كتاب Modern Machining Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب Modern Machining Technology

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عدد المساهمات : 16336
التقييم : 28204
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Modern Machining Technology  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Machining Technology    كتاب Modern Machining Technology  Emptyالإثنين 13 يوليو 2020, 1:30 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Machining Technology
Advanced, Hybrid, Micro Machining and Super Finishing Technology
Bijoy Bhattacharyya , Biswanath Doloi  

كتاب Modern Machining Technology  M_m_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Index
Note: Page numbers followed by f indicate figures and t indicate tables.
A
Abrasion action, 38
Abrasive assisted advanced machining, 540
abrasive water jet machining, 540–552
electrical discharge machining, 552–556
electrochemical machining, 556–558
Abrasive feeding system, 87, 101–103
Abrasive flow finishing (AFF)
advantages, 686
applications
gears, 688
micro-bores, 688
micro-channels, 688
nozzles, 688
basic working principle, 679–680
challenges, 686–687
disadvantages, 686
finishing solutions, high-tech industries,
678
fixtures, 682
low material removal rate, 678
machine, 684f, 742
material removal process, 678
media, 682
process parameters
abrasive media flow rate, 684
abrasive media viscosity, 685
abrasive particle size and concentration,
685
extrusion pressure, 683
number of cycles, 685
Abrasive fluidized bed (AFB) machining,
101–104, 104f
Abrasive grain diameter
rotary ultrasonic machining, 63–66, 65f
stationary ultrasonic machining
circularity error of larger diameter,
59–60, 59f
circularity error of smaller hole
diameter, 60f
material removal rate, 52–53, 53f
overcut of larger diameter, 55–57, 56f
overcut of smaller diameter, 55–57, 56f
Abrasive impregnated tool, 50–51
Abrasive jet machining (AJM), 10, 79, 86f,
511, 597
abrasive feeder, 87
abrasive types for, 88–90
advantages of, 95
applications of, 96
cryogenic, 99, 101f
dimple appearance during, 97–98, 97f
fluidized bed, 101–104, 104f
fundamentals, 80, 80f
gas propulsion system, 86–87
helical micro-channels, 98, 99f
kinetic energy of single abrasive particle,
82
limitations of, 95–96
machining chamber, 87
material removal mechanism, 80–86, 81f
micro-abrasive jet machining, 101, 102f
mixing chamber, 87
nozzle, 87–88, 89f
process parameters, material removal rate,
90–91, 91f
abrasive flow rate, 91–92, 91f, 93f
constant mixing ratio, 92, 93f
grain size, 91–92, 91f, 93f
mixing ratio on, 91–92, 92f
nozzle pressure, 92, 93f
stand-off distance on width of cut,
93–95, 94f
variation of abrasives and ceramic
workpiece, 97–98, 98f
spring mask and helical channel, 98,
100f
types and sizes of abrasive particle, 88–90
vertical set-up, 90f
Abrasive parameters, 545
745Abrasive slurry concentration
circularity error of larger diameter, 60, 61f
material removal rate, 53, 54f
overcut of larger diameter, 57, 57f
Abrasive slurry supply unit, 46–47
Abrasive water jet machining (AWJM), 511,
540–552
advantages of, 550–551
application of, 551–552
catcher, 544
cutting head, 543
high pressure water generation system,
543
limitations of, 551
material removal mechanisms of,
541–542, 542t
motion control unit, 544
process parametric studies on machining
performance, 545–550
setup, 543–545
workpiece holding table, 544
Accuracy, electrolyte, 418–419
Acid electrolyte, 430–431, 442
Acoustic emission (AE) sensor, 120
Acousto-optic Q switch, 285–286, 285f
Activation overpotential, 394
Additive processing technique, 694
Advanced engineering materials, 3
Advanced finishing process, 6, 676–677,
688, 716, 722
Advanced machining processes, 3–7, 10
Advanced manufacturing technology
(AMT), 483–484
Aerial density, 702–704
Air injection, 374
Air plasma cutting technology, 244–245
Air plasma torch, 250, 251f
Alternating current (AC), 170–171
Alumina, 260–262, 301
laser drilled hole on, 294, 295f
laser mark of logo on, 322, 324f
Aluminum (Al), 693–694
Aluminum alloy, 185, 260–261, 300–301,
357–358
Aluminum interconnects, 705
Aluminum oxide. See Alumina
Aluminum titanate, 308
Ammonium persulfate, 376–377
Anions, 386
Anisotropic etching technique, 355
Anode, 386
dissolution, 417, 427
reaction at, 388, 514–516
Arc discharge, 489
Armor etching process, 374–375
Assisted flushing, 181–185, 184f
Atomic scale processing, 128
Automated plasma cutting, 259–260
Automatic wire threader (AWT), 205
Automation of data exchanges, 5
Auxiliary electrode unit, 523
Axisymmetric sinusoidal wave channels, 152
B
Barreling effect, 218
Beam current, 145
Beam overlap, 146
Beam parameters, 142–146
Benzotriazole (BTA), 705
Bernoulli’s Principle, 679
Biological tools, focused ion beam
technique, 152
Bio-resorbable polymer, 631–632, 632f
Blasting erosion arc machining (BEAM),
510
Boron carbide (B4C), 46, 47t, 71
Boundary element method (BEM), 424
Brittleness, 185, 324–325
Bruggeman’s equation, 402–403
Bubble generation, 401–404
C
Capillary drilling (CD), 430
Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, 274–275,
275f
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)
composite materials, 66, 69, 77, 303
Carbonyl iron (CI), 726
Carbonyl iron particles (CIPs), 725–726
Catcher, water jet machining, 111
Cathode, 386
cartridge, 334–335
reaction at, 389, 513–514
746 IndexCathodic tool
electrodes and sinusoidal vibration
motion with, 501–502
rectangular pulsed supply voltage and
vibration with, 499–500
Cation, 386–387
Cavitation, 419
Cavity mirror, 273–275, 283–285
Cell wall cutting tool (CWCT), 152–153
Chemical blanking process, 374
Chemical etching process, 690–691
Chemical interaction, 466
Chemical machining (CM), 10–11, 11t,
367–368, 466
advancement in, 382–383
advantages and limitations of, 379–380
applications of, 380–381
chemical blanking, 374
chemical milling, 374–378
coating with masking material, 370
environmental issues, 383
etching, 370
job preparation, 369
laser assisted, 577–578
material removal by, 369f
photochemical machining, 378–379
process parameters of, 371–373
scribing of the mask, 370
setup, 370f
working principle, 368–370
Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP),
690, 694
Chemical mechanical plasma polishing
(CMPP), 739
Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), 734
advantages, 701–702
applications, 705–707
basic principle of, 691–697
chemical etching, 690–691
defects of
corrosion, 705
dishing, 702
erosion, 704, 704f
scratching, 704
hybrid finishing process, 690–691
mechanical abrading, 690–691
metal, 690–691
planarization technique, 690
polysilicon, 690–691
process parameters, 699–700
semiconductor industry, 690–691
setup details, 697–699, 697f
ultra-precision polishing, 690
Chemical micromachining (CMM),
601–602
Chemical milling, 367, 374–378, 376f
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 693,
695–696
Chemo-mechanical and magnetorheological finishing, 706, 706f
Chirped pulse amplification (CPA), 328
Chronological development, 1–3
CIM. See Computer integrated
manufacturing (CIM)
CIPs. See Carbonyl iron particles (CIPs)
Circularity error of larger diameter (CELD),
59–60
abrasive grain diameter on, 59–60, 59f
abrasive slurry concentration, 60, 61f
power rating on, 60, 61f
tool feed rate on, 62, 62f
Circularity error of smaller hole diameter
(CESD), 59–60, 60f
Citric acid, 412–413
Cleaning masking material, 370
Closed loop control system, 406
Closed-loop wire tension control system,
223
CMP. See chemical mechanical
planarization (CMP)
Coated wire electrode, 219–221
Colliding water jets (CWJ), 121
Computer aided design (CAD) model,
74–75, 206, 208
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM),
238–239
Computer numerical control (CNC)
system, 2, 5, 136–137, 139, 714
abrasive jet machining, 87
electrical discharge machining system,
186
plasma arc cutting system, 260–261
water jet machining, 109–110, 118
Concentration overpotential, 394
Index 747Condenser, 135–136
Constant current (CC), 406
Constant mixing ratio, 92, 93f
Constant voltage (CV), 406
Continuous wave (CW), 267–268,
274–275, 278
Control unit, stationary ultrasonic
machining, 47–48
Conventional machining, 9–10, 12–15, 27,
163–164, 350–352, 462, 466
Conversion zone, 6
Coolant supply unit, 51–52
Copper, 382, 411
Copper interconnects, 706
Copper vapor deposition (CVD),
695–696
Copper vapor laser (CVL), 329, 329f
Corner radius, 217
Cos? method, 420–422, 421f
Coupler, stationary ultrasonic machining, 43
Crossed flow path, 408, 408f
Crushed glass, 88–90
Cryogenic abrasive jet machining (CAJM),
99, 101f
Cupric chloride, 376–377
Current density, 473
Current efficiency, 392, 416f
Cutting force, 66–67, 67f
Cutting operation, water jet machining, 117
Cutting parameters, 545
Cutting tools, focused ion beam technique,
151, 152f
Cyclotron frequency, 132–133
D
Damascene process, 694, 695f
Data acquisition unit, 51
Deburring operation, 118
Decomposition potential, 395
Demasking, 377
Dental ceramics
diamond grinding on, 75–76, 76f
rotary ultrasonic machining on, 75–76,
76f
De-oxidizing solutions, 375–376
Dew point meter (DPM), 736–737
Diamond grinding (DG), 26, 75–76, 76f
Dielectrics, 180–184
constant, 707
fluid, 168–169, 180–181, 618
flushing, 181–184
assisted, 184, 184f
emersion, 184
jet, 183, 184f
pressure, 183, 183f
suction, 182, 183f
flushing of, 181–185
gaseous based, 181
hydrocarbon oil based, 181
physical properties, 181, 182t
supply unit, 205–206
types, 181
water based, 181
Die sinking electrical discharge machining
machine, 170, 172f
Die-sinking micro-electro discharge
machining, 614
Diode laser, 277–279, 278–279f
Dip-masking process, 376–377
Direct current (DC), 170–171, 274–275
Direct injection (DI), 688
Direct numerical control (DNC), 2
Direct writing technique, 624–625
Discharge energy, 195–196
Discharge reaction force, 214–215
DPM. See dew point meter (DPM)
Drilling operation, water jet machining,
118
Dual damascene process, 694–695, 696f
Dual gas plasma torch, 251
Dummy fill method, 702–704, 703f
Duoplasmatron ion beam sources, 133–134,
133f
Dwell time, 146
Dynamometer, 51
E
Eccentric cam mechanism, 719–720
Elastic emission machining (EEM)
advanced optics fields, 709
advantages, 714
applications, 714
basic working principle, 709–710
mirror finish surface, 709
748 Indexnon-contact ultra-precision machining
process, 709
process parameters, 712–713
setup details, 711–712, 712–713f
ultra-fine powders, 709
Electrical circuitry, 523, 525–526, 525f
Electrical conductivity, 181–185, 220–221,
287
Electrical discharge grinding (EDG), 229
Electrical discharge machining (EDM), 11,
27
abrasive assisted, 552–556
advancement in, 238–241
advantages, 234–235
alloying and coating with, 239–240
applications, 237–238
basic scheme of, 166, 166f
carbon nanofiber-assisted micro, 555f
conventional, 555f
die sinking machine, 170, 172f
discharge current waveform vs.
machining characteristics, 197–198,
198f
discharge spot, 168, 168f
dry, 239
energy distribution, 169, 169f
environmental impacts of, 235–237
equipment, 170–187
control system, 177–180, 177f
dielectric system, 180–184
gap voltage and current waves,
171–174, 173f
power supply, 170–176
resistance-capacitance relaxation
circuit, 171–174, 173f
rotary impulse circuit, 174, 174f
sub units, 170, 171f
tool electrode, 185–187
transistor type controlled pulse circuit,
174, 175f
feedback loops for adaptive control in,
177–178, 177f
gap phenomena in, 167, 167f
generalized approaches for, 193–195, 194f
hazard potentials of, 235–236, 236f
laser assisted, 576–577
limitations, 235
machining accuracy, 199–203
material removal, 167–169
for pulse generator circuit, 192–193
at single discharge, 188–189
and surface finish for RC circuit,
189–191
vs. micro electro discharge machining,
614–618, 615t
in modern manufacturing industry, 484
nonconducting materials, machining of,
240–241
overcut, 200–201, 201f
parameters on machining characteristics,
195–199
peak current
on material removal rate, 195–196,
196f
on relative wear ratio, 196, 196f
on surface roughness, 197, 197f
polarity, influence of, 199
power supply and control system,
238–239
surface finish, 191–192
surface integrity, 201–203
taper, 200, 200f
thermal interaction, 464–466
tool design and fabrication, 239
types, 170, 170f
vibration assisted, 560–564
voltage and current waveforms, 179, 179f
wire electrical discharge machining,
203–229
Electrical discharge phenomena, 516–518,
519f
Electrical power supply system, 525
Electric discharge grinding (EDG), 15–16
Electrochemical arc machining (ECAM),
483–484
advancements in, 510–511
advantages and limitations, 509
amplitude of tool oscillation, 492
applications, 509–510
electrochemical dissolution process in,
486, 487f
electro-discharge erosion in, 488
material removal rate in, 494f, 495–502
parameters on machining characteristics,
502–508
process capabilities of, 509
Index 749Electrochemical arc machining (ECAM)
(Continued)
process variants of, 510f
scheme of, 490f
set-up details, 489–495
working principle of, 484–489
Electrochemical deburring, 433–434, 433f
Electrochemical deposition (ECD), 693
Electrochemical discharge grinding
(ECDG), 539
Electrochemical discharge machining
(ECDM), 15–16, 511–512
advancements in, 538–540
advantages and limitations, 537–538
applications, 538, 538f
auxiliary electrode unit, 523
electrical discharge phenomena in,
516–518
electrochemical reaction mechanism in,
513
electrolyte supply system, 524
electrolytic cell of, 514f
input output model of, 520f
inter electrode gap control unit, 524
job holding and feeding unit, 522
machining chamber, 521
material removal rate in, 526–528
overcut and machining depth criteria in,
531–536
parameters on machining characteristics,
528–531
process capabilities of, 536–537
reaction at anode, 514–516
reaction at cathode, 513–514
set-up details, 521–526, 521f
thermal spalling phenomena in, 518
tool holding and feeding unit, 522
tool wear in, 519–520
triplex hybrid methods, 537f, 539
working principle of, 512–520
Electrochemical discharge turning (ECDT),
538–539
Electrochemical dissolution (ECD)
amplitude of tool vibration on, 504–505,
505f, 507f
in electrochemical arc machining, 486,
487f
equivalent circuit of, 525–526, 525f
machining voltage on, 504, 504f
material removal mechanism of, 471–472,
487f
partitioning effects of, 501–502
working principle of, 484–486
Electrochemical drilling, 427–432, 429f
Electrochemical grinding (ECG), 15–16,
447–448, 447f, 467, 483
advancements in, 481–483
advantages and limitations, 480–481
applications of, 481
brazed diamond wheel in, 483
material removal rate in, 468f, 469,
476–478
for micro-hole grinding, 482f
process capabilities of, 479–480
set-up details, 469–471, 470f
working principle of, 468–469
Electrochemical honing, 448–449, 448f
Electro-chemical interaction, 466
Electrochemical machining (ECM), 10–11,
11t, 27, 385–386, 466–467
abrasive assisted, 556–558, 557f
accuracy, 418–419
advancement in, 453–456
advantages and limitations of, 452
applications of, 453
control of end gap, 454
different variants of, 427–450
drilling techniques, 432t
electrolysis, principles of, 386–387
environmental impacts of, 450–452
equipment details, 404–407
fundamental principle of, 486–487
hazardous wastes, 451f
heat and bubble generation effects,
401–404
hybridization, 456
kinematics and dynamics of, 395–401
laser assisted, 577–578
on machining performances, 413–417
micro, 455
model development, 454
numerical control, 455
power supply, 491
process characteristic of, 414f
750 Indexwith pulsed power supply, 454
setup with different sub units, 404–405,
404f
surface integrity, 417–418
tool design, 419–427, 454
tool material, 411–413
vibration assisted, 564–567, 565f
wire, 456, 639–640, 645f
working principle, 387–395
Electrochemical micromachining (EMM),
601–602, 632–633
advantages and challenges, 643–644
applications, 644–646
basic mechanism, 633–635
classification of, 637f
electrochemical machining vs., 641, 642t
high-aspect-ratio microcolumn, 646f
influence of process parameters, 641–643
jet, 638
maskless, 638
microdrilling, 638
and micro-electro discharge machining
milling in sequence, 661
micro hemisphere fabricated by, 644–646,
645f
microtool feed rate, 643
micro tools, 640–641
sequential machining of, 662f
setup details, 635–641
stages of, 651f
3D, 639
through mask, 636–637
types of, 636
Electrochemical milling, 434–439, 436f
advantages of, 438
challenges of, 439
Electrochemical penetration, 473
Electrochemical sawing, 446–447, 446f
Electrochemical turning, 449–450, 450f
Electrode potential, 394
Electro-discharge erosion (EDE), 484–486
in electrochemical arc machining, 488
feed rate on, 506, 506f
machining voltage on, 508f
material removal due to, 507
partitioning effects of, 501–502
pronounced effect on, 506–507
Electro discharge grinding (EDG), 229
conventional, 232, 233f
milling by, 233, 233f
modified, 232, 233f
process mechanism, 230–231, 230f
process parameters, influence of, 234
setup, 231–232, 231f
types, 232–233, 233f
Electro discharge milling, 233
Electro discharge phenomenon, 170
Electrolysis, principles of, 386–387, 386f
Electrolyte
for different metals machining, 413t
in electrochemical arc machining, 491
flow paths and insulation, 407–411, 409f
flow rate, 417f, 469–471
flow system, 405, 491
flow velocity, 401, 402f, 415–416, 418
influence on current efficiency,
416f
resistance, 473
splashing, 451–452
supply system, 524
tool material and, 411–413
Electrolyte-gas medium, 402–403
Electromigration, 693–694
Electron beam machining (EBM), 5, 11,
106–107, 126, 464–466, 511
advancements in, 356–359
advantages, 350–352
applications, 351t, 353–356
characteristics, 127t
colliding phenomena of incident
electrons, 336–337, 337f
drilling, 353
electron beam generation, 333–336
electron gun, 334–335, 334–335f
integrated circuit fabrication, 355–356,
356f
limitations, 352
material removal mechanism in, 336–338
multi pulse drilling, 348
perforation mechanism, 337–338, 338f
perforation of thin shit, 353–354, 354f
power requirements for
metals, 347, 347f
non-metals, 347, 348f
Index 751Electron beam machining (EBM)
(Continued)
process parameters, influence of,
345–350, 347–349f
rapid prototyping process, 357–358, 357f
setup, 338–340, 339f
slotting, 354
theoretical consideration
aberrations on maximum current
density, 342–343
current density, 341–342
material removal, 343–345
Electron beam melting process, 358–359
Electron beam perforation, 354f
Electron beam technique, 355–356
Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR),
132–133, 133f
Electron gun
configuration, 334–335, 334f
normal triode system, 335, 335f
parameters of, 340
pierce gun configuration, 335, 335f
Steigerwald gun configuration, 335, 335f
Electro-pneumatic control unit, 41f, 48
Electropolishing (EP), 466
Electrostatic deposition, 376–377
Electrostatic lens, 137, 139
Electrostream drilling (ESD), 431
Emersion flushing, 181–185
Energy balance equation, 281
Energy distribution, in electrical discharge
machining, 169, 169f
Energy pump, 270
Equilibrium gap, 398
Erosion rate, abrasive jet machining, 85–86
Etchants, 371, 374–375, 377
Etched mobile telephone gasket, 380, 382f
Etched suspension head assemblies, 380,
381f
Etch factor, 368, 368f
Etching operation, 370
Ethylenediaminetetraacitic acid disodium
salt (EDTA-Na2), 412–413
Excimer laser, 267–268, 275–277,
276–277f, 277t, 299, 322
Extreme ultraviolet (EUV), 709, 714
F
Faraday’s law, 387, 392, 437
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), 264
Feed rate of electrode, 493
Femtosecond laser system, 298–299, 629
Ferric chloride, 371, 376–377, 382–383
Fiber Bragg grating, 283–284
Fiber laser, 273, 274t, 289f
Fiber optics, 273, 283–284
Filter regulator lubricating (FRL) unit,
86–87
Finite element method (FEM), 423–427
Flexible magnetic abrasive brass (FMAB),
716
Flow velocity
of electrolyte, 401, 402f
through gap, 403
Fluidized bed assisted abrasive jet machining
(FB-AJM), 101–104
FMAB. See flexible magnetic abrasive brass
(FMAB)
Focused ion beam (FIB), 123, 125, 134, 140,
156, 156f
advantages, 150–151
applications of, 126f, 151–153
controlling factors and parameters,
142f
fabrication of silicon island arrays, 155
functions of, 124
gas cluster ion beam, 137–140,
138–139f
limitations, 151
liquid metal ion sources, 134–135,
134f
material removal, 141
non planar surface, 152
operation, 141f
scan strategy, 147–150, 148f
with SEMZEISS Crossbeam 340, 140f
simulation software, 150
single vs. multiple pass, 149
system setup, 135–137, 136f
“V” shaped milled profile, 149, 149f
Free electron, 333–334
Fuel injection nozzles, 6–7
Fuzzy neural network, 263
752 IndexG
Gallium nitride (GaN), 735, 739
Gas bubble, 168–169, 193, 198–199,
214–215, 224–225
Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB), 123–124,
137–138
characteristics, 138f
setup, 139–140, 139f
Gas filled ion sources (GFIS), 130–131
Gas injection, 147
Gas propulsion system, 86–87
Geomagic Studio12, 74–75
Glass beads, 88–90
Glass grinding, 657–658, 658f
Global planarization technique, 701–702
Gray relational analysis, 258–259
H
Hafnium alloyed electrode, 250
Hard disc drives (HDD), 706–707
Heat affected zone (HAZ), 6, 202, 235, 252,
292, 312, 324–325, 417
Heat energy, 526
Heat flux equation, 193
Heat generation, 401–404
Hemispherical cavity, ultrasonic machining
developed tool and, 74–75, 76f
on hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics, 72–74,
74f
on workpiece, 72–74, 74f
Hertzian contact stresses, 33–34
Hexagonal tool, 44–45, 44–45f
High aspect ratio microchannels, 153
High energy fluid jet machining, 120
High frequency plasma type ion beam
machining, 132, 132f
High specific heat, 180–181
High speed machining test, 357
High-strength-temperature resistant
(HSTR) alloys, 229, 237–238,
483–484
High tolerance plasma arc cutting
(HTPAC), 260–262
Horn, stationary ultrasonic machining, 43
Hot-plasma ion source, 132–133
Hybrid machining process (HMP), 3
abrasive assisted advanced machining,
540–558
advancements in, 582–583
advantages and limitations of, 580–582
by combining different interactions, 465t
electrochemical arc machining, 483–511
electrochemical discharge machining,
511–536
electrochemical grinding, 467–483
laser assisted advanced machining,
570–580
need and basis of classification of,
463–467
vibration assisted advanced machining,
558–570
Hybrid micromachining, 647
classification of, 464f
micro-electrochemical machining and
laser beam machining, 648–651
micro-electro discharge machining and
micro electrochemical machining,
647–648
Hybrid modern machining processes, 15–16
Hydraulic mean diameter, 403
Hydraulic parameters, 545
Hydrocarbon oil, 181, 197, 199, 202–203,
240
Hydrochloric acid, 376–377
Hydrodynamic force, 215
Hydrofluoric acid, 376–377
Hydrogen gas bubbles, 419
Hydrogen peroxide, 376–377
Hydro-magnetically confined plasma arc,
261–262, 262f
I
Incident angle, 130
on sputtering yield, 144, 144f
on surface roughness, 145f
Inclination angle, 87–88
Infrared (IR), 267–268
Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT),
454–455
Integrated circuits (ICs), 326–327, 377–378,
380, 381f, 595, 706–707
Intensifier, 109
Index 753Interelectrode gap (IEG), 468, 494f, 515,
530–531, 531f
control unit, 524
dimension, 493
machined depth, 533–536, 534–536f
on radial overcut, 533, 533f
Interference technique, 625
Inter-layer dielectric (ILD), 701–702, 705–706
Inter-metal dielectric (IMD), 695–696
International business machines (IBM), 694
Ion beam machining (IBM), 5, 10, 123–124
advancement in, 153–156
advantages, 150–151
applications of, 151–153
characteristics, 127t
Duoplasmatron sources, 133–134, 133f
electron cyclotron resonance, 132–133,
133f
focused (see Focused ion beam (FIB))
functions of, 124–126
high frequency plasma type, 132f
ion shower type, 131–132
limitations, 151
material removal mechanism, 126–130,
128f
process parameters, 141–142
beam parameters, 142–146
operation parameters, 146–147
simulation software, 150
types of, 130–134, 131f
Ion dose, 144
Ion energy, on sputtering yield, 143, 143f
Ion-fluence, 144
Ion-flux, 144
Ion shower type, ion beam machining
(IBM), 131–132
Ion species, 142
Ion sputtering, 128–129, 129f
Isobutylene-isoprene copolymers, 376–377
J
Jet electrochemical machining, 578
Jet electrochemical micromachining, 638
Jet electrolytic drilling (JED), 429
Jet flushing, 181–185, 184f
Job material, machinability factors, 4
Job shape complexity, 4, 4f
Joule heating, 401, 442
K
Kaufman ion shower type ion beam
machining, 131–132, 131f
Keller’s reagent, 376–377
Kerf width, 216, 217f, 305, 306f
Krypton arc lamp, 271–272, 283–285
L
Laplace’s equation, 423–425
Laser
beam delivery and focusing
unit, 286
cavity mirror, 285
cutting, 299–307, 302f, 304t
drilling, 292–299, 294–295f
gooving, 307–312, 308f
head, 283
light emission, 268
marking, 317–323, 318f
optical excitation unit, 284
population inversion, 270
Q-switch and RF drive unit, 204–205,
285f
spontaneous emission, 268
stimulated emission, 268, 271f
turning, 312–317, 314–317f
Laser assisted advanced machining (LAAM),
570–580
Laser assisted ceramic machining,
574–575
Laser-assisted etching (LAE), 579–580
Laser assisted mechanical machining
(LAMM), 570–575
Laser assisted milling, 572–574
Laser assisted oxygen flame cutting
(LASOX), 326–327
Laser assisted turning, 571–572
Laser beam helical drilling, 292–294
Laser beam machining (LBM), 5, 11,
106–107, 464–466, 511
advancements of, 328–329
advantages, 324–326
applications, 326–327, 327t
assist gas supply unit, 287–288
carbon dioxide laser generation, 274–275,
275f
cavity mirror, 285
754 Indexcomputer numerical control controller for
X-Y-Z axes movement, 288–289
cooling unit, 287
diode laser generation, 277–279,
278–279f
excimer laser generation, 275–277,
276–277f, 277t
fiber laser generation, 273, 274t, 289f
hybridization, 648–651
laser
beam delivery and focusing unit, 286
beam delivery unit, 283–287
cutting, 299–307, 302–304f, 304t
drilling, 292–299, 294–295f
generation, 283–287
grooving, 307–312, 308–310f
head, 283
light emission, 268
marking, 317–323, 318f, 320–324f
population inversion, 270
spontaneous emission, 268
stimulated emission, 268, 271f
turning, 312–317
types, 267–268, 269t
limitations, 324–326
material removal mechanism in, 279–281,
280–281f
vs. micro laser beam machining, 626–627,
628t
Nd:YAG laser, 271–272, 272t, 272f
optical excitation unit, 284
process parametric studies, 289–323
air pressure, 292
focal spot size, 291, 291f
peak power, 290
pulse duration, 290
pulse frequency, 290
scanning speed, 290
Q-switch and RF drive unit, 285, 285f
vibration assisted, 567–570, 569f
Laser hole drilling, 292–294, 294f
Laser micro ablation plus micro-electrical
discharge machining, 659
Layer-by-layer method, 435–436, 436f
Light amplification by stimulated emission of
radiation (LASER), 266
Light emitting diode (LED), 706–707, 739
Liquid interface, 336–337
Liquid maskant, 376–377
Liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), 130,
134–135, 134f
Longitudinal waves, 24–25
M
Machinability factors, of job material, 4
Machine control unit, 406
Machining
chamber, 87, 521
classification, 5
economy, 9–10
parameters, 12, 13t
technology, 1–3, 2f
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF)
advantages, 721
applications, 721–722
basic working principle, 716–718,
717–718f
ferromagnetic abrasive particles, 716
flexible magnetic abrasive brass, 716
process parameters, 720–721
setup details, 718–720, 720f
Magnetic abrasive flexible brush (MAFB),
716–718
Magnetic field assisted finishing (MFAF),
732–733
Magneto plasma dynamic thruster (MPDT),
263
Magnetoreological abrasive honing
(MRAH), 732–733
Magnetorheological abrasive flow finishing
(MRAFF), 726–728, 727f
Magnetorheological finishing (MRF)
advantages, 731–732
applications, 732–733
basic principle, 724–726, 725f
challenges, 731–732
magneto-rheological abrasive flow
finishing, 724
magnetorheological fluid, 724–726,
726–727f
material removal rate and surface
roughness
abrasive particle concentration effect,
730, 731f
carrier wheel speed effect, 730, 731f
magnetic flux density effect, 729, 729f
Index 755Magnetorheological finishing (MRF)
(Continued)
magnetic particle concentration effect,
729, 730f
process parameters, 728–731
rotary magneto-rheological abrasive flow
finishing, 724
setup details, 727–728
Magnetorheological (MR) fluid, 725–726
Magnetostrictive transducer, 42
Manipulators types, 151
Maskants, 371–373
Maskless electrochemical micromachining,
638
Mask projection technique, 625
Mass flow controller (MFC), 736–737
Mass ratio, 92
Mass transfer, 392
Material applications, 14t
Material removal rate (MRR), 211–213,
279–281, 322, 336–338, 679, 685,
700, 728–729
abrasive jet machining, 80–86, 81f, 90–91,
91f
abrasive flow rate, 91–92, 91f
brittle materials, 83
constant mixing ratio, 92, 93f
ductile materials, 84
grain size, 91–92, 91f, 93f
mixing ratio, 91–92, 92f
nozzle pressure, 92, 93f
stand-off distance on width of cut,
93–95, 94f
variation of abrasives and ceramic
workpiece, 97–98, 98f
amplitude of tool vibration on, 504–505,
505f, 507f
development of, 499
due to electrochemical dissolution, 474
in electrochemical arc machining, 494f,
495–502
in electrochemical discharge machining,
526–528
in electrochemical grinding process,
474–475
in electron beam machining, 336–338
feed rate on, 506, 506f
focused ion beam milling, 141
ion beam machining, 126–130, 128f
laser beam machining, 279–281,
280–281f
machining gap with feed rate, 477, 478f
machining gap with set depth of cut, 477,
479f
machining voltage on, 504, 504f, 508f
mathematical modeling for, 471–472, 495
by mechanical grinding, 475
plasma arc machining, 245–246
process parametric influences on,
476–478
for pulse generator circuit, 192–193
rotary ultrasonic machining, 37–40, 38f,
63–66, 64–65f
with set depth of cut, 477, 478f
at single discharge in electrical discharge
machining, 188–189
stationary ultrasonic machining, 28–37,
29f
abrasive grain diameter, 52–53, 53f
abrasive slurry concentration, 53, 54f
power rating effect on, 53–55, 54f
rotary ultrasonic machining, 37–40, 38f
tool feed rate on, 55, 55f
and surface finish for RC circuit, 189–191
variation with feed rate, 477, 477f
variation with machining voltage, 476f
water jet machining, 107–108
nozzle tip distance effect, 114, 115f
transverse feed rate effect, 113, 114f
water pressure effect, 113, 113f
Mechanical action (MA), 480
Mechanical amplifier, 43
Mechanical assisted electrochemical
grinding process.
See Electrochemical grinding (ECG)
Mechanical grinding process, 467
Mechanical interaction, 464
Mechanical micromachining, 597–599
Mechanical unit, 405
MEMS. See Microelectromechanical
systems (MEMS)
Metal hydroxide, 387–388
Metal inlay technique, 694
Metal matrix composites (MMC), 556–557
756 IndexMetal oxide semiconductor field effective
transistor (MOSFET), 175, 454–455
MFAF. See Magnetic field assisted finishing
(MFAF)
Micro-abrasive jet machining (Micro-AJM)
conventional and novel approach, 101,
102f
set up, 101, 102f
Micro-chipping, 33–34
Microdrilling, 638
Micro electrochemical machining, 455
Micro electrochemical machining
hybridization, 647–651
Micro electro discharge machining
(micro-EDM), 611–612
advancement and challenges, 619–621
applications, 616t, 621–622
basic mechanism, 612–613
drilling, 615
electro discharge machining vs., 614–618,
615t
hybridization, 647–648
influences of process parameters, 618–619
laser micro ablation plus, 659
micro turning and, 657
milling, 615
plus electrochemical micromachining
sequential machining process, 660
plus micro grinding, 657, 659f
problematic areas in, 622f
sequential machining of, 662f
setup details, 613–614, 614f
types of, 614–618
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),
377–378, 383, 706–707
Micro-groove cut
on alumina by Nd:YAG laser, 308–309,
309f
on aluminum titanate, 308, 308f
on polymethyl methacrylate by fiber laser
beam, 309–310, 310f
on Ti-6Al-4V by fiber laser beam,
309–310, 310f
Micro-hole, 181, 292–296, 329, 329f
Micro laser beam machining (micro-LBM),
623–624
advantages and challenges, 630–631
applications, 631–632
basic mechanism, 624–626
influence of process parameters, 627–630
laser beam machining vs., 626–627, 628t
setup details, 626
Micromachining, 18, 100, 199, 229, 233,
235, 237–238
chemical, 601–602
conditions for, 602–603
electrochemical, 601–602, 632–646
hybrid micromachining, 647–651
implementations, 594
mechanical, 597–599
micro electro discharge machining,
611–622
micro laser beam machining, 623–632
micro ultrasonic machining, 603–611
need and basic of classification, 595–602
non-traditional, 596–597, 596f
sequential micromachining processes,
652–667
technology, 3, 6–7
thermal, 599–601
Microsparking, 617
Microsystems technology (MST), 383
Micro turning, and micro-electro discharge
machining, 657
Micro ultrasonic machining (MUSM), 603
advancements and challenges, 609–610
applications, 610–611
basic mechanism, 603–605
influence of process parameters, 607–608
setup details, 605–606
ultrasonic machining vs., 606–607, 607t
Micro wire electro discharge machining,
614
Mill module, upper portion of, 47–48, 47f
Miniaturization requirements, 6
Mixed electrolytes, 412–413
Mixed flow path, 408, 409f
Mixing chamber, 87
Mixing ratio (M), 91–92, 92f
Modern machining methods, 1–2, 4, 6–7,
9–10
accuracy for, 15, 16f, 18
automation of data exchanges, 5
classifications, 10–11, 11t, 19f
Index 757Modern machining methods (Continued)
factors of, 7
hybrid (see Hybrid modern machining
processes)
material applications, 14t
micro features (see Micromachining)
parameters, 12, 13t
process capability, 15, 15t
process economy, 15, 17t
selection scheme for, 12–18
shape complexity of job, 4, 4f
suitability of, 12, 14t
surface finish for, 15, 16f, 18
surface integrity, 6
Molybdenum wire, 219–220, 229
Monte-Carlo simulation, 150
Multichannel plate (MCP), 135–136
Multidiode ytterbium doped fiber laser, 273,
274f, 290f
N
Nano finishing process, 678
Nano lathe, 155–156, 156f
Nano-net, 152–153, 154f
Nano-rotors, 151–152, 153f
Nd:YAG laser, 271–272, 272t, 272f, 282f,
312–313, 314f
Neodymium ion, 283
Neoprene elastomers, 376–377
Nitric acid, 371, 376–377
Non-conventional machining processes,
462, 466
Nonpassivating electrolytes, 412
Nontraditional machining methods, 1–2
Non-transferred arc plasma arc machining
system, 246–247
Nozzle
abrasive jet machining, 87–88, 89f
material removal rate, 92, 93f
set up, 89f
water jet machining, 109
Nozzle tip distance (NTD)
abrasive jet machining, 87–88, 90
material removal rate, 114, 115f
Numerical control (NC), 2
electrochemical machining, 455
O
Objective lens, 135–136
Ohm’s law, 391, 472, 498
One-way abrasive flow finishing process,
679, 680f
Operation parameter
ion beam machining, 146–147
water jet machining, 117–118
Orbital abrasive flow finishing process, 680,
681f
Overcut, 200–201, 201f
Overcut of larger diameter (OLD)
abrasive grain diameter, 55–57, 56f
abrasive slurry concentration, 57, 57f
power rating, 57–58, 58f
tool feed rate, 58–59, 58f
Overcut of smaller diameter (OSD), 55–57,
56f
Overpotential, 394–395
Overvoltage, 394–395
Oxide film laser lithography (OFLL), 580
Oxidized dielectric oil, 181
P
PAP. See Plasma assisted polishing (PAP)
Passivating electrolytes, 412
Penetration velocity, 475
Percussion drilling technique, 292–294
Photochemical machining (PCM),
371–373, 375, 378–379
Photochemical milling process.
See Photochemical machining
(PCM)
Photo etching. See Photochemical
machining (PCM)
Photolithography, 378
Photon generation principle, 270
Photoresist masking method.
See Photochemical machining
(PCM)
Physical vapor deposition (PVD), 693
Piezoelectric transducer (PZT), 41, 634
Plasma, 244–245
Plasma arc cutting (PAC), 244–245
Plasma arc machining (PAM), 248f
advancement in, 261–264
758 Indexadvantages, 259–260
applications, 260–261
historical development of, 244–245, 244f
hydro-magnetically confined, 261–262,
262f
limitations, 259–260
machining rate, 245–246
material removal, 245–246
non-transferred arc, 246–247, 247f
plasma gas supply unit, 249
plasma torch, 249–251, 251f
power supply unit, 248
process parameters, influence of,
252–259, 253–254t, 255–258f, 259t
setup, 247–251, 264f
shielding gas supply unit, 249
transferred arc, 246, 247f
types, 246–247
water-shielded plasma torch, 251, 252f
Plasma assisted polishing (PAP)
advantages, 738–739
applications, 739–740
basic working principle, 734–737
chemical dry polishing method, 734
chemical mechanical polishing, 734
process parameters, 738
setup details, 737, 737f
Plasma beam machining (PBM), 11,
464–466
Plasma source ion implantation (PSII),
123–124
Plasma torch, 249–251
Plastic deformation, 38–39, 107–108
Platinum, 430–431
Polarization curves, 393–394
Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tool,
657–658
Polyurethane sphere, 709–712
Potassium carbonate, 469–471
Powder metallurgy (PM), 187
Powder mixed electrical discharge
machining (PMEDM), 552–556,
553f
Power rating, stationary ultrasonic
machining
circularity error of larger diameter, 60,
61f
material removal rate, 53–55, 54f
overcut of larger diameter, 57–58, 58f
Power supply unit, 406, 491
rotary ultrasonic machining, 50–51
stationary ultrasonic machining, 48–49
Precision machining
operations, 2
requirements, 5
Pre-metal dielectric (PMD), 695–696
Pressure flushing, 183, 183f
Preston’s equation, 700
Printed circuit board (PCB), 118, 377–378,
706–707
Process capability, 15, 15t
Process economy, machining processes, 15,
17t
Pulsating water jet (PWJ), 120
Pulsed wave (PW), 267–268, 274–275,
525f
Pulse electrochemical machining (PECM),
454, 466
Pulverization, 39
Pumping unit, 109
R
Radio frequency (RF), 238–239
Rapid prototyping (RP), 187, 239,
357–359
Raster scan, focused ion beam milling, 147,
148f
Re-circulating pump, 46–47
Rectangular pulsed supply voltage
with cathodic tool, 499–500
waveform, 501–502
Refresh time, 147
Resistance, 472
Resistance-capacitance (RC) relaxation
circuit, 171
Resistance overpotential, 395
Reverse engineering (RE), 74–75
Reverse flow path, 407, 408f
Reverse osmosis (RO) plant, 543
Reynolds number, 403
RF. See Radio frequency (RF)
Root mean square, 712–713, 739
Rotary impulse circuit, 170–174, 174f
Rotary ultrasonic face milling (RUFM), 38
Index 759Rotary ultrasonic machining (RUM), 24,
26, 35–36, 49–50, 50–51f
abrasive bonded tool in, 28
advantages, 68–69
applications of, 69–70
coolant supply unit, 51–52
data acquisition unit, 51
on dental ceramics, 75–76, 76f
fundamental principle of, 26f
limitations, 69
material removal mechanism, 37–40, 38f
operation types for milling, 24
process parameters, 62, 63f
cutting force, 66–67, 67f
material removal rate, 63–66, 64–65f
surface roughness, 66, 66f
tool vibration unit, 50–51
Rotating plate (RP), 736–737
S
SCD. See Single crystal diamond (SCD)
Screen printing technique, 372–373
Semiconductor diode laser, 271–272, 278
Semiconductor fabrication industries,
377–378
Sequential micromachining (SMM)
processes, 652
advantages and challenges, 664–665
applications, 665–667
development, 657–662
energy efficiency oriented, 656
finishing the previously machined
components, 664
machined surface quality oriented, 655
machining time oriented, 655
mechanism, 652–656
microstructure improvement oriented,
656
micro tool making oriented processes,
654
process capabilities of, 663–664
shaping an object, 663
in situ manufacturing of micro tool, 663
Serpentine scan, focused ion beam milling,
147, 148f
Servo feed control, 178–179, 178f
Servo feed mechanism, 178–180
Shallow trench isolation (STI), 701–702
Shape complexity of job, 4, 4f
Shaped tube electrolyte machining (STEM),
431
Shielding gas, 249
Silicon carbide (SiC), 88–90, 97, 549,
682–683, 694–696, 716–718,
724–726, 735f, 739
Silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCR), 406
Silicon nitride (SiN), 301, 694–695,
732–733
Single crystal diamond (SCD), 734,
736–737, 736f, 739
Single laser beam, 307, 312–317
Single lens focused ion beam (FIB) system,
137
Single pulse drilling, 292–294, 348
Single water jet (SWJ), 121
Sinusoidal annulus microchannels, 154f
Sinusoidal pulsed supply voltage waveform,
497–499
Sinusoidal pulsed voltage, 501
Slotting method, 702–704, 703f
Sodium bicarbonate, 88–90
Sodium chloride, 412
Sodium hydroxide, 376–377
Sodium nitrate, 412, 469–471
Sodium nitride, 482
Sodium nitrite, 469–471
Sonic-Mill Manual, 43–44
Spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE),
537
Spark radius, 192
Spin-on glass (SOG), 691
Spiral scan, focused ion beam milling, 147,
148f
Spot size, 145
Sputtering, 126–127
Sputtering rate (S), 129
Sputtering yield, 141
incident angle on, 144, 144f
ion energy on, 143, 143f
Stainless steel, 411
Stand-off distance (SOD), 93–95, 94f,
548–549, 549f
Stationary ultrasonic machining, 25, 40,
40–41f
abrasive slurry supply unit, 46–47
advantages, 67–68
760 Indexapplications of, 69
fundamental principle, 25f
limitations, 68
material removal mechanism, 28–37, 29f
mill module upper portion, 47–48, 47f
power supply unit, 48–49
process parameters
circularity error, 59–62
material removal rate, 52–55, 53–55f
overcut criteria, 55–59, 56f, 58f
and process criteria, 52, 52f
setup specification, 49
tool feeding and control unit, 47–48
tool vibration unit, 41–45, 42f
workpiece holding unit, 45–46, 45–46f
Steady state gap, 498–499
Steigerwald gun configuration, 335f
Steigerwald type electron gun, 335
STI. See Shallow trench isolation (STI)
Stimulated emission, 266–268, 270, 273,
275–276, 278
Stopping and range of ions in matter
(SRIM), 150
Straight flow path, 407, 407f
Stray machining, 410–411, 410f
Suction flushing, 181–185, 183f
Suitable etching solution, 374
Super fine particles (SWC), 621, 623f
Super finishing techniques, 18
Surface engineering, 119
Surface finish, for machining processes, 15,
16f, 18
Surface integrity, 6, 201–203, 417–418
Surface roughness
incident angle on, 145f
machining time on, 146, 146f
rotary ultrasonic machining process
parameters on, 66, 66f
Synthetic sapphire, 109–110
T
Tantalum, 631–632, 632f
Taper, 200, 200f
Taper cutting system, in wire electrical
discharge machining, 213–214
Taylor cone, 134–135
Telescope, 709
Thermal energy, 163–164
Thermal interaction, 464
Thermal micromachining, 599–601
Thermal spalling phenomena, 518
Thermoelectric machining, 11t
3D electrochemical micromachining, 639
Threshold specific processing energy,
128–129
Through mask electrochemical
micromachining, 636–637
Through-material etching, 374
Through-silicon via (TSVs), 707
Titanium, 431–432
Titanium alloy, 295–296, 300–301, 510
Tool electrode, electrical discharge
machining
fabrication and design, 187
materials, 185
tool wear, 185–186, 186f
Tool feed rate
circularity error of larger diameter, 62, 62f
overcut of larger diameter, 58–59, 58f
stationary ultrasonic machining, 47–48,
55, 55f
Tool vibration unit
rotary ultrasonic machining, 50–51
stationary ultrasonic machining, 41–44,
42f
coupler, 43
hexagonal tool, 44–45, 44–45f
horn, 43
transducer, 41
tubular tool, 43–44, 44–45f
Tool wear
electrical discharge machining, 185–186,
186f
electrochemical discharge machining,
519–520
Tool wear ratio (TWR), 195
Traditional machining process, 3, 6
Transducer, 41
magnetostrictive effect, 42
piezoelectric, 41
ultrasonic, 24–25
Transistor type controlled pulse circuit, 174,
175f
Transport of ions in matter (TRIM), 150
Transverse excited atmospheric pressure,
274–275
Index 761Transverse feed rate, 113, 114f
Traveling wire electrochemical discharge
machining (TWECDM), 539
Trim cutting, in wire electrical discharge
machining, 219
Tubular tool, 43–44, 44–45f
TV shadow aperture masks, 380, 381f
2D slice-by-slice method, 154
Two ways abrasive flow finishing process,
679–680, 680f
TWR. See Tool wear ratio (TWR)
U
Ultra high pressure (UHP), 550–551
Ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI), 690,
701–702, 707
Ultra precision finishing techniques, 18
Ultrasonically assisted abrasive flow
machining (UAAFM), 688
Ultrasonic assisted electric discharge
machining (UEDM), 15–16
Ultrasonic machining (USM), 10, 23, 511,
558, 597
advantages, 67–69
applications of, 69–70
developed tool, 70–71, 71f, 74–75, 75f
discovery of, 23
drilled hexagonal hole, 71, 72f
drilled hole entrance and exit, 72, 73f
fundamentals of, 24–26, 25–26f
hemispherical cavity
developed tool and, 74–75, 76f
on hydroxyapatite bio-ceramic, 72–74,
74f
on workpiece, 72–74, 74f
limitations of, 67–69
material removal mechanism, 28–40, 29f,
38f
vs. micro ultrasonic machining, 606–607,
607t
need of, 27–28
operating parameters, 49t
rotary (see Rotary ultrasonic machining
(RUM))
square stepped tool and hole on zirconia,
70–71, 71f
stationary (see Stationary ultrasonic
machining)
stepped hole on zirconia, 70, 71f
tooling material, 27
tools, 23, 43
types of, 24
with/without coating, 71–72, 73f
Ultrasonic transducer, 24–25
Ultrasonic vibratory-rotary tool unit, 50–51
Ultraviolet (UV), 267–268, 275–276
Under liquid laser beam machining
(UL-LBM), 328
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
(UKAEA), 24
Universal product codes (UPC), 317–318
V
Variable frequency drive (VFD), 682
Vibration assisted advanced machining,
558–570
Vibration-assisted electro-discharge
machining (VAEDM), 561
Vibration assisted mechanical machining,
558–560
Voltage-current waveform, 175–177, 176f
Volumetric removal rate (VRR), 396, 472,
480
W
Water injected plasma torch, 251, 252f
Water injection plasma cutting method,
244–245
Water jet machining (WJM), 5, 10,
106–107, 108–109f, 111–112f, 597
abrasive, 540–552
advancement in, 120–121
advantages, 116
applications
cutting operation, 117
deburring operation, 118
drilling operation, 118
removing road stripes, 119
stripping of cable insulation, 119
surface engineering, 119
catcher, 111
laser assisted, 575–576
limitations, 117
762 Indexmaterial removal mechanisms, 107–108
nozzle, 109
process parameters on machining criteria,
112–113, 112t
nozzle diameter effect, 115
nozzle tip distance effect, 114, 115f
number of passes effect, 115
transverse feed rate effect, 113, 114f
water pressure effect, 113, 113–114f
pumping unit, 109
working fluid, 110
Water pressure effect, 113, 113f
Water-to-water heat exchanger, 287
White lead, 374–375
Wire bending, 224
Wire electrical discharge machining
(WEDM), 5, 378, 443–444,
560–564, 562f
advancement in, 228
applications of, 229
coated wire electrode, 219–221
components, 205–208, 206f
composite wire for, 220–221, 221f
corners and radii during corner cutting,
217–218, 218f
dielectric supply system, 207, 207f
features of, 204–205
finishing and accuracy, 215–219
forces acting on wire electrodes, 203–229,
215f
Kerf width, 216, 217f
mathematical modeling, 211–213
principle, 203–205, 204f
process parameters, influence of,
208–211, 209f
static deflection of wire, 226, 226f
stratified wire for, 220, 220f
taper cutting system in, 213–214
trim cutting features in, 219
wire lag corner cutting in, 227–228, 227f
wire-lag phenomenon, 224–228
wire tool vibration, 222–224, 223f
Wire electrochemical machining (WECM),
439–446, 440f, 456, 639–640, 645f
basic scheme of, 440f
fabricated micro slits, 445f
fabricated micro square helix, 445f
Wire electrode, 204–205, 208–210,
214–216, 219–222, 224, 228–229
Wire electro discharge grinding (WEDG),
615, 618
Wire lag corner cutting, 227–228, 227f
Wire-lag phenomenon, 224–228
Wire tension (Wt), 209–210, 223
Wire trail-off, 218
Wire vibration, 222–224, 223f
Working fluid, water jet machining, 110
Workpiece holding unit, 45–46, 45–46f
Y
Ytterbium doped fiber laser system,
288–289
Yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG), 283
Z
Zinc-coated brass wire, 229
Zirconia bio-ceramic material
square stepped tool and hole on, 70–71,
71f
stepped hole on, 70, 71f
Zirconium oxide ceramics, micro-drilling
of, 294
Index 763MODERN MACHINING TECHNOLOGY
ADVANCED
, HYBRID, MICRO MACHINING AND SUPER FINISHING TECHNOLOGY
By Bijoy Bhattacharyya and Biswanath Doloi
Complex and precise components with challenging shapes are in rising demand from industry,
increasing the relevance of advanced machining technology to more people than ever before.
Modern Machining Technology is the first book to cover all major technologies in this field.
Readers will find the latest technical developments and research in one place, allowing easy
comparison of specifications.
Technologies covered include mechanical, thermal, chemical, micro, and hybrid machining
processes, as well as the latest advanced finishing technologies. Each topic is accompanied by
a basic overview
, examples of typical applications, studies of performance criteria, comparative
advantages, and some model questions and solutions.
Key Features
• Addresses a broad range of modern machining techniques in detail, providing specifications
for easy comparison
• Includes descriptions of the main applications for each method, which materials or products
they are used with
• Provides the very latest research in progress including micro, hybrid, and sequential machining
as well as super finishing methods


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