 407
M
Machine Control Unit 424, 494
Machine Tool Design 54
safety and convenience of controls 56
simplicity of design 56
Machine Tool Drives 19
Machine Tool Formats 440
Machine Tools 1, 52
Machining Centres 498
Machining Cost 68, 90
Machining Time 4, 8
turning operation 4
facing operation 6
boring operation 6
drilling operation 8
plane milling operation 10
symmetrical face milling operation 10
asymmetrical face milling operation 11
shaping operation 13
cylindrical grinding: external traverse cut 14
cylindrical grinding: internal 15
surface grinding 17
Magic-three Code 447
Male and Female Body Dimensions 398
Man-machine System 397
Manual Control System 396
Manual Data Input 496
Manual Part Programming 440
Many Degrees of Freedom System in Generalised
Coordinates 343
Many Degrees of Freedom System in Normal
Coordinates 342
Materials of Machine Tool Structures 170
Materials of Slideways 236
Load Capacity and Load Coefficient of a
J
classfication by the degree of automation 1
classification by weight 1
classification by the degree of specialisation 1
Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings 313
Hydrostatic Journal Bearings 323
oefficients for aIndex 547
Materials of Spindles 289
Maximum Force Required for Pressing a Button 400
Maximum Sideway Pressure 246
Maximum Turning Force for Operating Levers 400
Mechanical Automatic Control Systems 410
Mechanical Exciters 350
Mechanical Stepless Regulation 134
Mechanical Transmission 34
Metering-in Circuit 128, 129
Metering-out Circuit 128, 129
Milling Machine 389
Mirror Imaging 513
Miscellaneous Functions 451
Mode Coupling 346
Model Technique in Design of Structures 224
Modular Thread 147, 151
Moment of Inertia of Lathe Bed Section 208
Motor Pulsing Rate 497
Multiple Start Threads 149
Multiple-wedge Bearings 321
N
N C Hardware 430
NC Systems 422
closed-loop 423
open-loop 422
Numerical Control 419
fundamental Concepts 419
Nut-and-Screw Transmission 41
Nyquist Criterion 337
O
ON-OFF-type Push Buttons 408
Open-type Anti-friction Ways 267
Optimum Location of Displays 406
Optimum Spacing Between Spindle Supports 297
O Compensated Pad Bearing 259
O Restrictor 259
Overlap Factor 373
P
Parabolic Interpolators 434
Parity Check 428
Part Surface 468
Penetration Rate 359
Perpendicular Stiffeners 199
Phase-frequency Plot 338
Piezoelectric Exciters 350
PIV Drive 140
Plain Indexing 158
Point-to-point Systems 425
Polar Plot 337
Polar Plot of the Cutting Process 357
Positioning-cum-straight-cut Systems 425
POST PROCESSOR 466
Power Screws 276
Preloading of Anti-friction Bearings 306
Preparatory Functions 449
Preselective Centralised Control 387
Preselective Control System 392
hydraulic 392
mechanical 392
Pressure Valves 31
Process Optimisation Adaptive Control Systems 417
Programming for a Circular Arc 458
Programming for a Straight Line 457
Programming Formats 443
Program Reader 430
Protecting Devices for Slideways 274
Pumps 25
constant delivery 25
radial piston 27, 28
variable delivery pumps 25, 27, 28
Push button 408
Q
Quantitative Displays 405
Quick Acting Mechanical Tightening Device 300
R
Rack-and-Pinion Transmission 42
Ratchet-Gear Mechanism 43
Reduction of Axial Dimensions of the Speed Box 106
Profiles of Machine Tool Structures 182
rifice
rifice548 Index
Reduction of Radial Dimensions of Speed Boxes 107
Regenerative Chatter 372
Resolver 438
Resultant Receptance 351
Reversing Mechanism 44
Ribs and Stiffeners 186
rpm Values Constitute 69, 70
Arithmetic progression 69
geometric progression 70
harmonic progression 71
logarithmic progression 73
S
Sampling Rate 497
Selective Centralised Control 387
Selective Control Systems 395
Self-excited Vibrations 348
Sequence-number Function 447
Set-up Point 441
Shapes of Slideways 235
Simple Centralised Control 387
multiple lever 387
single lever 387
Single Degree of Freedom Elastic System 341
Single-lever Control System 389
Sleeve Bearings 311
Slider Crank Mechanism 39
Slideways with Hydraulic Relief 273
Slideways with Rolling Members 273
Sliding Bearings 310
Sliding ournal Bearings 311
Special Programming Features in CNC 512
Speed and Feed Changing Systems with Simple
Centralised Control 387
Speed Boxes Built into the Spindle Head 118
Speed Boxes Designed as Separate Unit 119
Speed Boxes with Change Gears 119
Speed Boxes with Friction Clutches 120
Speed Boxes with Sliding Gears 120
Speed Box with a Combined Structure 102
Speed Box with Broken Geometrical Progression 101
Speed Box with Overlapping Speed Steps 99
Speed-changing Mechanism of a ig-boring Machine 387
Speed Chart 88
Speed Function 447
Speed Box using a Two-speed Motor 97
Spheroidal and Cone Variators with Intermediate
Member 137
Spheroidal Cast Iron Slideways 238
Spindle Ends 289
Stability Analysis 366
Standard Spindle Speeds 81
Static Coupling 343
Static Stiffness 176
Static Stiffness with Respect to Dynamic Stability 176
Static Stiffness with Respect to the Workpiece
Accuracy 176
Steel Slideways 238
Stepless Regulation 124, 125, 130, 134
Stepped Regulation of Speed 69
Stiffener Arrangement 186
Stiffness of Aerostatic Slideways 266
Stiffness of Hydrostatic ournal Bearing 328
Structural Diagrams 82
Subroutine Programming 513
Symap 467
Synchro Devices 439
T
Tab-sequential Format 444
Tape Format and Codes 428
Template-controlled Systems 412
Thermal Equilibrium in Hydrodynamic Bearing 318
Thick Film Bearings 310
Thin Film Bearings 310
Thread Cutting on Lathe 146
Throttles 33
Time Constant of Chip Formation 356
Tlusty’s Dynamic Cutting Force Expression 354
Tobias’ Dynamic Cutting Force Expression 358
Tool Diameter Offset 505
J
J
J
Speed Boxes with Jaw Clutches 120Index 549
Tool Length Offset 506
Tool Magazines 499
chain type 499
rotary drum type 499
Tool Nose Radius (TNR) Compensation 527
Tool Nose Vector (TNV) 528
Tool Offset 459
Tool-radius Compensation 460
circular bend, anticlockwise 461
circular bend, clockwise 461
rectangular bend 460
tapered bend 461
Tool Radius Vector Setting 512
Tool-selection Function 447
Torsional Rigidity of Bed with Perpendicular
Stiffeners 200
Torsional Rigidity of a Rectangular Box-type Section 202
Torsional Rigidity of Beds with Diagonal Stiffeners 202
Transfer Function 339
Transfer Function of EES 339
Transfer Function of the Cutting Process 355, 357
Turning Centres 499
Turning Moment for Switching Knobs 400
Types of Anti-friction Ways 234
Types of Slideways 233
U
Unit Stiffness 171
Unit Stiffness Values of Engineering Materials 171
Unit Strength under Bending 173
Unit Strength under Tension 171
Unit Strength under Torsion 172
V
Variable-block Format 444
Variators with Axially Displaceable Cones 138
Velocity Coupling 343
W
Ward–Leonard System 132
Wave Cutting 364
Wave Removal 364
Wave Removal over Wave Cutting 366
Word-address Format 444
Work-area for an Average-size Operator 399
Working Motions 1, 2, 3
X
X Modem Protocol 504
X ON/X OFF Protocols 504
Z
Zero Film Bearings 310
Zero Point 441
Zero Setting in CNC Machining Centres 510
Zero Setting in CNC Turning Centres 525
Zero System 441
full zero shift 441
fixed 441
full floating 441


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