كتاب Practical Power Plant Engineering - A Guide for Early Career Engineers
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 كتاب Practical Power Plant Engineering - A Guide for Early Career Engineers

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
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الدولة : مصر
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Practical Power Plant Engineering - A Guide for Early Career Engineers
Zark Bedalov
Vancouver
BC, CA  

كتاب Practical Power Plant Engineering - A Guide for Early Career Engineers  P_p_p_11
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Contents
Preface – Why This Book? vii
Acknowledgments xv
About the Author xvii
1 Plant from Design to Commissioning 1
2 Plant Key One-Line Diagram 31
3 Switching Equipment 75
4 Designing Plant Layout 107
5 System Grounding 121
6 Site and Equipment Grounding 137
7 Plant Lighting 157
8 DC System, UPS 179
9 Plant Power Distribution 191
10 Insulation Coordination, Lightning Protection 209
11 Voltage and Phasing Standards 239
12 Cables and Supporting Equipment 253
13 Power Factor Correction 285
14 Motor Selection 303vi Contents
15 Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and Harmonics 321
16 Relay Protection and Coordination 341
17 Plant Automation and Data Networking 379
18 Generation 407
19 Power Dispatch and Control 441
20 Diesel Engine Generator Plant and Standby Power 461
21 Reliability Considerations and Calculations 475
22 Fire Protection 495
23 Corrosion, Cathodic Protection 517
24 Brief Equipment Specifications and Data Sheets 531
25 Solar Power 567
26 Wind Power 599
Index 643
643
Index
a
ABC cable overhead distribution 205
Accelerating torque 305
Action of tap changers 39, 458
Affinity laws 331
Ambient derating factors 36
Analog cards 4-20mA, 0-20mA 387
Analog card scaling 388
Arc flash classifications 81, 104
Area lighting 159
Arrester
classifications 226
energy class 224
protection margin 224
rating 227
selection 225
Autotransformers 131, 541
Availability 476, 490
inherent 491
operational 492
Availability factor 437
AVR droop 452
b
Bandwith 396
Baseband 396
Base load 36, 443
100BaseT ethernet 400
Basic insulation level BIL 72,
220, 540
Bathtub mortality 479
Battery
Ah capacity 181
chargers 180, 186
float/ boost 184
life 183
room requirements 185
Below and above grounding 138, 148,
150
Betz’s limit 603
Black start 434
Blade design 602, 611, 636
Break down torque 305
Breakers
continuous ratings 54
failure 366
frame size rating 76
HMCP 99
interrupting rating 77, 78
magnetic for motors 85, 96
maximum loading 77
MPCB 99
status contacts 80
thermal and magnetic for feeders
84, 96
Brushless exciter 430
Budget estimate 26
Bundled conductor 193
Burden 348
Buried installations 109
Bus duct 58, 279
Bus tie breaker switching 61
Practical Power Plant Engineering: A Guide for Early Career Engineers, First Edition. Zark Bedalov.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2020 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.644 Index
c
Cable armor grounding 256, 260
Cable bending radius 278
Cablebus 58, 280
Cable color coding 268
Cable derating factors 258, 264
Cable insulation level 256
Cable list 13
Cable openings 115
Cables for fire protection 514
Cable shielding 254
Cable short circuit rating 259
Cable terminations, stress cones 267
Cable trays 273
fill and classification 273
loading 273
support span 273
Capacitors 290
impact on harmonics 297, 299
voltage improvement 295
Capacity factor 438
Cathodic protection for buried
pipelines 518
Circuit breaker, types 84
Class A wiring 497
Close and latch current 77
Coax RG cables 397
Codes and standards 4
Color rendering index (CRI) 172
Commissioning
dry, wet 19
report 25
Common mode failure 476, 489
Communication cables 268
Concentrated solar plants (CSP) 580,
586
Concrete cable duct banks 109, 111
Conductor sag calculations 194. 204
Connected load, operating load 51
Constant kA rating 79
Constant MVA rating 79
Continuous UPS 188
Control cables 268
Control room fire protection 504
Core flux test 420
Corrosion protection for ships 525
Cost of change 8
Counter clockwise (CCW) and
clockwise (CW) 243–249
Cross current compensation, CCC
455
CT and PT polarities 342, 345
CTs and PTs 342, 345
CT saturation 350
Current limiting fuses, type E 88
Current source inverter (CSI) 325
Current, voltage THD 298, 339
Cut-in wind speed 613
Cut-out wind speed 614
d
Data sheets 553
Dead transfer 62
Delta tertiary winding 131
Design criteria 2, 7, 158, 542
Design limits 613
DeviceNet cables 270
Device numbering 11
DG waste heat recovery 469
Diesel engine plant 463
Differential protection 345, 347, 365
Digital governor 424
Digital I/O cards 386
Direct normal irradiance (DNI) 568
Distributed control system (DCS)
385, 386
Diversity factor 52
DNP3 405
Double ended substation 92
Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)
617
Dry type transformers 90, 538, 564
Duty electrical and diesel pumps 511
Dynamic braking 333Index 645
e
Effective (solid) grounding 123
Effect of system grounding 226
Effect of voltage change 304
EHV cable termination 266
EHV power cables 265
ELCID test 420
Electrical rooms, control rooms 112,
115, 119
Emergency lighting 159, 161
Enclosures
IEC, NEMA 550
End of line (EOL) resistor 497
Energy heat balance and efficiency
diagram 470
Engine ratings
continuous, prime and standby 462
Engines for ships 473
Equipment grounding 122
Equipment withstand capability 219
Essential lighting 160
Ethernet 100BaseT 400
Ethernet cables 270
Ethernet TCP/IP 400
EXIT lighting 161
Exothermic connections 148, 236
Explosion proof motors 311
Exponential distribution 480
f
Failure rate 478
Feasibility study 5
Fence grounding 152
Fiber optic
cables 271
single, multi mode 398
Fieldbus cables 272
Fire control panels 499
Fire detectors 498
heat 498
ionization 498
smoke 498
Fire hydrants 506
Fire integrity test for gas 516
Fire pump sizing 513
Fire wall ratings 116
Fire water storage tanks 510
Firm capacity 45
Firm power 462
Flexlogic 367
Flow diagrams 5, 34
Fluorescent lamp 174
Foot-candle 163
Foundations for grounding (Ufer) 150
Fresnel linear mirror 583
Fuel consumption 461, 464
Fuel storage requirements 464
g
Galvanic sacrificial anodes 519
Galvanized steel 519
Gas fire suppression 503
Generator
capability and limits 413
characteristics 415
cooling 434
neutral grounding 127
special circuit breakers 431
step up transformer 432
transient conditions 419
unit, system grounding 128
Glare factor 163
Governor deadband 446
Governor droop 446, 447
Grid
integration issues 624
resistance measurements 142
tests 24
Groundbeds 521
Ground flash density 218
Grounding grid 138
Grounding of telecommunications
152
Ground potential rise (GPR) 142
Guy wire 193646 Index
h
Harmonics 298
caused by VFDs 335
correction 338
order limits 337
Heat transfer RHO factor 112
Hi-bay lighting 159
High and low pressure sodium lamp
176
Hi-pot test 421
H
2S issues in Hydro power plants 527
Human machine interface, HMI 389
HV equipment testing 215
i
IEC 101 404
IEC 104 405
IEC 61850 404
IEEE device designation 343
IEEE 519 Standard 338
IGBT transistors 334
Illuminance level 164
Impressed current protection 521
Infinite bus 43
Instrumentation cables 268
Insulation coordination 221
Insulation temperature class: B, F, H
537
Interlocks 21
Interposing relays 385
Isokeraunic lightning levels 212
Isolated phase bus (IPB) 549, 557
j
Jockey pump 511
k
Key interlocks 88
Key one line diagram 32, 50
l
Ladder logic 383
Large motor starting 311
LC filters, passive, active 337
Lead acid battery 184
LED 177
Levelized cost of energy 27
Light distribution charts 165
Lighting design criteria 158
Lighting in wet conditions 159
Lighting panels 170
Lightning strikes 211
Lightning wave phenomena 213
Line and cable charging current 206
Line compensation 300
Line inductance and capacitance 199,
206
Line power transfers 456
Line reactors 301
Line reclosing 373
Line surge impedance 214
Lithium ion battery 185
Load break switches 91
Load factor 443
Load flow study 40
Load-frequency control 444
Load list 13, 51
Load scheduling and dispatch 442
Load shedding 374
Locked rotor torque 305
Lock out trip relays (86) 375
Low-bay lighting 159
Low rise/high rise building lightning
protection 231
Lumen 162
Lux 162
LV motors, upto 200 kW 542, 557
LVRT, HVRT capability 628, 629
m
Maintainability 476
Make before break principle 62
Managing wind variability 625
Marginal cost of energy 29
Maximum continuous over voltage
(MCOV), Uc 227, 228Index 647
Mercury lamp 174
Metal-clad enclosure 60, 76
Metal halide lamp 174
Metering accuracy class 347
Metering PTs and CTs 347
M of N systems 486
Moment of inertia H 445
Motor 558
controls integration 388
enclosures 310
inrush current 311
service factor 315
starters 95, 103
starting criteria 316
starting on VFD 315
start voltage drop 40, 64,
258, 316
surge protection 230, 300, 548
Motor control centers (MCC) 84,
94–104, 560
MTTF, MTTR 478
Multi-function relays (MFR) 351
Multi-junction PV solar cells 571
Multy ratio CTs 350
MV controllers 59, 84–88
MV motors >200 kW 545, 558
n
NACE Air quality 529
National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA)
Class E2 59, 85
guidelines for electrical rooms 112
guidelines for transformers 116
NEMA, IEC T frame sizes 307
premium motors 316
starter sizes 310
TEFC motors 310
TENV motors 310
torque A, B, C, D, E 306
National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA)
class I and II materials 231
guidelines for electrical rooms 112
guidelines for transformers 116
Networking 393
DeviceNet 395
fieldbus 395
profibus 395
Neutral and ground fault protection
362
Ni-Cd battery 184
Nominal voltages 242
Non-linear loads 297, 335
Non-maintenance VRLA battery 184
Normal lighting 160
o
O/C instantaneous value 364
Outdoor lighting 159, 167
Overhead vs. underground 66, 198
Overload relays 100
Overvoltages 210
p
Parabolic mirror troughs 582
Parallel resonance 299
Parity 396
Pay back calculations 30
Peaking storage plants 593
Peak loading plants 443
Peer to peer 399
Permafrost in colder climates 108
Permanent magnet (PMG) 426, 430
Permissives 21
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
81
Per unit calculations 41
Phase sequence 243
Photovoltaic solar plants (PV) 571
Pick up setting 353
P&ID diagrams 34
Plant control architecture 394
Plant design
conceptual, detailed 5, 6
Plant phasing diagram 533648 Index
Polarization index (PI) 421
Pole foundation 194
Pole grounding 194
Polling (master/slave) 399
Portable hand extinguishers 507
Power agreement 38
Power cable selection 262, 277
Power distribution system 50
Power factor (PF)
correction 288
leading/ lagging 286
penalties 285
Power loss calculation 203
Power system studies 6
Power tower 580
Power transformers 64, 531, 555
Pre-action sprinkler systems, wet, dry
502
Pre-commissioning 17
Primary injection 21
Programmable logic controller (PLC)
381
or DCS? 391
scan 384
Project development 3, 5
Protection elements 360
for generators 354
for motors 356
for transformers 354
Pull stations 499
Pulse width modulation, PWM 324
PV panel technology 569, 576
r
Radial distribution 89
Raised floors 119
Rated wind speed 613
R class type fuses 60, 88
Reactive power requirements impact
626
Rebar grounding 149
Reduced voltage starter 314
Regenerative VFDs 332
Relay accuracy class 347
Relay coordination 359
Relay logic 380
Relay setting groups 366
Reliability 477, 483
criteria 37
run 23
Remote reference earth 142
Remote site grounding 154
Removal of H
2S gas 527
Residual (discharge) voltage 221
Resistance grounding 125, 262
Restricted earth fault REF 362
Right of way 194
Rigid and EMT conduits 278
Ring main 89
Road clearances 201
Road lighting 167
Room numbering 115
RS-232C, RS-422, RS-485 400
s
Salt energy storage 591–594
SCADA transmission protocols 403
Schematic and wiring diagrams 14
Secondary injection 17
Self-reset relay (94) 375
Series and parallel systems 483
Shaft encoder 329
Shielded twisted pair STP 397
Shielding criteria, switchyard, line
217, 229
Short circuit ratio (SCR) 416
Short time withstand 78
Single contingency outage 37
Single or double incomers 43
Siting a wind farm 600
cold climate 633
desert 635
offshore 601
onshore 601
Soil conditions 139
Soil resistance measurements 140Index 649
Soil resistivity 525
Soil thermal resistivity 112
Solar resource 567
Source impedance 40
Spinning reserve 444
Standpipes 506
Star/delta transformers 130
Star/star transformers 130
Static exciter 427–429
Structure: tangent, dead end, angle
197
Sun trackers 574, 575
Supercharging vs turbocharging 465
Supply voltage 239
Switches and outlets 159, 171
Switchgear 57, 59, 75, 79, 562
Synchrocheck relay 357
Synchronizer relay 357
Synchronous condensers 292
Synchronous impedance 418
Synchronous motors 292, 315, 436
System grounding 122
t
Tap setting 353
Time-current grading 371
Time dial setting 354
Time grading 369
Torque, constant or variable 329
Touch and step potential 144, 145
Transformer
cooling 44, 46, 536
deluge system 496, 508
inrush current 362, 541
for lighting 168
neutrals grounding 65, 130
oil containment 118
phase shift 532
rectifiers 524
tap changers 38, 537
testing 539
winding configurations
46, 68, 532
Transmission
duplex 397
simplex 397
Trip supervisory relay 376
Turbine cavitation 433
u
Ungrounded systems 122
Uninterruptible power supply UPS
71, 188
Unit substations 61, 89–94,
563, 565
Unshielded twisted pair (UTP) 397
Utility interconnection requirements
627
Utilization factor 52
Utilization voltage 239
v
Vector design for low speed operation
328
Vector drive, sensorless 329
Ventilation, louvers, air dampers 507
Vesda fire protection 496, 504
VFD specification 548, 560
constant V/Hz ratio 326
critical cable length 334
starting torque 326
VI characteristics 222
Voltage drop calculations 202
Voltage–reactive power control 452
Voltage regulation 64
Voltage source Inverter (VSI) 325
w
Water pumping stations 510
Web based HMI 402
Wind capacity factor CF 606
Wind energy captured 607
Wind energy distribution 607
Wind gusts 603
Wind power density 605
Wind rose 603650 Index
Wind turbine
blade pitch control 611
capital cost comparison 639
effect of rain 634
fixed speed 616
IEC design classification 610
sizes 620
tip speed ratio 605
tower 602
variable speed 616
Yaw control 612
Wind turbulence 608
World plugs and sockets 250
x
Xd, Xd’, Xd” impedances 418
XLPE and EPR cables 256
z
Zg grounding transformers
ZnO arresters 219


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