كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach
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 كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach

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تاريخ التسجيل : 01/07/2009
العمر : 32
الدولة : مصر
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مُساهمةموضوع: كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach   كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach Emptyالخميس 07 مايو 2020, 2:11 am

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Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach 3rd Edition
Yunus a. Cengel
Heat and Mass Trsnsfer
A Practical Approach

كتاب Heat Transfer - A Practical Approach Y_a_c_26
و المحتوى كما يلي :


Chapter O N E
Introduction and Basic Concepts 1
Chapter T W O
Heat Conduction Equation 61
Chapter T H R E E
Steady Heat Conduction 131
Chapter F O U R
Transient Heat Conduction 217
Chapter F I V E
Numerical Methods in Heat Conduction 285
Chapter S I X
Fundamentals of Convection 355
Chapter S E V E N
External Forced Convection 395
Chapter E I G H T
Internal Forced Convection 451
Chapter N I N E
Natural Convection 503
Chapter T E N
Boiling and Condensation 561
Chapter E L E V E N
Heat Exchangers 609
Chapter T W E L V E
Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation 663
Chapter T H I R T E E N
Radiation Heat Transfer 707
Chapter F O U R T E E N
Mass Transfer 773
A P P E N D I X 1
Property Tables and Charts (Si Units) 841
Preface Xiii
Chapter T W O
Heat Conduction Equation 61
Chapter O N E
Introduction and Basic Concepts 1 2-1 Introduction 62
Steady Versus Transient Heat Transfer 63
Multidimensional Heat Transfer 64
Heat Generation 66
One-dimensional
Heat Conduction Equation 68
Heat Conduction Equation in a Large Plane Wall 68
Heat Conduction Equation in a Long Cylinder 69
Heat Conduction Equation in a Sphere 71
Combined One-dimensional
Heat Conduction Equation 72
General Heat Conduction Equation 74
Rectangular Coordinates 74
Cylindrical Coordinates 75
Spherical Coordinates 76
Boundary and Initial Conditions 77
1 Specified Temperature Boundary Condition 78
2 Specified Heat Flux Boundary Condition 79
3 Convection Boundary Condition 81
4 Radiation Boundary Condition 82
5 Interface Boundary Conditions 83
6 Generalized Boundary Conditions 84
Solution of Steady One-dimensional
Heat Conduction Problems 86
Heat Generation in a Solid 97
Variable Thermal Conductivity, K(T) 104
Topic of Special Interest:
A Brief Review of Differential Equations 107
Summary 111
References and Suggested Readings 112
Problems 113
1-1 Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer 2
Application Areas of Heat Transfer 3
Historical Background 3
Engineering Heat Transfer 4
Modeling in Engineering 5
Heat and Other Forms of Energy 6
Specific Heats of Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7
Energy Transfer 9
The First Law of Thermodynamics 11
Energy Balance for Closed Systems ( Fixed Mass) 12
Energy Balance for Steady-flow Systems 12
Surface Energy Balance 13
Heat Transfer Mechanisms 17
1-6 Conduction 17
Thermal Conductivity 19
Thermal Diffusivity 23
Convection 25
1-8 Radiation 27
1-9 Simultaneous Heat Transfer 2-6
Mechanisms 30 2-7
1-10 Problem-solving Technique 35
Engineering Software Packages 37
Engirieering Equation Solver (Ees) 38
Heat Transfer Tools (Htt) 39
A Remark on Significant Digits 39
Topic of Special Interest: Thermal Comfort 40
Summary 46
References and Suggested Reading 47
Problems 47
Viichapter T H R E E
Steady Heat Conduction 131
Chapter F I V E
Numerical Methods
In Heat Conduction 285
3-1 Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls 132
Thermal Resistance Concept 133
Thermal Resistance Network 135
Multilayer Plane Walls 137
3-2 Thermal Contact Resistance 142
3-3 Generalized Thermal Resistance
Networks 147
3-4 Heat Conduction in Cylinders and Spheres 150
Multilayered Cylinders and Spheres 152
3-5 Critical Radius of Insulation 156
3-6 Heat Transfer From Finned Surfaces 159
Fin Equation 160
Fin Efficiency 164
Fin Effectiveness 166
Proper Length of a Fin 169
3-7 Heat Transfer in Common Configurations 174
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer Through Walls and Roofs 179
Summary 189
References and Suggested Readings 191
Problems 191
5-1 Why Numerical Methods? 286
1 Limitations 287
2 Better Modeling 287
3 Flexibility 288
4 Complications 288
5 Human Nature 288
Finite Difference Formulation
Of Differential Equations 289
One-dimensional Steady Heat
Conduction 292
Boundary Conditions 294
Two-dimensional Steady Heat
Conduction 302
Boundary Nodes 303
Irregular Boundaries 307
Transient Heat Conduction 311
Transient Heat Conduction in a Plane Wall 313
Two-dimensional Transient Heat Conduction 324
Topic of Special Interest:
Controlling the Numerical Error 329
Summary 333
References and Suggested Readings 334
Problems 334
Chapter F O U R
Transient Heat Conduction 217
Chapter S I X
Fundamentals of Convection 355
4-1 Lumped System Analysis 218
Criteria for Lumped System Analysis 219
Some Remarks on Heat Transfer in Lumped
Systems 221
4-2 Transient Heat Conduction in
Large Plane Walls, Long Cylinders,
And Spheres With Spatial Effects 224
Nondimensionalized One-dimensional
Transient Conduction Problem 225
4-3 Transient Heat Conduction in
Semi-infinite Solids 240
Contact of Two Semi-infinite Solids 245
4-4 Transient Heat Conduction in
Multidimensional Systems 248
Topic of Special Interest:
Refrigeration and Freezing of Foods 256
Summary 267
References and Suggested Readings 269
Problems 269
6-1 Physical Mechanism of Convection 356
Nusselt Number 358
Classification of Fluid Flows 359
Viscous Versus Inviscid Regions of Flow 359
Internal Versus External Flow 359
Compressible Versus Incompressible Flow 360
Laminar Versus Turbulent Flow 360
Natural (or Unforced) Versus Forced Flow 360
Steady Versus Unsteady Flow 361
One-, Two-, and Three-dimensional Flows 361
Velocity Boundary Layer 362
Surface Shear Stress 363
Thermal Boundary Layer 364
Prandtj Number 365
Laminar and Turbulent Flows 365
Reynolds Number 366
6-5contents
6-6 Heat and Momentum Transfer in
Turbulent Flow 367
6-7 Derivation of Differential Convection
Equations 369
The Continuity Equation 369
The Momentum Equations 370
Conservation of Energy Equation 372
6-8 Solutions of Convection Equations
For a Flat Plate 376
The Energy Equation 378
6-9 Nondimensionalized Convection Equations
And Similarity 380
6-10 Functional Forms of Friction and Convection
Coefficients 381
6-11 Analogies Between Momentum and Heat
Transfer 382
Topic of Special Interest:
Microscale Heat Transfer 385
Summary 388
References and Suggested Reading 389
Problems 390
Chapter E I G H T
Internal Forced Convection 451
8-1 Introduction 452
Average Velocity and Temperature 453
Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Tubes 454
The Entrance Region 455
Entry Lengths 457
General Thermal Analysis 458
Constant Surface Heat Flux (4 = Constant) 459
Constant Surface Temperature (Ts = Constant) 460
Laminar Flow in Tubes 463
Pressure Drop 465
Temperature Profile and the Nusselt Number 467
Constant Surface Heat Flux 467
Constant Surface Temperature 468
Laminar Flow in Noncircular Tubes 469
Developing Laminar Flow in the Entrance Region 470
Turbulent Flow in Tubes 473
Rough Surfaces 475
Developing Turbulent Flow in the Entrance Region 476
Turbulent Flow in Noncircular Tubes 476
Flow Through Tube Annulus 477
Heat Transfer Enhancement 477
Topic of Special Interest:
Transitional Flow in Tubes 482
Summary 490
References and Suggested Reading 491
Problems 492
Chapter S E V E N
External Forced Convection 395
7-1 Drag and Heat Transfer in
External Flow 396
Friction and Pressure Drag 396
Heat Transfer 398
7-2 Parallel Flow Over Flat Plates 399
4 Friction Coefficient 400
Heat Transfer Coefficient 401
Flat Plate With Unheated Starting Length 403
Uniform Heat Flux 403
7-3 Flow Across Cylinders and Spheres 408
Effect of Surface Roughness 410
Heat Transfer Coefficient 412
7-4 Flow Across Tube Banks 417
Pressure Drop 420
Topic of Special Interestreducing Heat Transfer Through Surfaces:
Thermal Insulation 423
Summary 434
References and Suggested Reading 435
Problems 436
Chapter N I N E
Natural Convection 503
9-1 Physical Mechanism of
Natural Convection 504
Equation of Motion
And the Grashof Number 507
The Grashof Number 509
Natural Convection Over Surfaces 510
Vertical Plates ( 7"S = Constant) 512
Vertical Plates (4- Constant) 512
Vertical Cylinders 512
Inclined Plates 512
Horizontal Plates 513
Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres 513
Natural Convection From Finned Surfaces
And Pcbs 517
Natural Convection Cooling of Finned Surfaces
( 7s- Constant) 517
9-2
9-3
9-4natural Convection Cooling of Vertical Pcbs
[ Q5 = Constant) 518
Mass Flow Rate Through the Space Between Plates 519
Natural Convection Inside Enclosures 521
Effective Thermal Conductivity 522
Horizontal Rectangular Enclosures 523
Inclined Rectangular Enclosures 523
Vertical Rectangular Enclosures 524
Concentric Cylinders 524
Concentric Spheres 525
Combined Natural Convection and Radiation 525
Combined Natural and Forced Convection 530
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer Through Windows 533
Summary 543
References and Suggested Readings 544
Problems 546
11-4 the Log Mean Temperature
Difference Method 622
Counter-flow Heat Exchangers 624
Multipass and Cross-flow Heat Exchangers.- Use of a
Correction Factor 625
11-5 the Effectiveness-ntu Method 631
11-6 Selection of Heat Exchangers 642
Heat Transfer Rate 642
Cost 642
Pumping Power 643
Size and Weight 643
Type 643
Materials 643
Other Considerations 644
Summary 5645
References and Suggested Reading 646
Problems 647
9-5
9-6
Chapter T E N
Boiling and Condensation 561 Chapter T W E L V E
Fundamentals of Thermal Radiation 663
10-1 Boiling Heat Transfer 562
10-2 Pool Boiling 564
Boiling Regimes and the Boiling Curve 564
Heat Transfer Correlations in Pool Boiling 568
Enhancement of Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling 572
10-3 Flow Boiling 576
10-4 Condensation Heat Transfer 578
10-5 Film Condensation 578
Flow Regimes 580
Heat Transfer Correlations for Film Condensation 581
10-6 Film Condensation Inside
Horizontal Tubes 591
10-7 Dropwise Condensation 591
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Pipes 592
Summary 597
References and Suggested Reading 599
Problems 599
12-1 Introduction 664
12-2 Thermal Radiation 665
12-3 Blackbody Radiation 667
12-4 Radiation Intensity 673
Solid Angle 674
Intensity of Emitted Radiation 675
Incident Radiation 676
Radiosity 677
Spectral Quantities 677
12-5 Radiative Properties 679
Emissivity 680
Absorptivity, Reflectivity, and Transmissivity 684
Kirchhoffs Law 686
The Greenhouse Effect 687
12-6 Atmospheric and Solar Radiation 688
Topic of Special Interestsolar Heat Gain Through Windows 692
Summary 699
References and Suggested Readings 701
Chapter E L E V E N Problems 701
Heat Exchangers 609
Chapter T H I R T E E N
11-1 Types of Heat Exchangera 610 Radiation Heat Transfer 709
11-2 the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 612
Fouling Factor 615
11-3 Analysis of Heat Exchangers 620
13-1 the View Factor 710
13-2 View Factor Relations 713contents
1 the Reciprocity Relation 714
2 the Summation Rule 717
3 the Superposition Rule 719
4 the Symmetry Rule 720
View Factors Between Infinitely Long Surfaces:
The Crossed-strings Method 722
13-3 Radiation Heat Transfer: Black Surfaces 724
13-4 Radiation Heat Transfer: Diffuse,
Gray Surfaces 727
Radiosity 727
Net Radiation Heat Transfer to or From a Surface 727
Net Radiation Heat Transfer Between
Any Two Surfaces 729
Methods of Solving Radiation Problems 730
Radiation Heat Transfer in Two-surface Enclosures 731
Radiation Heat Transfer in Three-surface
Enclosures 733
13-5 Radiation Shields and the Radiation Effect 739
Radiation Effect on Temperature Measurements 741
13-6 Radiation Exchange With Emitting and
Absorbing Gases 743
Radiation Properties of a Participating Medium 744
Emissivity and Absorptivity of Gases and Gas Mixtures 746
Topic of Special Interest:
Heat Transfer From the Human Body 753
Summary 757
References and Suggested Reading 759
Problems 759
14—7 Transient Mass Diffusion 796
14—8 Diffusion in a Moving Medium 799
Special Case: Gas Mixtures at Constant Pressure and
Temperature 803
Diffusion of Vapor Through a Stationary Gas:
Stefan Flow 804
Equimolar Counterdiffusion 806
14-9 Mass Convection 810
Analogy Between Friction, Heat Transfer, and Mass Transfer
Coefficients 814
Limitation on the Heat-mass Convection Analogy 816
Mass Convection Relations 816
14-10 Simultaneous Heat and Mass
Transfer 819
Summary 825
References and Suggested Reading 827
Problems 828
A P P E N D I X 1
Property Tables and Charts
(Si Units) 841
Table a-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and
Ideal-gas Specific Heats of Some
Substances 842
Boiling and Freezing Point
Properties 843
Properties of Solid Metals 844-846
Properties of Solid Nonmetals 847
Properties of Building
Materials 848-849
Properties of Insulating
Materials 850
Properties of Common Foods
851-852
Properties of Miscellaneous
Materials 853
Properties of Saturated Water 854
Properties of Saturated Refrigerant-
134a 855
; Properties of Saturated
Ammonia 856
Properties of Saturated Propane 857
Properties of Liquids 858
Properties of Liquid Metals 859
Table a-2
Table a-3
Table a-a
Table a-5
Chapter F O U R T E E N
Mass Transfer 773
14-1 Introduction 774
14-2 Analogy Between Heat and Mass Transfer 775
Temperature 776
Conduction 776
Heat Generation 776
Convection 111
14—3 Mass Diffusion 111
1 Mass Basis 778
2 Mole Basis 778
Special Case: Ideal Gas Mixtures 779
Fjck's Law of Diffusion: Stationary Medium Consisting
Of Two Species 779
14—4 Boundary Conditions 783
14—5 Steady Mass Diffusion Through a Wall 788
14—6 Water Vapor Migration in Buildings 792
Table a-6
Table a-7
Table a-8
Table a-9
Table a-10
Table a-11
Table a-12
Table a-13
Table a-14table a-19 Solar Radiative Properties of
Materials 866
The Moody Chart for the Friction
Factor for Fully Developed Flow in
Circular Pipes 867
Properties of Air at 1 Atm
Pressure 860
Properties of Gases at 1 Atm
Pressure 861-862
Properties of the Atmosphere at High
Altitude 863
Emissivities of Surface 864-865
Table a—15
Table a-16 Figure a-20
Table a-17
Table a-18 Index 869


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