كتاب Electrical Machine Design
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 كتاب Electrical Machine Design

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عدد المساهمات : 16260
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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
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الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب Electrical Machine Design  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Electrical Machine Design    كتاب Electrical Machine Design  Emptyالثلاثاء 02 يونيو 2020, 3:17 pm

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Electrical Machine Design
Ak Shawney

كتاب Electrical Machine Design  W_m_d_10
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Contents
Chapter
Principles of Electrical Machine Design
Art Poj/e
Design of Machines
Design Factors
Limitations in Design
Modern Trends in Design of Electrical Machines
Modern Manufacturing Techniques
Basic Principles
It
Chapter
Electrical Engineering Materials
Electrical Conducting Materials
High Conductivity Materials
Copper
Aluminium
Iron and Steel
Alloys of Copper
Materials of High Resistivity
Materials Used for Precision Work
Materials Used for Rheotsats
Materials Used for Heating Devices
Electrical Carbon Materials
Super-conductivity
Magnetic Materials
Types of Magnetic Materials
Soft Magnetic Materials
Solid Core Materials
Sheet Steels
Special Purpose Alloys
Insulating Materials
Electrical Properties of Insulating Materials
Temperature Rise of Insulating Materials
Classification of Insulating Materials
Insulating Materials Used in Modern Electric Machines
Applications of Insulating Materials
Insulating Materials for Wires
"* Insulating Materials for Laminations
'* Insulating Materials for Machines
T' Insulating Materials for Transformers
Chapter
Heating and Cooling of Electrical Machines
Modes of Heat Dissipation
Heat Dissipation
Conduction
*‘ Radiation
* Convection
Newton's Law of Cooling
Ambient Temperature
Temperature Gradient
Internal Temperatures (Hot Spot Temperatures)
Calculation of Internal Temperature
Temperature Gradients in Cores
Heat Flow in Two Dimensions
Thermal Resistivity of Windings
Temperature Gradients in Conductors Placed in Slots
Heating of Turbo-altprnator Rotors
Cooling of Rotating Electrical Machines
Cooling and Associated Terminology
Method of Cooling
Lo Iding System
Enclosures for Rotating Electrical Machines
Induced and Forced Ventilation
Radial and Axial Ventilation
Radial Ventilating System
Axial Ventilating System
Combined Axial and Radial Ventilating Syst< M
Cooling of Totally Enclosed Machines
Cooling Circuits
Cooling of Turbo-alternators
Air-cooled Turbo-alternators
Hydrogen Cooling and Hydrogen Cooled Turbo-alternators
Advantages of Hydrogen Cooling
' Hydrogen Cooling System
- Air
‘ " Hydrogen
- - Water
Oil
Direct Cooling and Direct Cooled Turbo-alternators
Advantages of Direct Cooling
Coolants Used for Direct Cooling
Direct Cooling System
Superconducting Rotor Windings
Cooling of Water Wheel Generators
Direct Water Cooled Rotor Windings
Quantity of Cooling Medium (Coolant)
Temperature Rise Time Curves
Theory of Solid Body Heating
- Heating
- Cooling
Rating of Machines
Selection • of Motor Power Ratingtypes of Duties and Ratings
'* Continuous Duty
** Short Time Duty
‘" Intermittent Periodic Duty
-" Intermittent Periodic Duty With Starting
** Intermittent Periodic Duty With Starting and Braking
** Continuous Duty With Intermittent Periodic Duty
** Continuous Duty With Starting and Braking
Art Page
Ambient Temperature and Ratings
Overload Capacity of Motors
Selection of Motor Capacity for Continuous Rating
Methods Used for Determination of Motor Rating for Variable Loads
‘ Method of Average Losses
' Equivalent Cum Nt Method
Ft ' Equivalent Torque and Equivalent Power Methods
Temperature Ii&c With Shou Time Tatings
Selection of Motor Capacity for Short Time Rating
Temperature Rise of Machines With Intermittent Short Time Ratings
Selection of Motor Capacity With Short Time Ratings
Selection of Motor Capacity for Intermittent Periodic Duty
Rapid Heating of Conductors
Calculation of Hot Spot Tempe Rature
Calculation of Surface Temperature Rise
' Calculation of Temperature Rise of Armatures *
Calculation of Temperature Rise of Field Coils
' ' Calculation of Temperature Rise of Commutators
Measurement of Temperature Rise
Methods of Measurement of Temperature Rise
' ' Thermometer Method
' ' Resistance Method
' ' Embedded Temperature Detectors (E T D )
' Measurement of Winding Temperature
Chapter
Ba ?ic Principles of Magnetic Circuits
Basic Formulae
Magnetization Curves
Magnetic Leakage
Magnetic Circuit Calculations
Calculation of Total Mmf
' Mmf for Air Gap
' Net Length of Iron
*’ Mmf for Teeth
'' Real and Apparent Flux Densities
Iron Losses
Types of Iron Losses
Hysteresis Losses
Eddy Currents and Eddy Current Losses
Eddy Current Loss in Thin Sheets
Total Iron Losses
Pulsation Losses
Magnetic Leakage Calculations
Effects of Leakage Flux
Specific Permeance
Leakage Reactance
Armature Leakage
Slot Leakage
** I Specific Permeance of Parallel Sided Slots
I' Specific Permeance of Tapered Slots
*‘ Specific Permeance of Circular Slots
*art Page
Specific P ( Incancc of Semi-circular Bottom Position
Specific Permeance of Closed T F P E of Slots
Specific Dot Perm Ances for Complicated Shaped Slots
Specific Permeance of Slots With Double Layer Winding
Specific Permeance of Slots of Special Purpose Induction Motors
' Specific Permeance of Deep Bar Rotor Slots
Tooth Top Leakage
Zigzag Leakage
Overhang Leakage
Leakage Reactance Calculations of Polyphase Machines
Leakage With Fractional Pitch Windings
Leak »ge in Salient Pole Machines
Effect of Satui Jtion and Load on Leakage Co-efficient
Magnetising Current
Calculation of Magnetizing Current
I Magnetizing Current for Concentrated Windings
Magnetizing Current for Distributed Windings
Unbalanced Magnetic Pull
Magnetic Pull (Force)
Radial Magnetic Forces in Rotating Machines
Calculation of Unbalanced Magnetic Pull
Effect of Saturation on Unbalanced Magnetic Pull
Practical Aspects of Unbalanced Magnetic Pull
Field Form
Field Form : Introduction
Air Gap Flux Distribution Factor (Field Form Factor)
Harmonic Analysis of Flux Distribution Curve
Rectangular Flux Distribution Curve
Actual Flux Distribution Curve
Chapter
Electromagnets
Introduction
Types of Electromagnets
Flat Faced Armature Type
Horse Shoe Type
Flat Faced Plunger Type
Construction of Electromagnets
Electromagnet Core Materials
Electromagnet Coils
Design of Magnet Coils
Index Number of Electromagnets
Design of Flat Faced Armature Type Circular Magnets
Design of a Large Circular Magnet
Design of Horse Shoe Type of Magnet
Design of Plunger Type of Magnet
Magnetic Clutches
Design of Friction Dutch
Chapter
Armature Windings
Art Page
Introduction
Single and Two Layer Windings
Closed and Open Windings
Coils and Coil Sides
Numbering Scheme
Coil Span
Typer of D C Windings
Winding Pitches
Back Pitch
Front Pitch
Winding Pitch
Commutator Pitch
Simplex Lap Winding
Simplex Lap Winding With More Ti an Coil Sides Per Slot
Simplex Wave Winding
Dummy Coils
Equalizer Connections
Multiplex Windings
Duplex Lap Windings
Duplex Wave Windings
Integrated Approach for Windings
Relations Between Winding Parameters
Conditions for a Closed Winding
Similar Parts and Number of P Trallel Paths in a Winding
' Equipotential Pitch
T ' Phase Pitch
’ ' Conditions for Electrical Symmetry
' ' Lap and Wave Windings
A C Armature Windings
Introduction
Number of Phases and Phase Spread
Concentric Winding
Hemitropic Winding
Whole Coil Winding
Mechanical Details of Concentric Type of Coils
Mush Windings
Double Layer Windings
Integral Slot Lap Windings
Integral Slot Wave Windings
Fractional Slot Windings
Layout of Fractional Slot Windings
Conditions for Electrical Balance or Symmetry
Tappings and Openings
Choice of Double Lay*;r Windings
Construction of Coils
Production of Emf in Windings
Emf Generated in a Conductor
Emf Generated in a Full Pitch Coil
Emf Generated in a Full Pitch Distributed Winding
Emf Generated in a Fractional Pitch Concentrated Winding
- Art Page
- Emf Generated in a Fractional Pitch Distributed Winding
Emf Generated in a C Machines
Effect of Distribution and Chording in a C Machines
Emf Generated in D C Machines
Tooth Ripples (Slot Harmonics)
Mmf Distribution of Armature Windings
Mtnf D Stribution of Concentrated Coils
Mmf Distribution in D C Machines
Mmf Distribution in Phase a C Machines
Eddy Current Losses in Conductors
Skin Effect
' Eddy Current Loss in Subdivided (Laminated) Conductors Placed in Slots
* Critical Depth
Reduction of Eddy Currents in Conductors Iri Rotating Machines
Eddy Current Losses in Transformer Conductors and Their Reduction
Eddy Current Loss
Eddy Current Loss in a Single Conductor Placed in a Slot ’
Charier
Transformers
Introduction
Core and Shell Type Transformers
Single and Three Phase Transformers
Three Phase Transformer Connections
Three Winding Transformers
Distribution and Power Transformers
Core
Core Cross-section
Core Construction With Hot Rolled Laminations
Yoke Cross-section
Clamping of Core
Core Construction of Modern Core Type Power Transformers
Cooling of Cores
Core Earthing
Transformer Windings
Continuously Transposed Conductor Windings
Cooling of Transformers
Methods of Cooling of Transformers
Transformer Tank
Cooling Ducts
Transformer Oil
Terminals and Leads
Bushings
Tappings and Tap Changing
Conservator and Breather
Temperature Indicators
Buchholz Relay
Transformer Assembly
Design
Output of Transformer
Output Equation-volts Per Turn
Ratio of Iron Loss to Copper Loss
* Art Pagt$
Relation Between Core Area and Weight of Iron and Coppet
Optimum Design
Design for Minimum Cost
Design for Minimum Loss or Maximum Efficiency
Variation of Output and Losses in Transformers With Linear Dimensions
Design of Core
** Square and Stepped Core
Surge Protection
’ Window Space Factor
’ Window Dimensions
Width of Window for Optimum Output
Design of Yoke
' Ovetall Dimensions
Calculation of Core Area
Choice of Flux Density
Design of Windings
Selection of Type of Winding
Position of Windings Relative to Core
Design of Insulation
Surge Phf Nomenon
Operating Characteril'trcs
Resistance of Windings
Leakage Reactance of Windings
* Leakage Reactance of Core Type Transformers
* Leakage Reactance of Sandwich Coils
Regulation
Mechanical Forces
Calculation of Mechanical Forces
Radial Forces
Axial Forces
' ' Forces Due to Assymmetry
* No Load Current of Three Phase Transformers
* Magnetizing Volt-amperes
** Temperature Rise in Plain Walled Tanks
Design of Tank With Tubes
Air Blast Cooling
Forced Oil Circulation
Thermal Rating
Momentary Overloads
Heating Time Constant of Transformers
Bracing of Windings
No Load Current
No Load Current of Single Phase Transformers
Change of Parameters With Frequency
Temperature Rise of Transformers
Transformer Oil as a Cooling Medium
Design of Small Single Phase Transformers
Introduction
* Core Design
‘ Winding Design
, Window Area
Chapter
General Concepts and Constraints
Of Design of Rotating Machines (
Art Fage
Relation Between Rating and Dimensions of Rotating Machines
Symbols
Main Dimensions
' ' Total Loadings
' Specific Loadings
' ’ Output Co Efficient
Factors Affecting Size of Rotating Machines
Choice of Specific Magnetic Loading
Choice of Specific Electric Loading
Variation of Output and Losses With Linear Dimensions
Separation of D and L
Separation of D and L for D C Machines
Separation of D and L for Induction Motors
Separation of D and L for Synchronous Machines
Standard Frames
Chapter
C Machines
Introduction and Applications
Classification
Constructional Details
Stator
Poles
Interpoles
Main Field Winding
Interpole Winding
Armature
Armature Winding
Commutator
Brush Gear
Brush Holders '
Brush Rockers
Brushes
Methods of Applying Brushes to Commutators
Staggering of Brushes
Frames
Constructional Features of Motors Fed From Static Converters
Design
Output Equation
* ’ Choice of Average Gap Density
’i ’ Choice of Ampere Conductors Per Metre
Interdependence of Specific Magnetic and Electric Loadings
Selection of Number of Poles
** Guiding Factors for Choice of Number of Poles
Core Length
’i Limiting Value of Core Lpngth
Armature Diameter
Limiting Value for Armature Diameter
Art Page
Pole Proportions
Number of Ventilating Ducts
Length of Air Gap
Estimation of Air Gap Length
Pole Face Profile
Armature Reaction
Flux Distribution on Load
Effect of Armature Reaction
Brush Shift and Its Effects
Reduction of Effects of Armature Reaction
Armature Design
Choice of Armature Winding
Number of Armature Conductors
Number of Armature Coils
Number of Armature Slots
Guiding Factors for Choice of Number of Armature Slots
Gross-section of Armature Conductors
Insulation of Armature Winding
Slot Dimensions
Armature Voltage Drop
Depth of Armature Core
Design of Field System
Pole Design
Area of Poles
Height of Pole
Tentative Design of Field Winding
Yoke
Magnetic Circuit
Magnetization Curve (O C C )
Design of Shunt Field Winding
Design of Series Field Winding
Commutation
Commutation Phenomenon
Form of Current in Coil Undergoing Commutation
Resistance Commutation
Retarded Commutation
Accelerated Commutation
Sinusoidal Commutation
Design of Interpoles
Interpoles
Time of Commutation
Width of Commutation Zone
Width of Interpole Shoe
Calculation of Reactance Voltage
Pitchelmayer’s Equation
Length of Interpole
Flux Density Tinder Interpole Shoe
Design of Interpole Winding
* Art Pug«
Design of Commutator and Brushes
Number of Segments
Commutator Diameter
Length of Commutator
Dimensions of Brushes
Losses of Commutator Surface
Losses and Efficiency
’ Losses and Efficiency
'’] Rotational Losses
‘‘ I*r Losses
** Stray Load Losses
Efficiency
Temperature Rise
Chapter
Three Phase Induction Motors
Introduction
Stator
Stator Frames
Rotor
Rotor Winding
Comparison of Squirrel Cage and Wound Rotors
Slip Rings
Shaft and Bearings
Design
Output Equation
Choice of Average Flux Density in Air Gap
Choice of Ampere Conductors Per Metre
Efficiency and Power Factor
Main Dimensions
Stator Winding
Turns Per Phase
'* Stator Conductors
* Length of Mean Turn
* Stator Teeth
* Stator Core
Shape of Stator Slots
Number of Stator Riots
Area of Stator Slots
Rotor Design
' Length of Air Gap
** Relations for Calculation of Length of Air Gap
Design of Squirrel Cage Rotor
* Number of Rotor Slots
** Rules for Selecting Rotor Slots
** Reduction of Harmonic Torques
* Design of Rotor Bars and Slots
** Rotor Bar Current
*' Area of Rotor Bars
’' Shape and Sise of Rotor Slots
**, Rotor Slot Insulation
* Design of End Rings
Art Page
Io' ' I End Ring Current
' Area of End Rings
’' Full Load Slip
Design of Wound Rotor
'' Number of Rotor Slots
Number of Rotor Turns
** Area of Rotor Conductors
" Rotor Windings
' Rotor Teeth
Rotor Core
Szies of Induction Motor Laminations Available in the Market
Operating Characteristics
No Load Current
- '! Magnetizing Current
Loss Component
Short Circuit (Blocked Rotor) Current
’ ‘ Stator Resistance
Rotor Resistance
Leakage Reactance
' Circle Diagram
’’ Effect of Dispersion Coefficient on Maximum Power Factor
‘‘ Effect of Dispersion Coefficient on Overload Capacity
I Effect of Change of Air Gap Length
'' Effect of Change of Number of Poles
' " Effect of Change of Frequency
Rel Ition Between D and L for Best Power Factor
! ' Methods of Improving Starting Torque
Double Cage Rotor
-* Deep Bar Rotor
*' Additional Losses
' Temperature Rise
Calculation of Maximum Output From Geometry of Circle Diagram
Dispersion Coefficient
Losses and Efficiency
Chapter
Single Phase Induction Motors
General Information and Constructional Details
- Split Phase Starting
'' Shaded Pole Starting
- - Repulsion Motor Starting
" Construction
T- Stator
* Stator Windings
H '’ Rotor
*' Starting; Switches
** Electrolytic Capacitor
Introduction
Types of Motors
Art , Page
Design
Ii ‘ Output Equation
- Choice of Specific Loadings
Running Winding (Main Winding)
Number of Turns in Running Winding
' ‘ Running Winding Conductors
' Number of Stator Slots
' ‘ Size of Stator Slot
I - Stator Teeth
Stator Core
Ii * ' Length of Mean Turn
I T ' Number of Rotor Slots
Ii ‘ * Area of Rotor Bars
' Area of End Ring
‘ Rotor Resistance
' ' Rotor Teeth
Main Dimensions
Relative Size of Single Phase and Three Phase Motors
Design of Stator
Air Gap Length
Design of Rotor
Operating Characteristics
Mraf for Air Gap
Saturation Factor
Tron Loss
Friction and Windage Loss
Parameters
* Running Winding Resistance
*- Rotor Resistance
** Leakage Reactance Calculation of Single Phase Motors
Running Performance
H ''l Equivalent Circuit
** Veinott’s Method
* Pull-out Torque
Starting (Auxiliary) Winding
* Design of Starting Winding for Split Phase Moims
* Starting Torque
* Circle Diagram
* Maximum Starting Torque
* ' Maximum Torque Per Ampere
Design of Starting Winding for Capacitor Stator Motor
* Capacitance for Maximum Torque
* Capacitance for Maximum Torque Per Ampere
Chapter
Synchronous M Chines
Type of Construction
Type of Synchronous Machines
Prime Movers for Synchronous Generators
Run-away Speed
Construction of Hydro Generators
** Stator Core Art • Pag*
'' Stator Winding
Bracing of Stator Overhang
%rotor Body
Poles
Field Winding
Damp R Winding
K Bearings
' Brakes and Jacks
' * Io Slip Rings
' Stator Core
Stator Winding
' Rotor
Construction of Turbo-alternators
Industrial Generators
Design
* Output Equation
!i Uce of Specific Magnetic Loading
Choice Ol Specific Electric Loading
Design of Salient Pole P^chbei
- Main Dimensions
Short Circuit Ratio
Effect of Scr on Machine Performance
Length of Air Gap
Shape of Pole Face
Armature Design
* Camparis >n Between Single and Double Layer Windingi
* Number of Armature Slots
Coil Span
Turns Per Phase
"! Conductor Section
Single Turn Bar—class B
'' ** Synthetic Multi-turnresin Coil—and Class Mica B Paper Insulation
Slot Dimensions
Armature Resistance
* Armature Leakage Reactance
Estimation of Air Gap Length
Design of Rotor
'‘ Heighf of Pole
* Design of Damper Winding
*' Height of Pole Shoe
* Pole Profile Drawing
* ' Design of Field Winding
‘ Determination of Direct and Quadrature Axis Synchronous Reactances
Armature Windings, Coils and Their Insulation
Length of Mean Turn
Stator Core
Elimination of Harmonics
Armature Parameters
Magnetic Circuit
Open Circuit Characteristics
Determination of Full Load Field Mmf
Art
Page
' Short Circuit Characteristics
’ Lushes
* Temperature Rise
Degsiu of Tnrbo-alternators
M Iiti Dimensions
Length of Air Gap
Stator D * Sign
Rotor Dti'ien
Chapter
Starters and Field Regulators
Motor Starters
» Nlrulnlion Ol Resistance Steps
Starters for D C Shunt Motors
'' Starters for D C Series Motors
* Starters for Three Phase Slip Ring Induction Motors
Field Regulators
Chapter
Design of Electrical Apparatus
D ‘sign of Resistance Elements of Field Regulators
Materials for Resistance Elements
Size Ol Wire
* Resistance Box
Design of Resistances for Starters for Shunt Motors
Design of Loading Rheostats
Design of Grid Resistances
Design of Heating Elements
Design of Chokes
* Design Procedure
Design of Welding Transformer*
Characteristics of Welding Transformers
Types of Welding Transformers
I' * Electric Arc
* Series Reactance
Design of Current Transformers
Introduction
Errors
Construction
Design Principles
** Core
* Secondary Current Rating
* Primary Current Rating
* Windings
* Behaviour of Transformer Under System Short Circuit
* Turns Compensation
Design of Permanent Magnet*
* M Permanent Magnet Materials
* Design Procedure « Art Page
Chapter
Design of Mechanical Parts
Design of Shaft
)‘ Bearings
Sleeve Bearings
Anti Friction Bearings
Shaft Couplings
' Frames for D C Machines
Frames for a C Machines
* Centrifugrd Force
Bracing of Rotor Windings
Wire Bands of Rotors
Solid Bands (Retaining Rings)
* Wedges
Stresses in Poles Bolted on to Rims
Stresses in Dove-tailed Poles
Stresses in Turbo-alternator Rotors
- Stresses at the Bottom of Teeth
Stresses in Rotor D Sc
Critical Speed
Inertia Constant
Mechanical Design of Commutators
Design of Fan
Chapter
Computer Aided Design
* Introduction
Advantages of Digital Computers
** Computer Analysis Method Aided Design—different Approaches
** Synthesis Method
* Hybrid Method
** Genera] Procedure for Optimization
** Variables and Constraints
** List of Symbols Used
** General Design Procedure
Optimization
Computer Aided Design of Three Phase Induction Motors
Chapter
Standard Specifications
Conductors
Indian Itaniard Specifications for Copper Conductors Used in Electrical
Machines and Apparatus
British Standard Specifications
Transformers
* General
Outdoor Power Transformers Type Distribution (is: Transformers is: —
* Art Pmgt
Rotating Machinery
* Recommendations for Rotating Electrical Machinery
* Recommendations on Determination of Efficiency of Rotating Electrical
Machines
* Recommendation for Preferred Standard Rev/min -phase Hz
Turbine Type Generators
Three Phase Induction Motors
Indian Standard Specifications for -phase Induction Motors
Single Phase Induction Motors
Indian Standard Specifications for Single Phase Small a C and Univenal
Motors
Current Transformers
‘ Indian Standard Specifications for Current Transformers
* Terminology  


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