كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications
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 كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications

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عدد المساهمات : 16336
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications    كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications  Emptyالجمعة 26 يونيو 2020, 12:47 am

أخوانى فى الله
أحضرت لكم كتاب
Welding - Principles and Applications
Eighth EDitiON
Larry Jeffus  

كتاب Welding - Principles and Applications  W_p_a_11
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
Preface xvi
Features of the Text xix
Acknowledgments xxi
About the Author xxiii
Index of Experiments and Practices xxv
Section 1 Introduction 01
Chapter 1 Introduction to Welding 03
Objectives 3
Key Terms
Introduction 3
Welding Terminology 5
Welding Defined 5
Uses of Welding 5
Welding and Cutting Processes 7
Welding Processes 7
Oxyacetylene Welding, Brazing, and Cutting 7
Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) 7
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) 7
Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) 9
Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW) 10
Thermal Cutting Processes 10
Oxyfuel Gas Cutting 10
Plasma Arc Cutting 10
Selection of the Joining Process 11
Occupational Opportunities in Welding 12
Training for Welding Occupations 13
Job-Related Skills 14
Beginning a Welding Career 14
Job Prospects 14
AWS SENSE Welder Certification 14
Level I Qualification Procedures 15
Practical Knowledge Qualification—
Written Test 15
Performance Qualification—
Workmanship Samples and Test Plates 15
Thermal Cutting Principles and Practices 15
Welding Inspection and Testing Principles
and Practices 16
Level II Advanced Welder Qualification 16
SkillsUSA 16
Experiments and Practices 16
Welding Video Series 17
Metric Units 17
Summary 19
Review 19
Chapter 2 Safety in Welding 21
Objectives 21
Key Terms 21
Introduction 21
Burn Classification 22
First-Degree Burns 22
Second-Degree Burns 22
Third-Degree Burns 22
Burns Caused by Light 23
Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) 24
General Work Clothing 24
Special Protective Clothing 25
Face and Eye Protection 27
Goggles 27
Full Face Shield 27
Welding Helmets 27
Auto Darkening Welding Helmets 28
Shop Noise 28
Respiratory Protection 29
Ventilation 31
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) 32
Handling and Storing Cylinders 32
Securing Gas Cylinders 33
Storage Areas 33
Cylinders with Valve Protection Caps 33
General Precautions 33
Acetylene 34
Fire Protection 34
Fire Watch 34
Fire Extinguishers 34
Location of Fire Extinguishers 35
Using Fire Extinguishers 35
Equipment Maintenance 36
Hoses 36
Work Area Cleaning 36
Hand Tools 37
Hand Tool Safety 37
Hammer Safety 38
Electrical Safety 38
Electrical Safety Systems 40
Voltage Warnings 40
Extension Cords 41
Safety Rules for Portable Electric Tools 42
Power Tools 42
Grinders 42
Drills 43
Metal Cutting Machines 44
Material Handling 45
Lifting 45
Contents v
Hoists or Cranes 45
Ladder Safety 45
Types of Ladders 45
Ladder Inspection 45
Rules for Ladder Use 46
Summary 47
Review 47
Section 2 Shielded Metal
Arc Welding 49
Chapter 3 Shielded Metal Arc
Equipment, Setup, and Operation 51
Objectives 51
Key Terms 51
Introduction 52
Welding Current 52
Electrical Measurement 52
Temperature and Heat 52
SMA Welding Arc Temperature 53
SMA Welding Arc Heat 54
Types of Welding Currents 54
Types of Welding Power
Supplies (Machines) 55
Open Circuit Voltage 55
Operating Voltage 56
Arc Blow 56
Types of Power Sources 57
Movable Coil or Core 60
Inverter 61
Generator-Type and Alternator-Type Welders 62
Routine Maintenance 63
Converting AC to DC 63
Duty Cycle 64
Welder Accessories 64
Welding Cables 64
Electrode Holders 66
Work Clamps 66
Equipment Setup 67
Summary 68
Review 68
Chapter 4 Shielded Metal Arc Welding
of Plate 69
Objectives 69
Key Terms 69
Introduction 70
Effect of Current Settings that Are Too Low
or Too High 72
Too Low of a Current Setting 72
Too High of a Current Setting 72
Experiments 73
Electrode Size and Heat 73
Arc Length 74
Travel Angle, Electrode Angle and
Work Angle 75
Leading Angle 75
Perpendicular Angle 76
Trailing Angle 76
Electrode Manipulation 76
Positioning of the Welder and the Plate 79
Practice Welds 80
Electrodes 80
F3 E6010 and E6011 Electrodes 80
F2 E6012 and E6013 Electrodes 80
F4 E7016 and E7018 Electrodes 80
Electrode Selection 80
Stringer Beads 81
Square Butt Joint 83
Edge Weld 87
Outside Corner Joint 91
Lap Joint 94
Tee Joint 97
Summary 100
Review 100
Chapter 5 Shielded Metal Arc Welding
of Pipe 101
Objectives 101
Key Terms 101
Introduction 101
Pipe and Tubing 103
Pipe Specifications 103
Tubing Specifications 103
Pipe Applications 104
Tubing Applications 104
Advantages of Welded Pipe 104
Strength 104
Less Maintenance Required 104
Longer Lasting 106
Smoother Flow 106
Lighter Weight 106
Preparation and Fit-up 106
Practice Welds 108
Weld Standards 109
Weld Passes 109
Root Weld Pass 109
Hot Weld Pass 110
Filler Weld Pass 110
Cover Weld Pass 111
1G Horizontal Rolled Position 111
AWS SENSE Certification Test 1G 116
2G Vertical Fixed Position 116
AWS SENSE Certification Test 1G 117
5G Horizontal Fixed Position 117
AWS SENSE Certification Test 5G 119
6G 458 Inclined Position 119
AWS SENSE Certification Test 6G 120
Summary 121
Review
Chapter 6 Shielded Metal Arc Welding AWS
SENSE Certification 122
Objectives 122
Key Terms 122
Introduction 122
Root Pass 123
Hot Pass 127
Filler Pass 129
Cover Pass 130
Plate Preparation 130
Restarting a Weld Bead 133
Preheating and Postheating 133
AWS Workmanship Standard for Preparation
of Base Metal 134
AWS Visual Inspection Criteria 135
Preparing Specimens
for Bend Testing 135
WS Specimen Preparation Criteria 135
Preparation 135
Testing 135
AWS Acceptance Criteria for Bend Test 137
Poor Fit-Up 146
Summary 147
Review 147
Section 3 Cutting and Gouging 149
Chapter 7 Flame Cutting 151
Objectives 151
Key Terms 151
Introduction 152
Metals Cut by the Oxyfuel Process 152
The Chemistry of a Cut 152
Eye Protection for Flame Cutting 152
Cutting Torches 153
Cutting Tips 154
Pressure Regulators 160
Regulator Operation 160
Regulator Gauges 161
Regulator Safety Pressure Release Device 161
Cylinder and Regulator Fittings 161
Regulator Safety Precautions 163
Regulator Care and Use 164
Backfires 165
Flashbacks 165
Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves 165
Care of the Reverse Flow Valve
and Flashback Arrestor 167
Hoses and Fittings 167
Hose Care and Use 167
Leak Detection 168
Oxyfuel Cutting, Setup,
and Operation 168
Torch Tip Care and Use 168
Hand Cutting 171
Layout 174
Selecting the Correct Tip and Setting
the Pressure 175
The Physics of a Cut 177
Slag 178
Plate Cutting 180
Cutting Table 180
Torch Guides 180
Distortion 182
Cutting Applications 183
Pipe Cutting 184
Summary 188
Review 188
Chapter 8 Plasma Arc Cutting 190
Objectives 190
Key Terms 190
Introduction 190
Plasma 191
Arc Plasma 192
Plasma Torch 192
Torch Body 192
Torch Head 192
Power Switch 193
Torch Parts Commonly Serviced 193
Hoses and Power Cables 195
Gas Hoses 195
Power Cable 197
Coolant System 197
Coolant 197
Coolant Hoses 197
Control Wire 198
Compressed Air 198
Power Requirements 199
Voltage 199
Amperage 199
Watts 199
Heat Input 199
Distortion 199
Applications 200
Cutting Speed 200
Metals 200
Torch Standoff Distance 201
Starting Methods 202
Kerf 203
Gases 205
Stack Cutting 206
Dross 206
Machine Cutting 206
Water Tables 207
Manual Cutting 207
Setup 208
Safety 209
Straight Cuts 209
Piercing 211
Plasma Arc Gouging 213
Cutting Round Stock
Beveling Pipe 216
Summary 217
Review 217
Chapter 9 Related Cutting Processes 219
Objectives 219
Key Terms 219
Introduction 219
Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) and Laser Beam
Drilling (LBD) 220
Lasers 220
Laser Types 221
Solid State Lasers 221
Gas Laser 222
Applications 222
Laser Beam Cutting 222
Laser Beam Drilling 223
Laser Beam Welding 223
Hybrid Laser Process 224
Laser Beam Welding with Gas Metal
Arc Welding 224
Laser Beam with Gas Metal Arc Welding
Surfacing 224
Laser Beam Welding with Gas Tungsten
Arc Welding 224
Laser Equipment 225
Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A) 225
Manual Torch Design 226
Electrodes 226
Power Sources 227
Air Supply 227
Application 228
Safety 228
U-Grooves 229
Oxygen Lance Cutting 232
Applications 233
Safety 233
Water Jet Cutting 233
Applications 233
Arc Cutting Electrodes 233
Applications 235
Summary 235
Review 235
Section 4 Gas Shielded Welding 237
Chapter 10 Gas Metal Arc Welding
Equipment, Setup, and Operation 239
Objectives 239
Key Terms 239
Introduction 240
Weld Metal Transfer Methods 242
Short-Circuiting Transfer GMAW-S 242
Globular Transfer 243
Axial Spray Metal Transfer 243
Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer 245
Pulsed-Arc Metal Transfer
Current Cycle 246
Modulated Current
Metal Transfer 248
The Modulated Current Process 248
Advantages of Modulated Current and Pulsed-Arc
Metal Transfer 248
Buried-Arc Transfer 250
GMAW Filler Metal Specifications 250
Wire Melting and Deposition Rates 251
Welding Power Supplies 251
GMA Welding Machines 251
Speed of the Wire Electrode 252
Power Supplies for Short-Circuiting Transfer 252
Shielding Gas 253
Argon 254
Argon Gas Blends 254
Helium 255
Carbon Dioxide 255
Nitrogen 255
Power Settings 255
Weave Pattern 256
Travel Speed 256
Electrode Extension 256
Gun Angle 256
Forehand/Perpendicular/Backhand Welding 257
Metal Core Electrodes for GMA Welding 258
Equipment 259
Power Source 260
Electrode (Wire) Feed Unit 260
Electrode Conduit 262
Welding Gun 263
GMA Spot Welding 264
Summary 266
Review 266
Chapter 11 Gas Metal Arc Welding 267
Objectives 267
Key Terms 267
Introduction 267
Setup 268
Wire-Feed Speed 271
Gas Density and Flow Rates 274
Arc-Voltage and Amperage Characteristics 275
Electrode Extension 277
Welding Gun Angle 278
Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding 279
Practices 281
Metal Preparation 282
Flat Position, 1G and 1F Positions 283
Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions 287
Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions 288
Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions 289
Overhead 4G and 4F Positions
Globular Metal Transfer, 1G Position 293
Axial Spray 296
Summary 297
Review 297
Chapter 12 Flux Cored Arc Welding
Equipment, Setup, and Operation 298
Objectives 298
Key Terms 298
Introduction 299
Principles of Operation 301
Flux Core 301
Gas Formers 302
Slag 302
Equipment 302
Power Supply 302
FCA Welding Guns 302
Electrode Feed 303
Advantages 303
Limitations 304
FCAW Electrodes 304
Electrode Cast and Helix 306
FCA Welding Electrode Flux 306
Types of FCAW Fluxes 308
Flux Cored Steel Electrode Identification 309
Mild Steel 309
Stainless Steel Electrodes 309
Metal Cored Steel Electrode Identification 309
Care of Flux Core Electrodes 311
Shielding Gas 311
Welding Techniques 312
Gun Angle 312
Forehand/Perpendicular/Backhand Techniques 313
Advantages of the Forehand Technique 313
Disadvantages of the Forehand Technique 314
Advantages of the Perpendicular Technique 314
Disadvantages of the Perpendicular Technique 314
Advantages of the Backhand Technique 314
Disadvantages of the Backhand Technique 314
Travel Speed 314
Mode of Metal Transfer 315
Spray Transfer—FCAW-G 315
Globular Transfer—FCAW-G 315
Electrode Extension 316
Porosity 316
Troubleshooting FCA Welding 317
Summary 318
Review 319
Chapter 13 Flux Cored Arc Welding 320
Objectives 320
Key Terms 320
Introduction 320
Practices 321
Flat-Position Welds 324
Square-Groove Welds 326
V-Groove and Bevel-Groove Welds 327
Root Pass 328
Filler Pass 329
Cover Pass 329
Fillet Welds 330
Vertical Welds 333
Horizontal Welds 336
Overhead-Position Welds 340
Thin-Gauge Welding 341
Plug Welds 344
Summary 346
Review 346
Chapter 14 Gas Metal Arc and Flux
Cored Arc Welding of Pipe 348
Objectives 348
Key Terms 348
Introduction 348
Joint Preparation 349
End Preparation 349
Joint Fitup 349
Tack Welds 349
Root Pass 349
Hot Pass 350
Filler Pass 350
Cover Pass(es) 351
Visual Inspection 351
Practice Pipe Welds 351
Pipe to Plate Welds 351
Tack Welds 355
Root Pass 355
Hot Pass 355
Filler Pass(es) 355
Cover Pass 356
Summary 359
Review 359
Chapter 15 Gas Metal Arc and Flux Cored
Arc Welding AWS SENSE Certification 360
Objectives 360
Key Terms 360
Introduction 360
Practice Welds 360
Metal Preparation 361
Practice Weld Equipment and Consumables 361
Summary 388
Review 388
Chapter 16 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
Equipment, Setup, Operation,
and Filler Metals 389
Objectives 389
Key Terms 389
Introduction
Contents ix
Tungsten 390
High Temperature 390
Good Conductor 390
Tungsten Erosion 390
Tungsten Electrode End Shape 392
Types of Tungsten Electrodes 392
Pure Tungsten, EWP 393
Thoriated Tungsten, EWTh-1 and EWTh-2 393
Zirconium Tungsten, EWZr-1 393
Cerium Tungsten, EWCe-2 393
Lanthanum Tungsten, EWLa-1.5 394
Rare Earth Tungsten, EWG 394
Shaping the Tungsten 394
Precision Machine Tungsten Grinder 394
Hand Grinding 394
Breaking and Remelting 395
Chemical Cleaning and Pointing 396
Pointing and Remelting 397
GTA Welding Equipment 397
Torches 398
Hoses 399
Nozzles 400
Gas Lens 401
Flowmeter 401
Types of Welding Current 402
DCEN 402
DCEP 402
AC 402
Electronic Controls of AC Welding Currents 404
EP and EN Time Control 405
Sine Wave Form Control 405
Frequency Control 405
Shielding Gases 406
Argon 406
Helium 406
Hydrogen 407
Nitrogen 407
Hot Start 407
Preflow 407
Postflow 408
Shielding Gas Flow Rate 408
Remote Controls 409
Summary 412
Review 413
Chapter 17 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
of Plate 414
Objectives 414
Key Terms 414
Introduction 415
Torch Angle 415
Filler Rod Manipulation 416
Tungsten Contamination 417
Current Setting 417
Experiments 418
Gas Flow 419
Practice Welds 420
Low Carbon and Mild Steels 420
Stainless Steel 421
Aluminum 422
Metal Preparation 422
Summary 439
Review 440
Chapter 18 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
of Pipe 441
Objectives 441
Key Terms 441
Introduction 441
Practices 442
Joint Preparation 442
V-Groove 442
Joint Cleaning 442
Root 443
Incomplete Fusion 444
Concave Root Surface 445
Excessive Root Reinforcement 445
Root Contamination 445
Backing Gas 446
Purging 446
Filler Metal 447
Consumable Inserts 447
Cup Walking 449
Cup Walking Setup 449
Cup Walking Technique 450
Practice Welds 450
Hot Pass 453
Root Surface 453
Lack of Root Fusion 454
Filler Pass 457
Cover Pass 458
Summary 461
Review 461
Chapter 19 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Plate
and Pipe AWS SENSE Certification 463
Objectives 463
Key Terms 463
Introduction 463
GTA Sheet Welds 463
GTA Tubing Welds 464
AWS SENSE GTA Sheet Practice Welds 464
Weld Inspection and Testing 464
Butt Joint Welds 464
Fillet Welds, Lap and Tee Joints 464
Tubing Welds 466
Mechanical, Destructive Testing 466
Filler Metal 466
Sheet Metal Practice Welds 467
Tubing and Pipe Practice Welds 479
Summary 484
Review 485x Contents
Section 5 Related Technologies 487
Chapter 20 Shop Math and Weld Cost 489
Objectives 489
Key Terms 489
Introduction 489
Shop Math 490
Types of Numbers 490
Whole Numbers 490
Decimal Fractions 490
Mixed Units 490
Fractions 490
General Math Rules 491
Letters, Numbers, and Symbols 492
Superscript and Subscripts 492
Equations and Formulas 492
Equations 492
Formulas 492
Mixed Units 493
Adding and Subtracting Mixed Units 493
Fractions 495
Finding the Fraction’s Common Denominator 495
Reducing Fractions 496
Multiplying and Dividing Fractions 496
Converting Numbers 497
Converting Fractions to Decimals 497
Tolerances 497
Converting Decimals to Fractions 497
Conversion Charts 498
Angles 498
Adding and Subtracting Angles 499
Triangles 499
Right Triangle 499
Equilateral Triangle 500
Isosceles Triangle 500
Perimeter 501
Area 501
Volume 501
Measuring 502
Welding Costs 503
Cost Estimation 503
Joint Design 504
Groove Welds 505
Fillet Welds 506
Weld Metal Cost 506
Cost of Electrodes, Wires, Gases, and Flux 507
Deposition Efficiency 507
Deposition Rate 508
Deposition Data Tables 508
Coated Electrodes 509
Efficiency of Flux Cored Wires 510
Efficiency of Solid Wire for GMAW 510
Efficiency of Solid Wires for SAW 511
Operating Factor 511
Labor and Overhead 514
Cost of Power 514
Other Useful Formulas 514
Bill of Materials 515
Invoice 516
Summary 517
Review 518
Chapter 21 Reading Technical
Drawings 520
Objectives 520
Key Terms 521
Introduction 521
Mechanical Drawings 521
Lines 523
Types of Drawings 523
Pictorial Drawings 523
Mechanical Drawings 524
Special Views 524
Dimensioning 525
Drawing Scale 527
Reading Mechanical Drawings 528
Sketching 528
Erasers and Erasing 532
Graph Paper 535
Computers and Drawings 538
Summary 541
Review 541
Chapter 22 Welding Joint Design
and Welding Symbols 542
Objectives 542
Key Terms 542
Introduction 542
Weld Joint Design 543
Weld Joint Stresses 544
Welding Process 545
Edge Preparation 545
Joint Dimensions 545
Metal Thickness 545
Metal Type 547
Welding Position 547
Plate Welding Positions 548
Pipe Welding Positions 548
Code or Standards Requirements 548
Welder Skill 549
Acceptable Cost 549
Welding Symbols 549
Indicating Types of Welds 550
Weld Location 551
Location Significance of Arrow 551
Fillet Welds 552
Plug Welds 552
Spot Welds 553
Seam Welds 553
Groove Welds 553
Backing 556
Flanged Welds 557Contents xi
Nondestructive Testing Symbols 557
Summary 560
Review 560
Chapter 23 Fabricating Techniques
and Practices 561
Objectives 561
Key Terms 561
Introduction 561
Fabrication 562
Safety 562
Parts and Pieces 563
Preformed 563
Custom Fabrication 563
Layout 564
Nesting 569
Kerf Space 570
Material Shapes 573
Bill of Materials Form 574
Overall Tolerance 575
Assembly 576
Overall Dimensions and Thick Materials 578
Part Identification 578
Assembly Tools 578
Fitting 581
Tack Welds 582
Welding 584
Arc Strikes 584
Finishing 585
Summary 585
Review 586
Chapter 24 Welding Codes
and Standards 587
Objectives 587
Key Terms 587
Introduction 587
Codes, Standards, Procedures, and Specifications 588
Welding Procedure Qualification 588
Welding Procedure
Specification (WPS) 588
Qualifying the Welding Procedure Specification 588
Qualifying and Certifying 589
General Information 589
Summary 600
Review 601
Chapter 25 Testing and Inspection 602
Objectives 602
Key Terms 602
Introduction 602
Quality Control (QC) 603
Discontinuities and Defects 603
Porosity 603
Inclusions 605
Inadequate Joint Penetration 606
Incomplete Fusion 606
Arc Strikes 607
Overlap 607
Undercut 608
Crater Cracks 608
Underfill 609
Plate-Generated Problems 609
Lamination 609
Delamination 609
Lamellar Tears 610
Destructive Testing (DT) 610
Tensile Testing 610
Fatigue Testing 612
Shearing Strength Test 612
Welded Butt Joints 612
Nick-Break Test 612
Guided-Bend Test 612
Free-Bend Test 616
Alternate Bend 616
Fillet Weld Break Test 616
Testing by Etching 617
Impact Testing 618
Nondestructive Testing (NDT) 619
Visual Inspection (VT) 619
Penetrant Inspection (PT) 619
Magnetic Particle Inspection (MT) 619
Radiographic Inspection 621
Ultrasonic Inspection 621
Leak Checking 625
Eddy Current Inspection (ET) 625
Hardness Testing 626
Summary 627
Review 627
Chapter 26 Welding Metallurgy 629
Objectives 629
Key Terms 629
Introduction 629
Heat, Temperature, and Energy 630
Heat 630
Temperature 631
Production of Metals 632
Steel Making 632
Iron Ore 632
Ingot Casting 633
Continuous Casting 633
Metal Forming 633
Grain Structure 634
Mechanical Properties 634
Hardness 634
Brittleness 635
Ductility 635
Toughness 635
Strength 635
Other Mechanical Properties 636
Structure of Solid Matter 636
Crystalline Structures of Metal 637xii Contents
Phase Diagrams 638
Lead-Tin Phase Diagram 638
Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram 639
Strengthening Mechanisms 642
Solid-Solution Hardening 642
Precipitation Hardening 643
Mechanical Mixtures of Phases 643
Quench, Temper, and Anneal 644
Quenching 644
Martensitic Reactions 645
Cold Work 648
Grain Size Control 648
Heat Treatments Associated with Welding 648
Preheat 648
Stress Relief, Process Annealing 649
Annealing 650
Normalizing 650
Time-Temperature-Transformation (TTT) Diagrams 650
Martensite 650
Bainite 651
Pearlite 651
TTT Diagrams 651
Thermal Effects Caused
by Arc Welding 652
Heat-Affected Zone (HAZ) 652
Gases in Welding 654
Nitrogen 655
Oxygen 655
Carbon Dioxide 655
Hydrogen 655
Metallurgical Defects 656
Cold Cracking 656
Hot Cracking 656
Carbide Precipitation 657
Summary 658
Review 658
Chapter 27 Weldability of Metals 660
Objectives 660
Key Terms 660
Introduction 660
Weldability 660
Thermal Cycling 661
Steel Classification and Identification 663
SAE Classification Systems 663
AISI Classification Systems 663
Unified Numbering System (UNS) 663
Carbon and Alloy Steels 663
Low-Carbon, Also Called Mild, Steel 663
Medium-Carbon Steel 665
High-Carbon Steel 665
Tool Steel 666
High-Manganese Steel 666
Low-Alloy, High-Tensile Strength Steels 666
Stainless Steels 666
Austenitic Stainless Steel 667
Ferritic Stainless Steel 667
Martensitic Stainless Steel 667
Chromium-Molybdenum Steel 668
Cast Iron 668
Preweld and Postweld Heating of Cast Iron 669
Practice Welding Cast Iron 670
Welding without Preheating or Postheating 671
Nonferrous Metals 673
Copper and Copper Alloys 673
Aluminum Weldability 673
Titanium 674
Magnesium 674
Repair Welding 674
Summary 677
Review 678
Chapter 28 Filler Metal Selection 679
Objectives 679
Key Terms 679
Introduction 679
Manufacturers’ Electrode Information 680
Understanding the Electrode Data 680
Data Resulting from Mechanical Tests 680
Data Resulting from Chemical Analysis 680
Carbon Equivalent (CE) 681
SMAW Operating Information 681
Core Wire 682
Functions of the Flux Covering 682
Filler Metal Selection 683
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Electrode Selection 683
AWS Filler Metal Classifications 686
Carbon Steel 686
Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel–Covered Electrodes 686
Wire-Type Steel Filler Metals 690
Solid Wire 690
Tubular Wire 690
Metal Cored Arc Welding
Electrodes 692
Stainless Steel Electrodes 692
Nonferrous Electrodes 692
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys 695
Aluminum-Covered Arc Welding Electrodes 695
Aluminum Bare Welding Rods and Electrodes 696
Special-Purpose Filler Metals 696
Surface and Buildup Electrode Classification 696
Magnesium Alloys 696
Hydrogen Embrittlement 696
Summary 697
Review 697
Chapter 29 Welding Automation
and Robotics 699
Objectives 699
Key Terms 699
Introduction 699
Manual Joining Process 700
Semiautomatic Joining Processes 701Contents xiii
Machine Joining Processes 702
Automatic Joining Processes 702
Automated Joining 702
Industrial Robots 703
Robot Programming 704
System Planning 706
Present and Future Needs 706
Parts Design 706
Equipment Selection 707
Safety 710
Future Automation 712
Summary 712
Review 712
Chapter 30 Other Welding Processes 714
Objectives 714
Key Terms 714
Introduction 715
Constant Current Welding Processes 715
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) 715
Flux 717
Advantages of SAW 717
Disadvantages of SAW 718
Handheld SAW 718
Electroslag Welding (ESW) 718
Advantages 719
Disadvantages 720
Electrogas Welding (EGW) 720
Resistance Welding 720
Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) 721
Spot Welding Machines 722
Multiple-Spot Welders 722
Seam Welding (RSEW) 722
Types of Resistance Seam Welds 723
Electron Beam Welding (EBW) 726
Electron Beam Welding Gun 726
Electron Beam Seam Tracking 726
Ultrasonic Welding 727
Ultrasonic Welding (USW) Applications 728
Inertia Welding Process (FRW-I) 728
Inertia Weld Bond Characteristics 729
Advantages of the Process 731
Laser Beam Welding (LBW) 731
Laser Welding Advantages
and Disadvantages 731
Laser Beam 731
Laser Beam Heat Treating 732
Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) 732
Stud Welding (SW) 733
Thermal Spraying (THSP) 733
Thermal Spraying Equipment 733
Thermospray (Powder) Process 734
Thermospray Gun 734
Torch Spraying 734
Applying Sprayed Metal 736
Plasma Spraying Process 736
Cold Welding (CW) 736
Thermite Welding 736
Hardfacing 738
Selection of Hardfacing Metals 739
Hardfacing Welding Processes 739
Quality of Surfacing Deposit 740
Hardfacing Electrodes 740
Shielded Metal Arc Method 741
Hardfacing with Gas Shielded Arc 741
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) 741
Magnetic Pulse Welding (MPW) 742
Hybrid Welding Processes 742
Summary 743
Review 743
Section 6 OxyFuEl PROCESSES 745
Chapter 31 Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting
Equipment, Setup, and Operation 747
Objectives 747
Key Terms 747
Introduction 748
Pressure Regulators 748
Regulator Operation 748
Regulator Gauges 750
Regulator Safety Pressure Release Device 751
Cylinder and Regulator Fittings 752
Cryogenic Cylinders 752
Fittings 753
Regulator Safety Precautions 753
Regulator Care and Use 754
Welding and Cutting Torches: Design and Service 755
Combination Torches 755
Dedicated Cutting Torches 755
Mixing the Gases 756
Mixing Chamber 756
Injector Mixing 756
Torch Care and Use 757
Welding and Heating Torch Tips 757
Torch Tip Care and Use 758
Backfires and Flashbacks 759
Backfires 759
Flashbacks 759
Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves 759
Care of the Reverse Flow Valve and Flashback
Arrestor 759
Hoses and Fittings 761
Hose Care and Use 761
Leak Detection Hoses 761
Leak Detection Fittings 762
Manifold Systems 762
Manifold Operation 763
Oxyfuel Flame 764
Characteristics of the Fuel-Gas Flame 764
Fuel Gases 764
Flame Rate of Burning 766
Acetylene (C2H2) 767xiv Contents
Acetone 768
Heat and Temperature of Acetylene 769
Liquefied Fuel Gases 769
Pressure 769
Methylacetylene-Propadiene (MPS) 769
MAPP® 771
Oxy-MAPP® Flames 771
Propane and Natural Gas 772
Hydrogen 773
Filler Metals 776
Ferrous Metals 776
Mild Steel 776
Cast Iron 777
Summary 783
Review 783
Chapter 32 Oxyacetylene Welding 785
Objectives 785
Key Terms 785
Introduction 785
Mild Steel Welds 786
Factors Affecting the Weld 786
Characteristics of the Weld 787
Flat Position Welding 794
Outside Corner Joint 794
Butt Joint 794
Lap Joint 797
Tee Joint 798
Out-of-Position Welding 800
Vertical Welds 800
Butt Joint 803
Lap Joint 804
Tee Joint 804
Horizontal Welds 805
Horizontal Stringer Bead 805
Butt Joint 806
Lap Joint 806
Tee Joint 806
Overhead Welds 806
Stringer Bead 807
Butt Joint 807
Lap Joint 807
Tee Joint 807
Mild Steel Pipe and Tubing 807
Horizontal Rolled Position 1G 808
Horizontal Fixed Position 5G 810
Vertical Fixed Position 2G 811
458 Fixed Position 6G 812
Thin-Wall Tubing 813
Summary 813
Review 814
Chapter 33 Brazing, Braze Welding,
and Soldering 815
Objectives 815
Key Terms 815
Introduction 815
Brazing, Braze Welding, and Soldering 816
Brazing 816
Braze Welding 816
Soldering 816
Advantages of Brazing and Soldering 816
Physical Properties of the Brazed
or Soldered Joint 818
Tensile Strength 818
Shear Strength 818
Ductility 818
Fatigue Resistance 818
Corrosion Resistance 819
Fluxes Used in Brazing, Braze Welding,
and Soldering 819
Flux 819
Forms of Fluxes 820
Fluxing Action 821
Brazing and Soldering Methods 821
Torch Brazing and Soldering 821
Furnace Brazing and Soldering 822
Induction Brazing and Soldering 823
Dip Brazing and Soldering 824
Resistance Brazing and Soldering 824
Special Methods 825
Filler Metals 825
Types of Filler Metals 825
Soldering Alloys 826
Tin-Lead 826
Tin-Antimony 826
Cadmium-Silver 826
Cadmium-Zinc 826
Brazing Alloys 827
Copper-Zinc 827
Copper-Zinc and Copper-Phosphorus A5.8 828
Copper-Phosphorus 828
Copper-Phosphorus-Silver 829
Silver-Copper 829
Nickel 829
Nickel and Nickel Alloys A5.14 829
Aluminum-Silicon (BAlSi) 829
Copper and Copper Alloys A5.7 829
Silver and Gold 829
Joint Design 829
Joint Spacing 829
Brazing Practices 832
Surface Buildup and Hole Fill Practices 838
Silver Brazing Practices 839
Soldering Practices 842
Summary 846
Review 846
Appendix 848
I. Student Welding Report 849
II. SENSE 850
III. SENSE 851Contents xv
IV. Conversion of Decimal-Inches to
Millimeters and Fractional Inches
to Decimal-Inches and Millimeters 852
V. Conversion Factors: U.S. Customary
(Standard) Units and Metric Units (SI) 853
VI. Abbreviations and Symbols 855
VII. Metric Conversion Approximations 856
VIII. Pressure Conversion 856
IX. Welding Codes and Specifications 857
X. Welding Associations and Organizations 858
Glossary 859
Index 910


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