كتاب Railway Technical - Railway Systems, Technologies and Operations Across the World
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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  كتاب Railway Technical - Railway Systems, Technologies and Operations Across the World

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عدد المساهمات : 16336
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Railway Technical - Railway Systems, Technologies and Operations Across the World    كتاب Railway Technical - Railway Systems, Technologies and Operations Across the World Emptyالإثنين 20 يوليو 2020, 11:33 pm

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Railway Technical
Railway Systems, Technologies and Operations Across the World  

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Contents
Design Details of Railways, Railroads and Metros .15
1.1. Introduction . 15
1.2. Deadman 15
1.3. Couplers . 15
1.4. Fully Automatic Couplers . 20
1.5. Doors 23
1.6. Air Conditioning . 25
1.7. Escalator Steps . 26
1.8 Escalator Locations 28
1.9. Suicide Pits . 28
ROLLING STOCK AND EQUIPMENTS 30
2.1. AUXILIARY SYSTEMS ON ROLLING STOCK 30
2.1.1. Introduction 30
2.1.2. On-Board Services . 30
2.1.3. Air Equipment . 31
2.1.4. The Compressor 31
2.1.5 The Pump . 31
2.1.6. Drives 32
2.1.7. Cooling 32
2.1.8. Drying 32
2.1.9. Control . 32
2.1.10. Synchronisation . 32
2.1.11. Storage 33
2.1.12. Distribution . 33
2.1.13. Angle Cocks . 34
2.1.14. Automatic Couplers . 34
2.1.15. Air Operated Equipment . 34
2.1.16. Traction Equipment . 35
2.1.17. Doors . 352
2.1.18. Air Suspension . 35
2.1.19. Driver's Brake Control . 35
2.1.20. Pantograph Compressor . 35
2.2. ELECTRICAL AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT 37
2.2.1. Introduction 37
2.2.2. On-Board Services . 37
2.2.3. High Voltage and Low Voltage Systems 38
2.2.4. Converting HV to LV 38
2.2.5. Development . 38
2.2.6. Motor Generators . 39
2.2.7. Motor Alternators . 40
2.2.8. Electronic Auxiliaries . 41
2.2.9. Gaps 42
2.3. BOGIE PARTS & DESCRIPTION 44
2.3.1. Introduction 44
2.4. WHEELS AND BOGIES . 47
2.4.1. Introduction 47
2.4.2. The Wheel on the Rail . 47
2.4.3. Bogies (Trucks) 49
2.4.4. Steerable Bogies 49
2.5. VEHICLE SUSPENSION SYSTEMS . 51
2.5.1. Introduction 51
2.5.2. Development . 51
2.5.3. Plate Frame Bogie Primary Suspension . 52
2.5.4. Plate Frame Bogie Secondary Suspension 53
2.5.5. Cast Steel Bogies . 54
2.5.6. Equaliser Bar Suspension 56
2.5.7. Rubber Suspension 57
2.5.8. Air Suspension . 58
2.6. PBL 90 ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEM . 603
2.6.1. Background . 60
2.6.2. Introduction 60
2.6.3. The Parts of the Brake Control Panel 60
2.6.4. Set-up 63
2.6.5. Set-up Complete . 63
2.6.6. Release 64
2.6.7. Running . 65
2.6.8. Application 66
2.6.9. Maintaining a Constant Brake . 67
2.6.10. Partial or Full Release 67
2.6.11. Electro-Pneumatic Assistance . 68
2.7. AIR BRAKES . 69
2.7.1 Introduction . 69
2.7.3. Operation on Each Vehicle 69
2.7.2. Basics . 69
2.7.3. The Principal Parts of the Air Brake System 70
2.7.4 Operation On Each Vehicle 74
2.8. ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED PNEUMATIC BRAKES 80
2.8.1. Introduction 80
2.8.2. ECP Brakes - Background . 80
2.8.3. Power Sources . 81
2.8.4. Manufacturers Systems 81
2.8.5. Benefits . 82
2.8.6. Developments . 82
2.8.7. ECP Record 83
2.9. ELECTRO-PNEUMATIC BRAKES . 84
2.9.1. Introduction 84
2.9.2. Background . 84
2.9.3. Principles of the E-P Brake 84
2.9.4. A Simple E-P Brake System 854
2.9.5. E-P Application 86
2.9.6. Brake Cylinder Pressure 86
2.9.7. E-P Brake Release 87
2.9.8. E-P Control 87
2.9.9. E-P Variations 88
2.9.10. Self Lapping Brakes . 88
2.9.11. Retardation Controller 89
2.9.12. Variable Load Control 90
2.9.13. P-Wire Control . 91
2.9.14. PBL90 System 91
2.10. VACUUM BRAKES . 92
2.10.1. Introduction 92
2.10.2. Basics . 92
2.10.3. Principal Parts of the Vacuum Brake System 93
2.10.4.Operation on Each Vehicle . 96
2.10.5. Additional Features of the Vacuum Brake 98
2.10.6. Other Vacuum Operated Equipment 100
2.10.7. Vacuum Brakes on Steam Locomotives 100
2.10.8. Comment . 101
2.11. PASSENGER COACH PARTS . 102
2.12. ELECTRONIC POWER FOR TRAINS 103
2.12.1. Introduction 103
2.12.2. AC and DC Differences 103
2.12.3. AC Locomotives with DC Drives 104
2.12.4. The Diode 105
2.12.5. The Thyristor . 105
2.12.6. SEPEX . 106
2.12.7. DC Choppers 108
2.12.8. Dynamic Braking 109
2.12.9. The GTO Thyristor . 1095
2.12.10. AC Motors . 110
2.12.11. The Asynchronous Motor 110
2.12.12. AC Drive . 111
2.12.13. IGBT . 112
2.12.14. Permanent Magnet Motor 112
2.13. ELECTRIC TRACTION DRIVES . 113
2.13.1. Introduction 113
2.13.2. The DC Traction Motor: How it Drives the Axle 113
2.13.3. AC and DC Motors . 114
2.13.4. Nose Suspended Motor . 116
2.13.5. Quill Drive 117
2.13.6. Monomotor Bogie . 119
2.13.7. Linear Motor . 120
2.14. DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE TECHNOLOGY 122
2.14.1. The Diesel Locomotive 122
2.14.2. Parts of a Diesel-Electric Locomotive 123
2.14.3. Mechanical Transmission 128
2.14.4. Hydraulic Transmission . 129
2.14.5. Wheel Slip . 130
2.14.6. Diesel Multiple Units (DMUs) 130
2.14.7. The Diesel Engine 130
2.14.8. Diesel Engine Types . 131
2.14.9. Size Does Count . 132
2.14.10. To V or not to V . 132
2.14.11. Tractive Effort, Pull and Power . 133
2.14.12. Starting 133
2.14.13. Governor . 134
2.14.14. Fuel Injection . 135
2.14.15. Fuel Control . 135
2.14.16. Engine Control Development 1366
2.14.17. Power Control . 136
2.14.18. Cooling 137
2.14.19. Lubrication 138
2.14.20. Transmissions 138
2.14.21. Diesel-Electric Types . 139
2.15. ROLLING STOCK MANUFACTURING . 140
2.15.1. Introduction 140
2.15.2. The Process . 140
2.15.3. Timescales . 140
2.15.4. Design 141
2.15.5. Long Lead Ordering . 142
2.15.6. Jigs and Tools 142
2.15.7. Manufacturing Engineering . 145
2.15.8. Configuration Control 145
2.15.9. Production Control 146
2.15.10. Materials & Equipment Buying . 146
2.15.11. Parts Manufacture 147
2.15.12. Underframe . 148
2.15.13. Sides 152
2.15.14. Bodyshell Assembly . 152
2.15.15. Underframe Invert 159
2.15.16. Roof . 159
2.15.17. Ends . 160
2.15.18. Painting . 160
2.15.19. Transport . 162
2.15.20. Bogie Construction 162
2.15.21. Wheels and Axles 164
2.15.22. Bogie Assembly . 166
2.15.23. Wiring 167
2.15.24. Piping . 1677
2.15.25. Fitting Out . 168
2.15.26. Testing . 177
2.15.27. Commissioning 178
2.15.28. Delivery . 179
2.16. MULTIPLE UNIT OPERATION 183
2.16.1. Introduction 183
2.16.2. Origins . 183
2.16.3. The Relay . 184
2.16.4. The Contactor 185
2.16.5. Multiple Unit Control 186
2.16.6. Forward and Reverse 187
2.16.7. Modern Control Systems . 188
2.17. MULTI-DECK TRAINS . 189
2.17.1. Introduction 189
2.17.2. Background . 189
2.17.3. The UK Experiment 189
2.17.4. Europe . 189
2.17.5. North America . 191
2.17.6. Freight . 192
2.18. TRAIN MAINTENANCE 194
2.18.1. Introduction 194
2.18.2. Background . 194
2.18.3. Maintenance Facilities 194
2.18.4. Access 195
2.18.5. Cleaning and Stabling 195
2.18.6. Toilets 196
2.18.7. Train Washing Machines . 197
2.18.8. Wheel Lathe 198
2.18.9. Leaves on the Line . 201
2.18.10. Inspection Sheds . 2028
2.18.11. Shore Supplies . 203
2.18.12. Lifting . 207
2.18.13. Maintenance Workshops 211
2.18.14. Maintenance Programmes 212
2.18.15. Failures 213
2.18.16. Performance Measures . 214
2.18.17. The Development of Train Maintenance 215
2.19. WHEEL ARRANGEMENTS 217
2.19.1 Introduction . 217
2.19.2. Modern Diesel and Electric Locomotives 217
2.19.3. Older Designs 219
2.19.4. Steam Locomotives . 220
TRAIN OPERATIONS 221
3.1. Introduction . 221
3.2. Definitions 221
3.3. The Objective . 221
3.4. Locomotive Hauled Trains 222
3.5. Terminal Operations 222
3.6. Multiple Unit Operation . 223
3.7. Push-Pull Operation . 224
3.8. High Speed Multiple Units 225
3.9. Headway . 225
3.10. Terminals, Loops and Turnbacks 226
3.11. Train Service Planning 228
3.12. Round Trip Time . 229
3.13. Train Loading 230
3.14. Rolling Stock Calculations . 230
3.15. Rolling Stock Operation 231
3.16. Stock Balance . 231
3.17. Working Timetable . 2329
3.18. Timekeeping . 232
3.19. Recovery Time 233
3.20. Terminal Occupation 233
3.21. Stepping Back . 234
3.22. Double-Ending 234
3.23. Crew names 235
3.24. Crew Hours And Numbers 236
4. SIGNALLING PAGES INDEX 238
4.1. Introduction . 238
4.2. THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRINCIPLES OF UK SIGNALLING . 238
4.2.1. Introduction 238
4.2.2. Background . 238
4.2.3. Pioneer Signalling 238
4.2.4. The Time Interval System 239
4.2.5. Line Capacity . 239
4.2.6. Fixed Signalling 239
4.2.7. Distant Signals . 240
4.2.8. Interlocking . 240
4.2.9. Blocks 241
4.2.10. The Track Circuit 241
4.2.11. Track Circuit - Block Unoccupied . 242
4.2.12. Track Circuit - Block Occupied . 243
4.2.13. Multi-Aspect Signals 243
4.2.14. Four-Aspect Signalling . 244
4.2.15. A Safe Braking Distance . 245
4.2.16. The Overlap . 245
4.3. TRAIN PROTECTION IN THE UK . 247
4.3.1. Background . 247
4.3.2. AWS - Automatic Warning System 247
4.3.3. Enforcement 24910
4.3.4. TPWS . 249
4.3.5. What TPWS Does 251
4.3.6. What TPWS Does Not Do 251
4.3.7. ATP (Automatic Train Protection) or TPWS . 252
4.3.8. ERTMS . 252
4.3.9. Comment . 252
4.4. BRITISH SIGNALLING - WHAT THE DRIVER SEES . 254
4.4.1. Introduction 254
4.4.2. Semaphore Signals 254
4.4.3. Semaphore Signal Parts . 254
4.4.4. Types of Semaphore Signal . 255
4.4.5. Junction Signals . 257
4.4.6. Subsidiary Signals 258
4.4.7. Colour Light Signals . 259
4.4.8. 4-Aspect Operating Sequence . 260
4.4.9. Route Signalling . 260
4.4.10. Modern Shunt Signal . 262
4.4.11. Some Photos . 262
4.5. METRO SIGNALLING . 264
4.5.1. Introduction 264
4.5.2. The Overlap . 265
4.5.3. Track-Circuited Overlaps . 266
4.5.4. Absolute Block . 267
4.5.5. Automatic Train Protection . 268
4.5.6. ATP Speed Codes . 268
4.5.7. Operating with ATP . 269
4.5.8. Distance-to-Go 270
4.5.9. Speed Monitoring 271
4.5.10. Operation with Distance-to-Go . 271
4.6. ATP BEACONS AND MOVING BLOCK 27311
4.6.1. Introduction 273
4.6.2. ATP Code Transmission . 273
4.6.3. Beacon Transmission . 274
4.6.4. Operation With Beacons . 275
4.6.5. Intermittent Updates 276
4.6.6. Moving Block - The Theory 276
4.6.7. Moving Block and Radio Transmission 277
4.6.8. Moving Block - Location Updates 278
4.6.9. An Early Moving Block System 279
4.6.10. Moving Block - Why Do We Need It? 279
4.7. AUTOMATIC TRAIN OPERATION 281
4.7.1. ATO 281
4.7.2. Metro Station Stops 281
4.7.3. Multi Home Signalling - Approach . 283
4.7.4. Multi Home Signalling - Run In 283
4.7.5. ATO/ATP Multi Home Signalling 284
4.7.6. ATO Docking and Starting . 284
4.8. AUTOMATIC TRAIN CONTROL (ATC) 286
4.8.1. Introduction 286
4.8.2. Definition of ATC . 286
4.8.3. The ATC Package . 286
4.8.4. Moving Block . 288
4.9. ROUTE SIGNALLING 289
4.9.1. Junctions . 289
4.9.2. Route and Track Locking . 289
4.9.3. Signals at Junctions . 290
4.9.4. Interlocking . 291
4.9.5. Route Signalling - The Signalman's Display . 291
4.9.6. Route Set-up . 292
4.9.7. Train Movement Sequences . 29312
4.10. SINGLE LINE OPERATION 299
4.10.1. Introduction 299
4.10.2. One Engine In Steam . 299
4.10.3. Single Line Operation in the US . 299
4.10.4. The Timetable . 300
4.10.5. Train Speed Rules (US) 300
4.10.6. Train Spacing . 300
4.10.7. Train Orders 300
4.10.8. Track Warrants 301
4.10.9. Unsignalled Operations in the US . 302
4.10.10. Centralised Traffic Control (CTC) . 302
4.10.11. Single Line Operation (UK) 302
4.10.12. Staff and Ticket System . 303
4.10.13. Electric Token Block 303
4.10.14. Radio Electronic Token Block (RETB) . 304
4.11. US RAILROAD SIGNALLING . 306
4.11.1. Basic Differences (UK-US): 306
4.11.2. US Signal Layouts 308
4.11.3. Precedence 309
4.11.4. Train Orders and Track Warrants 309
4.11.5. Signalling Commands 309
4.11.6. Interlocking Signals . 310
4.11.7. Types of Signals . 312
4.11.8. The Imposition of ATS/ATC . 314
4.11.9. Types of ATS/ATC 314
5.RAILWAY STATION DESIGN 317
5.1. Introduction . 317
5.2. Background 317
5.3. Station and Crossing Safety 317
5.4. Platforms 31813
5.5. Platform Screens and Doors . 319
5.6. Entrances and Exits 321
5.7. Passenger Information . 323
5.8. Toilets . 325
5.9. Concessions 325
5.10. Station Design 326
5.11. Side Platform Station . 326
5.12. Island Platform Station . 327
5.13. Elevated Station with Side Platforms . 328
5.14. Elevated Station with Ticket Hall Below Platforms 328
5.15. Lifts and Escalators . 329
5.16. Examples of Good Station Design Features . 330
6. INFRASTRUCTURE 332
6.1. Introduction . 332
6.2. Background 332
6.3. Basic Construction 332
6.4. The Sub-Structure 333
6.5. Ballast . 334
6.6. Track . 334
6.7. Sleepers (Ties) 334
6.8. Rail 337
6.9. Rail Welding . 340
6.10. Gauge . 340
6.11. Modern Track Forms 341
6.12. Ballasted vs Non-Ballasted Track . 341
6.13. Structures . 342
6.14. Gauging 343
6.15. Monuments and Datum Plates 343
6.16. Curves . 343
6.17. Cant 34414
6.18. Turnouts . 344
6.19. Crossings 345
6.20. Types of Turnouts . 346
6.21. Examples of Turnouts . 347
7. GLOSSARY .351
7.1. TRAIN BRAKING GLOSSARY 351
7.2. ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE GLOSSARY 376
7.2.1. Introduction 376
7.2.2. Electric Locomotive Parts 376
7.3. STEAM GLOSSARY 38


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