كتاب Schaum's Outlines Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
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 كتاب Schaum's Outlines Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics

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Schaum's Outlines Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics
Fourth Edition
Ranald V. Giles
Late Professor of Civil Engineering
Drexel Institute of Technology
Jack B. Evett, PhD
Professor of Civil Engineering
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Cheng Liu
Professor of Civil Engineering Technology
The University of North Carolina at Charlotte  

كتاب Schaum's Outlines Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics  S_o_f_12
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS xi
Chapter / PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS 1
Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics. Definition of a Fluid. British Engineering (or
fps) System of Units. International System of Units (SI). Specific or Unit Weight.
Mass Density of a Body. Specific Gravity of a Body. Viscosity of a Fluid. Vapor
Pressure. Surface Tension. Capillarity. Bulk Modulus of Elasticity (E). Isothermal
Conditions. Adiabatic or Isentropic Conditions. Pressure Disturbances.
Chapter 2 FLUID STATICS 13
Introduction. Fluid Pressure. Unit Pressure or Pressure. Difference in Pressure.
Pressure Head h. Pressure Variations in a Compressible Fluid. Vacuum and
Atmospheric Pressure. Absolute and Gage Pressure. Barometers. Piezometers and
Manometers.
Chapter 3 HYDROSTATIC FORCE ON SURFACES 34
Introduction. Force Exerted by a Liquid on a Plane Area. Force Exerted by a
Liquid on a Curved Surface. Hoop or Circumferential Tension. Longitudinal Stress
in Thin-Walled Cylinders. Hydrostatic Forces on Dams.
Chapter 4 BUOYANCY AND FLOTATION 58
Archimedes' Principle. Stability of Submerged and Floating Bodies.
Chapter 5 TRANSLATION AND ROTATION OF LIQUID MASSES 71
Introduction. Horizontal Motion. Vertical Motion. Rotation of Fluid Masses—Open
Vessels. Rotation of Fluid Masses—Closed Vessels.
Chapter 6 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND HYDRAULIC SIMILITUDE 82
Introduction. Dimensional Analysis. Hydraulic Models. Geometric Similitude. Kinematic Similitude. Dynamic Similitude. The Inertia Force Ratio. Inertia-Pressure
Force Ratio. Inertia-Viscous Force Ratio. Inertia-Gravity Force Ratio. InertiaElasticity Force Ratio. Inertia-Surface Tension Ratio. Time Ratios
Chapter 7 FUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID FLOW 102
Introduction. Fluid Flow. Steady Flow. Uniform Flow. Streamlines. Streamtubes.
Equation of Continuity. Flow Nets. Energy and Head. Energy Equation. Velocity
Head. Application of the Bernoulli Theorem. Energy Line. Hydraulic Grade Line.
Power.
Chapter 8 FLOW IN CLOSED CONDUITS 138
Introduction. Laminar Flow. Critical Velocity. Reynolds Number. Turbulent Flow.
Shearing Stress at a Pipe Wall. Velocity Distribution. Loss of Head for Laminar
Flow. Darcy-Weisbach Formula. Friction Factor. Minor Head Losses. Empirical
Equations for Water Flow. Pipe Diagrams.
Chapter 9 COMPLEX PIPELINE SYSTEMS 164
Introduction. Equivalent Pipes. Pipes in Series. Pipes in Parallel. Branching Pipes.
Pipe Networks.
Chapter 10 FLOW IN OPEN CHANNELS 193
Introduction. Steady Uniform Flow. Nonuniform Flow. Laminar Flow. The Chezy
Formula. Coefficient C. Discharge (Q). Lost Head (hi). Vertical Distribution of
Velocity. Specific Energy. Critical Depth. Maximum Unit Flow. For Critical Flow
in Nonrectangular Channels. Nonuniform Flow. Hydraulic Jump. Open-Channel
Flow in Circular Cross Sections. Most Efficient Cross Sections.
Chapter 11 FLOW OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS 234
Introduction. Isothermal Flow. Isentropic Flow. The Convergent Nozzle. Compressible Flow Through a Constriction.
Chapter 12 MEASUREMENT OF FLOW OF FLUIDS 242
Introduction. Pitot Tube. Coefficient of Velocity. Coefficient of Contraction. Coefficient of Discharge. Lost Head. Weirs. Theoretical Weir Formula. Francis Formula.
Bazin Formula. Fteley and Stearns Formula. The Triangular Weir Formula. The
Trapezoidal Weir Formula. For Dams Used as Weirs. Time to Empty Tanks. Time
to Empty Tanks. Time to Establish Flow.
Chapter 13 FORCES DEVELOPED BY MOVING FLUIDS 276
Introduction. The Impulse-Momentum Principle. The Momentum Correction Factor ft. Drag. Lift. Total Drag Force. Drag Coefficients. Lift Coefficients. Mach
Number. Boundary Layer Theory. Flat Plates. Water Hammer. Supersonic Speeds.
Chapter 14 FLUID MACHINERY 312
Fluid Machinery. For Rotating Channels. Water Wheels, Turbines, Pumps, and
Blowers. Specific Speed. Efficiency. Cavitation. Propulsion by Propellers. Propeller
Coefficients.CONTENTS ix
Appendix TABLES AND DIAGRAMS 335
Table 1 (A) Approximate Properties of Some Gases 335
(B) Some Properties of Air at Atmospheric Pressure 335
(C) Mechanical Properties of Water at Atmospheric Pressure . . . . 336
Table 2 Specific Gravity and Kinematic Viscosity of Certain Liquds 337
Table 3 Frictional Factors / for Water Only 338
Table 4 Typical Lost Head Items 339
Table 5 Values of K 340
Table 6 Some Values of Hazen-Williams Coefficient C 340
Table 7 Discharge Coefficients for Vertical Sharp-Edged Circular Orifices . . 341
Table 8 Some Expansion Factors Y for Compressible Flow Through Flow
Nozzles and Venturi Meters 342
Table 9 A Few Average Values of n for Use in the Kutter and Manning
Formulas and m in the Bazin Formula 342
Table 10 Values of C from the Kutter Formula 343
Table 11 Values of Discharge Factor K in Q = (K/n)y*/3Sl/2 for Trapezoidal
Channels 344
Table 12 Values of Discharge Factor K' in Q = ( K f / n ) b * / 3 S } / 2
for Trapezoidal Channels 345
Diagram A-l Friction Factors / 346
Diagram A-2 Friction Factors / 347
Diagram B-l Flow Chart for Hazen-Williams Formula, C = 100 348
Diagram B-2 Pipe Diagram: Hazen-Williams Equation (C = 120),British
Engineering System 349
Diagram B-3 Pipe Diagram: Hazen-Williams Equation (C = 120), International
System 350
Diagram B-4 Pipe Diagram: Manning equation (n — 0.013) British Engineering
System 351
Diagram B-5 Pipe Diagram: Manning equation (n — 0.013) International System . 352
Diagram C Pipe Orifices 353
Diagram D Flow Nozzles 354
Diagram E Venturi Meters 355
Diagram F Coefficient of Drag vs Re 356
Diagram G Drag Coefficients for Smooth, Flat Plates 357
Diagram H Drag Coefficients for Supersonic Velocities 358
INDEX 359
Index
Absolute pressure, 14, 18
Absolute viscosity, 3
Acceleration, linear, 71
Acoustic velocity, 5, 259
Adiabatic conditions, 5, 119
Archimedes' principle, 58
Atmospheric pressure, 14, 18
Continuity equation, 103, 107, 109
Contracted weir, 243-245
Convergent nozzle, 235
Critical depth, 195,211
Critical flow, 195, 196, 211, 213
Critical pressure ratio, 235
Critical specific energy, 211
Critical velocity, 138, 211
Barometers, 14
Bazin formula, 194, 244
Bernoulli theorem, 105, 106, 316
Blowers, 312, 314
Boundary layer theory, 278
Branching pipes, 165
British Engineering system of units, 1
Broad-crested weir, 245, 263
Buckingham Pi Theorem, 82, 89-92
Bulk modulus of elasticity, 5
values of, 336
Buoyancy, 58
center of, 58
Buoyant force, 58
Dams:
forces on, 35
stability of, 35
Darcy-Weisbach formula, 140
Density (see mass density)
Differential manometer, 15
Dimensional analysis, 82-84
Discharge factors, 344, 345
Discharge relation, 313
Drag, 277
coefficients, 277, 356-358
Dynamic similitude, 83
Dynamic viscosity, 3
values of, 335, 336
Capillarity, 4, 11
Cauchy number, 84
Cavitation, 314
Celerity, 279, 304, 305
Center of buoyancy, 58
Center of gravity, 34, 35, 58
Center of pressure, 34, 37, 42
Chezy formula, 193, 197
Cipolletti weir, 245
Coefficients:
contraction, 242
discharge, 242
values of, 341
drag, 277, 356-358
flow nozzle, 354
lift, 277
orifice, 341, 353
propeller, 315
velocity, 242
Venturi meter, 355
Complex pipeline system, 164-167
Compressible flow, 107, 109, 118, 234-237
Conservation of mass, 102
Constrictions, 236
Efficiency:
for pumps, 314
for turbines, 314
Empirical equations for water flow, 142, 143
Energy:
equation, 105
kinetic, 104, 115
line, 106
potential, 104
pressure, 105
specific, 195
Equivalent pipes, 164
Euler number, 83, 92
Euler's equation, 118
Expansion factors, 342
Finley and Stearns formula, 244
Flexural formula, 35
Floating bodies, stability of, 58
Flotation, 58
Flow:
in closed conduits, 138-143
359360
INDEX
Flow (Cont.):
compressible, 107, 109, 118, 234-237
critical, 195, 196, 211, 213
gradually varied, 221-224
incompressible, 107, 109, 118
irrotational, 102
isentropic, 5, 234
isothermal, 5, 118, 234
laminar, 102, 138, 140, 193, 199, 299, 300
maximum unit, 195
measurement of, 242-245
nets, 104, 112
nonuniform, 102, 103, 193, 196, 217
one-dimensional, 102
in open channels, 193-197
rotational, 102
sonic, 235, 236, 178
steady, 102, 107, 109, 117, 193
subcritical, 195, 212
subsonic, 235, 236, 278
supercritical, 195, 212
supersonic, 278
three-dimensional, 102, 109
turbulent, 102, 138, 139, 195
two-dimensional, 102, 112
types of, 224
uniform, 102, 103, 193
unsteady, 102, 109
Fluid Machinery, 312-315
Forces:
buoyant, 58
on curved surfaces, 34
on dams, 35
developed by fluids in motion, 276-280
on moving objects, 285, 286
on plane surfaces, 34
Francis formula, 244
Friction factor, 141
values of, 338, 346, 347
Friction velocity, 139
Froude number, 84, 93, 195
Fundamentals of fluid flow, 102-107
Gage pressure, 10, 14, 18
Gas constant, 2
values of, 335
Geometric similitude, 82
Gradually varied flow, 221-224
Hardy Cross method, 166
Hazen-Williams formula, 142, 164, 166, 167
coefficient of, 340
flow chart, 348
Hazen-Williams formula (Cont.):
pipe diagram, 349, 350
Head:
elevation, 105
pressure, 14, 105
velocity, 105, 106
Head loss, 140, 194, 243, 339, 340
friction, 140, 145
minor, 142
values of, 339, 340
Hoop tension, 35
Hydraulic grade line, 107
Hydraulic jump, 196, 223
Hydraulic models, 82
Hydraulic radius, 138
Hydraulic similitude, 82-84
Hydrometer, 60
Hydrostatic force on dams, 35
Hydrostatic force on surfaces, 34, 35
Ideal fluid, 8, 9
Impulse-momentum, 276
Incompressible flow, 107, 109, 118
Inertia-elasticity force ratio, 84
Inertia force ratio, 83
Inertia-gravity force ratio, 84
Inertia-pressure force ratio, 83
Inertia-surface tension ratio, 84
Inertia-viscous force ratio, 83
International System of units, 1
Irrotational flow, 102
Isentropic conditions, 5, 234
Isothermal conditions, 5, 118, 234
Jet propulsion, 291, 292
Kinematic similitude, 82
Kinematic viscosity, 3
values of, 335, 337
Kinetic energy, 104, 115
Kinetic energy correction factor, 106, 115, 116
Kutter formula, 194
coefficient of, 342, 343
Laminar flow, 102, 138, 140, 193, 199, 299, 300
Lift, 277
coefficient, 277
Longitudinal stress, 35
Losses:
entrance, 142
exit, 142INDEX 361
Losses (Cont.):
gradual contraction, 142
gradual expansion, 142
head, 140, 142, 194, 243, 339, 340
minor, 142
sudden contraction, 142
sudden expansion, 142
values of, 339, 340
Mach number, 84, 93, 235, 278
Manning formula, 142, 194, 208
coefficient of, 342
pipe diagrams, 351, 352
Manometers, 15
differential, 15
Mass density, 2
values of, 335, 336
Mean velocity, 200
Metacenter, 58
Minor head losses, 142
values of, 339, 340
Moment of inertia, 34
Momentum, 102
Momentum correction factor, 276, 280
Moody diagram, 346
Most efficient cross sections, 197, 198, 210, 211
Newtonian equation, 83
Newtonian fluids, 3, 8
Nonuniform flow, 102, 103, 193, 196, 217
Nozzles, 235, 256
coefficient of, 342, 354
Poises, 3
Powell formula, 194
Power, 107, 319
Power relation, 313
Pressure, 13-15
absolute, 14, 18
atmospheric, 14, 18
center of, 34, 37, 42
fluid, 13
gage, 10, 14, 18
stagnation, 129
unit, 13
vapor, 4
Pressure distribution, 5
Pressure head, 14, 105
Propeller coefficients, 315
Propeller propulsion, 314, 329
Properties:
of air, 335
of gases, 335
of liquids, 337
of water, 336
Propulsion:
jet, 291, 292
propeller, 314, 329
rocket, 292
Pumps, 312, 314
cavitation, 314
efficiency, 314
impeller, 315, 318
power, 319
specific speed, 313, 320
speed factor, 312
unit speed, 312
One-dimensional flow, 102
Open channels, 193—197
Orifices, 245, 290
coefficient of, 341, 353
Piezometers, 15
Pipe diagrams, 143, 349-352
Pipe networks, 166
Pipes:
branching, 165
diagrams, 348-352
equivalent, 164
networks, 166
in parallel, 164
rough, 140
in series, 164
smooth, 140
Pilot tube, 242, 246
Rectangular weir, 243, 260
Reynolds number, 83, 85, 92, 138
Rocket propulsion, 292
Rotation of liquid masses:
in closed vessels, 71
in open vessels, 71
Rotational flow, 102
Saybolt seconds, 3
Shear velocity, 139
Shearing stress at pipe wall, 139, 145
Similitude:
dynamic, 83
geometric, 82
kinematic, 82
Specific energy, 195, 212, 213
Specific gravity, 2
values of, 337362 INDEX
Specific heat, 5
Specific heat ratio, 236
values of, 335
Specific speed, 313, 320
Specific weight, 2
values of, 335, 336
Speed factor, 312
Speed relation, 312
Stability:
of dams, 35
of floating bodies, 58
of submerged bodies, 58
Stagnation pressure, 129
Steady flow, 102, 107, 109, 117, 193
Stokeses, 3
Streamline, 103
Streamtube, 103
Subcritical flow, 195, 212
Submerged bodies, stability of, 58
Supercritical flow, 195, 212
Supersonic speeds, 280
Suppressed weir, 243-245, 262, 268
Surface tension, 4, 10, 11
values of, 336
Three-dimensional flow, 102, 109
Time ratios, 84
Translation of liquid masses, 71
Trapezoidal weir, 245
Triangular weir, 244, 261
Turbine, 312, 313
efficiency, 314
power delivered, 319
runner, 316
specific speed, 320
speed factor, 319
unit speed, 312
Turbulent flow, 102, 138, 139, 195
Two-dimensional flow, 102, 112
Types of open-channel flow, 224
Uniform flow, 102, 103, 193
Unit discharge, 313
Unit power, 313
Unit speed, 312
Unsteady flow, 102, 109
Vacuum, 14
Vapor pressure, 4
values of, 336
Velocity:
coefficient of, 242
critical, 138,211
distribution, 139, 195, 199
friction, 139
mean, 200
shear, 139
supersonic, 280
Vena contracta, 254
Venturi meter, 256
coefficient of, 355
Vessels:
rotating, 71
translating, 71
Viscosity, 3
absolute, 3
dynamic, 3
kinematic, 3
values of, 335-337
Water hammer, 279
Water wheels, 312
Weber number, 84, 93
Weirs, 243-245
broad-crested, 245, 263
Cipoletti, 245
contracted, 243-245
formulas for, 243-245
rectangular, 243, 260
suppressed, 243-245
trapezopidal, 245
triangular, 244, 261


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