كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles
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 كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

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عدد المساهمات : 16260
التقييم : 28004
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles    كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  Emptyالسبت 11 يوليو 2020, 1:13 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles
Fundamentals, Theory, and Design
Mehrdad Ehsani, Texas A&M University Yimin Gao, Texas A&M University Sebastien E. Gay, Texas A&M
University Ali Emadi, Illinois Institute of Technology  

كتاب Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles  M_e_h_16
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1. Environmental Impact and History of Modern Transportation 1
1.1 Air Pollution 2
1.1.1 Nitrogen Oxides 2
1.1.2 Carbon Monoxide 3
1.1.3 Unburned Hydrocarbons 3
1.1.4 Other Pollutants 3
1.2 Global Warming 4
1.3 Petroleum Resources 5
1.4 Induced Costs 7
1.5 Importance of Different Transportation Development
Strategies to Future Oil Supply 9
1.6 History of Electric Vehicles 13
1.7 History of Hybrid Electric Vehicles 15
1.8 History of Fuel Cell Vehicles 17
References 19
2. Vehicle Fundamentals 21
2.1 General Description of Vehicle Movement 22
2.2 Vehicle Resistance 23
2.2.1 Rolling Resistance 23
2.2.2 Aerodynamic Drag 25
2.2.3 Grading Resistance 26
2.3 Dynamic Equation 27
2.4 Tire–Ground Adhesion and Maximum Tractive Effort 29
2.5 Power Train Tractive Effort and Vehicle Speed 31
2.6 Vehicle Power Plant and Transmission Characteristics 33
2.6.1 Power Plant Characteristics 34
2.6.2 Transmission Characteristics 36
2.6.2.1 Gear Transmission 37
2.6.2.2 Hydrodynamic Transmission 39
2.6.2.3 Continuously Variable Transmission 43
2.7 Vehicle Performance 44
2.7.1 Maximum Speed of a Vehicle 45
2.7.2 Gradeability 46
2.7.3 Acceleration Performance 462.8 Operating Fuel Economy 49
2.8.1 Fuel Economy Characteristics of Internal
Combustion Engines 49
2.8.2 Calculation of Vehicle Fuel Economy 50
2.8.3 Basic Techniques to Improve Vehicle Fuel Economy 52
2.9 Braking Performance 54
2.9.1 Braking Force 54
2.9.2 Braking Distribution on Front and Rear Axles 55
References 60
3. Internal Combustion Engines 61
3.1 4S, Spark-Ignited IC Engines 62
3.1.1 Operating Principles 62
3.1.2 Operation Parameters 64
3.1.2.1 Rating Values of Engines 64
3.1.2.2 Indicated Work per Cycles and Mean Effective
Pressure 64
3.1.2.3 Mechanical Efficiency 66
3.1.2.4 Specific Fuel Consumption and Efficiency 67
3.1.2.5 Specific Emissions 68
3.1.2.6 Fuel/Air and Air/Fuel Ratio 68
3.1.2.7 Volumetric Efficiency 69
3.1.3 Relationships between Operation and Performance
Parameters 69
3.1.4 Engine Operation Characteristics 70
3.1.4.1 Engine Performance Parameters 70
3.1.4.2 Indicated and Brake Power and Torque 71
3.1.4.3 Fuel Consumption Characteristics 72
3.1.5 Operating Variables Affecting SI Engine Performance,
Efficiency, and Emissions Characteristics 74
3.1.5.1 Spark Timing 74
3.1.5.2 Fuel/Air Equivalent Ratio 74
3.1.6 Emission Control 77
3.1.7 Basic Technique to Improve Performance, Efficiency, and
Emission Characteristics 78
3.2 4S, Compression-Ignition IC Engines 81
3.3 Two-Stroke Engines 82
3.4 Wankel Rotary Engines 86
3.5 Stirling Engines 89
3.6 Gas Turbine Engines 94
3.7 Quasi-Isothermal Brayton Cycle Engines 97
References 98
4. Electric Vehicles 99
4.1 Configurations of Electric Vehicles 994.2 Performance of Electric Vehicles 102
4.2.1 Traction Motor Characteristics 103
4.2.2 Tractive Effort and Transmission Requirement 104
4.2.3 Vehicle Performance 105
4.3 Tractive Effort in Normal Driving 109
4.4 Energy Consumption 114
References 116
5. Hybrid Electric Vehicles 117
5.1 Concept of Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 118
5.2 Architectures of Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 120
5.2.1 Series Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 121
5.2.2 Parallel Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 123
5.2.2.1 Torque-Coupling Parallel Hybrid Electric
Drive Trains 124
5.2.2.2 Speed-Coupling Parallel Hybrid Electric
Drive Trains 130
5.2.2.3 Torque-Coupling and Speed-Coupling
Parallel Hybrid Electric Drive Trains 133
References 136
6. Electric Propulsion Systems 137
6.1 DC Motor Drives 142
6.1.1 Principle of Operation and Performance 142
6.1.2 Combined Armature Voltage and Field Control 146
6.1.3 Chopper Control of DC Motors 146
6.1.4 Multiquadrant Control of Chopper-Fed DC Motor
Drives 151
6.1.4.1 Two-Quadrant Control of Forward Motoring
and Regenerative Braking 151
6.1.4.1.1 Single Chopper with a Reverse
Switch 151
6.1.4.1.2 Class C Two-Quadrant Chopper 152
6.1.4.2 Four-Quadrant Operation 154
6.2 Induction Motor Drives 155
6.2.1 Basic Operation Principles of Induction Motors 156
6.2.2 Steady-State Performance 159
6.2.3 Constant Volt/Hertz Control 162
6.2.4 Power Electronic Control 163
6.2.5 Field Orientation Control 166
6.2.5.1 Field Orientation Principles 166
6.2.5.2 Control 173
6.2.5.3 Direction Rotor Flux Orientation Scheme 175
6.2.5.4 Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation Scheme 1786.2.6 Voltage Source Inverter for FOC 180
6.2.6.1 Voltage Control in Voltage Source Inverter 182
6.2.6.2 Current Control in Voltage Source Inverter 185
6.3 Permanent Magnetic Brush-Less DC Motor Drives 187
6.3.1 Basic Principles of BLDC Motor Drives 190
6.3.2 BLDC Machine Construction and Classification 190
6.3.3 Properties of PM Materials 193
6.3.3.1 Alnico 194
6.3.3.2 Ferrites 195
6.3.3.3 Rare-Earth PMs 195
6.3.4 Performance Analysis and Control of BLDC Machines 196
6.3.4.1 Performance Analysis 196
6.3.4.2 Control of BLDC Motor Drives 198
6.3.5 Extension of Speed Technology 199
6.3.6 Sensorless Techniques 200
6.3.6.1 Methods Using Measurables and Math 201
6.3.6.2 Methods Using Observers 201
6.3.6.3 Methods Using Back EMF Sensing 202
6.3.6.4 Unique Sensorless Techniques 203
6.4 Switched Reluctance Motor Drives 204
6.4.1 Basic Magnetic Structure 204
6.4.2 Torque Production 207
6.4.3 SRM Drive Converter 210
6.4.4 Modes of Operation 213
6.4.5 Generating Mode of Operation (Regenerative Braking) 214
6.4.6 Sensorless Control 216
6.4.6.1 Phase Flux Linkage-Based Method 218
6.4.6.2 Phase Inductance-Based Method 218
6.4.6.2.1 Sensorless Control Based on
Phase Bulk Inductance 218
6.4.6.2.2 Sensorless Control Based on
Phase Incremental Inductance 219
6.4.6.3 Modulated Signal Injection Methods 220
6.4.6.3.1 Frequency Modulation Method 220
6.4.6.3.2 AM and PM Methods 221
6.4.6.3.3 Diagnostic Pulse-Based Method 221
6.4.6.4 Mutually Induced Voltage-Based Method 222
6.4.6.5 Observer-Based Methods 222
6.4.7 Self-Tuning Techniques of SRM Drives 222
6.4.7.1 Self-Tuning with the Arithmetic Method 223
6.4.7.1.1 Optimization with Balanced
Inductance Profiles 223
6.4.7.1.2 Optimization in the Presence of
Parameter Variations 224
6.4.7.2 Self-Tuning Using an Artificial Neural
Network 2246.4.8 Vibration and Acoustic Noise in SRM 226
6.4.9 SRM Design 228
6.4.9.1 Number of Stator and Rotor Poles 228
6.4.9.2 Stator Outer Diameter 229
6.4.9.3 Rotor Outer Diameter 230
6.4.9.4 Air gap 230
6.4.9.5 Stator Arc 231
6.4.9.6 Stator Back-Iron 231
6.4.9.7 Performance Prediction 231
References 232
7. Series Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design 239
7.1 Operation Patterns 240
7.2 Control Strategies 242
7.2.1 Max. SOC-of-PPS Control Strategy 243
7.2.2 Thermostat Control Strategy (Engine-On–Off) 244
7.3 Sizing of the Major Components 246
7.3.1 Power Rating Design of the Traction Motor 246
7.3.2 Power Rating Design of the Engine/Generator 247
7.3.3 Design of PPS 249
7.3.3.1 Power Capacity of PPS 249
7.3.3.2 Energy Capacity of PPS 250
7.4 Design Example 251
7.4.1 Design of Traction Motor Size 251
7.4.2 Design of the Gear Ratio 251
7.4.3 Verification of Acceleration Performance 252
7.4.4 Verification of Gradeability 253
7.4.5 Design of Engine/Generator Size 254
7.4.6 Design of the Power Capacity of PPS 255
7.4.7 Design of the Energy Capacity of PPS 255
7.4.8 Fuel Consumption 256
References 257
8. Parallel Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design 259
8.1 Control Strategies of Parallel Hybrid Drive Train 261
8.1.1 Maximum State-of-Charge of Peaking
Power Source (Max. SOC-of-PPS) Control Strategy 262
8.1.2 Engine Turn-On and Turn-Off (Engine-On–Off)
Control Strategy 265
8.2 Design of Drive Train Parameters 266
8.2.1 Design of Engine Power Capacity 266
8.2.2 Design of Electric Motor Drive Power Capacity 268
8.2.3 Transmission Design 271
8.2.4 Energy Storage Design 2728.3 Simulations 274
References 276
9. Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design 277
9.1 Energy Consumed in Braking and Transmission 278
9.2 Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train 280
9.2.1 Configuration 280
9.2.2 Operating Modes and Control Strategy 281
9.2.3 Drive Train Design 283
9.2.4 Performance 285
9.3 Series–Parallel Mild Hybrid Electric Drive Train 287
9.3.1 Configuration of the Drive Train with a
Planetary Gear Unit 287
9.3.2 Operating Modes and Control 291
9.3.2.1 Speed-Coupling Operating Mode 291
9.3.2.2 Torque-Coupling Operating Mode 293
9.3.2.3 Engine-Alone Traction Mode 294
9.3.2.4 Regenerative Braking Mode 294
9.3.2.5 Engine Starting 295
9.3.3 Control Strategy 295
9.3.4 Drive Train with Floating-Stator Motor 296
References 298
10. Energy Storages 299
10.1 Electrochemical Batteries 300
10.1.1 Electrochemical Reactions 302
10.1.2 Thermodynamic Voltage 304
10.1.3 Specific Energy 304
10.1.4 Specific Power 306
10.1.5 Energy Efficiency 309
10.1.6 Battery Technologies 309
10.1.6.1 Lead-Acid Batteries 310
10.1.6.2 Nickel-based Batteries 311
10.1.6.2.1 Nickel/Iron System 311
10.1.6.2.2 Nickel/Cadmium System 311
10.1.6.2.3 Nickel–Metal Hydride (Ni–MH)
Battery 312
10.1.6.3 Lithium-Based Batteries 313
10.1.6.3.1 Lithium–Polymer (Li–P) Battery 313
10.1.6.3.2 Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) Battery 313
10.2 Ultracapacitors 314
10.2.1 Features of Ultracapacitors 315
10.2.2 Basic Principles of Ultracapacitors 31510.2.3 Performance of Ultracapacitors 317
10.2.4 Ultracapacitor Technologies 320
10.3 Ultrahigh-Speed Flywheels 322
10.3.1 Operation Principles of Flywheels 322
10.3.2 Power Capacity of Flywheel Systems 324
10.3.3 Flywheel Technologies 326
10.4 Hybridization of Energy Storages 328
References 332
11. Fundamentals of Regenerative Braking 333
11.1 Energy Consumption in Braking 334
11.2 Braking Power and Energy on Front and Rear Wheels 334
11.3 Brake System of EVs and HEVs 338
11.3.1 Series Brake — Optimal Feel 338
11.3.2 Series Brake — Optimal Energy Recovery 339
11.3.3 Parallel Brake 341
11.4 Antilock Brake System (ABS) 343
References 345
12. Fuel Cell Vehicles 347
12.1 Operating Principles of Fuel Cells 348
12.2 Electrode Potential and Current–Voltage Curve 350
12.3 Fuel and Oxidant Consumption 354
12.4 Fuel Cell System Characteristics 355
12.5 Fuel Cell Technologies 357
12.5.1 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 357
12.5.2 Alkaline Fuel Cells 359
12.5.3 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells1 361
12.5.4 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 361
12.5.5 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 362
12.5.6 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 363
12.6 Fuel Supply 364
12.6.1 Hydrogen Storage 364
12.6.1.1 Compressed Hydrogen 364
12.6.1.2 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen 366
12.6.1.3 Metal Hydrides 367
12.6.2 Hydrogen Production 368
12.6.2.1 Steam Reforming 369
12.6.2.2 POX Reforming 370
12.6.2.3 Autothermal Reforming 370
12.6.3 Ammonia as Hydrogen Carrier 371
12.7 Nonhydrogen Fuel Cells 371
References 37213. Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Drive Train Design 375
13.1 Configuration 376
13.2 Control Strategy 377
13.3 Parametric Design 379
13.3.1 Motor Power Design 379
13.3.2 Power Design of the Fuel Cell System 381
13.3.3 Design of the Power and Energy Capacity of the PPS 381
13.3.3.1 Power Capacity of the PPS 381
13.3.3.2 Energy Capacity of the PPS 381
13.4 Design Example 383
References 385
Index 387


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