كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes

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عدد المساهمات : 16336
التقييم : 28204
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes    كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes  Emptyالسبت 01 أغسطس 2020, 12:50 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes
Edited by
Pierre Leprince
lnstitut Franqais du Petrole  

كتاب Petroleum Refining 3 - Conversion Processes  P_r_3_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Foreword XIII
Nomenclature . xxv
Abbrevations and Acronyms xxvll
Chapter 1 lntrodurtion
1.1 Coping with Challenges (1850-1915)
1.2 Developing Processes (1915-1940) .
1.3 Oil and Growth (1940-1973)
1.4 Oil and Crisis (1973-1990) .
1.5 The Future
1.6 Conclusions
Chapter 2 Basic Principles Governing Chemical Changes
2.1 Stoichiometry and Associated Parameters .
2.1.1 The Concept of Advancement (or Molar Extent) .
2.1.2 Conversion, Selectivity,and Yield .
2.2 Thermodynamics of Chemical Reactions
2.2.1 Enthalpy Variation Associated with a Chemical Reaction.
2.2.2 Gibbs Energy Variation Associated with a Chemical
Reaction
2.2.3 Conclusion
2.3 Chemical Kinetics
27XVI CONTENTS
2.3.1 Nature and Location of the Reaction Phase
2.3.2 Methods of Activating Chemical Reactions.Active
Intermediate Forms .
2.3.3 Formal Chemical Kinetics
2.3.4 Classifying Chemical Reactors
2.3.5 General Formulation of Mass and Enthalpy Balances .
Chapter 3 Industrial Catalysts
3.1 The Place of Catalytic Processes in Refining
3.2 ClassifyingCatalysts .
3.2.1 Active Elements. Promoters
3.2.2 Main Types of Refining Catalysts
3.3 Catalyst Characteristics and Properties
3.3.1 Basic Catalyst Characteristics .
3.3.2 Intrinsic Characteristics .
3.3.4 Determining Basic Catalytic Properties .
3.3.5 Physicochemical Properties
3.4 Preparing the Catalyst
3.4.2 Basis for Preparing Catalysts: Unit Operations
3.5 Catalyst Regeneration .
3.5.1 Catalyst Deactivation
3.5.2 Regeneration Methods .
3.6 Conclusion .
3.3.3 Non-Catalytic Characteristics
3.4.1 Methodology.Optimizingthe Formulation
Chapter 4 Catalytic Reforming
4.1 Importance of the Process in Making Up the “Gasoline Pool” .
4.1.1 Gasolines
4.1.2 Motor Fuel Stocks .
4.1.3 The Catalytic Reforming Process
4.2 Process Background .
4.2.1 Past and Present
4.2.2 Future
4.3 Data Overview .
4.3.1 Reactions Involved
4.3.2 Reaction Thermodynamics
4.3.3 Catalysts
117CONTENTSXVll
4.4 Process Data
4.4.2 Influence of Feeds .
4.5 Technology .
4.5.1 Fixed Bed
4.4.1 Operating Variables .
4.5.2 Moving Bed
4.6 Industrial Performance .
4.6.1 Processes.Operating Conditions
4.6.2 Typical Yields .
4.6.3 Reformate Characteristics .
4.6.4 Run Duration.Lifetime
4.6.5 Special Runs .
4.7 Economics
4.7.2 Process Licensors .
4.7.3 Investment.Operating Costs .
4.7.1 Catalytic Reforming Capacity
Chapter 5 Catalytic Cracking
5.1 Historical Overview
5.2 The FCC Process .
5.2.1 Introduction .
5.2.2 Feeds and Products
5.2.3 Description of the Process .
5.2.4 Thermal Balance
5.2.5 Fluidizationand Pressure Balance
5.2.6 Operating Variables, Conversion, and Cracking Severity
5.2.7 Changing Technology .
5.2.8 Residue Cracking .
5.3 Reactions, Reactivity. and Mechanisms .
5.3.2 Reactivity of Hydrocarbon Families .
5.3.3 Reactivity of Industrial Feeds
5.3.1 Reactions
5.4 The Catalyst .
5.4.1 Historical Background
5.4.2 Description of a Modern FCC Catalyst .
5.4.3 Design and Selection of an FCC Catalyst
5.5 Economics 223
5.6 Conclusion 223XVlll CONTENTS
Chapter 6 Isomerizationof Light Para!Yine
6.1 Isomerization of C C. Paraffins .
6.1.1 Aim
6.1.2 Thermodynamics
6.1.3 The Catalyst .
6.1.4 Reaction Mechanism .
6.1.5 Kinetics .
6.1.6 The Isomerization Process .
6.1.7 Economics
6.2 Isomerization of n-Butane 251
6.2.1 Aim 251
6.2.2 Thermodynamics 252
6.2.3 Catalysts . 252
6.2.4 Reaction Mechanism . 252
6.2.5 Kinetics . 253
6.2.6 Process . 253
Chapter 7 Aliphatic Allcylation
7.1 Role of the Process in Gasoline Production 257
7.2 Reaction Thermodynamics 258
7.3 Alkylate Compositions 259
7.4 Catalysts . 262
7.5 Reaction Mechanisms . 262
7.5.1 Alkylate Production Mechanisms . 263
7.5.2 Red Oil Production Mechanisms . 264
7.5.3 Structure and Function of Red Oils 265
7.6 Process Data
7.6.1 Feed Composition .
7.6.2 Feed Pretreatment .
7.6.3 Operating Conditions
7.6.4 Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Processes .
7.6.5 HF Alkylation Processes .
7.7 Economics
7.7.1 Investments
7.7.2 Operating Costs .
7.7.3 Installed Capacity
7.8 Future Trends 287
7.8.1 Two-step Process 287
7.8.2 Solid Acid Catalysts 287CONTENTSXIX
Chapter 8 Olefin Etherification
8.1 Main Ethers Used in Refining
8.1.2 Sources of Feedstocks
8.1.3 Integrated Etherification Process in a Refinery Scheme .
8.2 Basic Data .
8.2.1 Reaction Mechanism .
8.2.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics .
8.2.3 Catalysts .
8.2.4 Side Reactions .
8.3 Process Data
8.3.1 Feed Treatment
8.3.2 Raffinate Treatment
8.3.3 Operating Conditions
8.3.4 Process Flow Schemes
8.3.5 Reactor Design .
8.3.6 Product Yield and Quality
8.4 Economics
8.4.1 Production Capacity .
8.4.2 Process Licensors .
8.4.3 Investments
8.1.1 Properties of Ethers
Chapter 9 Oligomerization
9.1 Background Information .
9.1.1 Acid Catalysis
9.1.2 Catalysis by Transition Metals
9.2 Industrial Processes
9.2.1 Catpoly Process (UOP) .
9.2.3 Dimersol Process OFP) .
9.2.4 MOCD Process (Mobil Olefin to Gasoline and Distillate)
9.3 Economics
9.3.1 Process Licensors .
9.3.2 Investments.Operating Costs .
9.2.2 Polynaphta Process OFP)
Chapter 10 Hydrocracking
10.1 Function of the Process 334
10.2 Background Information 338XX CONTENTS
10.2.1 Typical Composition of Hydrocracking Feeds
10.2.2 Reaction Families
10.2.3 Reaction Thermodynamics
10.2.4 Kinetic Data
10.2.5 Catalysts .
10.2.6 Effectsof Feed Impurities and Components
10.3 Process Data
10.3.1 Typical Flow Schemes
10.3.2 Operating Conditions
10.3.3 Product Yields and Quality
10.3.4 Hydrogen Consumption
10.4 Economics 362
10.4.1 Hydrocracking Capacity . 362
10.4.2 Process Licensors . 362
10.4.3 Investments and Operating Costs . 362
Chapter 11 Visbreaking of Residues
11.1 Background Information 365
11.1.1 Feed Composition . 365
11.1.2 Cracking Reactions 366
11.1.3 Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism
11.2 Process Data 366
11.2.1 Operating Variables . 366
11.2.2 Product Properties and Yields 368
11.3 Implementing the Visbreaking Process 371
11.3.1 Process Flow Schemes 371
11.3.2 Specific Equipment . 373
11.3.3 Environment
11.4 Economics 378
Chapter 12 Coking
12.1 Delayed Coking
12.1.1 Feed Types .
12.1.2 Background Information .
12.1.3 Products .
12.1.4 Typical Product Yields and Characteristics
12.1.5 Description of the Delayed Coking Process
12.1.6 Coke Calcination
12.1.7 Economic Considerations
397CONTENTSXXI
12.2 Fluid Coking: Flexicoking
12.2.1 Feed Types .
12.2.3 Typical Yields
12.2.4 Process Description
12.2.5 Uses for Low Btu Gas
12.2.6 Use of Purge Coke .
12.2.7 Economic Information
12.2.2 Background Information
Chapter 13 Residue Hydroconversion
13.1 Integration in a Refinery . 411
13.2 General Introduction to Residue Hydroconversion Processes . 411
13.3 Background Information
13.3.1 Chemical Reactions .
13.3.2 Catalysts .
13.3.3 Kinetics and Operating Conditions: Conversion to Light
Fractions, Metals, Sulfur, and Nitrogen Elimination .
13.4 Technologies and Process Data
13.4.1 Fixed Bed Processes .
13.4.2 Moving Bed Processes
13.4.3 Ebullating Bed Processes .
13.4.4 Entrained Bed Processes
13.4.5 Advantages and Drawbacks of the Four Types of
Process.Product Yields and Characteristics
13.4.6 Associating the Hydrotreating Process with
Deasphalting and Hydrogen Production
444
13.5 Economics 448
Chapter 14 Hydrogen Production
14.1 Hydrogen in the Refinery . 451
14.1.1 Requirements . 451
14.1.2 Sources . 452
14.1.3 Hydrogen Balance . 453
14.2 Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming . 455
14.2.1 Production of Synthesis Gas 455
14.2.2 Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen Conversion 465
14.2.3 Carbon Dioxide Removal 468
14.2.4 Methanation of Residual CO and CO, . 473XXll CONTENTS
14.2.5 Purification by Adsorption
14.2.6 Comparison of Conventional Methanation and
Adsorption (PSA) Methods
14.2.7 Ongoing Developments
14.3 Hydrogen Production by Partial Oxidation .
14.3.1 Synthesis Gas Production
14.4 Hydrogen and Electricity Coproduction
14.5 Other Technologies .
14.5.1 Hytex Process
14.6 Economics
14.6.1 Process Licensors .
14.6.2 Investments
14.6.3 Production Costs .
14.3.2 Hydrogen Production Sequencing
14.5.2 Catalytic Autothermal Process
14.6.4 Cost of Other Sources of Hydrogen
Chapter 15 White Products Refining by Sweetening
15.1 Mercaptan Distribution in Petroleum Cuts
15.2.1 Recapitulation of Process History
15.2 Background Data .
15.2.2 Current Technologies .
15.3 Industrial Processes
15.3.1 Liquid/Liquid Contact Technologies
15.3.2 Fixed Bed Catalyst Processes
15.4 Economic Data .
15.4.1 General Information
15.4.2 Process Licensors. Treatment Capacity .
15.4.3 Basis for an Economic Estimate
Chapter 16 Hydrotreating
16.1 Objectives of Hydrotreating Processes
16.2 Impurities and their Origins
16.2.1 Heteroatoms and Metals
16.2.2 Unsaturated Products .
16.3 Hydrotreating Processes
16.4 Background Information
53816.4.1 Hydrotreating Reactions
16.4.2 Catalysts .
16.5 Process Information
16.5.1 Catalyst Reaction Kinetics .
16.5.2 Operating Variables .
16.5.3 Implementing Catalysts
16.6 Process Technology
16.6.1 Reactors
16.6.2 Process Flow Schemes
16.6.3 Selecting Construction Materials
16.7 Industrial Performance .
16.7.1 Feed Pretreatment for Gasoline Catalytic Reforming
Units
16.7.2 Hydrotreating Kerosene and Gas Oil
16.7.3 Hydrotreating Vacuum Distillates .
16.8 Economics
16.8.1 Investments
16.8.2 Hydrotreating Capacity Worldwide
16.8.3 Process Licensors and Catalyst Suppliers .
Chapter 17 Acid gas treatment
17.1 Absorption of Acid Gases by a Solvent
17.1.1 The Different Solvents
17.1.2 Simplified Flow Scheme of a Solvent Washing Unit
17.1.3 Background Information .
17.1.4 Technology and Process Data .
17.1.5 Process Performance
17.1.6 Safety and Environmental Issues
17.1.7 Process Licensors .
17.2 Sulfur Recovery Units .
17.2.1 Sulfur Recovery with the Vapor Phase Claus Reaction .
17.2.2 Sulfur Recovery by Oxidation .
17.2.3 Tail Gas Treatment Units
17.2.4 Process Performance Figures
17.2.5 Economics
Chapter 18 Desulfurization of Stack Gases
18.1 Legislation
624XXlV CONTENTS
18.2 Principle of Stack Gas Desulfurization Processes
18.2.1 Choice of Sulfur Oxide Chemical Reactant
18.2.2 Operating Conditions
18.2.3 Regenerative Processes and Throwaway Processes
18.3.1 Stack Gas/Reactant Contactor .
18.3 Characteristics of Stack Gas Desulfurization Processes
18.3.2 Heating the Stack Gases .
18.3.3 Corrosive Nature of the Stack Gases
18.4 The Main Processes
18.4.2 Semiwet Processes
18.4.4 Regenerative Processes with Production of
18.4.1 Processes Using Lime or Limestone .
18.4.3 Dry Processes with Discharges .
Concentrated SOz
Chapter 19 Water Treatment
19.1 Source and Type of Water Requiring Purification
19.1.2 General Refinery Effluents .
19.2 Purification Treatment Method .
19.2.1 Segregation of Discharge Streams .
19.2.2 Characteristic Parameters of Waste Water Treatments .
19.2.3 Process Condensate Stripping (Sour Water) .
19.2.4 Oil in Water Separation .
19.2.5 Catalytic Oxidation of Sulfides with Air .
19.2.6 Physicochemical Treatment
19.2.7 Aerobic Biological Treatment
19.2.8 Tertiary Purification for Very Stringent Discharge
19.1.1 Waste Water from Refining Processes
Standards. Recycling
Index


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