كتاب PET Packaging Technology
منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
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 كتاب PET Packaging Technology

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كاتب الموضوعرسالة
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عدد المساهمات : 16336
التقييم : 28204
تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
العمل : مدير منتدى هندسة الإنتاج والتصميم الميكانيكى
الجامعة : المنوفية

كتاب PET Packaging Technology  Empty
مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب PET Packaging Technology    كتاب PET Packaging Technology  Emptyالأحد 17 مايو 2020, 4:49 am

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أحضرت لكم كتاب
PET Packaging Technology
Edited by
David W. Brooks
Corporate Technologies
Crown Cork & Seal
Oxford
and
Geoff A. Giles
Global Pack Management
GlaxoSmithKline
London  

كتاب PET Packaging Technology  P_e_t_10
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Contents
1 Introduction 1
DAVID W. BROOKS and GEOFF A. GILES
1.1 Introduction I
1.1.1 History 1
1.1.2 IP—patents 3
1.2 Market growth and the development of materials 4
] .2.1 PET fibre and film film 7
1.2.2 Barrier materials 8
1.2.3 Competitive materials: PVC, AN/S (Lopac) and AN/MA (Barex) i1
1.3 Technology 13
1.3.1 Single-stage ISBM 14
1.3.2 Two-stage ISBM 14
1.3.3 Integrated two-stage ISBM 15
1.3.4 Heat setting 15
1.4 Packaging 16
1.4.1 Bottles in the early years 16
1.4.2 PET cans 18
1.4.3 Refillable bottles 22
1.4.4 Preform design, neck design—BPF, vent slots 23
1.4.5 Beer spheres 24
References 25
2 Commercial considerations 26
GEOFF A. GILES and GORDON J.BOCKNER
2.1 Introduction 26
2.2 Container technologies 28
2.3 Product processing and filling requirements 29
2.4 Packer/filler shelf-life requirements 30
2.5 Cost and performance considerations 31
2.5.1 Material pricing 31
2.5.2 In-house manufacture of PET containers for packer/fillers 32
2.6 Recyclingissues 33
2.7 End-use market penetration 34
References 34
3 PET materials and applications 36
KENNETH M. JONES
3.1 Introduction 36
3.2 Polymerisation and manufacturing processes 37
3.2.1 Manufacturing plants 40CONTENTS
3.3 Structures, morphology and orientation 44
3.3.1 Structures 44
3.3.2 Morphology 45
3.3.3 Orientation 48
3.3.4 Creep 59
3.4 Properties 60
3.4.1 Molecular weight and intrinsic viscosity 61
3.4.2 End group 64
3.4.3 Thermal properties 65
3.5 Rheology and melt viscosity 70
3.5.1 Melt viscosity 70
3.5.2 Melt flow 72
3.5.3 Moulding shrinkage 75
3.6 Moisture uptake and polymer drying 76
3.6.1 Moisture level 76
3.6.2 Polymer drying 77
3.7 Degradation reactions 80
3.7.1 Thermal and thermal oxidative degradation 80
3.7.2 Environmentaldegradation 81
Reheat characteristics 81
Gas barrier properties 83
3.10 Amorphous polyesters 87
3.10.1 Homopolymers 88
3.10.2 Low copolymers 89
3.10.3 Medium copolymers 91
3.10.4 High copolymers 92
3.11 Crystalline polymers 92
3.12 Polymer blends 93
3.13 Applications 93
3.14 Trends 94
3.15 Global 94
References 95
Barrier materials and technology 98
DAVID W. BROOKS
4.1 Introduction 98
4.2 Polyesters 98
4.2.1 PEN 99
4.2.1 Amorphous polyesters 100
4.2.2 Other polyesters 101
4.3 Barrier materials 102
4.3.1 EVOH 102
4.3.2 PVDC 104
4.3.3 Polyamides (nylon) 104
4.3.4 Liquid crystal polymers (LCP) 105
4.4 Barrier technology 106
4.4.1 Organic coatings 107
4.4.2 Inorganiccoatings 107
4.4.3 Scavengers 109
4.4.4 Nanocomposites 1 1 1CONTENTS xi
4.5 Oxygen barrier 1 i I
4.5.1 Packaging foods and beverages 113
4.5.2 Packaging oxygen-sensitive foods and beverages 113
4.6 Carbon dioxide barrier 114
4.7 Future trends 1 15
Acknowledgement 115
5 PET film and sheet 116
WILLIAM A. MACDONALD, DUNCAN H. MACKERRON
and DAVID W. BROOKS
5.1 Introduction 116
5.2 The film process 117
5.2.1 Polymer preparation and handling 117
5.2.2 Extrusion and casting 118
5.2.3 Drawing 121
5.2.4 Heat setting 130
5.2.5 Slitting and winding 133
5.2.6 Reclaim and recovery 137
5.3 Polymer, process and properties (3Ps) 137
5.3.1 Polymer 137
5.3.2 Process 138
5.3.3 Properties 138
5.4 Surface and bulk properties 139
5.4.1 Film properties 139
5.4.2 Coating 142
5.4.3 Co-extrusion 143
5.4.4 Fillers 145
5.4.5 Shrinkage 146
5.4.6 Combination of effects 146
5.5 PET sheet 149
Extrusion of PET sheet 149
Thermoforming of PET sheet 151
Thermoforming of CPET sheet 153
Materials 153
New developments 154
5.6 Conclusions—film 155
Acknowledgements 155
References 155
Injection and co-injection preform technologies 158
PAUL SWENSON
Multilayer characteristics 158
Applications 161
6.2.1 Performance-driven applications 161
6.2.2 Economics-or legislative-driven applications 161
6.2.3 Combination applications 162
6.3 Closure vs bottle permeation 162
6.4 Container performance 164
6.4.1 Barrier properties 164xii CONTENTS
6.4.2 Oxygen barrier 165
6.4.3 Carbon dioxide barrier 166
6.4.4 Scavenger property 167
6.5 Wall structure 168
6.6 Preform and bottle design 169
6.6.1 Permeation through finish, sidewall and base 171
6.6.2 Controlled fill 172
6.7 Headspace oxygen absorption 174
6.8 Oxygen desorption from PET 174
6.9 Beer containers 176
6.10 Small juice containers 178
6.11 Small CSD containers 178
6.12 Core layer volumes 179
6.13 Recycling 180
6.14 Comparison of co-injection technologies 180
6.15 Co-injection molding equipment 182
6.16 The future 183
7 One-stage injection stretch blow moulding 184
BOB BLAKEBOROUGH
7.1 Introduction 184
7.2 One-stage machines 189
7.2.1 One-stage machine construction 189
7.3 Process stations on a one-stage machine 192
7.3.1 Injection mould and hot runner 192
7.3.2 Conditioning station 195
7.3.3 Blowing station 196
7.4 'Integrated two-stage'machines 197
7.5 Drying system 198
7.5.1 Requirements for a reliable drying system 199
7.5.2 Drying process monitoring 200
7.6 Preform design 200
7.6.1 Neck finish 201
7.6.2 Preform weight 202
7.6.3 Cycle time and preform wall thickness 202
7.6.4 Stretch ratios 203
7.6.5 Injection mould design and manufacture 205
7.6.6 Preform design for varying container sizes 206
7.6.7 Preform weight adjustment 206
7.6.8 Differences between one- and two-stage preform designs 206
7.7 Container design 207
7.8 Hot-fill PET bottles 208
7.9 Quality control procedures 208
7.10 Preform examination 209
7.10.1 Appearance and shape 209
7.10.2 Preform weight 210
7.10.3 Neck dimensions 210
7.10.4 Preform eccentricity 210
7.10.5 Polarised light inspection 2 1 1
7.10.6 Intrinsic viscosity (IV) 2 1 1CONTENTS XJii
7,10.7 Acetaldehyde (AA) 212
7.11 Container examination 212
7.11.1 Shape and appearance 212
7.11.2 Dimensions 212
7.11.3 Capacity 213
7.11.4 Container wall thickness and material distribution 214
7.11.5 Top load strength 215
7.11.6 Impact resistance (drop) test 215
7.1 1.7 Leakage of liquid (seal integrity) 215
7.1 .8 Vacuum strength 216
7.1 .9 Acetaldehyde (AA) 216
7.1 .10 Oxygen permeation 217
7.1 .11 Moisture vapour transmission rate 217
7.1 .12 Product filling temperature 217
7.1 .13 Container weight 217
7.12 Bottles for carbonated beverages 218
7.12.1 Burst pressure 218
7.12.2 Thermal stability 218
7.12,3 Carbonation retention 2 I 8
7.13 Additional tests for hot-fill containers 2!9
7.14 Additional tests for returnable/refillable PET bottles 220
Appendix: one-stage and integrated PET machine manufacturers 220
Two-stage injection stretch blow moulding 223
MICHAEL KOCH
8.1 Introduction 223
8.1.1 The principles of the two-stage process 223
8.1.2 Technological basics of PET as a stretch blow moulding material 227
8.1.2 Production concepts and target markets 233
8.2 Preform injection moulding 238
8.2.1 Injection machine concepts 239
8.2.2 Mould design 244
8.2.3 Productivityparameters 247
8.3 Stretch blow moulding 251
8.3.1 Principles of the two-stage stretch blow moulding process 25!
8.3.2 Machinery concepts 264
8.3.3 Mould technology 268
8.4 Preform and container design 270
8.4.1 Container design 270
8.4.2 Preform design 274
References 278
Abbreviations 278
Injection blow moulding 280
MIKE WORTLEY
9.1 Basic principles 280
9.2 History 28!
9.3 Process identification 282
9.4 Commercial processes 283xiv CONTENTS
9.4.1 Rotary table machines: Jomar, Uniloy and similar 283
9.5 Tooling 284
9.6 Procrea 286
9.7 Materials 286
9.8 Applications 287
9.9 Machine and process capabilities 287
10 Hot-fill, heat-set, pasteurization and retort technologies 292
BORA TEKKANAT
10.1 The hot-fill process 292
10.2 The heat-set process 293
10.3 The pasteurization process 307
10.4 The retort process 310
10.5 Concluding remarks 313
References 314
11 Environmental and recycling considerations 315
VINCE MATTHEWS
11.1 Introduction 315
11.2 European environmental policy 316
11.3 EU Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive 316
11.3.1 Compliance with the Directive's targets 318
11.3.2 Material identification 319
11.3.3 CEN standards and the essential requirements 320
11.3.4 CEN 'umbrella standard' (pren 13427) 320
11.3.5 Implementation of the Directive in the member countries 322
11.4 Collection and recovery procedures 323
11.4.1 Drop-off schemes 324
11.4.2 Kerbside collection schemes 324
11.4.3 Reverse vending machines 324
11.4.4 Other systems 325
11.4.5 Plastic bottle sorting 325
11.5 Plastics packaging waste 325
11.6 Recycling of PET 328
11.6.1 Principal methods of PET recovery 329
11.6.2 Contamination issues 330
11.6.3 Recycling of PET by mechanical methods 330
11.6.4 R-PET and food-contact quality 334
11.6.5 Recycling of PET by chemical methods—'solvolysis' 336
11.7 Environmental benefits of recycling 342
11.7.1 General principles of recycling 343
11.7.2 Application of the general principles to the recovery and recycling
of PET bottles 346
11.8 Economic factors affecting PET bottle recycling 355
11.9 Markets for recovered PET 357
11.10 PET recycling—the future 359
References 362
Index 365


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